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  • Public defence: 2017-04-27 10:00 sal G, Arrheniuslaboratorierna, Stockholm
    Petersson, Jöran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Mathematics achievement of early and newly immigrated students in different topics of mathematics2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to explore the mathematics achievement of second language immigrants in compulsory school as they continue their schooling in Sweden. Specifically, the thesis aims to generate more knowledge about different sub-categories of second language students, namely newly arrived immigrants, early arrived immigrants and other second language students in compulsory school. The data in this thesis consists of students’ responses to test items and thus mainly contains mathematical symbols, essentially numbers in different representations, written by the students.

    Doing so, this thesis problematizes the concept of second language students in mathematics in two aspects. One aspect is to assess the first and second language students’ achievement in different mathematical content domains, instead of only assessing the total achievement. Another aspect is to see the second language students as different sub-categories of second language students.

    Papers I and II of this thesis found that the achievement difference between first and second language students is not homogeneous. Instead the achievement difference between first and second language students is larger for concepts that are rare in mathematics textbooks. Moreover, the achievement difference between first and second language students varies with the content domain. Another way to say this is that first and second language students have different achievement profiles.

    Papers III and IV of this thesis explored how sub-categories of second language students achieved on mathematics test items. Mathematics achievement studies on second language students often classify the second language students into a single category of students. Methodologically this imposes a concept of viewing second language students as homogeneous in proficiency in the language of instruction. This view is challenged in this thesis by dividing the second language students into newly arrived immigrants, early arrived immigrants and other second language students. These three sub-categories have different proficiency in Swedish language due to how long they have lived in Sweden. Papers III and IV found that these student categories both had different test achievement and, related to this, also used mathematical concept representations differently. In particular, the newly and early arrived immigrants seemed to experience on average different challenges during mathematics testing. The newly arrived students seemed more challenged with terminology but less with the mathematical content while the opposite seemed to hold for the early arrived students. An implication for teaching is that particularly early arrived second language children seem to be in urgent need of support in mathematical concept building from first day of schooling in the new country.

  • Public defence: 2017-04-28 10:00 Vivi Täckholmsalen (Q211), NPQ-huset, Stockholm
    de Jong, Jasper
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Who is Who in the Adipose Organ: A look at the Heterogeneity of Adipocyte Biology2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing prevalence of obesity and related health complications, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer, demands thorough investigation of the underlying processes. One of the key tissues investigated in this context is adipose tissue. It is becoming increasingly clear that adipose tissue is a very dynamic and heterogenic organ. This thesis provides an overview of various aspects of adipose biology that illustrate its heterogenic nature and describes my own scientific contributions to this field.

    We typically distinguish between thermogenic, energy-expending brown adipocytes and energy-storing white adipocytes that are located in anatomically distinct adipose depots. In addition, brite (or beige) adipocytes are functionally thermogenic, but are located among white adipocytes.

    Related to functional variation, adipocytes and adipose tissues display a wide range of morphological appearances. An additional property that illustrates the heterogeneity among adipose cells and depots is the variation of cellular responses to physiological cues, such as changes in diet or environmental temperature. Furthermore, the developmental origins of various adipose types display great heterogeneity, which may explain some of the functional and dynamic differences that are observed.

    In line with the complexity of developmental origins, molecular markers that were initially proposed to distinguish between brown, brite/beige and white adipose subtypes have added to the notion that the composition of the adipose organ is much more complex than has long been appreciated.

    My own work has contributed to the enhancement of our understanding of the heterogeneity of adipose subtypes. In particular, my findings related to marker gene expression patterns have led to increased appreciation of the complex nature of adipose gene expression patterns and the complications of translating results obtained in mice to humans. Some of my other contributions have increased the understanding of the differences and similarities in thermogenic adipose tissue functionality and dynamics. With cell culture studies, I have revealed new characteristics of pre-adipose cells from various depots that further add to the appreciation of the adipose heterogeneity.

