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  • Public defence: 2020-04-15 13:00 Join Zoom Meeting: https://stockholmuniversity.zoom.us/j/754163828, Join by Skype for Business: https://stockholmuniversity.zoom.us/skype/754163828, Lilla Hörsalen, NOD-huset, Kista
    Rostami, Asreen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Interweaving Technology: Understanding the Design and Experience of Interactive Performances2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis builds on the growing interest in studying interactive performances within the fields of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and Interaction Design (IxD). The overarching goal of this research is to investigate how creative teams and artists can incorporate interactive technologies into their artistic productions. This thesis draws on four empirical studies of interactive performances carried out in collaboration with artists, performers, and designers. These studies focus on: (i) investigating scenarios of sensor-based and bodily tracking technologies in interactive performances, (ii) investigating how professional guitar players experience and express the smart qualities of a smart guitar in their artistic practices, (iii) investigating the audience's sense of immersion in a mixed-reality performance through introducing the concept of friction, and (iv) exploring frictions as a design resource in sketching scenarios of performances with VR. Two main methodological approaches were used throughout this research: Research through Design (RtD) and performance–led research in the wild. Beyond the result of these investigations, this thesis also presents the following contributions. First by presenting insights and knowledge generated through explorations of the incorporation of interactive technologies in performances through ideation, through studies of technology in use, and through design activities. This includes discussions around artists’ and audience members’ experience of technology including novel opportunities of interaction and participation, their collaborative roles and their agency and control within artistic productions. Second, by introducing friction as a Strong Concept to analyse interactions within a mixed-reality performance and to discuss how immersion is experienced throughout such performances. Finally by further developing the concept of friction through the collaborative design and staging of a novel mixed-reality performance.

  • Public defence: 2020-04-17 09:00 sal FB55, AlbaNova universitetscentrum, Stockholm
    Preston, Markus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Developments for the FPGA-Based Digitiser in the PANDA Electromagnetic Calorimeters2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The strong interaction between quarks and gluons is one of the fundamental interactions described by the standard model of particle physics. Systems of quarks bound together by the strong interaction are known as hadrons, of which the proton and the neutron are the most common examples. The theoretical framework of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is used to describe the strong interaction, but becomes increasingly difficult to use as the distance between the interacting particles increases. On the length scales relevant for hadrons, for instance, non-perturbative approaches to QCD have to be used. Experimental data are needed to verify these approaches. PANDA is one of the four experimental pillars of the upcoming FAIR facility in Darmstadt, Germany. In PANDA, an antiproton beam with a momentum between 1.5 and 15 GeV/c will interact in a hydrogen or nuclear target, allowing studies of various aspects of non-perturbative QCD. Motivated by the high interaction rates and the diverse physics goals of the experiment, a triggerless readout approach will be employed. In this approach, each detector subsystem will be equipped with intelligent front-end electronics that independently identify signals of interest in real time. In the electromagnetic calorimeter, FPGA-based digitiser modules will be used for this task. The high-radiation environment in PANDA will pose a challenge to these modules, due to both potential radiation damage and high signal rates from the calorimeter. In this thesis, these issues are addressed. First, the results from experimental measurements and Monte Carlo modelling of radiation-induced single event upsets in the FPGA are described. These studies have allowed predictions of the rate of single event upsets during operation of PANDA. Secondly, a newly developed algorithm for real-time processing of calorimeter signals in an FPGA at high pile-up rates is described. This algorithm provides a significant improvement in the time resolution of the calorimeter and allows reconstruction of the pulse height and timing of piled-up detector signals.

  • Public defence: 2020-04-17 10:00 Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Norrthon, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism.
    Teaterrepetitionens interaktion: Professionella praktiker i ett repetitionsarbete från manus till föreställning2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis builds on three studies that explore a professional rehearsal process as situated interaction and as a longitudinal process. Primarily, the thesis contributes to the area of interactional linguistics, but it also seeks to contribute new knowledge to theatre studies. The empirical focus is on the participants’ interaction during the rehearsal process and how the performance develops procedurally over time. The main questions driving this research are: 1) What interactive, professional practices do the participants engage in during the rehearsal process, and in what way? 2) How is the script coordinated with other multimodal resources in the development from written text to performance?

