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  • Public defence: 2016-09-29 10:00 De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Heap, Josephine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Heap, Josephine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Living conditions in old age: Coexisting disadvantages across life domains2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis was to analyse coexisting disadvantages in the older Swedish population. Coexisting disadvantages are those that occur simultaneously in various life domains. A person who simultaneously experiences several disadvantages may be particularly vulnerable and less well-equipped to manage daily life and may also need support from several different welfare service providers. Concerted actions may be needed for older people who experience not only physical health problems and functional limitations, but also other problems. Research that encompasses a wide range of living conditions provides a basis for setting political priorities and making political decisions.

    The studies in this thesis used data from two Swedish nationally representative surveys: the Level of Living Survey, which includes people aged 18 through 75, and the Swedish Panel Study of Living Conditions of the Oldest Old, which includes people aged 77 and older.

    Study I showed that the probability of experiencing coexisting disadvantages was higher in people 77 and older than in those aged 18 through 76. These age differences were partly driven by a high prevalence of physical health problems in older people. In all age groups, coexisting disadvantages were more common in women than men.

    The longitudinal analyses in Study II indicated that coexisting disadvantages in old age persist in some people but are temporary in others. Moreover, the results suggested a pattern of accumulating disadvantages: reporting one disadvantage in young old age (in particular, psychological health problems) increased the probability of reporting coexisting disadvantages in late old age.  

    Study III showed that physical health problems were a central component of coexisting disadvantages. The results also showed that being older; female; previously employed as a manual labourer; and divorced/separated, widowed or never married were associated with an increased probability of experiencing coexisting disadvantages. However, the experience of coexisting disadvantages differed: the groups associated with coexisting disadvantages tended to report different combinations of disadvantage.

    Study IV showed that the prevalence of coexisting disadvantages in those 77 and older increased slightly between 1992 and 2011. Physical health problems became more common over time, whereas limited ability to manage daily activities (ADL limitations), limited financial resources and limited political resources became less common. Associations between different disadvantages were found in all survey years, but certain associations changed over time. The results suggest that in general, the composition of coexisting disadvantages in the older population may have altered over time.

    In sum, results showed that coexisting disadvantages were associated with specific demographic and socio-economic groups. Physical health problems and psychological health problems were of particular importance to the accumulation and coexistence of disadvantages in old age.

  • Public defence: 2016-09-29 13:00 Vivi Täckholmsalen (Q-salen), NPQ-huset, Stockholm
    Keys, Patrick W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Keys, Patrick W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    The Precipitationshed: Concepts, Methods, and Applications2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Human societies are reliant on the functioning of the hydrologic cycle. The atmospheric branch of this cycle, often referred to as moisture recycling in the context of land-to-land exchange, refers to water evaporating, traveling through the atmosphere, and falling out as precipitation. Similar to the surface water cycle that uses the watershed as the unit of analysis, it is also possible to consider a ‘watershed of the sky’ for the atmospheric water cycle. Thus, I explore the precipitationshed - defined as the upwind surface of the Earth that provides evaporation that later falls as precipitation in a specific place. The primary contributions of this dissertation are to (a) introduce the precipitationshed concept, (b) provide a quantitative basis for the study of the precipitationshed, and (c) demonstrate its use in the fields of hydrometeorology, land-use change, social-ecological systems, ecosystem services, and environmental governance.

    In Paper I, the concept of the precipitationshed is introduced and explored for the first time. The quantification of precipitationshed variability is described in Paper II, and the key finding is that the precipitationsheds for multiple regions are persistent in time and space. Moisture recycling is further described as an ecosystem service in Paper III, to integrate the concept into the existing language of environmental sustainability and management. That is, I identify regions where vegetation more strongly regulates the provision of atmospheric water, as well as the regions that more strongly benefit from this regulation. In Paper IV, the precipitationshed is further explored through the lens of urban reliance on moisture recycling. Using a novel method, I quantify the vulnerability of urban areas to social-ecological changes within their precipitationsheds. In Paper V, I argue that successful moisture recycling governance will require flexible, transboundary institutions that are capable of operating within complex social-ecological systems. I conclude that, in the future, the precipitationshed can be a key tool in addressing the complexity of social-ecological systems. 

  • Public defence: 2016-09-29 13:00 Lilla hörsalen, Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Stockholm
    Bengtsson, Anki
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Bengtsson, Anki
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Governance of Career Guidance: an enquiry into European policy2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this thesis is to enquire into and problematize the governance of career guidance and how individuals’ career management is constructed within EU policy. The empirical material consists of European policy documents produced during 2000-2015. The two central research questions explore (1) how European career guidance is made governable, and (2) how individuals’ career management is constructed and governed. The Foucauldian governmentality perspective and the analytic method of problematization is utilized. The analysis focuses on the compositions of normative forms of reason, discursive practices and techniques by which governing is exercised and knowledge is produced. The thesis is based on four articles, three of which concern career guidance and career management. The fourth article concerns education of citizenship. The analysis shows that the formation of a policy space for comparison of national systems of career guidance is significant for making European career guidance amenable to governance. It is mobilized by governing practices for involvement of institutional actors and the construction of standards of performance. This form of governance becomes effective on the condition that institutional actors use and produce knowledge and practices about what works in career guidance, and this implies self-control and constant monitoring. It is a complex process of producing self-regulation of career guidance adjustable to change and innovation in which both standardization and modulation are inbuilt. Moreover, this is dependent on the interplay of governance and self-government. Knowledge and practices shape career management as an individual competence, which each individual is assumed to achieve. The use of guidance techniques supporting this design and self-regulating practices contributes to responsibilizing individuals to achieve this competence. Knowledge of individuals’ management of their careers includes civic competence. This led me to extend my use of the theoretical framework to investigate how knowledge of civic competence is constructed in European policy documents concerning teacher education from 2000 to 2012. My analysis shows that presumptions of teaching civic competence support the production of the active and learning subject.