    Overall, this thesis provides an overview of important characteristics of the adipose organ, illustrating its heterogenic nature. Realization of this heterogeneity is of importance in order to properly study the adipose organ to ultimately understand how the adipose organ can be therapeutically targeted to effectively treat adipose-related diseases.

  • Public defence: 2017-04-28 10:00 Gröjersalen, hus 3, Kräftriket, Stockholm
    Stenlund, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Läsutveckling under mellan- och högstadiet: En longitudinell studie av läsfärdigheter hos elever med och utan lässvårigheter2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation consists of two studies, a middle school study and a follow-up study. In the middle school study, the reading ability of a group of middle school students, of which some have reading difficulties, is described and analyzed along with the classroom conditions the students are given for the development of their reading abilities. The overall aim of the follow-up study is to describe and analyze the reading ability development in the same group of students from the beginning of middle school to the end of lower secondary school, as well as examine the students’ use of strategies in grade 9.

    In lower secondary school decoding, vocabulary and reading comprehension were tested like in middle school. Students’ reading comprehension was tested on both stages based on a reading comprehension test and a national test. Since the use of strategies seems to be important for students’ reading comprehension, even the use of learning strategies were examined by including a question from the PISA (2009) student questionnaire. Furthermore, six students who in the beginning of middle school had shown poor results in one or more of the reading aspects were, referred to as the small sample group and, were interviewed in grade 9 regarding their use of comprehension strategies when reading an age-appropriate historical factual text in a textbook.

    Analyses show that there is a small development in reading comprehension from the beginning of middle school to the end of lower secondary school. Even the development of correct reading and vocabulary is relatively small. The largest development is shown for the reading rate, but analyses show that the reason for that is not merely a more automated process of decoding. A comparison between the results in the reading comprehension tests and the national tests at both stages show higher results for the national tests, which can depend on the different aims of the two tests. Regarding learning strategies, the entire study group stated in the questionnaire that they mostly use the deeper monitoring strategies, while the students in the small sample group reported that they tended to use the more superficial memory strategies. The results of the interviews show that the small sample group as a group found it more convenient to use comprehension strategies for superficial rather than for deeper comprehension.

  • Public defence: 2017-04-28 13:00 William-Olssonsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Fausch, Jürg
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Essays on Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Asset pricing implications of a DSGE model with recursive preferences and nominal rigidities. I study jointly macroeconomic dynamics and asset prices implied by a production economy featuring nominal price rigidities and Epstein-Zin (1989) preferences. Using a reasonable calibration, the macroeconomic DSGE model is consistent with a number of stylized facts observed in financial markets like the equity premium, a negative real term spread, a positive nominal term spread and the predictability of stock returns, without compromising the model's ability to fit key macroeconomic variables. The interest rate smoothing in the monetary policy rule helps generate a low risk-free rate volatility which has been difficult to achieve for standard real business cycle models where monetary policy is neutral. In an application, I show that the model provides a framework for analyzing monetary policy interventions and the associated effects on asset prices and the real economy.

    Macroeconomic news and the stock market: Evidence from the eurozone. This paper is an empirical study of excess return behavior in the stock market in the euro area around days when important macroeconomic news about inflation, unemployment or interest rates are scheduled for announcement. I identify state dependence such that equity risk premia on announcement days are significantly higher when the interests rates are in the vicinity of the zero lower bound. Moreover, I provide evidence that for the whole sample period, the average excess returns in the eurozone are only higher on days when FOMC announcements are scheduled for release. However, this result vanishes in a low interest rate regime. Finally, I document that the European stock market does not command a premium for scheduled announcements by the European Central Bank (ECB).