    The theory and method used for this work is multimodal interaction analysis, that is, Ethnomethodological Conversation Analysis (EMCA) developed towards multimodal analysis of verbal and non-verbal resources in communication. The data collection was carried out at Riksteatern, Sweden’s largest touring theatre, where Effekten, by Lucy Prebble (2013), had its Swedish premiere in the fall of 2015. I followed rehearsals of a selection of five scenes from the first rehearsal day to opening night. The data consist of field notes, as well as video recordings of a total of 85 hours, filmed mainly with three cameras. In addition, the data include approximately four hours of audio recordings.

    The three studies focus on different practices involved in the theatrical rehearsal process. Study I follows the participants as they laminate (Goodwin 2018) eight lines in a scene where the characters are quarrelling. The aim is to document longitudinally how the actors develop, use and coordinate these and other multimodal resources in different phases of the rehearsal process. Study II focuses on one line in the script, with the aim of uncovering how the participants develop the performance by framing (Goffman 1974) various theatrical contexts in situated interactions and over time. Study III focuses on how the participants at the end of the rehearsal process create timing in transitions between rehearsed scenes by developing and using cues.

    The results show that, and how, rehearsing is a longitudinal process of collaborative creativity, in which the production team together, and moment by moment, develop the performance. Multimodal resources are used in different ways at different points in the process, and there is a shared authorship behind the theatrical performance. The results challenge previous research on theatre and theatre work, in which rehearsing has often been described as an asymmetric interaction between a director and an ensemble. Linguists’ interest in theatre has mainly focused on written scripts, also when the subject has been the relationship between scripts and performances. This thesis argues that the situated and collaborative process of rehearsing should be considered in order to understand the relationship between scripts and performances.

  • Public defence: 2020-04-17 10:00 David Magnussonsalen (U31), Stockholm
    Cancino Montecinos, Sebastian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    New perspectives on cognitive dissonance theory2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive consistency is generally considered a fundamental aspect of the human mind, and cognitive dissonance theory is the most famous and studies theory within this framework. Dissonance theory holds that when related cognitions are in conflict (e.g. when behaving counter to one’s attitudes), people will experience negative affect. This affective reaction motivates people to engage in various dissonance-reduction strategies (e.g. attitude change). The aim of this thesis was to investigate some novel, and unanswered questions within dissonance research, and to relate dissonance theory to neighboring theories.

    In Study I, it was predicted (and supported) that cognitive dissonance (writing a counter-attitudinal essay in the induced-compliance paradigm) would lead to people exhibiting an abstract mindset. The rationale for this prediction (based on action-identification theory) was that unfamiliar and difficult situations, were action is usually impeded (much like dissonant situations), lead to individuals adopting more concrete representations of the situation – for the sake action execution. However, since people usually want to find meaning in their actions, they will quickly, after the action is executed, adopt an abstract representation of the situation – which might also lead to spillover effects were people’s mental representation of their actions in general become more abstract.

    In Study II, the aim was to investigate to what extent, and how, emotions relate to the attitude-change effect in the induced-compliance paradigm. Past researchers usually predict that negative emotions should be positively related to this effect. Based on the notion of emotion regulation, however, attitude change (a form of reappraisal) implies that people are positively (and less negatively) tuned to the situation – and should therefore feel more positive (and less negative) emotions towards the situation. Thus, contrary to past research, it was predicted that negative emotions would be inversely related to attitude change, and positive emotions would be positively related to attitude change. Result across two experiments supported these predictions.

    Lastly, in Study III, the aim was to provide a general theoretical model of dissonance reduction. Based on a cognitive-emotion perspective (including appraisal theories of emotion, emotion regulation, and coping), it was suggested that reduction processes are influenced by the intensity of the initial affective reaction. This affective reaction is in turn influenced by the magnitude of the dissonance and the novelty-familiarity dimension of the situation. When the dissonance magnitude is too big, and the situation novel, people might disengage rather quickly (leaving the situation or distracting themselves). If, however, people have enough motivation and cognitive capacity, they might engage more in the reduction processes. The advantage of this model is that it can be applied to any dissonant situation.