  • Public defence: 2016-09-30 10:00 Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Stockholm
    Eriksson, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Eriksson, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Gene therapy tools: oligonucleotides and peptides2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Genetic mutations can cause a wide range of diseases, e.g. cancer. Gene therapy has the potential to alleviate or even cure these diseases. One of the many gene therapies developed so far is RNA-cleaving deoxyribozymes, short DNA oligonucleotides that specifically bind to and cleave RNA. Since the development of these synthetic catalytic oligonucleotides, the main way of determining their cleavage kinetics has been through the use of a laborious and error prone gel assay to quantify substrate and product at different time-points. We have developed two new methods for this purpose. The first one includes a fluorescent intercalating dye, PicoGreen, which has an increased fluorescence upon binding double-stranded oligonucleotides; during the course of the reaction the fluorescence intensity will decrease as the RNA is cleaved and dissociates from the deoxyribozyme. A second method was developed based on the common denominator of all nucleases, each cleavage event exposes a single phosphate of the oligonucleotide phosphate backbone; the exposed phosphate can simultaneously be released by a phosphatase and directly quantified by a fluorescent phosphate sensor. This method allows for multiple turnover kinetics of diverse types of nucleases, including deoxyribozymes and protein nucleases.

    The main challenge of gene therapy is often the delivery into the cell. To bypass cellular defenses researchers have used a vast number of methods; one of these are cell-penetrating peptides which can be either covalently coupled to or non-covalently complexed with a cargo to deliver it into a cell. To further evolve cell-penetrating peptides and understand how they work we developed an assay to be able to quickly screen different conditions in a high-throughput manner. A luciferase up- and downregulation experiment was used together with a reduction of the experimental time by 1 day, upscaling from 24- to 96-well plates and the cost was reduced by 95% compared to commercially available assays. In the last paper we evaluated if cell-penetrating peptides could be used to improve the uptake of an LNA oligonucleotide mimic of GRN163L, a telomerase-inhibiting oligonucleotide. The combination of cell-penetrating peptides and our mimic oligonucleotide lead to an IC50 more than 20 times lower than that of GRN163L.

  • Public defence: 2016-09-30 10:00 Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Alfvén, Valérie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Alfvén, Valérie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Violence gratuite et adolescents-bourreaux: Réception, traduction et enjeux de deux romans suédois pour adolescents, en France, au début des années 20002016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to contribute to a better understanding of the role of Swedish literature for adolescents in the French literary scene in the early 2000s. The sociology of literature constitutes the main theoretical framework of this thesis.

    Drawing from examples that broach the sensitive topic of "unprovoked violence" as it is treated in two Swedish novels for teenagers, Spelar död [Play Death] by Stefan Casta and När tågen går förbi (Train Wreck) by Malin Lindroth, this thesis shows how these novels are innovative in Even-Zohar’s sense of the term, as addressed in his Polysystem Theory (1990). By introducing "unprovoked violence" and violent teenagers via a realistic genre, such works filled a vacuum in the French system and injected a new dynamic into it. This dynamic makes it possible for new literary models to be introduced in the system and to change the standards of that system.

    The analyses of the French and Swedish receptions of the two novels mentioned above show that they gave rise to a moral panic in France, which is not an unusual thing to happen in periods of ongoing change. This also clarifies the differences in norms between the two systems. The French system tends to reject dark topics, while the Swedish wishes to discuss them. The investigations of the translations of unprovoked violence show that adherence to Swedish norms determine the translation’s adequacy (Toury), which may be part of the reason for the stormy reception the two works received in France, and their undergoing censure. The position of translators and publishers in the literary system also plays a major role for a translated text not being censured during the transfer from one system to another.

    Even if the Swedish titles translated into French are few, this thesis shows that the impact of Swedish literature on adolescents in France is certain. By introducing new and sensitive topics, such novels could be early markers of an evolution of the French field of literature for adolescents.

  • Public defence: 2016-09-30 13:00 Föreläsningssalen, Filmhuset, Stockholm
    Khavar Fahlstedt, Kim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    Khavar Fahlstedt, Kim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    Chinatown Film Culture: The Appearance of Cinema in San Francisco’s Chinese Neighborhood, 1906-19152016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates film culture in San Francisco's Chinatown between the years 1906 and 1915. While Chinatowns have figured in several studies of representation in classical Hollywood cinema, it has rarely been approached as a place where film culture actually happened. Drawing on a wide range of archival materials and interdisciplinary revisionist historical perspectives, this study deepens inquiries into the subject of Chinese-American history by contributing an account that localizes Chinese Americans as featured participants, rather than bit-players, in U.S. film history.

    Following previous studies of immigrant audiences' role in the proliferation of cinema as public entertainment in the U.S., the study investigates film exhibition in Chinatown which functions as an "alternative public sphere." Instead of primarily focusing on the screen-spectator relationship, the study suggests that this process saturated the whole moviegoing experience, from outside on the street into the movie theater. The link between the various spaces of post-quake Chinatown, its movie theaters, and emerging U.S. film culture, is approached through an adaptation of the notion of “thirdspace.”