    The impact of ECB monetary policy surprises on the German stock market. We examine the impact of ECB monetary policy surprises on German excess stock returns and the possible reasons for such a response. First, we conduct an event study to asses the impact of conventional and unconventional monetary policy on stock returns. Second, within the VAR framework of Campbell and Ammer (1993), we decompose excess stock returns into news regarding expected excess returns, future dividends and future real interest rates. We measure conventional monetary policy shocks using futures markets data. Our main findings are that the overall variation in German excess stock returns mainly reflects revisions in expectations about dividends and that the stock market response to monetary policy shocks is dependent on the prevailing interest rate regime. In periods of negative real interest rates, a surprise monetary tightening leads to a decrease in excess stock returns. The channels behind this response are news about higher expected excess returns and lower future dividends.

  • Public defence: 2017-05-02 10:00 Magnélisalen, Stockholm
    Liu, Jianguo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Iridium Catalysed Asymmetric Hydrogenation of Olefins and Dynamic Kinetic Resolution in the Asymmetric Hydrogenation of Allylic Alcohols2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The work described in this thesis is focused on exploring the efficacy of iridium-catalysed asymmetric hydrogenation of precursors to chiral alcohols and chiral cyclohexanes. A range of allylic alcohols including γ,γ-dialkyl allylic alcohols and (Z)-allylic alcohols were prepared and evaluated in the asymmetric hydrogenation using iridium catalysts resulting in chiral alcohols in high yields and excellent enantioselectivity. This methodology was applied in the formal synthesis of Aliskiren, an efficient renin inhibitor drug, using the asymmetric hydrogenation of an allylic alcohol as a key-step. Another project concerned the dynamic kinetic resolution of racemic secondary allylic alcohols using Ir-N,P catalysts under hydrogenation conditions. A range of secondary allylic alcohols and protected alcohols were evaluated in the asymmetric hydrogenation via dynamic kinetic resolution using Ir-N,P catalysts. The corresponding chiral saturated alcohols were formed in good yield with excellent diastereoselectivites (up to 95/5) and enantioselectivities (>99% ee). The last part of this thesis is directed towards the development of highly regio- and enantioselective asymmetric hydrogenation of 1,4-cyclohexadienes and its application in the preparation of useful chiral cyclohexenone intermediates. Non-functionalised, functionalised and heterocycle-containing cyclohexadienes were evaluated. Good yield of regioselectively mono-hydrogenated silyl protected enol ethers were obtained in most cases with excellent enantioselectivity. 

  • Public defence: 2017-05-03 10:00 föreläsningssalen, Filmhuset, Stockholm
    Lindblad, Emma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    Looking vanlig; neither too much nor too little: A study of consumption of clothing among mainstream youth in a Swedish small town2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis studies consumption among young people who identify as mainstreamers in a Swedish small town. In order to map patterns of clothing consumption and to understand what was central in the young people’s self-identification, the research was conducted using a mix of ethnographic methods and wardrobe studies. This is an inverted study of the subcultural, that problematizes the assumption that the majority (the mainstream) and the minority (the countercultural) are opposites when it comes to identity creation. The central concepts used here are ordinary (vanlig), mainstream, and subculture. One of the main findings is that the youth studied self-identify as ordinary. This finding is used to problematize not only the traditional markers of masculinity and femininity as they present themselves in this context, but also what is characterized as new patterns of consumption. There are two main conclusions. First, being mainstream and ordinary was not a static identity position, as the literature would have it; instead, being an ordinary mainstreamer required constant work in order to stay within certain culturally negotiated boundaries. Second, the ethnographic findings contribute in the field of subcultural studies by questioning the convention of portraying the mainstream and the subcultural as polar opposites: contrary to the literature, it is argued that neither is so very different from the other, making it an unhelpful dichotomy in understanding young people today.

