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  • Public defence: 2017-01-25 10:00 Nordenskiöldsalen, Stockholm
    Axhamn, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Axhamn, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Databasskydd2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The capacity to assemble, store, and make available information in databases is ever growing. This development has accelerated in recent decades, driven by the advent and increased use of digital networks. Already at an early stage, it led to demands for legal protection of databases. In most countries databases have been protected in national legislation based on copyright principles. However, this kind of protection has been regarded as insufficient. The reason for this is that copyright protection only covers the selection or arrangement of the contents of the database. By rearranging the contents, it is possible to avoid liability for copyright infringement. To address the specific needs of producers of databases, the then European community adopted a directive in 1996 on the legal protection of databases. The Directive aims to harmonise copyright protection for databases and to introduce a new, sui generis, right for the legal protection of databases. The sui generis right protects the investments in obtaining, verifying, and presenting the contents in a database. The sui generis right has been described in the literature as one of the most complex intellectual property rights ever established. Its complexity resides in the unclear relationship between the requirements for protection and the content and scope of protection.

    This dissertation describes, analyses, compares and systematises the legal protection for databases as provided for in the EU Database Directive – both in relation to copyright and sui generis protection, but also in relation to the intellectual property system in general and principles and rules on unfair competition. The study also describes and analyses the Directive as implemented into Swedish law. To do this, it makes use of relevant legal sources, with particular account taken of relevant sources of EU law such as the Directive itself, adjacent directives in the field of copyright and related rights, as well as unfair competition law and the case law and legal method developed by the Court of Justice of the European Union. The study also draws on underlying theories of intellectual property protection and unfair competition law, as well as arguments based on unjust enrichment and pure economic loss.

    The study establishes how the sui generis right serves as a legal hybrid between traditional intellectual property rights and protection against unfair competition. The structure of the right resembles traditional intellectual property rights, with requirements for protection, provisions on exclusive rights, exceptions and limitations and a term of protection. At the same time, the content and scope of protection provide measures similar to those countering unfair competition with aspects of protection against pure economic loss. The right protects against certain activities carried out in the market rather than providing protection for a traditional object of intellectual property law. When implementing the Directive, the Swedish legislator overlooked these aspects of the sui generis right, creating legal uncertainties when interpreting and applying the national legislation. The study concludes with a look forward and suggestions for future research.

  • Public defence: 2017-01-27 10:00 De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Ambrose, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Ambrose, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Att navigera på en skolmarknad: en studie av valfrihetens geografi i tre skolor2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores and analyses how school choices are made and perceived in an urban local school market. The thesis uses concepts from the French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu and theories working with the concept of place and space. Using ethnographical methods, it explores the geography of school choice, while the empirical material describes and analyses school choices in a local school market structured by socio-economic as well as symbolic boundaries. The five empirical chapters discuss and analyse imaginary geographies, school habitus, hot and cold knowledge, and symbolic boundaries. The concluding chapter discusses the main findings and addresses some questions regarding how to make the educational system more equitable. 

  • Public defence: 2017-01-27 10:00 sal P216, Arrheniuslaboratorierna, Stockholm
    Dahlin, Paul
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Dahlin, Paul
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Analysis of sterol metabolism in the pathogenic oomycetes Saprolegnia parasitica and Phytophthora infestans2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary objective of this thesis was to investigate the sterol metabolism of two pathogenic oomycetes, specifically the processes of sterol synthesis and sterol acquisition in the fish pathogen Saprolegnia parasitica (Saprolegniales) and the plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans (Peronosporales). Furthermore, the effects of steroidal glycoalkaloids from Solanaceous plants, on P. infestans, were examined. The improved understanding of these processes should help to identify approaches for the identification of new oomycete inhibitors targeting sterol metabolism in agriculture and aquaculture farming systems, and to guide plant-breeding strategies to defend solanaceous plants against oomycetes.

    For these reasons, the molecular basis of the metabolic pathways of sterol synthesis and/or sterol acquisition was investigated. Sterols are derived from isoprenoids and indispensable in various biological processes. Our biochemical investigation of an oxidosqualene cyclase revealed that sterol synthesis in S. parasitica begins with the formation of lanosterol (Paper I), and a reconstruction of the complete sterol synthesis pathway to the final compound, fucosterol, in S. parasitica was performed using bioinformatics (Paper II). Complementary to this work, the extent to which P. infestans, which is incapable of de novo sterol synthesis, is able to modify exogenously provided sterols was investigated by determining the growth impact of various sterol supplements in the growth media (Paper II). 

