1 - 15 of 15
rss atomLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
  • Public defence: 2018-03-01 10:00 föreläsningssalen, Filmhuset, Stockholm
    Castaldo Lundén, Elizabeth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies. Stockholm University.
    Oscar Night in Hollywood: Fashioning the Red-Carpet from the Roosevelt Hotel to International Media2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the red-carpet phenomenon from a historical perspective, seeking to understand how the Academy Awards’ red-carpet became the most prominent fashion show in media culture. The connections between Hollywood and the fashion industry predate the inception of the ceremony, and so does the role of Hollywood actresses as trendsetters. However, this pseudo-event epitomizes precisely this liaison. This research focuses on several historical constellations to account for the influence of media shifts, the public relations dynamics of the event, the changes in the fashion and film industries, and the role of key players in the dissemination of fashion discourses in relation to Hollywood. By delving into archival sources, and tracing discourses of fashion, stardom, and celebrity surrounding Hollywood and the Oscars, this dissertation shows how the red-carpet gained such status, functioning today as a marquee for celebrity endorsement of high-end fashion brands.

    Chapter 1 provides a historical overview of the event, identifying key moments in the configuration of the Oscars and its red-carpet event. Chapter 2 discusses the role of gatekeepers as mediators of cultural capital. This contextualizes the connections between Hollywood and fashion journalism, and the emergence and development of the best- and worst- dressed lists in the U.S. Chapter 3 analyzes the role of advertising and endorsement practices in the circulation of ideas that set Hollywood personalities as influencers. In addition, the legal aspects of testimonials, the notion of “red-carpet treatment” in association with the emergence of lifestyle advertising, and the coronation of “Oscar” as a celebrity in its own right are discussed. Chapter 4 focuses on the career of Edith Head, looking into her popular appeal as Hollywood’s foremost “fashion expert.” Chapter 5 explores the dynamics of fashion at the Academy Awards, Head’s crucial role as the Academy Awards’ Fashion Consultant, and what may be considered the first Academy Awards’ fashion pre-show. Chapter 6 is pivoted on the role of television networks and sponsors in the inception of the Oscarcast, and the public relations dynamics that set fashion at the forefront by branding this media event as an international fashion show free-for-all. The dissertation closes with a case study of the film The Oscar (Embassy Films, 1966), which amalgamates the kaleidoscope of ideas explored in the previous six chapters.

    This transdisciplinary study concludes that WWII marked a turning point in the history of the Academy Awards. The postwar culture was characterized by the power-shift towards television, the emergence of celebrity culture, the expansion of consumer culture, the reactivation of transatlantic trade, the growth of fashion journalism, and an increasing circulation of national and international designer names in the media. In this context, promotional practices that put Hollywood designers and stars at the forefront turned into an optimal platform for the proliferation of fashion discourses around the Oscars. This has been momentous for the conceptualization of the Oscarcast as a fashion show since its inception in 1953. 

  • Public defence: 2018-03-02 10:00 Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Stockholm
    Lundqvist, Jessica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y and neural progenitor C17.2 cell lines as models for neurotoxicological studies​2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We are surrounded by chemicals, thus understanding how exposure to these chemicals affect us during our life is of great social importance. In order to predict human acute toxicity of chemicals, cosmetics or drugs, development of novel in vitro test strategies is required. The overall aim of this thesis was to evaluate whether two different cell line models could be used to predict acute neurotoxicity or developmental neurotoxicity. In paper one, we identified changes in cell membrane potential (CMP) as the most sensitive indicator of toxicity in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.

    In the following studies, we evaluated the capacity of the murine neural progenitor cell line C17.2 to differentiate into mixed cell cultures. Upon differentiation of the C17.2 cells we could identify two morphologically distinguishable cell types; astrocytes and neurons (Paper II). We then investigated how differentiated C17.2 cells responded to non-cytotoxic concentrations of three known neurotoxic and three non-neurotoxic substances. The neurotoxicants induced depolarisation of CMP and alteration in the mRNA expression of at least one of the three biomarkers studied, i.e. βIII-tubulin, glial fibrillary acidic protein or heat shock protein-32. In contrast, no significant effects were observed when exposed to non-neurotoxic compounds (Paper IV).