    Taken together, these studies suggest that there is still much to discover in dissonance research, and much can be gained by conceptualizing dissonance processes within a cognitive-emotion framework. Future research should focus more on how the social context (e.g. influence of other people) might affect these dissonance processes. More emphasis should also be put on the prevalence of different dissonant situations, and the accompanied reduction attempts, in real-life settings.

  • Public defence: 2020-04-17 13:00 Auditorium (215), Manne Siegbahnhusen, Stockholm
    Björkman, John
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Culture and Aesthetics.
    "Må de herrskande klasserna darra": Radikal retorik och reaktion i Stockholms press, 1848-18512020Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation explores the formation of the modern historiography of class in mid-nineteenth century Sweden by analyzing constitutive rhetoric of class in the Stockholm press from 1848 to 1851. The aim is to study how disparaged workers during the February Revolution in France began to be ascribed a new kind of unified agency, and how workers in Stockholm became recipients of mobilizing appeals from all parts of the political spectrum. To this end the dissertation examines periodical papers representing the three major political positions of the period, i.e. a royalist conservative press, liberal papers in opposition, and a newly emerging socialist press. How were workers described, invoked and addressed as a new kind of community of political interest and action in these publications?

    Refuting perspectives of socio-economic determinism, this study adopts a conception of belonging and agency that views political communities as discursively produced by the creation of subject positions and the interpellation of individuals to them. The study is also influenced by recent re-evaluations of the category of the event associated with poststructuralism, and analyzes operations of constitutive rhetoric in forming a new symbolic field of class identity and agency in an open-ended and multivalent historical situation.

    The analysis shows how workers were construed as political agents in the Stockholm press during the mid-nineteenth century turmoil by being described, invoked and addressed within the framework of four main rival narratives. The socialist press tried to evoke a self-organizing working class within a collectivist narrative of labour’s liberation and universal male suffrage. The liberal press interpellated workers to a position aligned with the reformist middle class within a narrative of individual self-determination and gradual improvement. The royalist narrative of reconciliation was aimed at separating the large mass of workers from socialist and communist ideologues, deemed as mischievous outsiders, while at the same time offering them a new-found and prominent role as protectors of social harmony and peace. Only within the royalist narrative of catastrophe were the workers continuously excluded from mobilizing appeals, instead being invoked as the harbingers of an approaching communist revolution, against which all other sections of society should unite.

  • Public defence: 2020-04-22 13:00 hörsal 7, hus D, Stockholm
    Harouny, Jonathan Egeland
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Philosophy.
    Internalism and the Nature of Justification2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There are many important dimensions of epistemic evaluation, one of which is justification. We don’t just evaluate beliefs for truth, reliability, accuracy, and knowledge, but also for justification. However, in the epistemological literature, there is much disagreement about the nature of justification and how it should be understood. One of the controversies that has separated the contemporary epistemological discourse into two opposing camps has to do with the internalism-externalism distinction. Whereas internalists defend certain core assumptions about justification from the pre-Gettier tradition, externalists generally think that the traditional conception is untenable and should be replaced.

    In this compilation thesis, I argue for, defend, and develop a particular brand of internalism, both in general and with respect to specific sources of justification. In papers 1 and 2, I defend a couple of well-known arguments for mentalism and accessibilism. Moreover, I also point out how prominent versions of these theses are vulnerable to serious problems (e.g., about over-intellectualization and vicious regresses). Part of my goal in the first couple of papers is to figure out what commitments the internalist should take on in order to avoid the externalist's objections, while at the same time receiving support from considerations that have motivated internalism in the past. In papers 3 and 4, I start from the assumption that mentalism is true and attempt to answer the following questions: 1) which non-factive mental states can play a justification-conferring role with respect to empirical belief? And 2) why does this set of states play the epistemic role it does? In response to question 1, I argue that all and only one's beliefs and perceptual experiences have justificatory relevance. In response to question 2, I argue that one's beliefs and perceptual experiences are one's strongly representational states, and that strongly representational states necessarily provide support to certain empirical propositions. Having done so, I then defend mentalism about scientific evidence from a couple of prominent objections in the recent literature. Lastly, in papers 5 and 6, I argue for a particular brand of internalism about testimonial and memorial justification and show how that position has a dialectical advantage over its main competitors. 