  • Public defence: 2017-05-05 09:00 Vivi Täckholmsalen, NPQ-huset, Stockholm
    Wallner-Hahn, Sieglind
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Fishing for sustainability: Towards transformation of seagrass-associated small-scale fisheries2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Small-scale fisheries employ many millions of people around the world, and are particularly important in developing countries, where the dependency on marine resources is high and livelihood diversification options are scarce. In many areas of the world however, small-scale fisheries are at risk which threatens the food security and wellbeing of coastal people. Small-scale fisheries management has in many cases been insufficient and new comprehensive approaches are recommended to achieve social-ecological sustainability in the long-term. The aim of this thesis is to analyze empirically how social-ecological elements of seagrass-associated small-scale fisheries in the Western Indian Ocean region can be addressed for a transformation from the current mostly degraded state to more sustainable social-ecological systems and secure future livelihoods. The main method used was semi-structured interviews with local fishers. The main findings show the crucial contributions seagrass-associated small-scale fisheries make to food security and income generation and highlight the need to acknowledge the social-ecological importance of seagrasses in the seascape (Paper I). A discrepancy between low societal gains of the fishing of sea urchin predator fish species and their crucial importance in the food web (in controlling sea urchin populations and the associated grazing pressure on seagrasses) was identified (Paper II). These results suggest catch-and-release practice of sea urchin predator fish species, which could contribute to more balanced predator – sea urchin – seagrass food webs in the long run. The use of illegal dragnets was identified as a major threat to local seagrass meadows (Paper IV). Institutional elements influencing the use of such destructive dragnet were identified to be normative, cultural-cognitive and economic, which constitutes an institutional misfit to the current emphasis on regulative elements in a hierarchical manner (Paper III). Concerning future co-management initiatives, gear restrictions and education were the favoured management measures among all fishers (Paper IV). A majority of fishers were willing to participate in monitoring and controls, and most fishers thought they themselves and their communities would benefit most from seagrass-specific management. These findings highlight the need for actions on multiple scales, being the local-, management-, policy- and governance levels. The suggested actions include: education and exchange of ecological and scientific knowledge, gear management including the cessation of dragnet fishing, strengthening of local institutions, an active participation of fishers in enforcement of existing rules and regulations and an introduction of adequate alternative livelihood options.

  • Public defence: 2017-05-05 13:00 De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Matta, Corrado
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    A Field of Veiled Continuities: Studies in the Methodology and Theory of Educational Research2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Empirical educational research enjoys a methodological and theoretical debate that is characterized by a number of unresolved and lively debated controversies. This compilation thesis is an attempt to contribute to this debate using the toolbox of philosophy of science.

    The thesis consists of an introductory chapter and four essays. In the introductory chapter I identify three methodological and theoretical controversies that are discussed within the field of educational research. These are: 1) the controversy concerning the scientific status of educational research; 2) the controversy between cognitive and sociocultural theories of learning; and, 3) the controversy between realist and constructionist interpretations of theories of learning.

    I provide in the essays a critical assessment of the claims behind each of these controversies, and argue for an alternative reconstruction of these issues.

    In Essay I, I criticize a view about the interpretation of human action, labeled in the text as interpretivism. This view posits a sharp separation between the natural and social sciences, to the effect that the methods of the latter cannot be applied to the former. The first controversy seems to rest on this position. As I argue, the arguments in support of interpretivism are contradicted by actual research practice. I conclude that the interpretivistic claims lack support and that the general separation claim appears as problematic.

    A further debate has fueled the first controversy, that is, the supposed distinction between qualitative and quantitative methods. In Essay II, I argue against this distinction. More specifically, I discuss the concept of empirical support in the context of qualitative methods (for short, qualitative support). I provide arguments that although there are two specific and non-trivial properties of qualitative support, there is no methodological separation between quantitative and qualitative methods concerning empirical support.

    Considered together, the first two essays indicate two points of methodological continuity between educational research and other scientific practices (such as the natural sciences). I therefore conclude that the controversy concerning the scientific status of educational research rests in large part on unjustified claims.

    Essay III focuses on the second controversy. In this article I argue that Suárez’ inferential approach to the concept of scientific representation can be used as an account of scientific representation in learning, regardless of whether learning is understood as a cognitive or social phenomenon.