    Building on the sterol investigations, the solanaceous sterol derivatives from the glycoalkaloid family were analysed. These compounds contain both a steroidal and a carbohydrate (glycan) moiety. Data obtained by feeding various deuterium-labeled sterols to potato shoots, supported the theory that steroidal glycoalkaloids in Solanum tuberosum are produced from cholesterol (Paper III).  Since these steroidal glycoalkaloids are thought to play a role in plant defense, their physiological effects on P. infestans were investigated (Paper IV). Unexpectedly we found that non-glycosylated steroidal alkaloids had a greater inhibitory effect than steroidal glycoalkaloids.  Steroidal glycoalkaloids derived from other Solanaceous species exhibited different physiological effects on the growth of P. infestans

    This research was conducted on two oomycete species belonging to the Saprolegniales and Peronosporales orders, hence the results presented are likely to be representative of each of these two oomycete orders.

  • Public defence: 2017-02-03 09:30 sal E306, Arrheniuslaboratorierna, Stockholm
    Nejedla, Michaela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Nejedla, Michaela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Profilins: The Control of the Microfilament and Microtubule systems2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The microtubule and actin filament systems are important for many cellular processes such as intracellular organelle trafficking, cell adhesion, migration and mitosis. The two filament systems are closely connected, operate in parallel and are essential for proper cell function. This thesis demonstrates that profilin, an actin monomer binding protein that enhances actin nucleotide exchange, is central for actin polymerization control and binds poly-proline sequences present in many actin nucleation and elongation promoting factors,also contributes to the coordination of the actin and microtubule systems.

    The results show that profilin is linked to microtubules via members of the formin family of proteins. This was realized by combining different microscopy techniques with biochemical analyses. Exposure of the cells to the formin inhibitor SMIFH2 led to a significant decrease of the profilin-microtubule co-distribution, and this was also observed by simultaneously decreasing expression of two formins, Diaphaneous 1 and 2, by siRNA-transfection. Together this provided strong evidence for the formins as major components associating profilin to the microtubules. With the use of actin-targeted drugs, I further showed that the turn-over of the actin microfilament system balances the extent of profilin-microtubule association, and, moreover, down-regulation of profilin expression resulted in increased levels of acetylated tubulin and faster microtubule elongation. All in congruence with profilin being central in coordinating the activities of the microtubule and actin microfilament systems.

    In some of the experiments above, I used a specifically developed fluorescent variant of profilin that carries the fluorescent protein citrine internally in a loop extending away from the actin and proline-binding surfaces. In a separate study it was shown to bind poly-proline, phosphatidylinositol lipids and actin, and also to distribute properly in cells after expression. Furthermore, this fusion-construct largely rescued the phenotypes displayed by a Crispr/Cas 9 profilin I gene knock-out, and therefore opens for detailed future analyses of profilin-dependent processes by imaging of living cells.

    In a third study, encouraged by the result with citrine-profilin I, a similar approach was taken to generate a fluorescent variant of the profilin isoform IIa with the mKate2 protein as the fused fluorophore. The cellular localisation of this profilin-constuct revealed an association with focal adhesions. Further analysis after introduction of a mutation in the profilin-moiety that distorts poly-proline binding, clearly showed that the distribution to focal adhesions depends on the binding to poly-proline, pointing to a small group of candidate proteins as recruiting molecules. It was not possible to detect a localization to microtubules suggesting that this interaction is unique to profilin I. This means that the data in my thesis also point to distinct functions for the two major mammalian profilin isoforms; profilin I being connected to microtubule organization in addition to its classical role as an actin partner, and profilin IIa-function may be more closely linked to focal adhesion and cell-substratum attachments.

  • Public defence: 2017-02-03 10:00 De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Andersson, Helene
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Andersson, Helene
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Dawn Raids under Challenge: A Study of the European Commission’s Dawn Raid Practices in Competition Cases from a Fundamental Rights Perspective2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This doctoral dissertation examines the European Commission’s dawn raid practices in competition cases from a fundamental rights perspective. In recent years the Commission has adopted a new and more aggressive enforcement policy, which reflects the widespread understanding that cartels and abuse of market power are harmful to the economy and should be punished. Given both the considerable gains to be made through anti-competitive practices and the cartel’s nature of secrecy, effective application of the competition rules requires that competition authorities are vested with far-reaching investigatory powers.