  • Public defence: 2020-04-22 13:00 FA32, Stockholm
    Norell, Jesper
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. 1990.
    Fingerprints of light-induced molecular transients: from quantum chemical models of ultrafast x-ray spectroscopy2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Absorption of sunlight generates renewable electricity and powers the growth of plants, but also causes severe damage both to synthetic materials and biological tissue. The wildly varying outcomes of these light-induced processes are ultimately determined by much slighter differences in their underlying reaction pathways, induced by the transient properties of short-lived and miniscule molecules; a powerful approach to their detection and characterization is offered by ultrafast x-ray spectroscopy, with identification of spectral fingerprints and further guidance from quantum chemical models.

    This thesis contains the computational half of three experimentally joint projects that push the limits for detection of electronic, spin and structural dynamics of small molecular systems in solution. A wide selection of theoretical frameworks are combined to model various aspects of the measurements: from multi-configurational descriptions of non-adiabatic couplings in the photo-dynamics and multi-electron transitions in the x-ray spectroscopy, to affordable simulations of extensive aqueous solutions by density functional theory and classical mechanics.

    Applied to experimental data, the presented quantum chemical results allowed in particular to: simultaneously identify molecular forms and electronic states of aqueous 2-thiopyridone, to determine a detailed pathway for its excited-state proton-transfer; characterize the charge-transfer state of aqueous ferricyanide, to extend well-known concepts from steady-state spectroscopy into the ultrafast domain; establish the newly implemented framework of multi-configurational Dyson orbitals, as a powerful tool for simulation of photoelectron spectroscopy.

    A number of computational predictions are additionally presented for hitherto-unexplored experimental regions, which may help to guide and optimize future measurements.

  • Public defence: 2020-04-24 10:00 hörsal 11, hus F, Stockholm
    Robertsson, Magna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Personligt mod: Om krigsdekorationer som mjuk normstyrning under insatsen i Afghanistan åren 2008-20122020Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the 2000s, Sweden has pursued an active foreign and security policy. This has meant participation in several international military operations and has left many Swedish soldiers and officers with combat experience. Thus, the Swedish parliament decided in 2010 on a political reform of the veterans area, with more extensive societal support, war decorations to express the government recognition of personal sacrifices made in the service and a new medal for courage in combat. Considered as a reward system, it functions as an immaterial and emotionally established incentive, in contrast to the financial and bonus reward systems that are otherwise common.

    From a governance perspective, this setting is fundamentally interesting. The complexity of military operations and the demands for efficiency in armed combat are in contrast with the democratic state's need to guarantee the rule of law, even from a distance and under difficult conditions. Traditional government is not sufficient because the situation is characterized by high contextual uncertainty and therefore requires more situational adaptive control. Organizing in a professional model implies autonomy for military officials, and this means that there is a form of gap in terms of civilian control.

    In the dissertation, a concept and an analytical model are formulated to understand this phenomenon, entitled soft norm governance, that also form one of the main results. The model combines four levels of analysis to describe the dynamics of the steering mix: organizational metagovernance, rule control, policy work and professional ethics. One conclusion is that professional ethics has a two-way function in the chain of implementation steering, both as a decisive factor for concrete decision-making, but also as an objective for the government’s soft norm governance. Thus, this control gap does not mean absence of control, but that other value-based norm systems govern our actions. In this way, soft norm governance also reaches beyond the scope of the law.

    The theoretical framework is metagovernance, the idea that the modern state is steering at a distance and with subtle methods, such as by organizational measures. It opens for the importance of soft law, social norms and ethics in governmental steering. The case study of the veterans policy and medal of courage contributes empirically to the specification of these theories. Furthermore, new institutionalism adds an explanatory value with a rationality of action for the officials, a so-called logic of appropriateness based on the professional role and on adaptation to the situation at hand and to applicable rules. Theoretically, the thesis contributes by supplementing with a logic of values, which takes into account the profession's ethical and moral rationality of action, which is particularly important in situations such as armed conflict.