    The third controversy is discussed in Essay IV. Here, I discuss some ontological aspects of the framework of the actor-network theory. Reflecting on the use of this framework in the research field of Networked Learning, I argue that the assumption of an ontology of relations provides the solution for two puzzles about the ontology of networks. The relevance of my argument for the third controversy is that it suggests a point of connection between constructionist and realist interpretations of the ontology of learning.

    The last two essays suggest two points of continuities between theoretical frameworks that have been and still are argued to be incompatible.

  • Public defence: 2017-05-11 10:00 De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Strandberg, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology . SMHI.
    Modelling regional climate-vegetation interactions in Europe: A palaeo perspective2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies in paleoclimate are important because they give us knowledge about how the climate system works and puts the current climate change in necessary perspective. By studying (pre)historic periods we increase our knowledge not just about these periods, but also about the processes that are important for climatic variations and changes. This thesis deals mainly with the interaction between climate and vegetation. Vegetation changes can affect climate in many different ways. These effects can be divided into two main categories: biogeochemical and biogeophysical processes. This thesis studies the biogeophysical effects of vegetation changes on climate in climate models. Climate models are a necessary tool for investigating how climate responds to changes in the climate system, as well as for making predictions of future climate. The biogeophysical processes are strongly related to characteristics of the land surface. Vegetation changes alter the land surface’s albedo (ability to reflect incoming solar radiation), roughness and evapotranspiration (the sum of evaporation and tran-spiration), which in turn affects the energy fluxes between the land surface and the atmosphere and thereby the climate. It is not, however, evident in what way; denser vegetation (e.g. forest instead of grassland) gives decreased albedo, which results in higher temperature, but also increased evapotranspiration, which contrastingly results in lower temperature. Vegetation changes are in this thesis studied in four different (pre)historic periods: two very cold periods with no human influence (c. 44,000 and 21,000 years ago), one warm period with minor human influence (c. 6,000 years ago) and a cold period with substantial human influence (c. 200 years ago). In addition to that the present climate is studied. The combination of these periods gives an estimate of the effect of both natural and anthropogenic vegetation on climate in different climatic contexts. The results show that vegetation changes can change temperature with 1–3 °C depending on season and region. The response is not the same everywhere, but depends on local properties of the land surface. During the winter half of the year, the albedo effect is usually most important as the difference in albedo between forest and open land is very large. During the summer half of the year the evapotranspiration effect is usually most important as differences in albedo between different vegetation types are smaller. A prerequisite for differences in evapotranspiration is that there is sufficient amount of water available. In dry regions, evapotranspiration does not change much with changes in vegetation, which means that the albedo effect will dominate also in summer. The conclusion of these studies is that vegetation changes can have a considerable effect on climate, comparable to the effect of increasing amounts of greenhouse gases in scenarios of future climate. Thus, it is important to have an appropriate description of the vegetation in studies of past, present and future climate. This means that vegetation has the potential to work as a feedback mechanism to natural climatic variations, but also that man can alter climate by altering the vegetation. It also means that mankind may have influenced climate before we started to use fossil fuel. Consequently, vegetation changes can be used as a means to mitigate climate change locally.