    At the same time, EU fundamental rights protection has been strengthened through the Lisbon Treaty, and the Commission now has to ensure effective application of the EU competition rules while navigating through an array of fundamental rights, such as the right of the defence and the right to privacy. The doctoral dissertation explores whether it is possible to strike a balance between the interests of ensuring effective dawn raids and adequate fundamental rights protection, or whether the Commission has been handed an impossible task. As the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights requires EU fundamental rights protection to meet or exceed the standard set by the ECHR, the research is based on case-law from both the EU Courts and the European Court of Human Rights.

    The research demonstrates that the European Court of Human Rights has adopted a flexible approach towards inspections at business premises; it does not require an ex ante review of inspection decisions and accepts rather intrusive investigatory measures, provided that and as long as the procedural safeguards surrounding such measures are considered adequate. This way, the court manages to strike a balance between efficiency concerns and the rights of undertakings.

    As for the EU system, the EU Courts are not providing judicial review to the extent required by the ECHR. While inspection decisions may be challenged, the possibilities to challenge measures taken on their basis, or have those measures suspended, are limited. This discrepancy between EU and ECHR law – which is of seemingly limited nature – may affect the legitimacy of the entire dawn raid procedure as the granting of far-reaching investigatory powers must be counterbalanced by effective judicial control to ensure that measures adopted by the Commission are neither disproportionate nor arbitrary. Absent an effective judicial control of measures taken on the basis of inspection decisions, the procedural safeguards surrounding dawn raids cannot be considered adequate, and it is possible that the powers of the Commission may need to be restricted accordingly.

    The research also demonstrates that some of the limitations in the legal professional privilege – such as the exclusion of correspondence with non-EU lawyers or legal advice that lacks connection with the subject-matter of the investigation – do not serve the interests of a proper administration of justice and may therefore be questioned.

  • Public defence: 2017-02-03 10:00 Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Bröder, Lisa-Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Bröder, Lisa-Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Transport, degradation and burial of organic matter released from permafrost to the East Siberian Arctic Shelf2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Permafrost soils in the Arctic store large quantities of organic matter, roughly twice the amount of carbon that was present in the atmosphere before the industrial revolution. This freeze-locked carbon pool is susceptible to thawing caused by amplified global warming at high latitudes. The remobilization of old permafrost carbon facilitates its degradation to carbon dioxide and methane, thereby providing a positive feedback to climate change.

    Accelerating coastal erosion in addition to projected rising river discharge with enhancing sediment loads are anticipated to transport increasing amounts of land-derived organic carbon (OC) to the Arctic Ocean. On its shallow continental shelves, this material may be remineralized in the water column or in the sediments, transported without being altered off shelf towards the deep sea of the Arctic Interior or buried in marine sediments and hence sequestered from the contemporary carbon cycle. The fate of terrigenous material in the marine environment, though offering potentially important mechanisms to either strengthen or attenuate the permafrost-carbon climate feedback, is so far insufficiently understood.

    In this doctoral thesis, sediments from the wide East Siberian Arctic Shelf, the world’s largest shelf-sea system, were used to investigate some of the key processes for OC cycling. A range of bulk sediment properties, carbon isotopes and molecular markers were employed to elucidate the relative importance of different organic matter sources, the role of cross-shelf transport and the relevance of degradation during transport and after burial.

    Overall, OC released from thawing permafrost constitutes a significant proportion of the sedimentary organic matter on the East Siberian Arctic Shelf. Two sediment cores from the inner and outer East Siberian Sea recorded no substantial changes in source material or clear trends in degradation status for the last century. With increasing distance from the coast, however, strong gradients were detected towards lower concentrations of increasingly reworked land-derived OC. The time spent during cross-shelf transport was consequently found to exert first-order control on degradation. Compound-specific radiocarbon dating on terrigenous biomarkers revealed a net transport time of ~4 000 years across the 600 km wide Laptev Sea shelf, yielding degradation rate constants for bulk terrigenous OC and specific biomarkers on the order of 2-4 kyr-1.

