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  • Public defence: 2017-09-20 10:00 De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Yeshanew, Fitsum Girum
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences. Swedish Museum of Natural History.
    Crustal evolution of the Arabian–Nubian Shield: Insights from zircon geochronology and Nd–Hf–O isotopes2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Arabian–Nubian Shield (ANS) represents a major site of juvenile Neoproterozoic crustal addition on Earth and documents Neoproterozoic tectonics bracketed by two supercontinent cycles, namely the fragmentation of Rodinia and the amalgamation of Gondwana. There is general consensus that the ANS formed by juvenile magmatic arc accretion and subsequent shield–wide post–tectonic magmatism. However, detailed understanding about the timing of events and the nature of magma sources in parts of the shield are lacking. To date, there are no isotopic data from the Paleozoic sedimentary sequences of the ANS, except those from the northern part. New zircon U–Pb, δ18O and whole–rock Nd isotopes are presented for plutonic rocks from the eastern Ethiopia, Yemen and southernmost Arabian Shield in Saudi Arabia. This thesis also presents the first combined in situ zircon U–Pb–O–Hf isotope data on the Cambrian–Ordovician sandstones of the Arabian Shield. The results are used to elucidate the crustal evolution of these parts of the ANS and to evaluate terrane correlations. Specifically, the nature of crustal growth, i.e., relative proportions of juvenile magmatic additions vs. crustal reworking, nature of the magma source and mechanism of crust formation (plume material vs. subduction zone enrichment) and understanding the provenance of the Cambrian–Ordovician sandstone sequences were important research questions addressed.

    The results from Paper I suggest that the eastern Ethiopian Precambrian basement is dominated by reworking of pre-Neoproterozoic supracrustal material unlike contemporaneous rocks in the remaining parts of Ethiopia— indicating the presence of two distinct lithospheric blocks of contrasting isotopic compositions in Ethiopia. Metamorphic age distributions suggest that the eastern Ethiopian block was amalgamated with the juvenile Western Ethiopian Shield during ca. 580–550 Ma. Importantly, the suture between them may represent the northern continuation of a major suture identified further south in Africa along which Gondwana amalgamated. Similarly, the Abas terrane in Yemen (Paper II) is dominated by reworking of pre–Neoproterozoic crust and shows age and isotopic compositions that are inconsistent with the Afif terrane of Saudi Arabia, precluding correlation between the two regions. The trace element systematics of plutonic rocks from the southernmost Arabian Shield (paper III) point to enrichment due to subduction component, bear no evidence of a plume component, and are consistent with the adakite-like chemistry of some of the subduction–related plutonic samples. This reinforces the notion that the shield grew through juvenile magmatic arc additions. The combined zircon U–Pb–O–Hf data of the Cambrian–Ordovician sandstones (Paper IV) indicate their derivation from both the adjacent juvenile ANS and the more southerly crustal blocks that are dominated by reworking of pre–Neoproterozoic crust. The remarkable similarity in age spectra and homogeneity of Cambrian sandstones deposited across the northern margin of Gondwana point to continental–scale sediment mixing and dispersal regulated by the supercontinent cycle.

  • Public defence: 2017-09-20 10:00 Vivi Täckholmsalen (Q-salen), NPQ-huset, Stockholm
    Lackmann, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Nucleolar Ribosome Assembly2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ribosomes are macromolecular machines that are responsible for production of every protein in a living cell. Yet we do not know the details about how these machines are formed. The ribosome consists of four RNA strands and roughly 80 proteins that associate with each other in the nucleolus and form pre-ribosomal complexes. Eukaryotes, in contrast to prokaryotes, need more than 200 non-ribosomal factors to assemble ribosomes. These associate with pre-ribosomal complexes at different stages as they travel from the nucleolus to the cytoplasm and are required for pre-rRNA processing. We do however lack knowledge about the molecular function of most of these factors and what enables pre-rRNA processing. Especially, information is missing about how non-ribosomal factors influence folding of the pre-rRNA and to what extent the pre-ribosomal complexes are restructured during their maturation. 

    This thesis aims to obtain a better understanding of the earliest events of ribosome assembly, namely those that take place in the nucleolus. This has been achieved by studying the essential protein Mrd1 by mutational analysis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as well as by obtaining structural information of nucleolar pre-ribosomal complexes. Mrd1 has a modular structure consisting of multiple RNA binding domains (RBDs) that we find is conserved throughout eukarya. We show that an evolutionary conserved linker region of Mrd1 is crucial for function of the protein and likely forms an essential module together with adjacent RBDs. By obtaining structural information of pre-ribosomal complexes at different stages, we elucidate what structuring events occur in the nucleolus.  We uncover a direct role of Mrd1 in structuring the pre-rRNA in early pre-ribosomal complexes, which provides an explanation for why pre-rRNA cannot be processed in Mrd1 mutants.

  • Public defence: 2017-09-22 10:00 Auditorium 215, Humanistvillan, Stockholm
    Cavallin, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Culture and Aesthetics.
    Hushållspolitik: Konsumtion, kön och uppfostran i August Strindbergs Giftas2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this doctoral thesis is to read August Strindberg’s Giftas in relation to two strands: conduct books on one hand and consumer culture on the other, and to analyse representations of the presence of didactic, disciplinary subject positions as well as the presence of consumer culture, in relation to gender and exercise of power.

    In the thesis the concepts of consumption/consumerism, including transaction and exposition, are introduced and analysed, as well as the discussion around the status of marriage, and the debate about gender differences and power relations at the time of the publication of Giftas. The analyses explore how, in the short stories, as well as in the prefaces of Giftas, discourses on the debate about marriage, the ”woman question”, consumer culture and conduct books are represented, discussed and displayed.

    Conceptions of voice, space, and playing with the genre and tone of the conduct books is present in the analyses. The study also centres on homosociality versus heterosociality, and the concept of the heterosexual matrix, and examines how consumerism could take the form both of asceticism, and of sexualised violence. The city as a ‘room’ for consumer culture is exposed; the suspicious figure of the bachelor is pitted against the husband and the father. The concepts of transaction, exposition and transformation in the contexts of consumer culture are discussed, and how these concepts are centred around questions of advertising and consumption of goods as well as human relationships, and how power structures defining the experiences of love in the consumer society, is an effect of a capitalist system based on an economy of credits. The discourses of consumer culture and education, in relation to power structures, are represented in the analyses, as well as the discourse on the position of the educator, in relationship to an overarching critique against the national educational system put forward by Strindberg in his stories. The conflict around taking a didactic position is central in Giftas. The diverse didactic positions taken up by women is put into question and found problematic; and this is one point where Strindberg toys with – and is polemic against – the conduct book-genre. Another main theme in the thesis is the silencing of the speaker’s voice, how differently this turns out for the male protagonist and the female. The question of how to ”do gender in the right way” is also recurring throughout as centre of interest in Strindberg’s stories, how the protagonists perform their expected gender roles in ”the wrong way”,

    This study examines the relationships between, on one hand, the genre of the conduct books, the manuals of manners, in August Strindberg’s two short story collections Giftas, and on the other, how this presence of didactic discourse intersects with discourses of consumer culture in various forms. In this study, I show a strong presence of both these kinds of discourse, presented in various ways throughout the stories. I have exposed how Strindberg both relates to – and plays with – the genre of ”manuals of manners” in the two collections of short stories examined, and how it is mobilised in an interplay with the discourses on consumerism, which are equally prevalent in the stories.

  • Public defence: 2017-09-22 10:00 David Magnussonsalen (U31), Stockholm
    Öhrstedt, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Högskolestudenters lärande: Ett lärstrategiskt perspektiv på studier i psykologi2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    University students’ approaches to learning influence academic achievement and qualities in learning outcomes. Approaches to learning develop in a process where student factors interact with factors of the learning context. Students’ subjective perceptions of their learning environment seem to be crucial.

    This thesis draws on an established research stand in aiming to contribute to a deeper understanding of how students adapt their approaches to learning to perceived contextual factors in a specific learning context. In three studies, conceptions for development and variation of approaches to learning among psychology students at a Swedish university are examined.

    Study I examined how approaches to learning vary with expected and final course grades, and student abilities to predict academic achievement (N = 189). Overall, students had low self-assessment skills, with students adopting surface approach to learning having the poorest skills. Students adopting a strategic approach to learning achieved high grades, while students adopting a surface approach to learning had poorer performances. Students adopting a deep approach to learning expected high grades but the exam did not favour a deep approach.

    Study II aimed at describing similarities in factors that psychology students themselves, despite them adopting different approaches to learning, considered influenced their studying activities. A selective student sample described their studying activities in repeated interviews (N = 11, N = 7). The development of approaches to learning was described as a negotiation where different aspects of learning were related to each other. The students described a common set of reference points: 1) previous studying activities, 2) course recommendations, 3) learning outcomes, 4) assessment demands, and 5) estimated effort. Despite great variation in students’ tendencies to adapt approaches to learning, the adaption process resulted in a gradual homogenization of studying activities.