    The first chapter contextualizes Chinatown in San Francisco through an historiographic and geospatial orientation. Chapter 2 outlines a tentative history of the emergence of film culture in San Francisco and its relation to Chinatown and investigates how the 1906 earthquake and fire, local policies of public reform, social improvement, and notions of cultural uplift became an important determining factor for shaping local film exhibition. Chapter 3 investigates film culture in Chinatown after the 1906 earthquake and fire. By charting the location and operation of each theater individually, as well as the internal dynamic and interactive relations of the theaters as part of the Chinatown and North Beach entertainment output, the study finds that Chinatown's post-quake film culture was a compound of commercialism, outside pressures and inside developments, all relating to a place-specific cultural hybridity. Chapter 4 explores the complexities of this cultural hybridity, and ties them to the Chinese San Franciscan community's interactions with modernity, as well as to regional and national film culture. The study finds that post-quake Chinatown film culture encompassed a locally specific brand of Orientalism, whilst also offering a rare site of active resistance of Orientalist stereotypes in particular and social marginalization in general. The chapter includes a case study of the various displays of “Chineseness” at the 1915 Panama-Pacific International Exposition, where exhibited Orientalist fantasies of the Chinatown underworld were openly contested by an organized Chinese-American resistance.

    The study concludes that San Francisco Chinatown's film culture between 1906 and 1915 can be defined as a space of cultural hybridity, which offered Chinese San Franciscan moviegoers a place to experience film culture appropriated to their community, while at the same time fostering exhibition practices that cast Chinese-Americans as Orientalist stereotypes.

  • Public defence: 2016-10-06 13:00 Magnéli Hall, Stockholm
    Agthe, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Agthe, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Crystallization on the Mesoscale: Self-Assembly of Iron Oxide Nanocubes into Mesocrystals2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-assembly of nanoparticles is a promising route to form complex, nanostructured materials with functional properties. Nanoparticle assemblies characterized by a crystallographic alignment of the nanoparticles on the atomic scale, i.e. mesocrystals, are commonly found in nature with outstanding functional and mechanical properties. This thesis aims to investigate and understand the formation mechanisms of mesocrystals formed by self-assembling iron oxide nanocubes.

    We have used the thermal decomposition method to synthesize monodisperse, oleate-capped iron oxide nanocubes with average edge lengths between 7 nm and 12 nm and studied the evaporation-induced self-assembly in dilute toluene-based nanocube dispersions. The influence of packing constraints on the alignment of the nanocubes in nanofluidic containers has been investigated with small and wide angle X-ray scattering (SAXS and WAXS, respectively). We found that the nanocubes preferentially orient one of their {100} faces with the confining channel wall and display mesocrystalline alignment irrespective of the channel widths. 

    We manipulated the solvent evaporation rate of drop-cast dispersions on fluorosilane-functionalized silica substrates in a custom-designed cell. The growth stages of the assembly process were investigated using light microscopy and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). We found that particle transport phenomena, e.g. the coffee ring effect and Marangoni flow, result in complex-shaped arrays near the three-phase contact line of a drying colloidal drop when the nitrogen flow rate is high. Diffusion-driven nanoparticle assembly into large mesocrystals with a well-defined morphology dominates at much lower nitrogen flow rates. Analysis of the time-resolved video microscopy data was used to quantify the mesocrystal growth and establish a particle diffusion-based, three-dimensional growth model. The dissipation obtained from the QCM-D signal reached its maximum value when the microscopy-observed lateral growth of the mesocrystals ceased, which we address to the fluid-like behavior of the mesocrystals and their weak binding to the substrate. Analysis of electron microscopy images and diffraction patterns showed that the formed arrays display significant nanoparticle ordering, regardless of the distinctive formation process. 

    We followed the two-stage formation mechanism of mesocrystals in levitating colloidal drops with real-time SAXS. Modelling of the SAXS data with the square-well potential together with calculations of van der Waals interactions suggests that the nanocubes initially form disordered clusters, which quickly transform into an ordered phase.

  • Public defence: 2016-10-07 09:00 Vivi Täckholmsalen (Q-salen), Stockholm
    Jonell, Malin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Jonell, Malin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Kind of turquoise: Effects of seafood eco-certification and sustainable consumption2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aquaculture and fisheries hold promise for supplying a growing world population with healthy food produced without undermining the earth’s carrying capacity. However, just as livestock production and agriculture, seafood production can have negative environmental impacts and if a continuous or even increased supply is to be guaranteed, the pressure on affected ecosystems needs to be limited. Due in part to a perceived failure of other governance mechanisms in improving the environmental performance of the sector, a large number of voluntary market based standards for farmed and wild caught seafood have been developed. Nonetheless, the knowledge base on the extent to which implementation leads to environmental improvements remains limited. Moreover, the role of consumers in driving demand for eco-labeled seafood is presently an under-researched area. This thesis aims at reducing this knowledge gap through an examination of the potential environmental effectiveness of aquaculture eco-certification and internal, psychological variables predicted to be of importance for sustainable seafood consumption. Put differently, what is the potential of eco-certification in greening the blue revolution and fuel ‘turquoise growth’, and how can consumer demand be spurred?

