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  • Public defence: 2017-03-02 13:00 Lilla hörsalen, Kista
    Zhao, Jing
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Learning Predictive Models from Electronic Health Records2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The ongoing digitization of healthcare, which has been much accelerated by the widespread adoption of electronic health records, generates unprecedented amounts of clinical data in a readily computable form. This, in turn, affords great opportunities for making meaningful secondary use of clinical data in the endeavor to improve healthcare, as well as to support epidemiology and medical research. To that end, there is a need for techniques capable of effectively and efficiently analyzing large amounts of clinical data. While machine learning provides the necessary tools, learning effective predictive models from electronic health records comes with many challenges due to the complexity of the data. Electronic health records contain heterogeneous and longitudinal data that jointly provides a rich perspective of patient trajectories in the healthcare process. The diverse characteristics of the data need to be properly accounted for when learning predictive models from clinical data. However, how best to represent healthcare data for predictive modeling has been insufficiently studied. This thesis addresses several of the technical challenges involved in learning effective predictive models from electronic health records.

    Methods are developed to address the challenges of (i) representing heterogeneous types of data, (ii) leveraging the concept hierarchy of clinical codes, and (iii) modeling the temporality of clinical events. The proposed methods are evaluated empirically in the context of detecting adverse drug events in electronic health records. Various representations of each type of data that account for its unique characteristics are investigated and it is shown that combining multiple representations yields improved predictive performance. It is also demonstrated how the information embedded in the concept hierarchy of clinical codes can be exploited, both for creating enriched feature spaces and for decomposing the predictive task. Moreover, incorporating temporal information leads to more effective predictive models by distinguishing between event occurrences in the patient history. Both single-point representations, using pre-assigned or learned temporal weights, and multivariate time series representations are shown to be more informative than representations in which temporality is ignored. Effective methods for representing heterogeneous and longitudinal data are key for enhancing and truly enabling meaningful secondary use of electronic health records through large-scale analysis of clinical data.

  • Public defence: 2017-03-03 13:00 hörsal 4, hus B, Stockholm
    Vejdemo, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Stockholms universitet.
    Triangulating Perspectives on Lexical Replacement: From Predictive Statistical Models to Descriptive Color Linguistics2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate lexical replacement processes from several complementary perspectives. It does so through three studies, each with a different scope and time depth.

    The first study (chapter 3) takes a high time depth perspective and investigates factors that affect the rate (likelihood) of lexical replacement in the core vocabulary of 98 Indo-European language varieties through a multiple linear regression model. The chapter shows that the following factors predict part of the rate of lexical replacement for non-grammatical concepts: frequency, the number of synonyms and senses, and how imageable the concept is in the mind.

    What looks like a straightforward lexical replacement at a high time depth perspective is better understood as several intertwined gradual processes of lexical change at lower time depths. The second study (chapter 5) narrows the focus to seven closely-related Germanic language varieties (English, German, Bernese, Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, and Icelandic) and a single semantic domain, namely color.  The chapter charts several lexical replacement and change processes in the pink and purple area of color space through experiments with 146 speakers.

    The third study (chapter 6) narrows the focus even more, to two generations of speakers of a single language, Swedish. It combines experimental data on how the two age groups partition and label the color space in general, and pink and purple in particular, with more detailed data on lexical replacement and change from interviews, color descriptions in historical and contemporary dictionaries, as well as botanical lexicons, and historical fiction corpora.

    This thesis makes a descriptive, methodological and theoretical contribution to the study of lexical replacement. Taken together, the different perspectives highlight the usefulness of method triangulation in approaching the complex phenomenon of lexical replacement.