    To further characterise the C17.2 cell model during differentiation, an mRNA microarray analysis of the whole genome was performed. The 30 most significantly altered biomarkers with association to neuronal development were identified. The mRNA expression of the 30 biomarkers were used as a panel to alert for developmental neurotoxicity by exposing C17.2 cells during differentiation to toxicants known to induce impaired nervous system development. All but two of the selected genes were significantly altered by at least one of the chemicals, but none of the 30 genes were affected when treated with the negative control (Paper III).  

    In conclusion, the differentiated C17.2 neural progenitor cell line seems to be an attractive model for studying and predicting acute and developmental neurotoxicity. 

  • Public defence: 2018-03-03 13:00 De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Forss, Charlotta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    The Old, the New and the Unknown: The continents and the making of geographical knowledge in seventeenth-century Sweden2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates early modern ways of looking at the world through an analysis of what the continents meant in three settings of knowledge making in seventeenth-century Sweden. Combining text, maps and images, the thesis analyses the meaning of the continents in, first, early modern scholarly ‘geography’, second, accounts of journeys to the Ottoman Empire and, third, accounts of journeys to the colony New Sweden. The investigation explores how an understanding of conceptual categories such as the continents was interlinked with processes of making and presenting knowledge. In this, the study combines approaches from conceptual history with research on knowledge construction and circulation in the early modern world.

    The thesis shows how geographical frameworks shifted between settings. There was variation in what the continents meant and what roles they could fill. Rather than attribute this flexibility to random variation or mistakes, this thesis interprets flexibility as an integral part of how the world was conceptualized. Religious themes, ideas about societal unities, definitions of old, new and unknown knowledge, as well as practical considerations, were factors that in different way shaped what the continents meant.

    A scheme of continents – usually consisting of the entities ‘Africa’, ‘America’, ‘Asia’, ‘Europe’ and the polar regions – is a part of descriptions about what the world looks like today. In such descriptions, the continents are often treated as existing outside of history. However, like other concepts, the meaning and significance of these concepts have changed drastically over time and between contexts. This fact is a matter of importance for historians, but equally so for a wider public using geographical categories to understand the world. Concepts such as the continents may describe what the world looks like, yet they can create both boundaries and affiliations far beyond land and sea.

  • Public defence: 2018-03-09 10:00 Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Hendrickx, Koen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Solar Forcing of Nitric Oxide in the Upper Atmosphere2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The forcing of the Sun on Earth's atmosphere manifests itself via solar radiation and energetic particle precipitation (EPP), which variations are most noticeable in the upper regions of the atmosphere. A key species in the lower thermosphere, which is influenced by solar forcing, is nitric oxide (NO). An NO reservoir is present in the lower thermosphere, from which NO-rich air can be transported downward into the mesosphere and stratosphere, where it takes part in catalytic ozone destruction cycles. For climate models to correctly simulate the solar forcing on our climate, the processes of NO production and destruction, as well as the descent into the lower atmosphere, must be understood and accurately represented.

    In this thesis, observations from the Solar Occultation For Ice Experiment (SOFIE) instrument onboard the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) satellite are used to investigate temporal characteristics of NO in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. We have developed a diagnostic method to determine the relative importance of the NO physical drivers throughout the lower thermosphere. The method shows that, at high latitudes, precipitating auroral electrons dominantly drive NO variations. Comparisons with NO measurements by the Student Nitric Oxide Experiment (SNOE), made almost a decade earlier, reveal that the impact of this forcing on NO appears to be invariant throughout the 11 year solar cycle.