    In Paper I, the role of eco-certification in improving the growing aquaculture sector at large was explored. Results showed that environmental effects at global scale likely will be limited due to e.g. partial coverage of species groups and environmental impacts, and a lack of focus on Asian markets and consumers. In Paper II the environmental performance of eco-certified and non-certified mangrove-integrated shrimp farms in Vietnam was compared by using Life Cycle Assessment and put in relation to conventional, more intensive farms. While there was no substantial difference between certified and non-certified farms in terms of environmental impacts, emissions of greenhouse gasses were higher for mangrove-integrated than conventional farms due to mangrove land use change. The results from Paper III demonstrated that the body of literature investigating ecological effects of seafood eco-certification is limited. ‘Spatially explicit ecosystem service information’ (ES-information) on e.g. key ecosystem services and biodiversity in a given area is suggested to have potential to improve sustainability standards. Taking guidance from the pro-environmental behavior literature, consumers in Stockholm, Sweden were consulted on awareness of and attitudes towards eco-labeled seafood (Paper IV-V). Two variables, concern for environmental impacts and knowledge about seafood eco-labels were the best predictors for stated eco-labeled seafood purchasing. Moreover, there seemed to be a misalignment between consumers’ expectations on eco-labeled food in general and certification requirements for eco-labeled seafood.

    From this set of findings, a number of improvements of current seafood eco-certification are suggested. First, include an LCA-perspective in standards to a higher degree than presently done and provide readily available ES-information in the implementation and evaluation phase of certification. Second, introduce standardized mechanisms for capturing potential environmental improvements over time. And finally, stimulate demand by targeting Asian consumers and markets as well as strengthen consumer eco-label awareness and emotional involvement.

  • Public defence: 2016-10-07 10:00 Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Stockholm
    Pascanu, Vlad
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Pascanu, Vlad
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Catalytic Processes Mediated by Metal−Organic Frameworks: Reactivity and Mechanistic Studies2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present thesis describes the development of heterogeneous catalytic methodologies using metal−organic frameworks (MOFs) as porous matrices for supporting transition metal catalysts. A wide spectrum of chemical reactions is covered. Following the introductory section (Chapter 1), the results are divided between one descriptive part (Chapter 2) and four experimental parts (Chapters 3–6).

    Chapter 2 provides a detailed account of MOFs and their role in heterogeneous catalysis. Specific synthesis methods and characterization techniques that may be unfamiliar to organic chemists are illustrated based on examples from this work.

    Pd-catalyzed heterogeneous C−C coupling and C−H functionalization reactions are studied in Chapter 3, with focus on their practical utility. A vast functional group tolerance is reported, allowing access to substrates of relevance for the pharmaceutical industry. Issues concerning the recyclability of MOF-supported catalysts, leaching and operation under continuous flow are discussed in detail.

    The following chapter explores puzzling questions regarding the nature of the catalytically active species and the pathways of deactivation for Pd@MOF catalysts. These questions are addressed through detailed mechanistic investigations which include in situ XRD and XAS data acquisition. For this purpose a custom reaction cell is also described in Chapter 4.

    The scope of Pd@MOF-catalyzed reactions is expanded in Chapter 5. A strategy for boosting the thermal and chemical robustness of MOF crystals is presented. Pd@MOF catalysts are coated with a protecting SiO2 layer, which improves their mechanical properties without impeding diffusion. The resulting nanocomposite is better suited to withstand the harsh conditions of aerobic oxidation reactions. In this chapter, the influence of the nanoparticles’ geometry over the catalyst’s selectivity is also investigated.

    While Chapters 3–5 dealt with Pd-catalyzed processes, Chapter 6 introduces hybrid materials based on first-row transition metals. Their reactivity is explored towards light-driven water splitting. The heterogenization process leads to stabilized active sites, facilitating the spectroscopic probing of intermediates in the catalytic cycle.

  • Public defence: 2016-10-07 13:00 Auditoriet, Humanistvillan, Stockholm
    Krispinsson, Charlotta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Culture and Aesthetics.
    Krispinsson, Charlotta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Culture and Aesthetics.
    Historiska porträtt som kunskapskälla: Samlingar, arkiv och konsthistorieskrivning2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is a study on the reception history of early modern portraiture, as expressed in Swedish as well as Nordic and German art historiography written 1880-1945. It focuses on the anthropological and anachronic aspects of the encounter between art historian and portrait, which is analysed according to theory on the agency of images.

    Early modern portraiture is considered as both a mental and material category of images, i.e. both an art historical genre and a cultural heritage of pictures. One of the main aim of the thesis is thus to add to our knowledge of the history of national portrait collections, as well as the founding of national portrait archives in Europe from the late eighteenth to the early twentieth centuries. It is also argued that the history of national portrait collections was parallel to the development of national art museums and adherent collections of art during this period.

    A part of the thesis consists of closer analyses of the use of semantic terms in a corpus of art historical texts on portraiture. The analyses shows how the meaning of the term iconography has changed before and after the 1930’s, when art historian Erwin Panofsky’s method of interpreting iconography gained strong influence on the discipline. Before this, the term iconography was strongly associated with portraiture, and used as a concept of portrait likeness. One of the main results of this thesis is thus that positivist studies on portrait iconography carried out from ca 1900 until the 1930s constitutes a branch of the disciplinary history of art history. Trained judgement – connoisseurship – was practiced when art historian were judging the identity, likeness and authenticity of historical portraits, relying on a mental set of physiognomic thought and intuitive impressions of realism and vividness in the image.