     

     

  • Public defence: 2017-03-06 13:00 Lilla hörsalen, Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Stockholm
    Tyson, Ruhi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    The Rough Ground: Narrative explorations of vocational Bildung and wisdom in practice2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This compilation thesis, consisting of five articles, focuses on narrative explorations of vocational Bildung and wisdom in practice. It is an explicitly practical and empirical approach to what, for the most part, tends to be limited to philosophical discussions. This is motivated by the relative lack of systematic knowledge about how to enact wisdom in practice and afford vocational Bildung to those engaged in vocational education and training (VET). The absence of such knowledge makes it more difficult to develop VET practice and curricula and also leads to significant parts of the internal goods of practice to remain tacit, personal and local when they need to become articulated and shared. The aim of the five articles has been to explore how Bildung and practical wisdom can enrich our understanding of vocational practice and didactics on a theoretical, methodological and practical level. Conceptually the thesis draws extensively from narrative inquiry (Clandinin & Connelly 1995, 2000), reflective practice (Schön 1983, 1987), Aristotelian philosophy regarding practical wisdom (Aristotle 2009, Nussbaum 1990), MacIntyre’s concept of a practice (2011) and the Bildung-tradition (Rittelmeyer 2012) to create a coherent framework for the inquiry termed vocational Bildung didactics (VBD). It is located in the phronetic social science paradigm articulated by Flyvbjerg (2001) where the main aim for research is to enrich practice rather than generate theory. The methodology for this kind of inquiry is the collection of narrative cases focusing on unusually rich/successful/wise cases of a practice, what Flyvbjerg (2001) terms extreme and paradigmatic cases. On a conceptual level the inquiry has resulted in the framework of VBD that provides the structure for engaging in this kind of research. It has also resulted in some further conceptualizations driven by the interpretation of cases, in particular a differentiation between vocational and cultural practices. On a methodological level it has resulted in a kind of double didactical method: the case narratives function as articulations of practical knowledge regarding vocational Bildung and practical wisdom but also as the didactical tools for teaching this. On a practical level the inquiry has resulted in suggestions for curriculum-development as well as ways in which the case narratives can be used to enrich the understanding of practitioners.

  • Public defence: 2017-03-09 10:00 De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Todorov, Ivo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Individual Differences in Multitasking: Support for Spatiotemporal Offloading2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In both the private and work spheres, multitasking among three or more activities has become and is continuing to evolve as a pervasive element of everyday life, and recent technological advances only seem to be exacerbating the process. Despite attempts to understand the mental processes that let humans successfully multitask, little is known about the functional cognitive level at which these mental processes take place. This thesis makes a case for the involvement of spatial ability (among other cognitive abilities) in successful multitasking behavior. It focuses on the importance of the cognitive off-loading of executive control demands onto spatial ability, due to the inherent complexity of relationships between task goals and deadlines in multitasking scenarios. Importantly, it presents a working hypothesis—the spatiotemporal hypothesis of multitasking—as a tool for making specific predictions about multitasking performance, based on individual and sex differences in spatial ability.

    In Study 1, individual differences in spatial ability and executive functions emerged as independent predictors of multitasking performance. When spatial ability was decomposed into its subcomponents, only the coordinate (metric), but not categorical (nonmetric), processing of spatial relations was related to multitasking performance. Males outperformed females in both spatial ability and multitasking, and the effects were moderated by menstrual changes, in that sex differences in coordinate spatial processing and multitasking were observed between males and females in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, but not between males and females at menses. In Study II, multitasking performance reflected age- and sex-related differences in executive functioning and spatial ability, suggesting that executive functions contribute to multitasking performance across the adult life span, and that reliance on spatial skills for coordinating deadlines is reduced with advancing age. The results of Study III, in which the spatiotemporal hypothesis was directly scrutinized, suggest that the spatial disruption of multiple deadlines interferes with multitasking performance. Overall, these findings suggest that multitasking performance, under certain conditions, reflects independent contributions of spatial ability and executive functioning. Moreover, the results support the distinction between categorical and coordinate spatial processing, suggesting that these two basic relational processes are selectively affected by female sex hormones and are differentially effective, even across the age span, in transforming and handling temporal patterns as spatial relations in the context of multitasking. Finally, fluctuations of sex hormones exhibit a modulating effect on sex differences in spatial ability and multitasking performance.