    The methodological approach combines a structural statistical perspective with a qualitative and understanding-oriented perspective and can, with the support of the analytical model, illuminate both pattern and function. The material base is a total selection from the medal preparation of eight contingents in Afghanistan during the years 2008-2012, i.e. FS16-FS23. It consists of the archive material from the nominations as well as in-depth interviews with responsible commanders at the international units and at the national headquarters, including the Commander-in-Chief.

  • Public defence: 2020-04-24 13:00 Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Stockholm
    Forsberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory.
    Fast and reliable alignment and classification of biological macromolecules in electron microscopy images2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last century, immense progress has been made to charter and understand a wide range of biological phenomena. The origin of genetic inheritance was determined, showing that DNA holds genes that determine the architecture of proteins, utilized by the cell for most functions. Mapping of the human genome eventually revealed around 20000 genes, showing a vast complexity of biology at its most fundamental level.

    To study the molecular structure, function and regulation of proteins, spectroscopic techniques and microscopy are employed. Until just over a decade ago, the determination of atomic detail of biomolecules like proteins was limited to those that were small or possible to crystallize. However recent technological advances in cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) now allows it to routinely reach resolutions where it can provide a wealth of new information on molecular biological phenomena by permitting new targets to be structurally characterized.

    In cryo-EM, biological molecules are suspended in thin vitreous sheet of ice and imaged in projection. Collecting millions of such images permits the reconstruction of the original molecular structure, by appropriate alignment and averaging of the particle images. This however requires immense computational effort, which just a few years ago was prohibitive to full use of the image data.

    In this thesis, I describe the development of fast algorithms for processing of cryo-EM data, utilizing GPUs by exposing the inherent parallelism of its alignment and classification. The acceleration of this processing has changed how biological research can utilize cryo-EM data. The drastically reduced processing time now allows more extensive processing, development of new and more demanding processing tools, and broader access to cryo-EM as a method for biological investigation. As an example of what is now possible, I show the processing of the fungal pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC), which poses unique processing challenges. Through extensive processing, new biological information can be inferred, reconciling numerous previous findings from biochemical research. The processing of PDC also exemplifies current limitations to established.

  • Public defence: 2020-04-24 13:00 Lilla hörsalen, Naturhistoriska riksmuséet, Stockholm
    Wahlberg, Emma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Molecules and morphology in Empidoidea (Diptera): Phylogenetic analysis and taxonomical implications2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The classification and evolutionary history of the superfamily Empidoidea (Diptera) have been far from straightforward subjects. Morphology based phylogenies of the superfamily have been unable to answer many questions raised by both systematists and biogeographers, as well as ecologists and ethologists, partly due to morphological modifications and adaptations difficult to interpret. In paper I a phylogeny is presented which was the first published that was based on molecular data with multiple loci and with high support. We sampled several groups never included in molecular analyses before and were able to resolve several relationships and recover several species groups that were previously unplaced. Atelestidae is confirmed as the sister group to remaining families. Hybotidae is sister group to Dolichopodidae, Ragadidae stat. n. and Empididae. Species included in the family Brachystomatidae are found to be nested within Empididae and Brachystomatidae is therefore lowered to subfamily. The erection of Ragadidae to family, sister to Empididae, is based on genetic distances between the present families and subfamilies. Paper II deals with the genus Wiedemannia (Empididae: Clinocerinae), also using molecular data but also put into a spatial and temporal context with molecular dating. The subgenera are found to be non-monophyletic and are therefore suggested to be rejected as accepted names. The dated tree, based on molecular data and known fossil records, suggests an initial diversification 50 million years ago followed by further diversification events that may be linked to changes in sea levels on a global scale. We also provide a Species Distribution Model map suggesting areas of potential hot spots as based on climatic variables. Following the results in paper I, the internal relationships of Ragadidae are revised in paper III. The lack of DNA data, partly caused by few available specimens and the rarity of some species, motivated a morphological approach together with a maximum parsimony analysis to investigate the monophyly of species groups and genera. The flower feeding genera Iteaphila and Anthepiscopus are found to form a distinct monophyletic clade together with Hormopeza. The internal relationships are revised, updated diagnostic characters are provided as well as a determination key to the genera. In paper IV we deal with the taxonomical issue of Chvalaea sopianae and C. rugosiventris, two species in the family Hybotidae. Both species were originally described from single female specimens.  However, the sex of C. rugosiventris was mistaken in the original description, and the differential characters of the two species are based on sexual dimorphism. The two species are synonymized and the male of C. rugosiventris redescribed. We also provide additional geographic data on the hybotid species Allanthalia pallida and Leptodromiella crassiseta. The final paper, paper V, presents records of new species to Sweden and new records within Sweden of a large number of species of Hybotidae, Empididae and Ragadidae. We also provide a substantial addition of genetic barcodes of the Swedish fauna, shared publicly in The Barcode of Life Database. This increases the coverage of Swedish taxa in the database with 71% for Empididae and 13% for Hybotidae.