    Study III examined whether minor variations in parallel learning contexts would give rise to differences in students’ regulation of approaches to learning and whether tendencies to vary differed between students with different approaches to learning (N = 195). All approaches to learning varied between learning contexts, but the strategic approach to learning varied less than surface and deep approaches. Students with a low surface, a high deep or a high strategic approach to learning varied most, while students with a high surface, a low deep or a low strategic approach to learning were more stable.

    The results show that approaches to learning among psychology students seem to develop in a process of negotiation where different aspects of learning are interrelated. For strategic reasons, examinations seem to drive students towards a surface approach to learning. Students’ shared interpretations of factors of the learning context seem to result in a gradual homogenisation of studying activities, despite different students showing different tendencies to adapt their approaches to learning to a specific learning context. A strategic approach seems optimal for academic achievement. In summary, this thesis shows how fine-grained studies can contribute to a deeper understanding of the context specific development of students’ approaches to learning.

  • Public defence: 2017-09-22 13:00 Gröjersalen, hus 3, Kräftriket, Stockholm
    Thomson, Kerstin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Styrning och samhällsvärde: en studie med exempel från museivärlden2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In light of growing criticism towards New Public Management and its effects, interest has been directed at alternative management control concepts in the public sector. Whether Public Value Management is an alternative, possibly even a new paradigm, is being discussed on the research front. New Public Management and Public Value Management have evolved in parallel during the past decades. However, New Public Management has had greater impact, not least in governments’ control of state agencies.

    The aim of the thesis is to gain an understanding of how ideas about the creation of public value diverge between New Public Management and Public Value Management. Beyond the research question of whether management control meets the demands of efficiency and customer-orientation as addressed in previous studies on reforms influenced by New Public Management, this thesis deals with the issue of creating value for the benefit of society. In a qualitative approach, the research is based on interpretations of documents, observations and interviews with examples from state agencies in the museum sector.

    The result of the study shows that differences between New Public Management and Public Value Management are expressed in notions of accountability, results and proficiency. The time perspective differs, as do the means of financing and involvement of stakeholders. Reforms in line with Public Value Management call for the involvement or consideration of a larger circle of stakeholders, including future generations.

    The findings of the thesis suggest that the diverging perceptions of value creation does not rule out that elements from both concepts can be combined and complement each other. The main issue is to take into account the contribution made to public value, considering whether the mandate is a long-term government assignment in line with Public Value Management or if it involves activities well suited to New Public Management with prerequisites for market orientation. The dissertation contributes to research in the field of management control in the public sector and the issue of public value.

  • Public defence: 2017-09-22 13:00 sal 14, hus 5, Kräftriket, Stockholm
    Börjeson, Kaj
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics.
    Free loop spaces, Koszul duality and A-infinity algebras2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of four papers on the topics of free loop spaces, Koszul duality and A-algebras. 

    In Paper I we consider a definition of differential operators for noncommutative algebras. This definition is inspired by the connections between differential operators of commutative algebras, L-algebras and BV-algebras. We show that the definition is reasonable by establishing results that are analoguous to results in the commutative case. As a by-product of this definition we also obtain definitions for noncommutative versions of Gerstenhaber and BV-algebras. 

    In Paper II we calculate the free loop space homology of (n-1)-connected manifolds of dimension of at least 3n-2. The Chas-Sullivan loop product and the loop bracket are calculated. Over a field of characteristic zero the BV-operator is determined as well. Explicit expressions for the Betti numbers are also established, showing that they grow exponentially. 

    In Paper III we restrict our coefficients to a field of characteristic 2. We study the Dyer-Lashof operations that exist on free loop space homology in this case. Explicit calculations are carried out for manifolds that are connected sums of products of spheres. 

    In Paper IV we extend the Koszul duality methods used in Paper II by incorporating A-algebras and A-coalgebras. This extension of Koszul duality enables us to compute free loop space homology of manifolds that are not necessarily formal and coformal. As an example we carry out the computations for a non-formal simply connected 7-manifold. 

  • Public defence: 2017-09-22 13:00 Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Palm, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    There is power in a union: Trade union organization, union membership and union activity in Sweden2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates what factors affect union organization and, to some degree, union activity in the face of declining union density in the majority of Western countries. Union structures have been changing in recent decades, not only in terms of declining membership but also because women and white-collar workers are becoming a more stable part of the membership base, whereas previously highly organized groups, such as blue-collar workers, are in decline. The point of departure for this thesis is that union density changes must be understood on several different levels. Thus, we must investigate changing union density in light of changing institutional settings, changing labour market structures and changing norms and values on the individual level. The thesis consists of three empirical studies investigating union density changes and union activity in Sweden, and an introductory chapter that develops the theoretical and empirical (historical) background. The empirical studies investigate: (1) whether and how the influence of various aspects of class and ideology on union organization have changed over time, (2) the effect of structural change on union density increase and decline, and(3) what factors influence different attitudes towards industrial action among Swedish employees. Results show that union density decline in Sweden since the mid-1990s cannot be explained by any forceful shifts in the labour market structure or individuals’ opinions and/or attitudes related to trade unions to any significant degree. Union density decline in Sweden is of a general nature. However, an increasing divergence in union density across various categories of employees, including, e.g., private-sector vs. public-sector employees, young vs. older employees, employees of foreign origin vs. employees of Swedish origin, and the atypically employed vs. employees with standardized employment, is observed. Moreover, previously strong predictors of union membership, including class identity, ideology, sector of employment and type of employment contract, are in decline, but they still influence union organization and attitudes towards industrial action.

  • Public defence: 2017-09-23 13:00 aulan, hus 4, Kräftriket, Stockholm
    Walldoff, Amanda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Asian, Middle Eastern and Turkish Studies.
    Arabic in Home Language Instruction: Language Acquisition in a Fuzzy Linguistic Situation2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the command 8th-graders in Arabic home language instruction have of written Modern Standard Arabic and if the type of instruction they have received and/or contact with written Arabic affect their performance. Background chapters discuss variables connected to the Arabic language (diglossia, research on reading and writing in Arabic) and variables connected to HLI in Sweden (set-up, steering documents). 

    The testing material consisted of a translation test from Swedish to Arabic combined with a questionnaire that addressed various factors of relevance to language acquisition. 

    The translations were analysed on three levels: (1) handwriting, (2) spelling and (3) morphosyntax. The main result of the analysis was that the participants were highly heterogeneous: some participants produced incomplete translations in handwriting that was barely legible, whereas others had good results for all measures. Many of the participants relied on a phonological strategy for spelling. For example, even short, high-frequency words such as personal pronouns and prepositions had not been spelled correctly. 

    The results for handwriting, spelling and morphosyntax were checked against the variables (1) years of HLI, (2) extra instruction in Arabic outside of HLI and (3) contact with written Arabic in the free time. The results for the effect of participation in HLI were inconclusive. However, many, but not all, of the participants with good results on the translation test had received extra instruction in Arabic, either in Sweden or prior to coming to Sweden. Reading Arabic in the free time was not in all cases connected to good results, but not reading Arabic in the free time was in most cases connected to a low command of written Arabic. Regarding these results, it is suggested that additional factors (motivation, support from the family, etc.) could be at play. 

    Previous research has addressed the question of heterogeneity in HLI classes. The findings of this thesis illustrate how great the heterogeneity can in fact be, and thus have implications for the set-up of Arabic HLI in Sweden.

  • Public defence: 2017-09-27 10:00 Vivi Täckholmsalen (Q-salen), NPQ-huset, Stockholm
    Sollazzo, Alice
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute. Stockholms University.
    Cellular responses to combined irradiation with alpha particles and X-rays2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mixed radiation fields, where different ionizing particles act together, are very important in radiobiology and in radiation protection. Mixed beams are not only the most common form of radiation exposure, but the prediction of their biological effect is also full of uncertainties. Currently, prediction of the biological damage of exposure to mixed radiation fields is based on the default assumption of simple additivity between the effects of all the radiation in the field. This assumption has been proven to be incorrect. Indeed, the simultaneous effect of different radiation qualities has been shown to be greater than additive, namely synergistic. This implicates that, for instance, the predicted cancer risk for astronauts, that remain a prolonged time in space, is currently underestimated as well as the risk of developing secondary cancer for radiotherapy patients.

    This thesis aims at understanding the mechanisms behind the cellular response to simultaneous exposure to alpha particles and X-rays (that is referred as mixed beam).

    Paper I describes the cell killing and the mutagenic effect of mixed beam exposure in human lymphoblastoid wild type and in cells with impaired capacity to repair oxidative DNA damage .We found that oxidative DNA damage plays an important role in the lethal, synergistic effect of mixed beams.

    Paper II and III investigates whether mixed beams exposure leads to an augmented DNA double strand breaks (DSB) induction or to an altered response of the cellular DSB repair machinery. We found that mixed irradiation resulted in synergistic induction of DSB, and that those lesions were repaired with slow kinetics.

    Paper IV focuses on the effect of mixed beams at the level of DNA damage in normal cells. Induction and repair of DNA lesions such as DSB, single strand breaks and apurinic sites was quantified using the alkaline comet assay. We found that alpha particles and X-rays interacted in inducing DNA damage. Moreover, although mixed beam exposure resulted in strong activation of the DNA damage response, it resulted in delayed repair.