    In addition, institutional and empirical infrastructure is in this thesis considered an important part of the research on portrait iconography. The Swedish Portrait Archive, Svenskt porträttarkiv, was initiated in 1916 by art historian Sixten Strömbom, with the aim to map, list, describe and photograph all existing portraits depicting swedes, executed before the rise of portrait photography. The responsibility of the archive was handed over to the National Museum of Fine Art, Nationalmuseum, in 1932. The Commission on Iconography, a subcommittee of the International Committee of Historical Sciences, was initiated in 1928 and active until the mid-1930s with the aim to promote that images - and not just texts - could serve as historical evidence in the study of the past. Both Svenskt porträttarkiv and the Commission on Iconography are treated in length in separate chapters. As argued in this thesis, they were part of an art historical interest, peaking in the 1930s, of regarding historical portraits as visual records containing intrinsic information about sitters long dead. Thus, this study is a contribution to the history of image interpretation.

  • Public defence: 2016-10-07 14:00 Lilla hörsalen, NOD-huset, Kista
    Winge, Monica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Winge, Monica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Collaboration and Coordination Challenges in Patient-Centered Care: Models and Informaion Services2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis reports on research focuses on how to deal with the fact that the organization and processesof today’s health and social care are becoming ever more complex as a consequence of societal trends, including an aging population and an increased reliance on care at home. The overall research goal is to suggest ways in which IT-based solutions can enable and leverage collaboration and coordination insituations where a co-morbid patient is subject to care delivered simultaneously by several different professionals and organizations.

    Patient-centered care is defined as quality health and social care achieved through a partnership between informed and respected patients, their families, and coordinated health and social care teams who conduct care activities according to jointly determined care plans.

    Against a background of several years of research on patient-centered collaborative care using adesign science approach, using techniques such as focus groups, interviews, and document studies, the author of the thesis has further pursued the work in a project named CoCare. Results show that the care required in aging societies is both a social and a technical challenge. Meeting this challenge will require a redesign of today's health and social care processes in order to focus more clearly on patient needs and values, and poses demands on information services allowing to share knowledge of the patient’s health and social situation among involved care providers. An important aspect of the increased complexity is that a single patient may need care from several autonomous care providers in parallel, particularly patients with co-morbidities. This clearly requires effective coordination of care activities, which poses further demands on information services to support this task.

    A set of issues involving patient-centered collaborative care is identified and analyzed. The thesis introduces the notions of the Patient-Centered Care Process (PCCP) and a conglomeration of suchprocesses. A conglomeration comprises a set of PCCPs that concern the same patient, that are overlapping in time, and that share the overall goal of improving and maintaining the health and socialwell-being of the patient. The PCCP is inspired by the well-known PDCA cycle and comprises the four phases of assessing the patient situation (ASSESS), planning care activities (PLAN), performingcare activities (DO) and following up care (CHECK) for the patient. Based on a number of key standards, such as HL7, HISA and CONTsys, the thesis introduces a Patient-Centered Information Model (PCIM). A set of information services, together constituting a Coordination Hub, is proposed. The information services aim to help formal as well as informal carers (including the patient) inconducting care according to the PCCP

    The thesis contributes to a deeper understanding of care processes and suggests ways to achieve patient-centered collaborative care that better contributes to creating value for the patient as an individual.

  • Public defence: 2016-10-08 13:00 hörsal 5, hus B, Stockholm
    Negreiros Persson, Janaina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Negreiros Persson, Janaina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    La construcción discursiva de la responsabilidad civil durante una dictadura: Un análisis crítico de los discursos del juicio contra los excomandantes en Argentina en 19852016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this study is to explore how people who have experienced events in the past re-contextualize these same events in the present. We analyse the discourse of the public trial in 1985 against the members of the first three Argentine military juntas in the most recent dictatorship in Argentina (1976-1983). The study focuses on the discursive construction of civil responsibility. We examine the discourses of the witnesses that were called to testify at the trial by the defence attorneys of the accused Jorge Rafael Videla and Roberto Eduardo Viola, former de facto presidents of Argentina. The analysed testimonies concerned a specific event during the dictatorship, namely the meetings between the military junta and civil actors that were held in 1979 and 1980 with the declared purpose to create political dialogue between the military and selected parts of the civil society. Prior to the trial, these political dialogue meetings had not been considered to be particularly important in the history of the dictatorship, but the testimonies at the trial draw attention to the responsibility of civil actors in the crimes committed during the military dictatorship. In this study we investigate this theme in a novel way, focusing on the discursive tools used by civilians at the trial to explain their involvement in the dictatorship. We adopt the perspective of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) and Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL).

    To establish relationships between social and linguistic aspects, we include the concepts of intertextuality, discursive strategies, appraisal and legitimation. The main research questions are: 1) How do people represent linguistically a historical event when they find themselves in a new historical context? 1a) What discursive representation of the latest Argentinean dictatorship are made by the participants (witnesses, judge, defence and prosecutor) in the trial against the military junta leaders in 1985?; 1b) What intertextual influences are present in the interactants’ discourses during the interrogations, and in what way do these discourses contribute to legitimise the historical past?; 1c) What language resources do the civilian witnesses use to represent the Armed Forces and the armed rebel groups)? and 2) In what way do the witnesses reconstruct their role in the political dialogue meetings, or more specifically, what linguistic resources do the witnesses use to represent themselves in relation to the responsibility of civilians in the military dictatorship?