  • Public defence: 2017-05-12 10:00 Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Gomis, Melissa Ines
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    From emission sources to human tissues: modelling the exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Produced since the 1950’s, per- and polyfluoroalkyl (PFASs) substances are persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic compounds that are ubiquitous in the environment. Being proteinophilic with a tendency to partition to protein-rich tissues, PFASs have been found in human serum worldwide and in wildlife with a predominance of long-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxilic acids (C7-C14 PFCAs) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (C6-C9 PFSAs). Due to rising concern regarding their hazardous properties, several regulatory actions and voluntary industrial phase-outs have been conducted since early 2000s, shifting the production towards other fluorinated alternatives. This thesis explores the human exposure to long-chain PFASs and their alternatives using different modelling methods and aims to 1) link comprehensively the past and current industrial production with the human body burden and 2) assess the potential hazardous properties of legacy PFASs replacements, on which information is very limited. In Paper I, the historical daily intakes in Australia and USA were reconstructed from cross-sectional biomonitoring data of perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) andperfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS). The results indicate that humans experienced similar exposure levels and trends to PFOS and PFOA in both regions, suggesting a common historical exposure possibly dominated by consumer products. The model could not be fitted to PFHxS concentration in serum. In Paper II, the relative contribution of indirect (i.e. subsequent metabolism of precursors into legacy PFASs) versus direct exposure was evaluated on occupationally exposed ski wax technicians. The indirect exposure contributed by up to 45% to the total body burden of PFOA. In Paper III, the physicochemical properties, the persistence and the long-range transport of fluorinated alternatives were predicted using different in silico tools. Findings suggest that fluorinated alternatives are likely similar to their predecessors, in terms of physicochemical properties and environmental fate. Finally, Paper IV compares the toxic potency of PFOS, PFOA and their alternatives as a function of external and internal dose. While alternatives are less potent than their predecessors when considering the administered dose, they become similarly potent when the assessment is based on levels in the target tissue. This thesis demonstrates that pharmacokinetic models are effective tools to comprehensively reconnect the body burden to the exposure of phased-out chemicals. More importantly, the studies on fluorinated alternatives raise the necessity to provide more information and data on the potential hazard of these novel and emerging products.

  • Public defence: 2017-05-12 10:00 Magnélisalen, Stockholm
    Lindstedt, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Metal-Free O- and C-Arylation with Diaryliodonium Salts2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis concerns the development of metal-free applications using diaryliodonium salts. The first project describes an arylation protocol of allylic and benzylic alcohols in aqueous media. The method proceeds under mild conditions and the ether products were obtained in moderate to good yields. The methodology was also expanded to include arylation of phenols, giving diaryl ethers in good to excellent yields. In the second project, an arylation method that included a wider range of aliphatic alcohols was developed. The scope of accessible alkyl aryl ethers was studied and included a comparative study of phenylation and nitrophenylation of various alcohols. Finally, a formal metal-free synthesis of butoxycain was performed, illustrating the applicability of the developed method.

    The third project focused on the limitations and side reactions occurring in Chapter 2 and 3. First, an approach to access symmetric diaryl ethers via arylation of hydroxide was presented. This reaction gave rise to a number of side products, which we hypothesized to originate from aryne-type intermediates. A mechanism for the formation of these side products was suggested, supported by trapping and deuterium labeling experiments.

    Oxidation of the alcohol to the corresponding ketone was also observed and the mechanism of this interesting side reaction was investigated. The latter was suggested to proceed via an intramolecular oxidation without the involvement of radicals or arynes.

    The fourth project covers a method to synthesize highly sterically congested alkyl aryl ethers via arylation of tertiary alcohols using diaryliodonium salts. The method displayed a broad scope of tertiary alcohols and was also suitable for fluorinated alcohols.

    The final project detailed in this thesis deals with C-arylation with diaryliodonium salts, showcasing nitroalkanes as well as a nitro ester as suitable nucleophiles for metal-free arylation. 

  • Public defence: 2017-05-12 13:00 Lilla hörsalen, Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Stockholm
    Waermö, Mimmi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Dialectics of Negotiagency: Micro Mechanisms in Children’s Negotiation in Play Activity2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is about the children in a fourth and fifth grade Swedish primary school class and their play during breaktimes. The study takes the theoretical point of departure in seeing children’s breaktime play as a cultural historical activity. The overarching research problem concerns breaktime play emphasising the phenomena of children’s negotiation, participation and agency. It concerns how breaktime play takes shape and which capacities children possess, who are breaktime play literate, to participate and to uphold play. What is the significance of children’s capacity to negotiate rules and roles? How do they use culturally, historically developed objects and motives to transform and expand established versions of play and games? The research problem foregrounds how the play activity emerges, is carried out and how participation is enabled through negotiation. The aim of the study is to explore the phenomena of children’s negotiation and agency in dialectical change processes in breaktime play activity. The questions explored are: 

    RQ: What are the mechanisms in dialectical processes of collectividual action and collective object transformation in children’s play activity? 