    Although more research is needed to fully elucidate the mechanisms behind the detected synergistic effects, our results strongly suggest that an overwhelmed DNA-repair system causes delay in repair of damage.

  • Public defence: 2017-09-28 13:00 De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Karlander, David
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism.
    Authentic Language: Övdalsk, metapragmatic exchange and the margins of Sweden’s linguistic market2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This compilation thesis engages with practices that in some way place stakes in the social existence of Övdalsk (also älvdalska, Elfdalian, Övdalian), a marginal form of Scandinavian used mainly in Sweden’s Älvdalen municipality. The practices at hand range from early 20th century descriptive dialectology and contemporary lay-linguistics to language advocacy and language political debate. The four studies focus on the logic by which such practices operate, on the historically produced visions that they bring into play, as well as on the symbolic effects that they have produced. Study I provides a zoomed-out account of the ordering of Övdalsk in Sweden’s linguistic market. Focusing on a relatively recent debate over the institutional regimentation of Övdalsk, it analyses the forms of agreement upon which the exchange in question has come to rest. The contention has mainly developed over the classification of Övdalsk, percolating in the question of whether Övdalsk ‘is’ a ‘language’ or a ‘dialect’. Analysing this debate, the study takes interest in the relationship between state power and metapragmatic exchange. Study II deals with the history of linguistic thought and research on Övdalsk. It analyses the genesis of some durable visions of the relationship between Övdalsk and linguistic authenticity, focusing on the research practice of the Swedish dialectologist Lars Levander (1883–1950), whose work on Övdalsk commands representative authority to this day. By engaging with Levander’s techniques of scholarly objectivation, as well as with their language theoretical fundaments, the study seeks to create some perspectives on, and distance to, the canonical representations of Övdalsk that have precipitated from Levander’s research. Study III looks into the reuse and reordering of such representations. It provides an ethnographic account of a metapragmatically saturated exchange over Övdalsk grammar, in which descriptivist artefacts play an important part. Through an analysis of texts, in situ interaction, and interviews, the study seeks to grasp the ways in which textual renditions of grammar interrelate with practically sustained, socially recognized models of language and language use (i.e. registers). Study IV tracks the ways in which such visions of authenticity have been drawn into institutionally and politically invested metapragmatic exchanges. It looks into a process of naming of roads in Älvdalen, in which ideas about the contrast between Swedish and Övdalsk played a central part. In all studies, various visions of Övdalsk authenticity and authentic Övdalsk constitute a central theme. The thesis maintains that such visions must be understood in relation to the practices in which they hold currency. Following Silverstein, this epistemological stance entails an engagement with the dialectic between historical formations and situated exchange. Through this analytical orientation, the studies seek to account for the visions of authenticity that have been at the forefront of various symbolic struggles over Övdalsk. Thus, in addition to their respective analytical accounts, the separate studies seek to add shifting temporal horizons to the superordinate heuristic, combining a deep historical backdrop with accounts of protracted institutional processes and analyses of situated linguistic interaction. Ultimately, this mode of analysis provides an in-depth understanding of the object of inquiry.

  • Public defence: 2017-09-29 10:00 Vivi Täckholmsalen (Q-salen), NPQ-huset, Stockholm
    Haider, L. Jamila
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Development and Resilience: Re-thinking poverty and intervention in biocultural landscapes2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The practices related to the growing, harvesting, preparation, and celebration of food over millennia have given rise to diverse biocultural landscapes the world over. These landscapes – rich in biological and cultural diversity – are often characterised by persistent poverty, and, as such, are often the target of development interventions. Yet a lack of understanding of the interdependencies between human well-being, nature, and culture in these landscapes means that such interventions are often unsuccessful - and can even have adverse effects, exacerbating the poverty they were designed to address. This thesis investigates different conceptualisations of persistent poverty in rural biocultural landscapes, the consequences of these conceptualisations, and the ways in which development interventions can benefit from, rather than erode, biocultural diversity.

    The thesis first reviews conceptualisations of persistent poverty and specifically, the notion of a poverty trap (Paper I), and examines the consequences of different conceptualisations of traps for efforts to alleviate poverty (Paper II). Paper I argues that the trap concept can be usefully broadened beyond a dominant development economics perspective to incorporate critical interdependencies between humans and nature. Paper II uses multi-dimensional dynamical systems models to show how nature and culture can be impacted by different development interventions, and, in turn, how the degradation of both can undermine the effectiveness of conventional poverty alleviation strategies in certain contexts.

    In the second section, the thesis focuses on the effects of, and responses to, trap-like situations and development interventions in a specific context of high biocultural diversity: the Pamir Mountains of Tajikistan. Paper III advances a typology of responses to traps based around the mismatch of desires, abilities and opportunities. Observing daily practice provides a way to study social-ecological relationships as a dynamic process, as practices can embody traditional and tacit knowledge in a holistic way.  Paper IV examines the diverse effects of a development intervention on the coevolution of biocultural landscapes and the ways in which everyday practice – particularly around food – can be a source of both innovation and resilience.

    Papers I-IV together combine insights from diverse disciplines and methodologies, from systematic review to dynamic systems thinking and participant observation. Paper V provides a critical analysis of the opportunities and challenges involved in pursuing such an approach in sustainability science, underscoring the need to balance methodological groundedness with epistemological agility.

    Overall, the thesis contributes to understanding resilience and development, highlighting the value of viewing their interrelation as a dynamic, coevolving process. From this perspective, development should not be regarded as a normative endpoint to be achieved, but rather as a coevolving process between constantly changing ecological and social contexts. The thesis proposes that resilience can be interpreted as the active and passive filtering of practices via the constant discarding and retention of old and new, social and ecological, and endogenous and exogenous factors. This interpretation deepens understanding of resilience as the capacity to persist, adapt and transform, and ultimately shape new development pathways. The thesis also illustrates how daily practices, such as the growing, harvesting, and preparation of food, offer a powerful heuristic device for understanding this filtering process, and therefore the on-going impact of development interventions in rural landscapes across the world.

  • Public defence: 2017-09-29 13:00 föreläsningssalen, hörsalen i gamla Botan, Stockholm
    Nilsson, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Brukade bilder: Södra Skandinaviens hällristningar ur ett historiebruksperspektiv2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The timeframe of the south Scandinavian rock art tradition extends from c.1700/1600 to 300 /200 BC. The chronological boundaries of the rock art phenomenon thereby coincide roughly with the timeframe of the Nordic Bronze Age, and rock art figures have come to be understood and interpreted as a Bronze Age phenomenon. It is argued that a dominant Bronze Age narrative has come to direct the discourse and fieldwork alike towards a focus on the origin , rather than the use, of rock art. The rock carver’s intention with the image, explicitly or implicitly, has come to equate with its meaning. The aim of the thesis is to approach rock art figures from a different perspective, with the aim of understanding how south Scandinavian rock art has been used and interpreted over time. The question of what archaeological evidence the use of rock art may have left behind is taken up, and the archaeological excavations carried out at rock art sites in southern Scandinavia​ are summarized and discussed. The survey shows that finds and features date to some extent from the Bronze Age, yet most of the dateable evidence comes from periods after the tradition of creating new images had ended, especially the Early Iron Age. This phenomenon is of particular interest given the explicit uses of the past-perspective of the thesis. It is argued that some of the rock art sites were still being used during later prehistoric periods. Other examples of later period´s uses of rock art sites are presented and discussed, such as runic inscriptions on rock art panels as well as the use of rock art and cup-mark sites during historic times. ​

    A study of the chronological development of the rock art tradition in the Himmelstalund-region in the county of Östergötland is also presented, based on recently developed ship chronologies of rock art. The study shows that the earliest ship figures, which are found in the Himmelstalund area, were probably made in the Bronze Age period I/II. Yet the majority of the dateable ship figures date from the Bronze Age period II–III, after which the number of dateable ships declines in period IV, a development becoming even more prominent in period V-VI. 

    Another theme discussed in the thesis is archaeology’s own uses of rock art and how this has affected the interpretations of the material. The thesis shows it is feasible to combine a discussion on the prehistoric use of rock art sites and images with a critical view of interactions between archaeological and antiquarian practice and the source material. It has also shown the potential for a broadened discussion, where we regard the use of rock art, during the Bronze Age as well as during later periods, as integral and essential to rock art research​.