    From these results, the carbon flux released by degradation of terrigenous OC in surface sediments was estimated to be ~1.7 Gg yr-1, several orders of magnitude lower than what had been quantified earlier for dissolved and particulate OC in the water column. Lower oxygen availability and close associations with the mineral matrix may protect sedimentary OC from remineralization and thereby weaken the permafrost-carbon feedback to present climate change.

  • Public defence: 2017-02-03 10:00 David Magnussonsalen (U31), Stockholm
    Rozental, Alexander
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rozental, Alexander
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Negative effects of Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy: Monitoring and reporting deterioration and adverse and unwanted events2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) has the potential of providing many patients with an effective form of psychological treatment. However, despite helping to improve mental health and well-being, far from everyone seem to benefit. In some cases, negative effects may also emerge. The overall aim of the present thesis was to establish the occurrence and characteristics of such incidents in ICBT using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods. Study I determined deterioration, non-response, and adverse and unwanted events in a sample of 133 patients undergoing ICBT for social anxiety disorder. The results indicated that up to 6.8% fared worse during the treatment period, depending on the self-report measure and time point, as determined using the Reliable Change Index (RCI), while the non-response rate was between 29.3 to 86.5% at post treatment assessment, and 12.9% experienced other negative effects. Study II investigated the responses to open-ended questions on adverse and unwanted events among 556 patients in four separate clinical trials of ICBT; social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, major depressive disorder, and procrastination. In total, 9.3% reported negative effects, with a qualitative content analysis revealing two categories and four subcategories; patient-related, i.e., gaining insight and experiencing new symptoms, and treatment-related, i.e., difficulties applying the treatment interventions and problems related to the treatment format. Study III explored the number of patients achieving reliable deterioration, as determined using the RCI on the individual raw scores of 2866 patients from 29 clinical trials of ICBT. The results showed that the deterioration rate was higher among patients in a control condition, 17.4%, in comparison to treatment, 5.8%. Predictors were related to decreased odds of deterioration for patients receiving treatment; clinical severity at pre treatment assessment, being in a relationship, having a university degree, and being older. As for the control condition, only clinical severity at pre treatment assessment was associated with decreased odds of deterioration. Study IV examined a newly developed self-report measure for monitoring and reporting adverse and unwanted events, the Negative Effects Questionnaire. The results suggested a six-factor solution with 32 items; symptoms, quality, dependency, stigma, hopelessness, and failure. One-third of the patients reported experiencing unpleasant memories, stress, and anxiety, with novel symptoms and a lack of quality in the treatment and therapeutic relationship having the greatest negative impact. The general finding of the present thesis is that negative effects do occur in ICBT and that they are characterized by deterioration, non-response, and adverse and unwanted events, similar to psychological treatments delivered face-to-face. Researchers and clinicians in ICBT are recommended to monitor and report negative effects to prevent a negative treatment trend and further the understanding of what might contribute to their incidents. Future research should investigate the relationship between negative effects and treatment outcome, especially at follow-up, to examine if they are transient or enduring. Also, interviews could be conducted with those achieving reliable deterioration to explore if and how it is experienced by the patients and to see if it is attributed to the treatment interventions or other circumstances.

  • Public defence: 2017-02-03 13:00 Gröjersalen, hus 3, Kräftriket, Stockholm
    Vähämäki, Janet
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School. Stockholms Universitet/SCORE.
    Vähämäki, Janet
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School. Stockholms Universitet/SCORE.
    Matrixing Aid: The Rise and Fall of 'Results Initiatives' in Swedish Development Aid2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Reform ideas, such as results measurement and management, tend to come and go in different ‘tides of reforms’. The purpose of this thesis is to increase our understanding of tides of reforms by identifying and discussing mechanisms that drive the rise, as well as the fall, of management reforms. This is done by studying four so-called ‘results initiatives’ launched at Sida, the Swedish International Development Agency in 1971, 1981, 1998 and 2012. The thesis tries to understand what happened both in Sida’s external environment as well as within the agency prior to the initiation, during implementation and when the four results initiatives fell out of favor.

    The life of each of the four results initiatives can be understood as having taken place in five phases: 1) the pressure phase, 2) the launch, 3) implementation, 4) point of re-do or die, 5) phase of opening up for something new. During these five phases different internal and external mechanisms contributed to either further institutionalization or to de-institutionalization of the results measurement and management ideas and technologies.