    • How does the play activity emerge?
    • How does the object of the play activity transform?

    The data consists of field notes from participant observations and of audio memos. Audio memos, short smartphone recordings of the children’s verbal reflections on aspects of their actions and experiences, were continuously produced to get the children’s verbal reflections in the immediacy of acting. Various documents and interviews form additional data. The findings show how the children negotiate involvement, rules, role set-up and the hierarchy of demands as a continuous elaboration of the conditions to establish and maintain boundaries of playfully accomplished activity. The notion of negotiagency is introduced, uncovering that breaktime play literacy does not occur in the children’s minds apart from social interaction but develops in and through negotiation. Negotiagency emerges and is realised when the children are engaged in a playfully accomplished activity. The dialectical processes of collectividual action and collective object transformation in playfully accomplished activity are enabled through negotiation. This whole mechanism is referred to as Dialectics of Negotiagency.

  • Public defence: 2017-05-12 13:00 JMK-salen, Garnisonen, Stockholm
    Borgen, Turid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    Mellom samfunnsoppdrag og marked: En studie av utviklingen av sjefredaktørrollen i utvalgte norske og svenske mediehus fra 1985 til 20152017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The dissertation analyses changes in the role of editors-in-chief in ten leading Norwegian and Swedish media houses – today owned by either Bonnier or Schibsted – in light of the potential tensions between journalistic ideals and market demands. This duality is studied over a period of 30 years, from 1985 to 2015. The most defining changes in the structural framework under which editors-in-chief work are the ongoing technological revolution, the transformation from an analogue into a digital society, and structural, economic changes related to this development. Methodologically, the study builds on data from qualitative in-depth interviews, mainly with 33 past and present editors-in-chief. It also contains a study of how the role of editors-in-chief has been reported and discussed in the magazines of two media branch organisations. The changing role of editors-in-chief is analysed within an institutional perspective. The main empirical results are as follows: (1) Owners and company management have considered the recruitment of editors-in-chief to be highly important throughout the period, and they have used their influence actively. Internal recruitment processes are a standard procedure. Very few of those chosen are women; men recruit other men. The last decade shows a recruitment process becoming more centralized and professionalized. (2) Most editors-in-chief represented in the study have a background in the newsroom. This has traditionally been the main qualification. (3) Regular meetings have structured most of the working hours for editors-in-chief. From an institutional perspective, meetings have played a norm-setting and ritualised role. During the last decade, some of those meetings have included not only journalists but also employees from other departments. (4) Those respondents who were active during the last period investigated perceive the increased speed of work on a daily basis and the more complex editorial role as the main changes and challenges. (5) Many of the respondents are so-called ‘silent’ editors. Due to a lack of time, they do not write much in their own papers. Lately, this has changed to some extent, especially among Swedish editors. This finding is one of the major differences between Norwegian and Swedish editors-in-chief. (6) Editors are still responsible for journalistic content, but demands on the part of commercial management have gradually become more important, and strategic decisions have become more centralized. The metaphor about the need to balance the demands of the ‘Marketplace and Cathedral’ has been replaced by the metaphor ‘We are all in the same boat’. The journalistic institution is under pressure. (7) Despite the immense technological and economic changes in the business and in the structural framework, there is also stability in the role due to the robust nature of journalism as an institution. The role of editor-in-chief is complex, and during the last 30 years, it has become even more so. The structural conditions have affected the role in various ways. While the basic tasks of editors-in-chief remain rooted in editorial work, downsizing and market demands have simultaneously undermined the autonomy and power of editors-in-chief, especially in relation to central media group management.