  • Public defence: 2017-09-29 13:00 De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Pietroń, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Sediment transport from source to sink in the Lake Baikal basin: Impacts of hydroclimatic change and mining2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Different magnitude, intensity and timing of precipitation can impact runoff, hillslope erosion and transport of sediment along river channels.  Human activities, such as dam construction and surface mining can also considerably influence transport of sediment and sediment-bound contaminants. Many river basins of the world are currently subject to changes in climate at the same time as pressures from other human activities increase. However, because there are often complex interactions between such multiple drivers of change, it is challenging to understand and quantify contributions of individual drivers, which is needed in predictive modelling of future sediment and contaminant flows. This thesis considers sediment transport in the Lake Baikal basin, which is hydrologically dominated by the transboundary Selenga River of Russia and Mongolia. The Selenga River basin is, for instance, subject to climate change and increasing pressures from mining, but process complexity is reduced by the fact that the river basin is one of few large basins in the world that still is essentially undammed and unregulated. A combination of field measurement campaigns and modelling methods are used in this thesis, with the aim to: (i) identify historical hydroclimatic trends and their possible causes, (ii) analyse the spatial variability of riverine sediment loading in the mining affected areas, and (iii) investigate sediment transport and storage processes within river channels and in river deltas. Results show that, during the period 1938-2009, the annual maximum daily flow in the Selenga River basin has decreased, as well as the annual number of high flow events, whereas the annual minimum daily flow has increased. These changes in discharge characteristics are consistent with expected impacts of basin-scale permafrost thaw. Both field observations and modelling results show that changes in magnitude and number of high-flow events can considerably influence the transport of bed sediment. In addition, the average discharge has decreased in the past 20 years due to an extended drought. Under conditions of low flow, metal-enriched sediment from mining areas was observed to dominate the river water. If discharge will continue to decrease in the Selenga River (or other mining-impacted rivers of the world), further increases in riverine metal concentrations may hence be one of the consequences. Furthermore, under current conditions of extended drought, less sediment may have been distributed over the floodplain wetlands in the Selenga River delta. Present estimates, however, show that sediment can still be transported to, and deposited within, the banks and water bodies located in the backwater zone of the Selenga River delta. This can aid bank and levee stabilization, support the development of wetlands and foster net sedimentation.​

  • Public defence: 2017-10-03 14:30 hörsal 11, hus F, Stockholm
    Becker, Christine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Slavic and Baltic Studies, Finnish, Dutch, and German.
    Kulturbezogenes Lernen in asynchroner computervermittelter Kommunikation: Eine empirische Untersuchung von Online-Diskussionen im universitären Landeskundeunterricht2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The omnipresence of digital media in all parts of our daily life raises the question of how it can contribute to language learning. This research project focuses on the potential of asynchronous computer-mediated communication for cultural learning in the context of language learning. The study was conducted in the seminar on Landeskunde at Stockholm University which integrates language learning and content learning about the ‘culture’ of German-speaking countries. The concept of cultural learning that underlies this seminar rests upon a knowledge-based concept of culture: Language learners are supposed to acquire parts of the explicit and implicit knowledge that is shared by the speakers of the target language. In the context of language learning, asynchronous computer-mediated communication is mainly used for two reasons. First, it allows learners to reflect to a greater extent on the content and the language of their written contributions (in comparison to face-to-face-discussions). Second, it facilitates interaction between the learners which can result in the co-construction of knowledge. As there are no studies on cultural learning in asynchronous computer-mediated communication, this qualitative research is exploratory. The data consists of the written contributions in a discussion forum. Furthermore, students who participated in the discussions were interviewed about their experiences during the course. By describing features of the online-discussions (e.g. length of the written contributions) and factors that influence the activity of the students (e.g. task, teacher role, teaching context), the first part of the analysis constitutes the background for the second part of the analysis and shows that computer-mediated communication is a meaningful tool for content and language integrated learning because it supports language and content leaning. Different modes of task processing are identified in the second part of the analysis: Summary of facts, Reflection about terms and interpretations, Present-day relevance, Change of perspective and Narrative practices. Those modes are analysed with regard to their potential for cultural learning in asynchronous computer-mediated communication. The analysis shows that all modes have a potential for cultural learning but only contributions which contain Reflection about terms and interpretations and those which identify the Present-day relevance of historical events lead to interaction between the students. In summary, this study identifies factors that influence students’ actions in an asynchronous online discussion forum and the potential of their practices for cultural learning.

  • Public defence: 2017-10-04 13:00 sal FP41, hus 1, AlbaNova universitetscentrum, Stockholm
    Shcherbakova, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. anna.shcherbakova@cern.ch.
    Calibration of b-tagging and search for Dark Matter: Calibration of b-tagging efficiency and search for Dark Matter production in association with heavy flavour quarks with the ATLAS experiment2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the most powerful and complex particle accelerator ever built. The ATLAS and the CMS are the two multipurpose particle detectors at the LHC, designed to cover a wide range of physics measurements. Three physics studies performed using data of proton-proton collisions collected with the ATLAS detector are presented.

    The identification of jets originating from b quarks, also known as b-tagging, is a crucial tool for many physics analyses at the LHC. This thesis presents a calibration of the b-tagging efficiency for high transverse momentum jets using a new calibration technique. This analysis is based on template fits and uses multi-jet events, which allows to perform the calibration for jets with transverse momenta up to 1200 GeV. This thesis also describes a completed and connected technical project on the development of the b-tagging ATLAS software.

    Dark Matter (DM) is a new phenomenon introduced to explain astrophysical observations. The nature of DM is one of the most important subjects of investigations in the modern physics, and many of these investigations are carried out at the LHC. A search for DM production in association with a pair of heavy flavour quarks has been recently performed in ATLAS at a centre-of-mass energy √s = 8 TeV under the Effective Field Theory approach. A re-interpretation of the results of this search under assumption of the simplified models is presented. A set of simplified models is considered with various DM masses, masses of the spin-0 exchange particle, that mediates the interaction between DM and the regular matter, and various values of couplings. Benchmark models are chosen to be used in the DM searches at √s = 13 TeV.

    The last part of the thesis presents a search for DM production in association with a pair of top quarks performed under assumption of the simplified models with spin-0 mediator, using the data collected at a centre-of-mass energy √s = 13 TeV. The observed data are shown to be in good agreement with the Standard Model predictions, and upper limits are set on a ratio between the observed DM production cross section and the value expected by the simplified model.

  • Public defence: 2017-10-05 10:00 föreläsningssalen, Stockholm
    Kyaga, Ulrika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    Swedish Fashion 1930–1960: Rethinking the Swedish Textile and Clothing Industry2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to explore the development of Swedish fashion between 1930 and 1960 by examining the textile and clothing industry from the wider perspective of fashion production. It was during this period that Sweden was transformed into a leading industrial nation, which laid the foundation for increased prosperity in the post-war period. This historical and empirical study is predominantly based on systematic analysis of Swedish official statistics and close reading of the fashion press. The thesis applies a combination of approaches in the analytical chapters (chapter 2–4) that include three central aspects of fashion production: manufacturing, symbolic production, and the production of a national fashion. 

    Chapter 2 gives an account of the industrial production of clothing and examines the scope, size and structure of the textile and clothing industry. The results confirm its importance to the Swedish economy in the period. One important finding shows that a shift in production from tailored outerwear to lighter garments occurred as early as the mid-1950s. 

    Chapter 3 investigates the symbolic production of fashion by looking at the structure of the field of fashion in Sweden. The results show a French dominance where couturiers were celebrated as creative ‘artists’. A significant finding is how the idea of Swedish fashion was considered a process of creating economic value, as in clothing manufacturing. 

    Chapter 4 deals with fashion as an expression of national culture. The result reveals a significant fashion culture associated with an everyday wear fashion that followed the Social Democratic reforms aimed at equality in society during the period. One important finding is that the wool coat was the hallmark of Swedish fashion identity in the post-war period. 

    These results contribute to a broader understanding of fashion production and new insights into the history of its developments in Sweden between 1930 and 1960, which has gone largely unrecognised by previous fashion historians. 

  • Public defence: 2017-10-05 10:00 Magnélisalen, Stockholm
    Bunrit, Anon
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Stockholm University.
    Direct Catalytic Nucleophilic Substitution of Non-Derivatized Alcohols2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on the development of methods for the activation of the hydroxyl group in non-derivatized alcohols in substitution reactions. The thesis is divided into two parts, describing three different catalytic systems.

    The first part of the thesis (Chapter 2) describes nucleophilic allylation of amines with allylic alcohols, using a palladium catalyst to generate unsymmetrical diallylated amines. The corresponding amines were further transformed by a one-pot ring-closing metathesis and aromatization reaction to afford β-substituted pyrroles with linear and branched alkyl, benzyl, and aryl groups in overall moderate to good yields.

    The second part (Chapters 3 and 4) describes the direct intramolecular stereospecific nucleophilic substitution of the hydroxyl group in enantioenriched alcohols by Lewis acid and Brønsted acid/base catalysis.

    In Chapter 3, the direct intramolecular substitution of non-derivatized alcohols has been developed using Fe(OTf)3 as catalyst. The hydroxyl groups of aryl, allyl, and alkyl alcohols were substituted by the attack of O- and N-centered nucleophiles, to provide five- and six-membered heterocycles in up to excellent yields with high enantiospecificities. Experimental studies showed that the reaction follows first-order dependence with respect to the catalyst, the internal nucleophile, and the internal electrophile of the substrate. Competition and catalyst-substrate interaction experiments demonstrated that this transformation proceeds via an SN2-type reaction pathway.