  • Public defence: 2017-03-09 13:00 Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Sommer-Houdeville, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Remaking Iraq: Neoliberalism and a System of Violence after the US invasion​, 2003-20112017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    After the invasion of Iraq and the destruction of Saddam regime in 2003, the US administration undertook the complete remaking of Iraq as a national-state. The initial steps of the US administration were the quasi eradication of the old Iraqi State. Then, this nation-building endeavor has been based on a federal constitution promoting an Ethno- sectarian power sharing and the attempt to transform what was once a centralized economy into a comprehensive market driven society. However, the post-2003 period had been marked by the rising of identity politics, the constant delegitimisation of the new political order and successive episode of massive violence. Obviously, the question of violence and its apex in 2006-2007, is central to understand the post-2003 period in Iraq. For the first time in Iraqi history, waves of ethno-sectarian violence seriously challenged the possibility of a common life for all the diverse components of the Iraqi society. The Iraqi nation seemed to have been consumed in an existential conflict between components and communal identifications once relatively integrated. Therefore, there is a need to render an analytical account of the aggressive rise of identity politics, the outbreak of violence and finally the episodes of civil war in 2005-2007 in Iraq.

    This study aims to answer these questions by tracking the different political and social processes that have been at play during the American occupation of Iraq and that lead to the events of 2005-2007. In order to do so, I will consider the dynamical relations that link political institutions, violence and self-identifications in regard to the Iraqi society and Iraq as a National State. This research is built as a case study based mostly on qualitative analysis and the collection of empirical data, interviews, and fieldwork observations as well as primary and secondary sources. I set out to identify actors and processes and determine a complex chain of reactions (a trajectory) that led to the current state of affairs in Iraq. This trajectory could be summarized in few sentences:

    The destruction of the old Iraqi State and the brutal implementation of Neo-liberal rationality and re- regulations policies by the US occupation ended into a dystopian economy and the creation of an "absent state" (Davis, 2011). Since its very first day, this US lead nation-building endeavor has been flawed by a complete lack of legitimacy and its substitution with coercion by the US and the New Iraqi "State" security apparatus. Meanwhile, the imposition and the institutionalization of Ethno-sectarian affiliations as a principle of political legitimacy contributed to transform the different communities of Iraq into main avenues for access and control of scarce economic and political resources. In a way, US occupation and new Iraqi elites were deflecting the political question of right following a movement similar to what Mamdani and Brown describe as a "Culturalisation of Politics" (2004, 2006). The result was a failure to establish a legitimate and functional political and economic order. This led to the rise of a System of Violence, organized around networks of violence. Within the System of Violence, Culturalisation of Politics would be translated into Culturalisation of Violence. This would contribute to the sectarianisation of space in Baghdad and other localities of Iraq, as well as "manufacturing" (Gregory, 2008) and essentialising sectarian representations and identifications within the society.

  • Public defence: 2017-03-10 10:00 De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Kilger, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Talking talent: Narratives of youth sports selection2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In sports, there seems to be an eternal interest in discovering young talents and refining them into elite adult athletes. The dilemma of selecting talent, while at the same time ensuring every child´s right to participate, needs to be addressed and have consequences in social practice. This dissertation elucidates the discourse of selection and the process of selecting young sporting talents during final selection camps for youth national teams in football, hockey and floorball in Sweden. More specifically, the aim is to analyze how talent selection is organizationally legitimized, how “selectability” is produced in interaction and how specific narratives are used in success-stories. The empirical material includes research interviews, performance appraisal interviews (between district or national team coaches and the player) and field studies during ongoing final selection camp. Drawing on a discursive-narrative approach, the aim is to investigate how selection is discursively legitimized and, by using narrative analysis, how positioning in talk-in-interaction functions.