    The results show that the witnesses, in general, interpreted the recent past of Argentina using discourses that on the one hand condemned the violence caused by the armed rebel groups and on the other hand justified the interference of the Armed Forces. These discourses were used in the construction of a positive identity of both the witnesses as individuals and the institutions to which they belonged. Furthermore, their discourses legitimized their own actions, when these supported the Armed Forces in their “war on subversion”. The overwhelming majority of the witnesses tried to evade the questions meant to clarify their responsibility on the events of the dictatorship. Most of the witnesses, during the interrogation tried to find discursive strategies and linguistic resources that could hide their support to the Armed Forces during the regime and they did not reveal clearly their position regarding the military illegal actions during the dictatorship.

  • Public defence: 2016-10-14 09:00 Vivi Täckholmsalen (Q-salen), NPQ-huset, Stockholm
    Svedén, Jennie B.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Svedén, Jennie B.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Cyanobacterial Nitrogen Fixation in the Baltic Sea: With focus on Aphanizomenon sp.2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyanobacteria are widely distributed in marine, freshwater and terrestrial habitats. Some cyanobacterial genera can convert di-nitrogen gas (N2) to bioavailable ammonium, i.e. perform nitrogen (N) fixation, and are therefore of profound significance for N cycling. N fixation by summer blooms of cyanobacteria is one of the largest sources of new N for the Baltic Sea. This thesis investigated N fixation by cyanobacteria in the Baltic Sea and explored the fate of fixed N at different spatial and temporal scales. In Paper I, we measured cell-specific N fixation by Aphanizomenon sp. at 10 ºC, early in the season. Fixation rates were high and comparable to those in late summer, indicating that Aphanizomenon sp. is an important contributor to N fixation already in its early growth season. In Paper II, we studied fixation and release of N by Aphanizomenon sp. and found that about half of the fixed N was rapidly released and transferred to other species, including autotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria, diatoms and copepods. In Paper III, we followed the development of a cyanobacterial bloom and related changes in dissolved and particulate N pools in the upper mixed surface layer. The bloom-associated total N (TN) increase was mainly due to higher particulate organic N (PON) concentrations, but also to increases in dissolved organic nitrogen (DON). About half the PON-increase could be explained by the sum of N-fixing cyanobacteria, other phytoplankton (>2µm) and zooplankton, indicating that production was stimulated by the N fixation. In Paper IV, we used a growth model based on measured photosynthesis–irradiance relationships to explore the production potential of Aphanizomenon sp. The model included data on irradiance, biomass, temperature and light attenuation (1999–2013). Until the bloom peak, the modelled production matched the measured biomass, indicating low production losses. Over the whole season, the modelled production could explain a substantial part of the summer TN increase, assuming that plausible losses (such as grazing or cell lysis) are retained within the upper mixed layer. Complementing the other data, we also investigated the nutrient content (Paper I) and varying cell width (Paper IV) of Aphanizomenon sp. By a combination of approaches, this thesis has contributed new information on cyanobacterial N fixation rates, the transfer of fixed N to other organisms in the food web and shown the potential for fixed N to stimulate summer primary and secondary production in the Baltic Sea.

  • Public defence: 2016-10-14 10:00 DeGeersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Andersson, Malou
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Andersson, Malou
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Grov fridskränkning och grov kvinnofridskränkning: Fridskränkningsbrotten som rättslig konstruktion2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last decades men’s physical and psychological violence against women in intimate relationships (domestic violence) has become a central issue in Swedish politics. Men’s physical and psychological violence against women is generally be understood as including physical, sexual and psychological violence (e.g rape, battery, sexual abuse or insults) that occurs within the family, whether or not the perpetrator shares or has shared the same residence with the woman. Law reforms have been carried through with the objective of enhancing criminal legal protection for women. In 1999, a new law came into force within the framework of chapter 4 of the Penal Code which includes any member of the family with the objective to treat acts that are already criminal from a different perspective if they are committed within a pattern of systematic physical and psychological violence.

    This doctoral thesis examines the concept of domestic violence and the criminal act in Chapter 4, section 4 a of the Swedish Penal Code which prescribes liability for violation of integrity offences. According to the first paragraph, a person who commits criminal acts as defined in Chapters 3, 4, 6 or 12  or of the Swedish Penal Code (e.g. rape, battery, sexual abuse or insults) or violation of a restraining order  against a person with whom they have or have previously had, a close relationship will be sentenced for gross violation of integrity to imprisonment for at least nine months and at most six years if each of the acts were part of a repeated violation of the person’s integrity and the acts were liable to severely damage the person’s self-esteem. The second paragraph states if the acts were committed by a man against a woman to whom he is, or has been married or with whom he is, or has been cohabiting under circumstances comparable to marriage. He will instead be sentenced for a gross violation of a woman’s integrity to the same punishment. 

    The objective of introducing a violation of integrity offence was to enable criminal proceedings to take in to account the abused person’s entire situation when he or she has been subjected to a series of albeit punishable but often individually relatively minor acts and to bring about an upgrading of the penal value of such acts. 

    The main purpose of this thesis is to examine when and under which circumstances a person can be held responsible for gross violation of integrity or gross violation of a woman’s integrity. The analysis aims at the construction of the law, but also to examine the legal and social consequences and the interpretation and application of the law.