    It is argued that the need to gain legitimacy can be seen as the main mechanism that has driven the initiation of the results initiatives. During implementation, problems and difficulties arise. It is argued that whilst resistance towards the initiatives, as well as changed external demands, accelerates de-institutionalization, these mechanisms do not explain why the initiatives fall. In turn, the failure to find a standardized reporting category for “results”, the non-use of the results information produced and the fact that the initiatives no longer fulfill the function of providing legitimacy, are mechanisms that lead to the final death of the initiatives.

    The study concludes that whilst different external pressures can be considered important in initiating reforms, it is mainly internal mechanisms, within the organization, that explain the reason why the initiatives fall. Earlier literature has argued that tides of reforms are driven by hope and optimism to be and to be seen as effective. The findings in this study show that also the solidarity rationale, i.e. the wish to do good for someone else, and the feeling of doing so, drives the reforms. It is moreover argued that the reforms are also driven by fear and other emotions. In general, the occurrence of tides of reforms can be understood by the tension between the two rationales in development aid: solidarity and effectiveness.

    The study contributes with insights to what happens within an organization and over a longer time perspective when public agencies are faced with conflicting demands. It provides a broader understanding of reasons behind the quest to report on results and also what happens when results are not reportable. Since new and similar reforms will most probably arise in the future, findings from this study ought to be interesting not only in development aid but in all public policy sectors, for any policy maker or practitioner involved in the implementation of such reforms.

  • Public defence: 2017-02-09 13:00 sal 14, hus 5, Kräftriket, Stockholm
    Robbestad Gylterud, Håkon
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics.
    Robbestad Gylterud, Håkon
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics.
    Univalent Types, Sets and Multisets: Investigations in dependent type theory2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of four papers on type theory and a formalisation of certain results from the two first papers in the Agda language. We cover topics such as models of multisets and sets in Homotopy Type Theory, and explore ideas of using type theory as a language for databases and different ways of expressing dependencies between terms. The two first papers build on work by Aczel 1978. We establish that the underlying type of Aczel’s model of set theory in type theory can be seen as a type of multisets from the perspective of Homotopy Type Theory, and we identify a suitable subtype which becomes a model of set theory in which equality of sets is the identity type. The third paper is joint work with Henrik Forssell and David I .Spivak and explores a certain model of type theory, consisting of simplicial complexes, from the perspective of database theory. In the fourth and final paper, we consider two approaches to unraveling the dependency structures between terms in dependent type theory, and formulate a few conjectures about how these two approaches relate.

  • Public defence: 2017-02-10 10:00 Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Stockholm
    Ilchenko, Nadia O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Ilchenko, Nadia O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Novel Applications of Benziodoxole Reagents in the Synthesis of Organofluorine Compounds2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis concerns method development of new synthetic routes by applying electrophilic hypervalent iodine reagents, such as trifluoromethyl-benziodoxole (Togni reagent) and fluoro-benziodoxole. The first project involved the addition of an oxygen moiety and trifluoromethyl group across double and triple bonds (both groups derived from the hypervalent iodine reagent). We observed that electron donating substituents on the aromatic ring of the substrate accelerated the oxytrifluoromethylation reaction. This transformation was further expanded to halo-trifluoromethylation reaction of a vinyl silane substrate. We also developed a copper mediated cyanotrifluoromethylation reaction, which was accelerated by PCy3 additive. This transformation allowed for the creation of two new C-C bonds in a single addition reaction. The direct C-H trifluoromethylation reaction of quinones was achived using the Togni-reagent in the presence of B2pin2 additive. The intriguing additive effects of both B2pin2 and PCy3 inspired us to examine the mechanism of these transformations.

    Fluoro-benziodoxole is the fluoroiodane analogue of the trifluoromethylating Togni reagent. We developed a AgBF4 mediated geminal difluorination of styrenes using this fluoroiodine reagent. In this process one fluorine atom came from the fluoroiodane, while the other fluorine was derived from the tetrafluoroborate ion. A similar approach was applied for the 1,3-oxyfluorination and difluorination of cyclopropanes. Similarly, this fluorinative ring opening of unactivated cyclopropanes involved the introduction of an electrophilic fluorine atom from the fluoroiodane reagent and a nucleophilic one from the tetrafluoroborate ion. This reaction was extended to synthesis of 1,3-oxyfluorinated products. When alkenes reacted with the fluoro-benziodoxole reagent in the presence of palladium catalyst the iodofluorination reaction occurred.  Both the iodine and fluorine atoms were derived from the fluoroiodane reagent. The iodofluorination reaction with disubstituted and cyclic alkenes proceeded with high regio- and stereoselectivity.