    The first article investigates the construction of legitimate selection within the Swedish Sports Confederation by analyzing their organizational documents, sport journals and literature for coach education. The findings show how a specific set of narratives are used to legitimize selection and how legitimacy works both individually to those within the selection system and on a wider arena of welfare politics. The second article investigates the co-construction of selectability in small story-interaction during interviews between the coach and a player in the final selection camp. The analyses highlight how this narrative genre produces certain stories and preferred positions. The third article analyzes how the young participants, in research interviews during final selection camp, uses discursively shared narratives to produce personal stories of success. The findings illustrate how the personal stories of success are balancing the dilemmatic space, positioning yourself as outstanding and at the same time appear a humble team player.

    The principal contribution of this dissertation is to show how talent is organizationally legitimized and how selectability is produced in interaction, as well as illustrate how specific stories are used in stories of success. This work investigates the discursive framework for selection and how rationalities for talent selection are produced (and reproduced) and co-constructed in narrative interaction. In this apparatus of selection it takes more than physical talent to be chosen; it takes talking talent.

  • Public defence: 2017-03-10 13:00 Vivi Täckholmsalen (Q-salen), NPQ-huset, Stockholm
    Bendixen, Christine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Voices for Change: Hopes and costs for empowerment - a study on women's claims in the Egyptian revolution2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates women’s possibilities to actively participate in societal change in Egypt. It aims at enhancing the understanding of structural conditions for women’s agency and how these enables and/or restrains women’s participation in the aspiration for societal change as well as their aspiration to live a ‘full life’. Egypt was chosen as a field for studying women’s understanding of their opportunities of participation and empowerment before and during the revolution. The informants in the study are all consciously working for awareness and equality in society. Formal education in Egypt is criticized and the country suffers from a high illiteracy rate, making informal education an important way to attain knowledge that can assist women in their quest for societal change. The acknowledgment of participation as a human right is one of the issues women are fighting for in Egypt today. A specific interest in this study is what motivates some women to oppose social, cultural and political structures despite the often high personal cost, and how informal (educational) channels are being used in the quest for societal change. The theoretical construction in which the analysis is carried out is based on frictions between societal structures and agency, using the Capability Approach (Sen, 1999) which aims at understanding what agency women have in societal change. The concept of functionings is used to indicate what someone is able to do and be. By analyzing women’s valued functionings, their conditions and thus their sense of empowerment and their experienced opportunity costs emerge. Central to the analytically framed societal structures and how agency can be perceived within each structure are the social conversion factors, the norms that allow or hinder action. To frame the complexity of women’s conditions for active agency and the outcome of their actions, I use a theoretical framework that will comprise both goals and processes. Sen’s (1999) ideas on social choice along with Archer’s (1995) theory on social change, using her model of structural elaboration / reproduction, have proved useful when investigating women’s valued functionings and attained social changes. The results of the study show that when formal education is not adequate, knowledge is obtained outside the formal educational institutions. This is done through both non-formal and informal learning. However, to get access to informal learning, a number of valued functions have to be gained. These functionings are thus both conditions for change and an end in themselves. I try to show that the costs involved in transgressing the prevailing norms are high, but lack of hope, agency and empowerment are also experienced as a high cost for those who have, in fact, imagined another better life and are in opposition to the inhibitory societal structures. This is, however, a part of what motivates some women to continue to be involved in societal change in order to achieve a life they have reason to value.