    In Chapter 4, a Brønsted acid/base catalyzed intramolecular substitution of non-derivatized alcohols was developed. The direct intramolecular and stereospecific substitution of different alcohols was successfully catalyzed by phosphinic acid (H3PO2). The hydroxyl groups of aryl, allyl, propargyl, and alkyl alcohols were substituted by O-, N-, and S-centered nucleophiles to generate five- and six-membered heterocycles in good to excellent yields with high enantiospecificities. Mechanistic studies (both experiments and density functional theory calculations) have been performed on the reaction forming five-membered heterocyclic compounds. Experimental studies showed that phosphinic acid does not promote SN1 reactivity. Rate-order determination indicated that the reaction follows first-order dependence with respect to the catalyst, the internal nucleophile, and the internal electrophile. DFT calculations corroborated with a reaction pathway in which the phosphinic acid has a dual activation mode and operates as a bifunctional Brønsted acid/Brønsted base to simultaneously activate both the nucleophile and nucleofuge, resulting in a unique bridging transition state in an SN2-type reaction mechanism.

  • Public defence: 2017-10-06 10:00 William-Olssonsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Lewerentz, Alexander
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Fluid-induced alteration of metasedimentary rocks in the Scottish Highlands2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fluids, mainly H2O and CO2, are released from H- and C-bearing phases during prograde metamorphism. Because of the buoyancy of these fluids, they rise within the crust towards the surface of the Earth. Metamorphic fluids take advantage of permeable horizons, shear zones, fold hinges, fractures, and are channelled into high-flux zones. Fluid fluxes for channelized fluid flow may exceed background pervasive fluxes by several orders of magnitude. Metamorphic fluids react with the surrounding rock during fluid flow, and altered zones are commonly observed adjacent to high-flux conduits. Fluid-altered rock is texturally, mineralogically, chemically, and isotopically different from rock unaffected by fluid flow. In this thesis, fluid-rock interaction is studied at two localities in the Scottish Highlands: Glen Esk and the Isle of Islay.

    Glen Esk is one of the type localities used by George Barrow (1853-1932) to propose the concept of metamorphic zones and metamorphic index minerals as an approximate determination of metamorphic grade. In several of the metamorphic zones in Glen Esk, index mineral distribution is highly dependent on proximity to veins. The occurrence of index minerals is therefore not only controlled by pressure and temperature, but also by the availability of metamorphic fluids. Evidence of a retrograde fluid flow event from the North Esk Fault is observed in Glen Esk, for which a time-averaged fluid flux of 0.0003 – 0.0126 m3∙m-2∙yr-1 is calculated. The duration of the fluid event is estimated to between 16 and 334 kyr.

    On the Isle of Islay, kyanite is observed in rocks of chlorite or lower-biotite metamorphic grade, i.e. much lower temperatures than usually associated with kyanite formation. The favoured explanation for this is retrograde infiltration of extremely high-CO2 fluids, at least locally XCO2 > 0.7, at ~340°C, which altered these rocks and stabilised kyanite in a carbonate-bearing assemblage. Oxygen and carbon stable isotope profiles across the Islay Anticline reveals highly channelized fluid flow along the axial region of this fold, with fluid:rock ratios at least four times higher than in rock farther away from the fold. Although carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of metacarbonate rocks were altered along the Islay Anticline, negative anomalies observed below and above the Port Askaig Tillite Formation cannot solely be attributed to metamorphic fluid flow, which implies that these rocks to varying degree retain their primary paleoclimatological isotopic signatures.

  • Public defence: 2017-10-06 10:00 David Magnussonsalen (U31), Stockholm
    Nylén, Eva Charlotta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Psykosocial arbetsmiljö i välfärdssektorn: Krav i arbetet, resurser i arbetet och personliga resurser samt betydelsen av organiserade arbetsmiljöinsatser2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Individuals’ experiences of the psychosocial work environment have been linked to their satisfaction, health, and well-being. In the long run, a favorable psychosocial work environment seems related to organizational quality and productivity, while a poorer psychosocial work environment may relate to the opposite. Employers, who in Sweden have the ultimate responsibility for the work environment, aim for systematic preventive efforts focusing particularly on factors of the psychosocial work environment. Additionally, individuals also form part of the psychosocial work environment, and may, through their own daily work practices contribute to creating the work environment. Based on this, the aim of this thesis is to study how psychosocial factors, in terms of demands and resources, and personal resources at work relate to health and well-being but also to investigate the effects of an organizational preventive intervention program. Specifically, job demands, job resources, and personal resources and their relations with health-related outcomes among employees of the Swedish welfare sector were investigated. Also, two versions of a newly developed intervention program focusing on psychosocial factors and personal resources were examined. This included a feasibility study of one program version offered to both employees and managers and an effect evaluation of another version offered to managers only. The results show that job resources seem to have a stronger health-promoting potential than personal resources. Moreover, the results show that while the program offered to both employees and managers was accepted by participants and found possible to implement practically, its effect were small. Similarly, effects of the program including managers only were also small. Overall, the thesis shows the importance of reducing job demands along with promoting different resources, but emphasizes the challenges in developing, implementing, and evaluating preventive organizational interventions.

  • Public defence: 2017-10-06 10:00 Vivi Täckholmsalen (Q-salen), Stockholm
    Warshan, Denis
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Stockholm University.
    Cyanobacteria in symbiosis with boreal forest feathermosses: from genome evolution and gene regulation to impact on the ecosystem2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Among dinitrogen (N2)-fixing some cyanobacteria can establish symbiosis with a broad range of host plants from all plant lineages including bryophytes, ferns, gymnosperms, and angiosperms. In the boreal forests, the symbiosis between epiphytic cyanobacteria and feathermosses Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi is ecologically important. The main input of biological N to the boreal forests is through these cyanobacteria, and thus, they greatly contribute to the productivity of this ecosystem. Despite the ecological relevance of the feathermoss symbiosis, our knowledge about the establishment and maintenance of cyanobacterial-plant partnerships in general is limited, and particularly our understanding of the feathermoss symbiosis is rudimentary.

    The first aim of this thesis was to gain insight on the genomic rearrangements that enabled cyanobacteria to form a symbiosis with feathermosses, and their genomic diversity and similarities with other plant-symbiotic cyanobacteria partnerships. Genomic comparison of the feathermoss isolates with the genomes of free-living cyanobacteria highlighted that functions such as chemotaxis and motility, the transport and metabolism of organic sulfur, and the uptake of phosphate and amino acids were enriched in the genome of plant-symbiotic cyanobacteria.

    The second aim of this PhD study was to identify cyanobacterial molecular pathways involved in forming the feathermoss symbiosis and the regulatory rewiring needed to maintain it. Global transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation in cyanobacteria during the early phase of establishment of the feathermoss symbiosis, and after colonization of the moss were investigated. The results revealed that the putative symbiotic gene repertoire includes pathways never before associated with cyanobacteria-plant symbioses, such as nitric-oxide sensing and regulation, and the transport and metabolism of aliphatic sulfonate.

    The third aim was to explore the role of the cyanobacterial community in contributing to the temporal variability of N2-fixation activity. Results from a field-study showed that temporal variation in N2-fixation rates could be explained to a high degree by changes in cyanobacterial community composition and activity. In particular, the cyanobacteria belonging to the genus Stigonema - although not dominating the community- appeared to be the main contributors to the N2-fixation activities. Based on this result, it is suggested that this genus is responsible for the main input of N in the boreal forest ecosystems.

    The last aim was to understand how the relationship between cyanobacterial community composition and N2-fixation activity will be affected by climatic changes such as, increased temperature (11oC compared to 19oC) and CO2 level (500 ppm compared to 1000 ppm). Laboratory experiments highlighted that 30 weeks of combined elevation of temperature and CO2 resulted in increased N2-fixation activity and moss growth rates. The observed increases were suggested to be allocated to reduced cyanobacterial diversity and changes in community composition, resulting in the dominance of cyanobacteria adapted to the future abiotic condition.

  • Public defence: 2017-10-06 13:00 De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Higgins, Lindsey
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Linking lake variability, climate, and human activity in Basotu, Tanzania2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Paleoenvironmental investigations establish important baseline knowledge of the natural variability of lake systems, to better understand human impacts on the landscape, and the effects of climate change on water resources. By combining long-term environmental history with investigations into modern land use patterns and climatological events, a wider perspective can be reached that has practical applications in water governance. This thesis presents a case study of Lake Basotu (4.37°S, 35.07°E), a crater lake in the Hanang district of north-central Tanzania, which acts as an important source of freshwater for local people. A three-meter long sediment core from an interior crater of Lake Basotu was investigated using proxy records (diatoms, magnetic parameters, and carbon content) and radiometric dating (14C and 210Pb). The Lake Basotu record was then compared to other sediment-based reconstructions from East Africa and records of historical famines to better place it into the timeline and understanding of regional climate dynamics. This work was extended into modern times (1973–2015) by examining lake extent variations in the Landsat satellite archive. Shoreline boundaries for dry-season images were delineated and lake extent was calculated using GIS techniques. This remote sensing record was compared to climatological patterns, meteorological records, and the history of land-use changes in the surrounding district. As a whole, the Lake Basotu record indicates that major fluctuations in lake level are not abnormal; however, human influence has likely increased the lake’s sensitivity to climatic fluctuations. The timing of historical famines in East Africa were linked to periods of shallow lake conditions in Basotu, and the duration of the most extreme lake level changes correlate to a reversal in the 14C age-depth model. Recent variations in lake extent are likely connected to a mechanized wheat farming program implemented in the district as a foreign aid project in the early 1960s. To support the work done in Basotu, a preliminary investigation of sediment from the nearby Lake Babati was undertaken. Sediment from the two lakes indicates that their geographical location may be in a transition zone towards dryer conditions to the south during the Little Ice Age in East Africa. The results of this thesis support that Lake Basotu is an important location for understanding the potential impacts of climate change and human activity on water resources in this region.