  • Public defence: 2016-10-14 10:00 William-Olssonsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Patten, Clifford G. C.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Patten, Clifford G. C.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Mobility of gold and other metals during alteration of the oceanic crust: Implications for the formation of VMS deposits2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Tremendous physical and chemical exchanges occur along oceanic ridges between the lithosphere, the hydrosphere and the biosphere. During these exchanges important mobilisation of metals by hydrothermal fluid circulation takes place within the oceanic crust. Volcanogenic massive sulphide (VMS) deposits are hydrothermal ore deposits rich in Cu-Zn-Pb bearing sulphide minerals that form during submarine venting of these hydrothermal fluids near the seafloor. A proportion of the metals enriched in these deposits are mobilised from deeper crustal levels during high-temperature hydrothermal alteration. Gold-rich VMS deposits represent an important sub-set of VMS deposits that are enriched in Au and related elements such as As, Sb, Se and Te. The processes that form Au-rich VMS are still debated, due in part to our lack of understanding of the behaviour of these elements during formation and alteration of the oceanic crust.

    In this thesis we carry out a systematic investigation into the behaviour of Au, As, Sb, Se and Te during evolution of the oceanic crust. Three localities are studied: the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Hole 1256D in the Cocos plate, the Troodos ophiolite in Cyprus and the ODP Hole 786B in the Izu-Bonin forearc. The investigation has been carried out using cutting-edge analytical techniques including ultra-low detection limit analyses of Au and other metals in rock samples. The objectives of the thesis are 1) to quantify the mobilisation of metals including Au, related elements As, Sb, Se and Te and base metals during the alteration of the oceanic crust; 2) to determine the mineral reactions which promote this mobilisation; 3) to investigate the variability in metal mobility in different tectonic settings in the oceanic crust and 4) to investigate the extent to which the composition of  “source area” oceanic crust controls the composition of VMS deposits in different tectonic settings.

    The main outcomes of this study are fourfold. 1) The distribution of Au and related elements in primary crust varies considerably between different tectonic settings. Sulphide minerals play an important role in the behaviour of Au, Se and Cu during magmatic differentiation and hydrothermal alteration, but have a lesser influence on other metals. The oxidation state of the primary crust controls whether sulphide minerals are present, and thus is an important control on the budget and mobility of strongly chalcophile metals during hydrothermal alteration. 2) Large masses of Au and related elements are mobilised from the sheeted dyke complex in mid-oceanic ridge (MOR) and ophiolite settings. Significantly more metals are mobilised from the source areas than are trapped in the VMS deposits observed in these settings. Therefore, most of the metals mobilised from the source areas are lost, either during transport, venting, sedimentation or late fluid mobilisation. 3) Insufficient Au is mobilised from MOR settings at ODP Hole 1256D to form Au-rich VMS deposits. The quantity of Au mobilised from the Troodos ophiolite could potentially lead to Au-rich VMS formation but additional processes such as vapour separation by sub-seafloor boiling or magmatic volatile input would be required to increase the Au : base metal ratio. The lack of evidence for these processes in Troodos implies that Au-rich VMS deposits are not likely to be abundant in this area. 4) Isotopic and trace element evidence supports magmatic input in the hydrothermal system at ODP Hole 786B, implying that magmatic fluid input into hydrothermal systems leaves a specific signature which can be tracked.

  • Public defence: 2016-10-14 13:00 Nordenskiöldssalen, Geovetenskapens Hus, Stockholm
    Mohme, Gunnel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Mohme, Gunnel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Somali-Swedish Girls - The Construction of Childhood within Local and Transnational Spaces2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores diaspora experiences among Somali-Swedish parents and their daughters where the girls are enrolled in a Muslim-profiled school. The thesis uses migration theory with a transnational perspective, with findings that depart from the traditional view of migrants’ rootedness in a single country. It adopts the new paradigm for the sociology of childhood, where childhood is regarded as a social construction and children are considered to possess agency and competence. Anthony Giddens’s structuration theory and its main concept ‘duality of structure’ was employed as a theoretical tool. Methods that were used were participant observation, interviews (individual and in group) and analysis of essays.

    The thesis consists of three studies. The first study explores how Somali-Swedish parents explain their choice of a Muslim-profiled school for their children. The results refute the traditional view that such choices are solely faith-based, showing faith as important but not determining. Important factors were finding a school that met their high educational ambitions and  made both parents and children feel trusted, safe and not disrespected because of their faith and skin-colour.

    The second study explores transnational experiences, particularly the transfer of transnational practices from the Somali-Swedish parents’ to their children and the construction of a transnational social space, built on close global relationships. The results show that transnational practices are feasible irrespective of physical travel. The study also exemplifies the group’s readiness to relocate between countries by the onward migration from Sweden to Egypt, and implications for the children are illuminated. Somalis in diaspora often explain their propensity to move by their past nomadic life-patterns, but this study shows as strong factors the desire for better opportunities in combination with experiences of cultural and economic marginalisation in the West.

    The third study analyses how girls in grade 5 (about eleven years old) imagine their future career and family life by analysing essays. The findings reveal that their dreams are both consistent with the expectations of their families (in particular, high educational ambitions) and inspired from elsewhere (particularly in terms of future family life). How the girls imagine their adulthood could be seen as an example of how their original culture is subject to change in a new environment.

  • Public defence: 2016-10-14 13:00 William-OIssonsalen, Stockholm
    Gribenski, Natacha
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Gribenski, Natacha
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Comparison of dating methods for paleoglacial reconstruction in Central Asia2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Reconstruction of former Central Asian glaciers extents can provide valuable information about past atmospheric circulation variations. These extents, often marked by terminal moraines, need to be chronologically constrained. Cosmogenic nuclide exposure (CNE) dating is widely used to directly date moraines. In addition, there is increasing interest on using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) techniques for dating glacial landforms. This thesis focuses on the methodological aspects of directly dating glacial landforms to perform paleoglacial reconstructions in Central Asia, with an emphasis on OSL dating.