  • Public defence: 2017-03-17 10:00 Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Grythe, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Quantification of sources and removal mechanisms of atmospheric aerosol particles2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this work has been to quantify important processes for climatically relevant aerosols, and to improve our understanding of, and ability to accurately model, aerosols in the atmosphere on a large scale. This thesis contains five papers focused on different parts of the life cycle of atmospheric aerosol particles. Two papers describe the physical process of emission of primary marine aerosols. The large uncertainties in these processes are demonstrated by examining the diversity of existing parameterizations for emissions. Building from laboratory experiments to validation of model results with observations, new parameterizations are suggested. These take into account also effects of water temperature on primary marine aerosol production. In the third paper the main focus was to develop a new aerosol wet removal scheme in the Lagrangian transport and dispersion model FLEXPART. Removal timescales and atmospheric concentrations are found to be close to observation based estimates. The final two papers focus on atmospheric black carbon aerosols at high latitudes. As an example of increased human activities in the Arctic, local emissions from cruise ships visiting the research base in Ny Ålesund had demonstrable effects on the level of pollutants measured there. In contrast, inland Antarctic air was shown to be clean compared to the Arctic, due to the extremely long transport time from any major aerosol sources. The work done in this thesis has addressed critical uncertainties regarding the aerosol lifecycle, by better constraining aerosol emissions and atmospheric lifetimes. The development of the new wet removal scheme has improved FLEXPART model accuracy, which will be beneficial in future applications of the model.

  • Public defence: 2017-03-17 10:00 Lilla hörsalen, Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Stockholm
    Stålstedt, Jeanette
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Enheten för Zoologi, Naturhistoriska riksmuseet.
    Phylogeny, taxonomy and species delimitation of water mites and velvet mites2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is part of the Swedish Taxonomy Initiative (STI) - one of the most ambitious all taxa biodiversity inventories in the world. One of the pillars in STI is to support taxonomic research on the most neglected taxonomic groups with the aim to lift the level of knowledge of biodiversity in the country. There is still a lot to be discovered, especially in the microscopic world, and this includes mites. Many aspects of mite biology and diversity are poorly known, such as species richness, abundance, distribution, lifestyle and behavior of species. Mites inhabits all sorts of aquatic, terrestrial, arboreal and parasitic habitats, nevertheless even in well-studied systems mites are often overlooked. Despite being among the smallest of arthropods, they are of medical and economical importance and may be very abundant in the ecosystems they inhabit. This thesis focuses on Parasitengona (Acariformes: Prostigmata), one of the most diverse taxa among the arachnids. It includes the aquatic Hydrachnidia (water mites) and the terrestrial Trombidia (e.g. velvet mites, chiggers). A unifying characteristic of Parasitengona is their complex life cycle of active and inactive stages, parasitic larvae and predatory deutonymphs and adults. They typically parasitize and prey on arthropods, except the chiggers which have vertebrates as hosts. The aim of this thesis is to shed light on the phylogeny and taxonomy of Parasitengona with emphasis on the Swedish fauna. To achieve this, mites were collected from different localities throughout the country between the years 2007-2016. Water mites were sampled with a hand net. Larvae of terrestrial Parasitengona were collected with sweeping nets and sorted out from malaise trap samples from the Swedish Malaise Trap Project. To collect the adults Berlese-Tullgren extractor and pitfall traps were used as well as hand collecting and sifting with litter reducer. The material collected abroad was kindly provided through collaboration.  Methods used in the papers included morphometrics, multivariate analyses, experimental rearing, DNA extraction and sequencing, Bayesian phylogenetic analyses and molecular species delimitation. In paper I and II, we combine molecular species delimitation models and morphological data to resolve taxonomical issues. This integrative taxonomic approach of combining data resulted in Piona dispersa Sokolow, 1926 as a valid species and redescriptions, new synonyms and neotypes provided for Erythraeus phalangoides (De Geer, 1778),  E. cinereus (Dugès, 1834) and E. regalis (C.L. Koch, 1837). Based on the new inventories we produce an updated and annotated checklist of 105 terrestrial Parasitengona species for Fennoscandia in paper III, and use metadata to increase the knowledge on distribution, habitat preferences, life stages and abundance. Out of these, 20 species are new findings for the region and five are potential new species for science. In paper IV, we provide a molecular phylogeny of Parasitengona based on the genes 18S, 28S and COI for 80 taxa with a sampling focus on the terrestrial lineages. Based on the results we offer a revised higher-level classification of the group. In particular the analyses supported Tanaupodoidea Thor, 1935 as a separate superfamily, but Trombiculoidea Ewing, 1929 was not monophyletic and was synonymized, along with Chyzerioidea Womersley, 1954, with Trombidioidea Leach, 1815.