  • Public defence: 2017-10-06 14:00 Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Prawitz, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    On the Move: Essays on the Economic and Political Development of Sweden2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of four self-contained essays in economics. Their abstracts are presented below:

    Exit, Voice and Political Change: Evidence from Swedish Mass Migration to the United States. We study the political effects of mass emigration to the United States in the 19th century using data from Sweden. To instrument for total emigration over several decades, we exploit severe local frost shocks that sparked an initial wave of emigration, interacted with within-country travel costs. Our estimates show that emigration substantially increased the local demand for political change, as measured by labor movement membership, strike participation and voting. Emigration also led to de facto political change, increasing welfare expenditures as well as the likelihood of adopting more inclusive political institutions.

    Mass Migration, Cheap Labor, and Innovation. Migration is often depicted as a major problem for struggling developing countries, as they may lose valuable workers and human capital. Yet, its effects on sending regions are ambiguous and depend crucially on local market responses and migrant selection. This paper studies the effects of migration on technological innovation in sending communities during one of the largest migration episodes in human history: the Age of Mass Migration (1850-1913). Using novel historical data on Sweden, where about a quarter of its population migrated, we find that migration caused an increase in technological patents in sending municipalities. To establish causality, we use an instrumental variable design that exploits severe local growing season frost shocks together with within-country travel costs to reach an emigration port. Exploring possible mechanisms, we suggest that increased labor costs, due to low-skilled emigration, induced technological innovation.                                                   

    On the Right Track: Railroads, Mobility and Innovation During Two Centuries. We study the construction of the 19th-century Swedish railroad network and estimate its effects on innovation during two centuries. To address endogenous placement of the network, our analysis exploits the fact that the main trunk lines were built with the overarching aim to connect particular city centers, while at the same time considering construction costs. Estimates show that innovative activities increased substantially in areas traversed by the railroads. The number of active innovators increased and, moreover, they became more productive. Exploring potential mechanisms, we highlight the importance of knowledge diffusion across space by studying spatial patterns of collaboration between innovators. Our analysis shows that innovators residing in areas connected by the railroad start to collaborate more and over longer distances, especially with other innovators located along the railroad network. Finally, we show that the differences in innovative activities were intensified over the 20th century. Areas traversed by the historical railroads exhibit much higher rates of innovation in the present day.                          

    Homeownership, Housing Wealth and Socioeconomic Outcomes: Evidence from Sweden 1999-2007. This paper studies a government supported homeownership wave in Sweden, where tenants bought their apartments at prices below the market value in the ownership market. Using detailed administrative register data paired with a difference-in-differences strategy, it compares individuals subject to an ownership transfer to similar individuals who never got the opportunity to buy their homes. After establishing that the new homeowners instantly increased their net wealth, the effects of homeownership and housing wealth on a set of socioeconomic outcomes are measured over time. Although the lump-sum transfer is large, the average individual only modestly adjusts her behavior in terms of labor market participation and demographic decision-making. Studying differences across age, younger tenants increase childbearing and decrease labor income, although modestly. Individuals near their retirement age decrease their labor market participation.

  • Public defence: 2017-10-07 10:00 hörsal 12, hus F, Stockholm
    Duch, Anne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    L’autoportrait textuel par Claude Cahun: Énonciation, formes génériques et détournement dans Aveux non avenus (1930)2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present thesis is to examine the modes of enunciation (“mode d’énonciation”) and the use of text genres in relation to thematic and semantic aspects of Claude Cahun’s book, Aveux non avenus (Disavowals: or, Cancelled Confessions)(1930), which consists of text fragments. Claude Cahun, who is mostly known for her photographic self-portraits, was active on the margins of surrealism in Paris in the 1920s. The text fragments of Aveux non avenus can be compared to a collage technique that she also uses in the photomontages which open each chapter of the book. As an author, Claude Cahun clearly resisted traditional confessional literature (as the title of the book also suggests), and this study focuses on how she creates images of herself through characters borrowed from mythology, the Bible, and popular and literary texts, but also through reflections on specific themes in dialogues, essays and aphorisms.

    The thesis examines how Aveux non avenus differs from an actual autobiography, how the fragmented self-portrait is constructed, and how the book expresses a critique of contemporary society. The method of the thesis is based on textual analysis, with the support of the concepts of modes of enunciation (”mode d’énonciation”), text genres, and détournement (”détournement”). It also rests on the contextualisation of Claude Cahun’s practice of writing in relation to the history of literary genres, surrealist avant-garde movement, and in relation to sources within cultural history and the history of women.

    The thesis analyses how Claude Cahun, through the use of different genres and shifting modes of enunciation, creates a fragmented, diverse, and contradictory portrait of herself, in a way that also conveys a critical image of contemporary society. The text functions, simultaneously, as a collage of different text genres. The conclusion thereby underlines the idea that the text is not arbitrarily fragmentary, but constructed on the principles that the analysis of the work has demonstrated. In previous research on Claude Cahun, the indefinite genre of the book has been emphasised. Instead, this thesis wants to show that the diversity of text genres is deliberately explored to develop varying modes of enunciation that give Claude Cahun the opporturity to reflect and give nuance to representations of the self and to convey a radical critique of society.

  • Public defence: 2017-10-10 13:00 The Oskar Klein auditorium (lecture hall FR4), AlbaNova universitetscentrum, Stockholm
    Kvorning, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Non-local behaviour from local interactions2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With the discovery of the quantum Hall effect more than thirty years ago, a whole new field emerged—that of topological quantum matter. This field is now a very mature one, and many different aspects are covered in the literature. The main text of this thesis introduces the field and gives a background to topological quantum matter, as well as topological aspects of superconductivity and the Abelian fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states.

     Together with the main text there are five articles that address five different questions, all connected to topological quantum matter.

    In the first article, representative wave functions for the Abelian FQH states are calculated using conformal field theory methods. Before this paper was published, similar constructions had been restricted to flat geometries, but in this paper we generalize the analysis to the simplest curved geometry, namely the sphere. On top of being of interest for numerical studies (which usually are performed on a sphere), the response of the FQH liquids to curvature can be used to detect a topological quantity, the shift, which is the average orbital spin of the constituent electrons.

    In the second article, we construct an effective field theory for the two-dimensional spinless, chiral p-wave superconductor that faithfully describes the topological properties of the bulk state, and also provides a model for the subgap states at vortex cores and edges. In particular, it captures the topologically protected zero-modes and has the correct ground state degeneracy on the torus.

    In the third paper, tools for a hydrodynamic theory for insulators in three dimensions are derived. Specifically, we use functional bosonization to write insulators as a condensation phase of the U(1) gauge theory obtained in the functional bosonization language.

    In the fourth paper, we investigate the edge Majorana modes in the two-dimensional chiral p-wave superconductor. We define the model on surfaces with different geometries—the annulus, the cylinder, the Möbius band, and a cone—and with different configurations of magnetic flux threading holes in these surfaces. In particular, we address the following question: Given that, in the absence of magnetic flux, the ground state on the annulus does not support Majorana modes, while the one on the cylinder does, how is it possible that the conical geometry can interpolate smoothly between the two?

    In the fifth and last article, we demonstrate that two-dimensional chiral superconductors on curved surfaces spontaneously develop magnetic flux. We propose this geo-Meissner effect as an unequivocal signature of chiral superconductivity that could be observed in layered materials under stress. We also employ the effect to explain some puzzling questions related to the location of Majorana modes.

     

  • Public defence: 2017-10-11 13:00 Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Stockholm
    Peng, Fei
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Structure determination of beam sensitive crystals by rotation electron diffraction: the impact of sample cooling2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Electron crystallography is complementary to X-ray crystallography. Single crystal X-ray diffraction requires the size of a crystal to be larger than about 5 × 5 × 5 μm3 while a TEM allows a million times smaller crystals being studied. This advantage of electron crystallography has been used to solve new structures of small crystals. One method which has been used to collect electron diffraction data is rotation electron diffraction (RED) developed at Stockholm University. The RED method combines the goniometer tilt and beam tilt in a TEM to achieve 3D electron diffraction data. Using a high angle tilt sample holder, RED data can be collected to cover a tilt range of up to 140o

    Here the crystal structures of several different compounds have been determined using RED. The structure of needle-like crystals on the surface of NiMH particles was solved as La(OH)2. A structure model of metal-organic layers has been built based on RED data. A 3D MOF structure was solved from RED data. Two halide perovskite structures and two newly synthesized aluminophosphate structures were solved. For those beam sensitive crystals characterized here, sample cooling down to -170oC was used to reduce the beam damage. The low temperature not only reduces electron beam damage, but also keeps the structure more stable in the high vacuum in a TEM and improves the quality of the diffraction data. It is shown that cooling can improve the resolution of diffraction data for MOFs and zeolites, for samples undergoing phase changes at low temperature, the data quality could be worse by cooling. In summary, cooling can improve the ED data quality as long as the low temperature does not trigger structural changes. 