  • Public defence: 2017-02-10 10:00 Lilla Hörsalen, Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Stockholm
    Lagercrantz All, Katarina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lagercrantz All, Katarina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Delaktighet- och lärprocesser i en yrkesutbildning: En studie av vuxna elevers erfarenheter av vård- och omsorgsutbildningen inom Komvux2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous research on the development of knowledge and skills within health and social care has been undertaken; however, it can be argued that there is a need to understand the connection between inclusion and the development in knowledge and experience.  The purpose of this dissertation is to explore students’ experiences of the health and social care adult- education program, and participation and learning processes it represents.  The program is considered the formal route to acquire a position as a nursing assistant or health care assistant. Furthermore, the program can be seen as a combination of vocational training, and a measure to reduce unemployment.

    This empirical study is based on 15 in- depth interviews with students in the health and social care adult-education. These interviews are using a hermeneutic interpretation method, and draw on Lave and Wenger`s theory of learning. In addition to sociocultural theory according to Säljö.

    Findings indicate that the adult-education program in health and social care is not only a training process, but also a participation process. For the students, it is about gaining participation in the professional community, in Swedish society, and also about an existential safety in a social context. In order to gain participation, intellectual and physical artifacts, as well as personal qualities, are a prerequisite. Despite these requirements, and the challenges students face, the findings reveal that most students continue their studies. This finding leads to the idea that health and social care can be understood a discipline of inclusion.

    These findings assist the health and social care field in understanding the connection between said artifacts for inclusion in working life and society; in addition, that such programs should be understood from a wider perspective and viewed in relation to the tension between three educational projects: the students` individual project, the program organizer’s project and the national, societal education project.

  • Public defence: 2017-02-10 13:00 föreläsningssalen, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik, Stockholm
    Nilsson Folke, Jenny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Nilsson Folke, Jenny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Lived transitions: experiences of learning and inclusion among newly arrived students2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores how newly arrived students experience conditions for learning and inclusion in their lived transitions within the Swedish school system. The thesis deploys an ethnographic approach combining interviews with participant observation. The data comprise interviews with 22 students at three points in time and three cycles of participant observation over the course of 15 months (in three municipalities of different sizes).

    Deploying the concept of post-migration ecology, Study I maps the structural conditions that the educational landscape offers newly arrived students after migration to Sweden. The findings point to the emergence of a parallel school system through which the newly arrived students’ individual needs risk being overlooked. Study II uses a sociocultural perspective to compare the pedagogical and social resources offered in introductory and regular classes, concluding that introductory classes are characterised by weak challenges and strong support, whereas the opposite is true for regular classes. From a critical phenomenological perspective, Study III focuses on the individual students’ embodied experiences of being out of line in school (in a Swedish monolingual school setting). Paradoxically, the separate introductory class in this setting apparently offers a sense of inclusion, whereas the regular class is related to student experiences of exclusion. Study IV analyses temporal aspects of the students' lived transition to upper secondary school. Drawing on a phenomenology of blockage, it documents how extended periods in introductory programmes create a disjunction between the students' imagined and lived school careers. In brief, through analyses that encompass organisational and structural conditions, as well as lived experience, this thesis shows that the lived transitions of newly arrived students can be understood as instances of parallel school lives, a discontinued past and a postponed future.  

  • Public defence: 2017-02-10 13:00 De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Palmtag, Juri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Palmtag, Juri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Landscape partitioning and burial processes of soil organic carbon in contrasting areas of continuous permafrost2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies have shown that permafrost soils in the northern circumpolar region store almost twice as much carbon as the atmosphere. Since soil organic carbon (SOC) pools have large regional and landscape-level variability, detailed SOC inventories from across the northern permafrost region are needed to assess potential remobilization of SOC with permafrost degradation and to quantify the permafrost carbon-climate feedback on global warming.