  • Public defence: 2020-04-24 13:00 David Magnussonsalen (U31), Stockholm
    Syrjänen, Elmeri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The effects of valenced odors on facial perception2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We use our senses to navigate in the world. An important property of olfaction, the sense of smell, is to enable us to approach beneficial things, and to avoid what might be toxic or otherwise harmful in our environment. Other peoples’ behaviors are also paramount for our survival. Thus, we use our vision to decode their internal states from their facial expressions. For many modalities, multiple senses are integrated to enhance sensory percepts. In this thesis, I investigated how valenced odors affect the perception of facial expressions. Specifically, using a multi-method approach, I studied the integration of unpleasant and pleasant odor contexts on odor-congruent and incongruent facial expressions, disgusted, and happy faces.

    The effects I am interested in are those that valenced odors have on face perception, attention to faces, and the cortical processing of faces. To answer these questions, I used questionnaires, ratings, EEG, and behavioral measures such as reaction times. Across studies, ratings of face valence are affected in the direction of the odor valence (e.g., faces are rated more negatively in the context of an unpleasant odor). Also, overall, the results in my studies indicate that faces are perceived as more arousing in valenced odor contexts; however, these effects occur regardless of facial expression.

    In study 1, I found that valenced odors and facial expressions are integrated at an earlier time-frame than previously thought. Specifically, I found that the N170 event-related potential component (ERP) to disgusted facial expressions was lower in amplitude in the unpleasant odor condition than in the pleasant odor condition. This effect was not present for happy faces in the N170 component. An unpleasant odor might thus facilitate the processing of threat-related information.

    In study 2, I found evidence that odors, in general, did not affect the recognition speed of facial expressions that changed from neutral to disgusted or happy over 3 seconds. Also, I found robust evidence against congruency effects in facial expression recognition reaction times (RTs). The results indicated that faces overall were recognized faster in the unpleasant odor condition. Further, these results were not qualified by individual differences in body odor disgust. Thus, unpleasant odors might facilitate the recognition of facial expressions regardless of trait body odor disgust.

    In study 3, I studied whether valenced odors directed spatial attention toward odor-congruent facial expressions in a “dot-probe” task. I found decisive evidence that odors do not affect attention towards disgusted and happy facial expressions, casting doubt on the dot-probe experiment. However, I found that probes were detected faster as a function of time-on-task in the unpleasant odor condition. I hypothesized that this effect might be due to maintained vigilance in the presence of an unpleasant odor and task fluency effects.

    In summary, the results indicate that valenced odors affect facial perception. Generally, faces are perceived as more valenced and arousing in odor contexts. Further, an unpleasant odor may decrease RTs; however, this effect seems to be irrespective of the target type. Also, odor face integration may happen earlier than thought; yet, evidence in the literature is mixed, and more research is needed. The methods I have used may increase transparency and robustness of published results, and help accelerate knowledge development in this field of research.