  • Public defence: 2017-03-17 13:00 Gröjersalen, hus 3, Kräftriket, Stockholm
    Minina, Alisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Consumption of financial services in global mobility: A Cephalopodic consumption mode?2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the interconnected world of today more and more people get on the move. We go abroad for vacations, visits or business trips and we change countries of residence as we pursue new opportunities. Cross-border mobility is becoming part of our life. In recent years consumer researchers have been showing an increasing interest in particularities of consumption in condition of global mobility. Although previous studies have acknowledged the importance of economic capital in enabling global consumer mobility, existing research could be enriched by a deeper understanding of how globally mobile consumers manage their financial consumption across borders.

    The aim of this dissertation is to is to contribute to the uncovering of the particularities of consumption of financial services in global mobility by documenting globally mobile consumers’ financial consumption patterns, the ways they build and maintain relationships with their financial service providers and the ways in which they navigate cultural norms of service consumption and financial consumption across borders.

    The study is based on four research articles that develop an understanding of the dimensions of financial consumption and uncover purchasing, relational and acculturative aspects of consumption of financial services in mobility. The overarching chapter further develops the insights from the articles, bringing forward the concept of the cephalopodic consumption mode – a particular way in which globally mobile consumers organize their financial consumption.

    This work contributes to the domain of research on serially relocating consumers by showing how globally mobile professionals engage in cephalopodic consumption mode (CCM), using their economic capital in order to navigate their international movement. The multipresence, multi-acculturation, instrumentality and camouflage of CCM emerge as an answer to challenges of mobility – the need to reacquaint with new countries every time upon relocation, the future need to leave again and the necessity to organize consumption across borders.  

  • Public defence: 2017-03-17 13:00 hörsal 9, hus D, Stockholm
    Nilson, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Att skapa en läsare: Läsarter och läsare av litterär text i svenskämnets nationella examination på gymnasiet – åren 1968 till 20132017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the curriculum for the subject of Swedish reading of literary texts is justified by ideas that literary reading will make the student learn more about the environment in which he/she lives, about herself/himself, as well as about others. It is well stated by previous research that what readings that is required and formulated in, for example, assignments or book talk, is important in how the text is discerned by the reader. It is therefore interesting to analyse what readings the student is required or invited to perform when literary reading is examined in national tests, a testing form that concerns all students in upper secondary school, and where one of its official aims is to concretize the curriculum.

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate what readings of literary texts are required or desirable in national tests in order to see what kind of reader the school is creating. This is done by studying how the student is positioned, by interpellations, in the tests. The thesis also has an historical approach, focusing on interpellation and reader subject.

    The empirical material of the study consists of all tasks that require reading of literary texts that have been used in national tests in upper secondary school in the subject of Swedish, from the year 1968 to 2013.

    The theoretical and methodological framework is discourse analytical with focus on positioning analyses, which is combined with analysis of readings, from the research field of literary didactics.

    The results show what readings that have been more or less frequent during the period.  Also the analyses of how the assignments are constructed display how the student is positioned in terms of competences, and in what way the reader subject is produced within the literary examinations.  For example, if the text should be read with a focus on form, as a societal argument, or in order to be an inspiration for the student´s own life, this will in itself create a reader that has a knowledge of how to analyse literature, is able to write about societal issues or is willing to talk about him/herself. The three prominent reading subjects that the study highlights are subjects with a knowledge of literature, with a knowledge of psychology and subjects with a knowledge of societal issues. The historical approach also shows that the student is provided with more and more information in how to read the text over time, which shows that the assignments work as a scaffold but at the same time gives the student a specific outlook on how to read literature in the later tests.