    This thesis provides high-resolution data on SOC storage in five study areas located in undersampled regions of the continuous permafrost zone (Zackenberg in NE Greenland; Shalaurovo and Cherskiy in NE Siberia; Ary-Mas and Logata in Taymyr Peninsula). The emphasis throughout the five different study areas is put on SOC partitioning within the landscape and soil horizon levels as well as on soil forming processes under periglacial conditions. Our results indicate large differences in mean SOC 0–100 cm storage among study areas, ranging from 4.8 to 30.0 kg C m-2, highlighting the need to consider numerous factors as topography, geomorphology, land cover, soil texture, soil moisture, etc. in the assessment of landscape-level and regional SOC stock estimates.

    In the high arctic mountainous area of Zackenberg, the mean SOC storage is low due to the high proportion of bare grounds. The geomorphology based upscaling resulted in a c. 40% lower estimate compared to a land cover based upscaling (4.8 vs 8.3 kg C m-2, respectively). A landform approach provides a better tool for identifying hotspots of SOC burial in the landscape, which in this area corresponds to alluvial fan deposits in the foothills of the mountains. SOC burial by cryoturbation was much more limited and largely restricted to soils in the lower central valley. In the lowland permafrost study areas of Russia the mean SOC 0–100 cm storage ranged from 14.8 to 30.0 kg C m-2. Cryoturbation is the main burial process of SOC, storing on average c. 30% of the total landscape SOC 0–100 cm in deeper C-enriched pockets in all study areas. In Taymyr Peninsula, the mean SOC storage between the Ary-Mas and Logata study areas differed by c. 40% (14.8 vs 20.8 kg C m-2, respectively). We ascribe this mainly to the finer soil texture in the latter study area. Grain size analyses show that cryoturbation is most prominent in silt loam soils with high coarse silt to very fine sand fractions. However, in profiles and samples not affected by C-enrichment, C concentrations and densities were higher in silt loam soils with higher clay to medium silt fractions.

  • Public defence: 2017-02-10 14:00 Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Stockholm
    Uziela, Karolis
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Uziela, Karolis
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Protein Model Quality Assessment: A Machine Learning Approach2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many protein structure prediction programs exist and they can efficiently generate a number of protein models of a varying quality. One of the problems is that it is difficult to know which model is the best one for a given target sequence. Selecting the best model is one of the major tasks of Model Quality Assessment Programs (MQAPs). These programs are able to predict model accuracy before the native structure is determined. The accuracy estimation can be divided into two parts: global (the whole model accuracy) and local (the accuracy of each residue). ProQ2 is one of the most successful MQAPs for prediction of both local and global model accuracy and is based on a Machine Learning approach.

    In this thesis, I present my own contribution to Model Quality Assessment (MQA) and the newest developments of ProQ program series. Firstly, I describe a new ProQ2 implementation in the protein modelling software package Rosetta. This new implementation allows use of ProQ2 as a scoring function for conformational sampling inside Rosetta, which was not possible before. Moreover, I present two new methods, ProQ3 and ProQ3D that both outperform their predecessor. ProQ3 introduces new training features that are calculated from Rosetta energy functions and ProQ3D introduces a new machine learning approach based on deep learning. ProQ3 program participated in the 12th Community Wide Experiment on the Critical Assessment of Techniques for Protein Structure Prediction (CASP12) and was one of the best methods in the MQA category. Finally, an important issue in model quality assessment is how to select a target function that the predictor is trying to learn. In the fourth manuscript, I show that MQA results can be improved by selecting a contact-based target function instead of more conventional superposition based functions.

  • Public defence: 2017-02-14 13:00 Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Molla, Kiflu Gedefe
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Molla, Kiflu Gedefe
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Essays in International trade, exchange rates and prices2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of three self-contained essays in International Trade, Exchange Rates and Prices. Although independent, these essays share some common themes. The first two papers can be related to the vast literature on exchange rate pass-through to prices. While the first paper uses firm-product level data from Sweden to study firms’ export price response to movements in exchange rate, the second paper employs aggregate level data from Ethiopia and looks at the issue from the importers’ perspective. The third paper, like the first paper, uses Swedish firm-level data and investigates firms’ exporting behavior. The third paper, however, specifically focuses on export margins of multi-product firms and studies their response when exporting to destinations of different size and distance from the home country.