  • Public defence: 2020-04-24 13:00 Stockholm
    Ketzer, Daniel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany .
    Land Use Conflicts between Agriculture and Energy Production: Systems Approaches to Allocate Potentials for Bioenergy and Agrophotovoltaics2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The developments towards a bio-based economy and a renewable energy-based power supply require thorough assessments of feedstocks and frameworks. In the past, political targets for increasing shares of renewable energies for combatting climate change have triggered direct land use changes (LUCs) and even indirect land use changes (iLUCs). As a consequence, residues from grassland and agriculture, which are not used for other purposes, got into the focus of renewable energy policies. Despite the technical feasibility, a general approach for assessing amounts of residues has been lacking, making planning processes for bioenergy highly customized. This study introduces a general, uniform modeling-approach based on Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and publicly available statistical and map data to locate potentials on a 1 km-grid throughout the European Union (EU). Sustainable potentials were calculated for five model regions in Northwest Europe considering input data such as animal livestock, regional (elevation-dependent) yield data, protection areas, and residue-to-crop ratios. Framing two scenarios, the model results were fed into a Decision Support Tool (DST) as a planning tool for bioenergy. Agricultural residues and surplus grass may provide significant potentials on regional levels, e.g. up to 52,236 TJ/ a from straw and 1,301 TJ/ a from root crop residues in Northrhine-Westphalia, or 9,141 TJ/ a from oil plant residues in Île de France, and 12,226 TJ of surplus grass in Rhineland-Palatinate.

    At the same time, ground mounted PV-systems were installed on arable land formerly used for food or feed production. Hence, high quality soils were taken out of agricultural production. For addressing this type of conflict, Agrophotovoltaic (APV) systems combine agricultural biomass and solar power production on the same site and time for increasing area use efficiency. Even though APV might prove suitable in the technical sense, it might be rejected by society i.e. due to its landscape impact. The Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI)-concept was applied for APV by involving stakeholders already in the technology development process. In a series of workshops with citizens and experts, a comprehensive analysis of the driving and restraining forces for APV was done. A System Dynamics approach with Causal Loop Diagrams (CLD) visualizes and reveals the internal and external dynamics of the APV-technology. Stakeholders have pointed out the importance of defining a good framework for APV first, i.e. roof and industrial areas for PV system shall be exploited first. Any change in the set-up for the PV-system impacts the conditions for the agricultural cultivation conditions, i.e. the height and width of the mounting system influences the working conditions and distribution of water. The shading of the plants can increase the yields in dry and hot summers, while it may lead to yield reductions in other years. The acceptance level is driven by regional aspects such as tourism, local recreation and landscape impact. In this way, local knowledge from participatory studies is seen as prerequisite for a legitimate framework.

  • Public defence: 2020-04-27 10:00 De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Posselt, Malte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    Transformation of Micropollutants in the Hyporheic Zone2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Hyporheic zones (HZs) are reactive transition regions between rivers and aquifers which are thought to play an important role in the attenuation of micropollutants. Micropollutants are chemical substances such as pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals or personal care products that are found in trace concentrations in the environment and that can be harmful to organisms. This thesis aimed to narrow the knowledge gap on the environmental fate of wastewater-derived polar organic micropollutants in the aquatic environment, with a specific emphasis on the hyporheic zone.

    In Paper I an efficient workflow was developed for the in-situ characterization of polar organic micropollutants and their transformation products (TPs) in the hyporheic zone at high spatial and temporal resolution and with minimal disturbance of natural flow paths. A low volume sampling device was combined with a newly developed high throughput-direct injection-UHPLC-MS/MS method. Application in the field revealed significant differences in micropollutant concentrations that varied over small time- and spatial scales. In Paper II the results of a comprehensive field study performed in the urban lowland river Erpe in Berlin, Germany, are presented. The work provided data on in-situ attenuation behavior of 24 micropollutants and TPs, along with novel insights into the spatially- and temporally varying environmental factors which play a major role in controlling in-stream attenuation of micropollutants. Paper III describes a novel, multi-flume experiment designed to investigate the influence of hyporheic exchange flow and sediment bacterial diversity on dissipation half-lives of 31 micropollutants and associated TPs. Attenuation and transformation of most substances increased significantly with bacterial diversity; fewer compounds responded to both bacterial diversity and hyporheic exchange flow. In addition to the discovery of several novel TPs, a number of bacterial strains were identified that might be associated with micropollutant degradation. In Paper IV the fate of metformin in the hyporheic zone was examined using large-scale (100m) recirculating flumes to perform realistic yet well-controlled experiments. In addition to determining dissipation half-lives in surface and pore water, the formation of novel TPs was investigated via suspect screening and bacterial communities were characterized using microbiological analyses. Data from these experiments indicate that dunes and macrophytes promote hyporheic exchange flow and create reactive environments with steep and varying biogeochemical gradients, which enhanced the degradation of metformin.