  • Public defence: 2017-10-11 13:00 Stora hörsalen, Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Stockholm
    Odhammar, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Möten i psykodynamisk barnpsykoterapi: Förväntningar, samspel och förändring2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to increase the knowledge of courses and processes of change prior to and during psychodynamic child psychotherapy with parallel parent contact. The dissertation examines parents’ and psychotherapists’ stated goals and expectations prior to the child’s psychotherapy, processes of change focusing on the psychotherapeutic encounter between child and psychotherapist, and outcome gauged by standardized measures compared to experienced change regarding the child’s problems. This dissertation also wants to examine different instruments for describing the psychotherapeutic process. Data was collected from systematic case studies, at different times during the course of psychotherapy, with material from different sources, such as child psychiatric assessment before and after conducted psychotherapy, questionnaires, and video taping of therapy sessions. By examining the therapeutic encounter from the perspectives of child, parent and psychotherapist, an image of psychotherapy, which illustrates the complexity of the psychotherapeutic process, was created. The thesis is based on three articles: Study I examines parents’ and psychotherapists’ goals and expectations prior to psychotherapy. Study II is a close study of a video-taped individual therapy, in which the interaction between child and therapist is examined with the rating instrument Child Psychotherapy Q-set (CPQ), the psychotherapist’s description of the psychotherapy’s process, and the self-rating instrument Feeling Word Checklist (FWC-24). Study III examines change in global functioning ability after child psychotherapy. By examining several psychotherapies in order to construct qualitative understanding of low and high change, respectively, in rated global functioning, limitations in the rating instrument Children’s Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) are analyzed. The results point to: 1. The need for a culture of cooperation between family and the one conducting the treatment, where goals are formulated together and in accordance with the family’s frame of reference and life experiences, which can increase the possibility of creating positive expectations, and of adapting treatment to the family in question. 2. Different methods of examining psychotherapy reflect and complete the image of the psychotherapy process. 3. The psychotherapy process’s complexity and the difficulty in describing the effect of therapy with simple measurements or remaining psychiatric symptoms. Positive change in several areas, such as the child experiencing increased independence, gets access to more positive affections, has improved self-esteem and a more optimistic idea of the future, could be described as psychological phenomena and can be difficult to encompass with narrow psychiatric terminology. 4. The intersubjectivity between child and psychotherapist appears essential. The therapist’s attitude and interventions are characterized by creating a steady therapeutic framework for exploring the child’s problems. 5.  The importance of the therapist’s meta-competence, i.e., overarching competencies that psychotherapists need to use to guide any intervention, what interventions to use, and when they are suitable. 

  • Public defence: 2017-10-12 13:00 Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Stockholm
    Abdelhamid, Hani Nasser
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Lanthanide Metal-Organic Frameworks and Hierarchical Porous Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks: Synthesis, Properties, and Applications2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents the synthesis, properties, and applications of two important classes of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs); lanthanide MOFs and hierarchical porous zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs). The materials have been characterized using a wide range of techniques including diffraction, imaging, various spectroscopic techniques, gas sorption, dynamical light scattering (DLS) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

    In Chapter 1, the unique features of MOFs and ZIFs as well as their potential applications are summarized. In Chapter 2, different characterization techniques are presented.

    Chapter 3 describes a family of new isoreticular lanthanide MOFs synthesized using tri-topic linkers of different sizes, H3L1-H3L4, denoted SUMOF-7I-IV (Ln) (SU; Stockholm University, Ln = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd, Paper I). The SUMOF-7I-III (Ln) contain permanent pores and exhibit exceptionally high thermal and chemical stability. The luminescence properties of SUMOF-7IIs are reported (Paper II). The influences of Ln ions and the tri-topic linkers as well as solvent molecules on the luminescence properties are investigated. Furthermore, the potential of SUMOF-7II (La) for selective sensing of Fe (III) ions and the amino acid tryptophan is demonstrated (Paper III). 

    Chapter 4 presents a simple, fast and scalable approach for the synthesis of hierarchical porous zeolitic imidazolate framework ZIF-8 and ZIF-67 using triethylamine (TEA)-assisted approach (Paper IV). Organic dye molecules and proteins are encapsulated directly into the ZIFs using the one-pot method. The photophysical properties of the dyes are improved through the encapsulation into ZIF-8 nanoparticles (Paper IV). The porosity and surface area of the ZIF materials can be tuned using the different amounts of dye or TEA. To further simplify the synthesis of hierarchical porous ZIF-8, a template-free approach is presented using sodium hydroxide, which at low concentrations induces the formation of zinc hydroxide nitrate nanosheets that serve as in situ sacrificial templates (Chapter 5, Paper V). A 2D leaf-like ZIF (ZIF-L) is also obtained using the method. The hierarchical porous ZIF-8 and ZIF-L show good performance for CO2 sorption.

  • Public defence: 2017-10-13 09:00 Vivi Täckholmssalen (Q-salen), Stockholm
    Enqvist, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Stewardship in an urban world: Civic engagement and human–nature relations in the Anthropocene2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Never before have humans wielded a greater ability to alter and disrupt planetary processes. Our impact is becoming so noticeable that a new geological epoch has been proposed – the Anthropocene – in which Earth systems might no longer maintain the stable and predictable conditions of the past 12 millennia. This is particularly evident in the rapid expansion of urban areas, where a majority of humans now live and where environmental changes such as rising temperatures and habitat loss are happening faster than elsewhere.  In light of this, questions have been raised about what a more responsible relationship between humans and the rest of the planet might look like. Scholars in sustainability science employ the concept of ‘stewardship’ in searching for an answer; however, with multiple different applications and definitions, there is a need to better understand what stewardship is or what novelty it might add to sustainability research. This thesis investigates stewardship empirically through two case studies of civic engagement for protecting nature in cities – Bengaluru, India and New York City, USA. Further, the thesis also proposes a conceptual framework for how to understand stewardship as a relation between humans and the rest of nature, based on three dimensions: care, knowledge and agency. This investigation into stewardship in the urban context uses a social–ecological systems approach to guide the use of mixed theory and methods from social and natural sciences. The thesis is organized in five papers. Paper I reviews defining challenges in managing urban social–ecological systems and proposes that these can more effectively be addressed by collaborative networks where public, civic, other actors contribute unique skills and abilities. Paper II and Paper III study water resource governance in Bengaluru, a city that has become dependent on external sources while its own water bodies become degraded and depleted.Paper II analyzes how locally based ‘lake groups’ are able to affect change through co-management arrangements, reversing decades of centralization and neglect of lakes’ role in Bengaluru’s water supply.Paper III uses social–ecological network analysis to analyze how patterns in lake groups’ engagements and collaborations show better fit with ecological connectivity of lakes.Paper IV employs sense of place methods to explore how personal bonds to a site shapes motivation and goals in waterfront stewardship in New York City. Finally,Paper V reviews literature on stewardship and proposes a conceptual framework to understand and relate different uses and underlying epistemological approaches in the field. In summary, this thesis presents an empirically grounded contribution to how stewardship can be understood as a human–nature relation emergent from a deep sense ofcare and responsibility, knowledge and learning about how to understand social–ecological dynamics, and theagency and skills needed to influence these dynamics in a way that benefits a greater community of humans as others. Here, the care dimension is particularly important as an underappreciated aspect of social–ecological relations, and asset for addressing spatial and temporal misalignment between management institutions and ecosystem. This thesis shows that care for nature does not erode just because green spaces are degraded by human activities – which may be crucial for promoting stewardship in the Anthropocene.

  • Public defence: 2017-10-13 10:00 De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Sinander, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Internationell kollektivavtalsreglering: En studie i internationell privaträtt av den svenska modellen för reglering av anställningsvillkor2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This doctoral thesis examines the influence of private international law on the Swedish model for collective self-regulation of employment conditions. The Swedish model is characterized by the crucial importance of private collective agreements. In the thesis, the Swedish model is structured as a three step procedure following the creation and implementation of employment conditions. In the first step employment conditions are negotiated under a mutual threat of industrial action. Employment conditions are then, in the second step, settled in collective agreements. In the third step, employment conditions are carried out in individual employment contracts. Swedish substantive labour law serves as an infrastructure for this collective self-regulation. Hence, in Sweden the right to strike is utmost extensive during the period of bargaining, but ceases once a collective agreement is in place. Additionally, collective agreements have several other legal effects, and individual employment contracts are interpreted as a part of the system. The research analyses how the private international law issues of jurisdiction, choice of law, application of substantive law in international relations and treatment of foreign judgments affect the Swedish model. The general conclusion in the dissertation is that EU private international law is based on individualism while the Swedish model is based on collectivism. This conflict of basic ideas creates several legal problems which are addressed in the thesis.