    For OSL dating of sediments from glacial settings, it is important to measure the luminescence signal at the single grain scale, because the sediments are likely affected by partial bleaching due to short light exposure during glacial or glaciofluvial transport. The use of an Electron Multiplying Charges Coupled Device (EMCCD)-based imaging system for single grain OSL measurements would offer larger flexibility in light stimulation and sediment type, compared to the current Single Grain Risø reader. An automated image processing procedure has been developed to compensate for sample carrier displacement over repeated measurements and for attributing pixels to each grain for signal integration when using this imaging system. However, significant cross talk contamination, demonstrated by laboratory and simulation experiments, prohibits accurate single grain luminescence measurements. Preliminary experiments using a basic image processing algorithm show good potential for software correction solutions.

    Paleoglacial reconstructions conducted in the Altai Mountains, Central Asia, using both CNE and OSL dating demonstrate that luminescence measurements of glaciofluvial sediments performed at the multi-grain scale result in large age overestimates, and that single grain measurements allow for more accurate dating of glacial landforms. However, uncertainties remain that are related to the model used for extracting equivalent doses for well-bleached grains and to fading corrections when using feldspar minerals. The timing of glaciation can be inferred from scattered CNE moraine boulder ages if most of the ages are concentrated within a few thousand years, with only few ages clearly older or younger. Overall, combining CNE and OSL techniques for dating a glacial landform is a powerful approach for producing robust glacial chronologies, despite uncertainties inherent to each technique.

    Paleoglacial reconstructions from the Altai Mountains indicate Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 2 and MIS 4/late MIS 5 local Last Glacial Maximums. In Central Asia, in addition to a regional MIS 2 glaciation, previous studies indicate a period of major glacial advances during MIS 3 that is out of phase with global ice volume records. However, most MIS 3 glacial chronologies from Central Asia are based on too few or too heavily scattered CNE data sets, or on OSL or Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) ages for which partial bleaching has not been properly investigated. Hence, at this stage, chronological evidence is insufficient to demonstrate a regional MIS 3 glaciation in Central Asia.

    Surge-related glacial features identified in the Russian Altai also highlight the importance of conducting detailed geomorphology and sedimentology studies to understand former ice dynamics, which is essential for inferring appropriate paleoclimate information from paleoglacial reconstructions.

  • Public defence: 2016-10-15 13:00 Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Spangen, Marte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Spangen, Marte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Circling Concepts: A Critical Archaeological Analysis of the Notion of Stone Circles as Sami Offering Sites2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis discusses a category of cultural heritage that has been labelled "Sami circular offering sites", aiming to establish some basic facts about their origin, distribution and use, as well as their cultural and socio-political context and influence. The stone enclosures in question have been interpreted as Sami offering sites since the mid-19th century, but a discourse analysis of the research history indicates that this may have been based on a scholarly hypothesis rather than ethnographic or archaeological evidence. Furthermore it is questioned if all the structures that are currently included in this category are in fact remains of the same cultural practice. This is investigated through surveys of 81 suggested circular offering sites in Norway, two excavations and analyses of the find material. The large stone enclosures in counties Finnmark and Troms that were first categorised in this way prove to have quite consistent builds and measurements and a find material mainly dating between the 13th and 17th centuries. These structures are here labelled type 1. In contrast, constructions that have later been added to the category, particularly in other areas, have other and less consistent characteristics and seem to include remains of a range of different activities. They are here divided into two generic types 2 and 3. The thesis further discusses alternative interpretations for the type 1 structures, concluding that their materiality, construction, location, topography and finds are consistent with archaeological, historical and ethnographic evidence for wolf traps. Their distribution indicates a regional Sami cultural practice related to inland winter habitation and travel routes, while also apparently coinciding with the Russian/Karelian taxation area in northern Norway in the Middle Ages. Thus the builds may have been inspired by the fur trade or other activities of the latter groups. It is uncertain when exactly the installations fell into disuse, as datings are calibrated to AD 1450-1650. The abandonment could be related to the decline of Novgorod as a fur trade centre, Russian loss of taxation rights in northern Norway, increased Swedish impact in the inland areas and Norwegian activity along the coasts, which all led to changes in administration, taxation, trade patterns and demand for furs. The contemporary decimation of the wild reindeer population, increased reindeer herding and introduction of new weapons like crossbows, guns and foothold traps, may all have made permanent trapping installations less useful. The sites may, however, have gone out of use at different times. Certain finds of marrow split bones, very recent coins and other objects suggest a later reconceptualisation of some structures as offering sites, whether as a local explanation or inspired by the later scholarly definition. Throughout the thesis, the construction and distribution of the archaeological category and the preference for the ritual or religious interpretation are discussed as results of specific socio-political contexts, where stereotypical notions about Sami identity and culture have had a strong impact. The thesis explores how academic and other narratives influence each other within certain discourses of power and indigenous "rights and rites", and the continuous mutual impact on individual actions and emotions through networks of people, power and things. The present reinterpretation challenges existing academic and local narratives. It is based on the materiality of the structures, but the offering site explanation is not positively refuted. Yet, as part of an authorised heritage discourse, the present statement is more likely to impact future categorisation and practices than other narratives within other discourses, expressing a persistent and inherent power inequality. This may be ethically problematic in the context of an indigenous minority, but it may also be argued that the role of the archaeologist expert is precisely to expose the insisting materiality of the past and the power/knowledge networks that promote specific narratives about it.