    Collectively, the fate of 33 parent compounds and 37 transformation products was assessed in field and mesocosm experiments described in this thesis. Additionally, 29 suspected TPs were tentatively identified. Higher bacterial diversity in the hyporheic zone and more intense hyporheic exchange flows significantly enhanced biodegradation of organic micropollutants. A number of known and novel TPs were discovered under diverse conditions, many of which showed signs of environmental persistence, providing further evidence for inclusion of TPs in contaminant risk assessments and regulatory frameworks. This work highlights the importance of considering both small- and reach-scale temporal and spatial variability for a mechanistic understanding of attenuation in in-stream studies.

  • Public defence: 2020-04-29 10:00 Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Stockholm
    Baronio, Cesare Michele
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Computational infrared spectroscopy: Calculation of the amide I absorption of proteins2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Infrared spectroscopy is an important technique that allows to retrieve structural information from the analysis of absorption spectra. The main application of infrared spectroscopy within life science is the study of the amide I band, which is correlated with protein backbone conformation and, consequently, with the secondary structure of proteins. However, band assignment and interpretation of the infrared spectra is not straightforward.

    Therefore, several simulation methods were developed to guide the interpretation of experimental amide I spectra. In this thesis, one of these methods is a normal mode analysis, which is based on the evaluation of the intrinsic vibration of the amide groups and the interactions between them. The calculation considers several effects: transition dipole coupling, nearest neighbor interaction, the local environment effect and the effect of hydrogen bond. From the normal mode analysis, it is possible to obtain the simulated infrared spectrum and the contribution of each amide group to a specific spectral range of the spectrum.

    The aim of this thesis and of the included publications is to explain this approach, to improve it and to show its potential. Results from simulations were compared with experimental data for different proteins of interest: amyloid-β oligomers and β-helix proteins. Simulated and experimental infrared spectra showed similar bands. Simulations also provided additional conclusions: they confirmed the random mixing of amyloid-β peptides in oligomers; they suggested that amyloid-β peptides contribute at least two strands in the structure of the oligomers; they revealed that the high wavenumber band, typical of antiparallel β-sheets, can be caused by other secondary structures, but not by parallel β-sheets. In addition, to verify and to improve the accuracy of this approach, simulation results were also put in a direct comparison with results from density functional theory calculations. From this comparison, a new optimal set of parameters for the calculations is suggested.

  • Public defence: 2020-04-29 13:00 Stockholm
    Senkondo, William
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Modelling water resources despite data limitations in Tanzania’s Kilombero Valley2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Water is a vital resource for survival on the Earth. Sustainable management of water resources is therefore required for the wellbeing of present and future generations. A cornerstone of water resources management is scientific guidance supported by relevant data (in terms of quantity and quality). Most developing regions, where such guidance is crucial due to the intimate connection between natural resources and livelihoods, unfortunately face data limitations. This thesis aims to develop systematic approaches for informing water resources management in data limited regions. Specifically, this work targets Tanzania’s Kilombero Valley (KV) basin as an exemplar of a data limited region undergoing social-economic development through expansion and intensification of agriculture and other water-related interventions. Through a synthesis of lessons learned from the ongoing evolution of hydrological modelling development for water resources management in the Eastern Africa, several promising approaches were identified that could potentially be robust despite data limitations across the region. Putting these approaches into practice, recession analysis based on non-continuous discharge data in conjunction with estimations of the actual evapotranspiration (ET) using remote sensing techniques provided a basis to improve process understanding and help characterize the hydrological systems in the KV basin. This understanding translated into more-informed parameter estimation and improved accuracy when integrated into the development of a hydrological modelling framework using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model. The modeling framework established for KV has potential to be used as tool for estimating impacts of water resources management strategies relative to future anthropogenic pressures and climatic changes. What is even more promising, is the possibility to derive scientific guidance to assist water resources management in a data limited region through implementation of an integrated workflow which employs state-of-the-science approaches. The methodological framework for model development adopted in this thesis could be applied in any data limited region facing similar challenges as those of the KV basin.