  • Public defence: 2017-10-13 10:00 Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Stockholm
    Ojwang, Dickson Odhiambo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Prussian blue analogue copper hexacyanoferrate: Synthesis, structure characterization and its applications as battery electrode and CO2 adsorbent2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Prussian blue (PB) and Prussian blue analogues (PBAs) are compounds with potential applications in a large variety of fields such as gas storage, poison antidotes, electrochromism, electrochemistry and molecular magnets. The compounds are easy to synthesize, cheap, environmentally friendly and have been pursued for both fundamental research and industrial purposes. Despite the multifunctionality of PB and PBAs, they have complicated compositions, which are largely dependent on the synthesis methods and storage conditions. Thus, performing investigations on such compounds with defined composition, stoichiometry and crystal structure is essential.

    This thesis has focused on synthesis and detailed structure characterization of copper hexacyanoferrate (CuHCF) via X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), neutron powder diffraction (NPD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), Mössbauer spectroscopy, extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), infrared (IR) and Raman techniques. In addition, kinetics of thermal dehydration process, CO2 adsorption and CO2 adsorption kinetics were investigated. Moreover, in operando synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments were performed to gain insight into the structure-electrochemistry relationships in an aqueous CuHCF/Zn battery during operation.

  • Public defence: 2017-10-13 10:00 Aula Svea, Socialhögskolan
    Linell, Hanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Child protection through an abuse-focused lens: Adolescent victimization and Swedish social services responses2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge concerning the social services’ use of the Care of Young Persons (Special Provisions) Act 1990:52 (CYPA) is relatively scarce, especially when it comes to the protection of adolescents victimized by abuse. The overall aim of this thesis is to investigate and discuss different conceptualisations of abuse, adolescents’ agency regarding abuse, victimization and social intervention, and how abuse and adolescent victimization are responded to, primarily by the social services. This is done from a stance influenced by critical realism as well as victim- and child-centred responses. The dissertation consists of four papers and examines these themes in two samples of judgments and related documents concerning applications for care of adolescents aged 13-17 under the CYPA. The findings from the total study of all judgments in the selected year clearly confirm § 2 CYPA as a rare intervention to protect adolescents. In only 85 of Sweden's 290 municipalities was a CYPA application made, but a main finding is that such care to a large extent was used to protect adolescents from various forms of abuse. In the total study, the applications of § 2 CYPA concerned 196 adolescents, for 70 per cent of whom abuse was described, and where more girls (96) than boys (41) were being considered for care based on abuse. Of all the girls, 79 per cent were described as subjected to abuse and of the boys 55 per cent. Also in the smaller sample consisting of judgments for 37 girls in care under § 2 CYPA and §§ 2 and 3 CYPA, abuse was described for many. For several adolescents in both samples abuse was described as having been exerted to maintain standards of honour, shame and virginity, and/ or to enable a forced marriage. The initiative and agency of the adolescents themselves in both the disclosure of abuse as well as the decision on alternative care is one of the most striking findings in the thesis. The majority of the adolescents, 71 per cent, were categorized as having intentionally disclosed the abuse. The aftermath of the disclosure was for many of the adolescents described as intensely challenging. For the majority the abuse was denied during the investigation, not only by the alleged abusers but also by non-abusing parents and other relatives. The findings relating to the social services responses suggest that the initial response to a high degree could be understood as parent-oriented. For 33 per cent, the judgment also revealed that the abuse had been disclosed to authorities one or several times prior to the investigation leading to the application for care under the CYPA. That the abuse in these cases had been known to the social services for on average 5 years can from a child-centred position be seen as a major failure regarding the system’s ability to reach children and stop abuse. A central conclusion is that the various forms of abuse described seem more connected to domination, fear, power and control than to conflict; to some extent mirroring the kind of systematic oppression described for victimized adults seeking the protection of NGOs and public authorities. The findings imply that interventions under the CYPA may enable more child-centred, safe and stable protection of children subjected to this kind of abuse. Given the findings in the present thesis it is argued that it may be important to differentiate the concept of abuse as well as to acknowledge the agency of children in both research and in practice.

  • Public defence: 2017-10-13 13:00 Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Chudnovskaya, Margarita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Higher education and family formation: A story of Swedish educational expansion2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The subject of this dissertation is trends in family formation among highly educated men and women in Sweden. The highly educated have typically differed from other educational groups in their patterns of childbearing. This has particularly been

    the case for highly educated women, who used to be in the minority among the highly educated and who were much more likely to be childless than other women. The goal of this dissertation is to understand how the expansion of higher education has transformed  the formation of childbearing unions among the highly educated group. The context for the dissertation is the dramatic expansion of higher education which has occurred in Sweden over the last half century. As the share of cohorts graduating from post-secondary education has grown, diversity among the highly educated has also increased. This dissertation draws upon rich Swedish administrative register data to answer questions about changes in the behavior of the highly educated group, as well as emerging stratification within the group. This dissertation consists of five studies and an introductory chapter.

    In Study 1, we examine changes in geographical distances between young couples and their parents. We find that among younger cohorts, generations live further apart. The expansion of higher education contributes to these distances, though the introduction of regional colleges has mediated the impact of educational expansion to some extent. In Study 2, we consider how effective colleges are as partner markets. We follow one birth cohort (1970), and examine the likelihood that they form a childbearing union with someone who attended the same university at the same time. We find that colleges are an important potential meeting place for childbearing partners, and examine how the likelihood of partnering with a fellow student is related to the college composition.

    In Study 3, I assess changes in partner choice among the highly educated, by comparing the likelihood that highly

    educated men and women born in 1940-2, 1950-2, 1960-2, and 1970-2 form a childbearing union, and whether they do

    so with a highly or a lower educated partner. I find that female graduates are much more likely to enter unions, and to

    “partner down”. Men’s likelihood of forming a childbearing union hasn’t changed across cohorts, but men from later cohorts are much more likely to find a highly educated partner than men from earlier cohorts. I show that partnership outcomes for graduates are related to social class background, university experience (degree length and institution type), and post-graduation income. In Study 4, we study unions with at least one highly educated partner, including men and women born in 1950-2, 1960-2, 1970-2, and 1980-2. We examine the extent to which educational (in)equality is mirrored in other measures of status such as social class background, income, and occupational prestige. We conclude that although the number of women “partnering down” in terms of education has increased dramatically, these unions are not necessarily characterized by female status-dominance more generally. In Study 5, I focus on highly educated men who do not form any childbearing union, studying men born in the years 1945-1974. I find that the consistent levels of childlessness among highly educated men may best be explained by changes in the composition of graduates in terms of field of study and post-graduation income.

  • Public defence: 2017-10-13 13:00 Föreläsningssalen, Stockholm
    Snoyman, Natalie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    "In to Stay": Selling Three-Strip Technicolor and Fashion in the 1930s and 1940s2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the relationship between the fashion and film industries during the classical era between the early 1930s and mid-1940s. It focuses on the three-strip Technicolor process as the binding force upon which these two industries relied in collaborations during that time and looks at technical challenges the new process presented to productions in terms of wardrobe design. Another issue explored is fashion’s role in the actual development of the three-strip process, allowing the Technicolor laboratory to improve the technology through a popular, marketable, and readily available product. Using Technicolor as a point of focus and continuity, this dissertation explores different types of productions filmed in the three-strip process, including shorts and newsreels, industrial and sponsored films, as well as feature-length films. 

    Drawing from a wide range of archival material and a highly interdisciplinary approach, the study delves into the relationship between the fashion and film industries. While the ties between them have been strong since the advent of cinema, previous research has approached their relationship almost exclusively from a promotional perspective. Technicolor’s multifaceted affiliation with the fashion industry, however, warrants a more thorough investigation and this dissertation takes steps towards expanding that research area through a series of case studies.

    The first chapter provides an overview of color film methods that preceded three-strip Technicolor and outlines some of the key discourses involving color and realism. Chapter 2 addresses the intertwined relationship between the fashion and film industries through a study of fashion department in the popular fan magazine Photoplay and also examines the use of color in that publication. Chapter 3 investigates the fashion short as a vehicle for demonstrating the commercial potential of the three-strip process. It does this by examining the making and promotion of Vyvyan Donner’s Fashion Forecast series. This chapter also looks at the specific work carried out by Technicolor’s Color Control Department. Chapter 4 explores industrial and sponsored films in three-strip Technicolor for the fashion industry with an emphasis on those made to promote rayon. The second half of this chapter examines the 1930/1940 seasons of the New York World’s Fair, focusing on the presence there of Technicolor and the American rayon industry. Lastly, Chapter 5 looks at three-strip Technicolor in feature-length films by considering its collaborations with the fashion industry that took place in the classical era. This chapter also examines design considerations made regarding wardrobe in those films. 

    The study concludes that color’s versatility made it incredibly influential on consumer culture and was key to ventures between the fashion and film industries in this era and beyond. It also ultimately demonstrates the ways in which color, fashion, and film intersected and complemented one another in terms of their aesthetic and commercial commonalities.