    On shorter timescales, we have shown a clear signature of the reoccurring 27 day geomagnetic impact on NO concentrations during summer and winter, with subsequent descent into the lower mesosphere during winter. The occurrence of medium energy electrons, which precipitate to mesospheric altitudes, results in a further increase of the descending NO flux. This complicates the determination of the relative contribution of the EPP direct and indirect effect on NO, i.e. separating direct NO production from downwards transported NO, respectively, in NO enhancements at a certain altitude. Using a full-range energy spectrum from the Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES), we have been able to disentangle the direct and indirect EPP effect on Southern hemispheric NO during a geomagnetic storm in 2010.

    Simulations of NO by the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model with Specified Dynamics (SD-WACCM) model reveal that the model predicts a too high climatological mean, while the short term variability is too low, as compared to SOFIE. However, even though the dynamical transport in both model and observations agrees very well, the descending NO fluxes are too low in the model.

    In conclusion, the results of this thesis provide a better understanding of NO variability from an observational standpoint and will enable better model representations in the future.

  • Public defence: 2018-03-09 10:00 De Geer salen, Geovetenskapens hus
    Krzymowska, Antonia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Mäklarrättsliga principer vid företagsförmedling2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis deals with principles in brokerage law. In the thesis, the legal position of the broker has been analysed by contrasting the business broker to other types of intermediaries.

    A prerequisite for legally defining the business broker is the systemisation of intermediation law in individual matters and analysis of the applicability of intermediation law to the business broker. By answering the question of what might be applicable to the business broker in certain matters, the legal guise of this party has taken form. It is also through this method that it is possible to analyse how the system in which the business broker exists – intermediation law – affects and shapes this legal party. The purpose of this thesis is not limited to investigate the business broker's legal position. This is rather a by-product of a method whose purpose is to identify which norms in intermediation law have the character of principles, in the sense of norms with broad applicability.

    The relationship between an intermediary and a broker can be described in the following way: brokerage law is a subset of intermediation law. An intermediary is thus a wider concept encompassing various different parties, including the broker. A secondary result of the research is that it is probably possible, on the back of the conclusions drawn regarding business brokers, to draw further conclusions regarding the legal positions of other, non-regulated, types of brokers.

  • Public defence: 2018-03-09 10:00 Aula Svea, Socialhögskolan, Stockholm
    Pålsson, David
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    The Prerequisites and Practices of Auditing Residential Care: On the Licensing and Inspection of Residential Homes for Children in Sweden2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this dissertation is to describe and analyse the prerequisites and practices of auditing Swedish residential care for children. Residential care is a complex intervention provided to children in vulnerable life situations. The care is extensively delivered by private providers and shows difficulties in demonstrating clearly positive treatment effects. Licensing and inspections are policy instruments to address alleged quality problems in decentralised and marketised welfare services. However, in research there are mixed opinions on the ability of audits to generate improved service quality.

    The dissertation consists of four papers exploring central facets of the audit system. The empirical material is based on interviews (n=50) with inspectors and residential staff, documentation (n=286) in terms of guidelines and license/inspection decisions and observations (n=12) at inspection-related events. Each paper includes a unique set of data.

    Paper I analyses the controls that private residential homes undergo prior to their entry into the market. The results show that a majority of applicants are granted a license and that the controls do not reduce the need for ex post control. There is limited guidance on care content and research evidence is weakly incorporated in the controls. Overall, the state exerts limited influence over the composition and professional development of the care market.

    Paper II explores the operationalisation process of care quality in inspections. The results show that the standards display a marked variation and there is no differentiation between different residential homes. In general, the standards focus on reducing malpractice and not maximising care quality. In practice, the inspections are often discussion-based and standards relating to work with children are often indistinct.

    Paper III analyses how inspections are perceived by representatives from residential homes. The results show that inspections induce reflection and to some extent shape the administrative parts of care, but also that it is difficult to discern the actual impact of the inspections on the work. The inspections appear to bring a degree of stability and legitimacy to the work, but there are sometimes tensions between standards and professional judgment.

    Paper IV studies the influence the inspection process grants children in care. The results suggest that different inspectorial rationales (regulative, supportive and protective) may influence the agency children exert and that it is difficult to allow children’s views to have a substantial impact on the process. Overall, there tends to be a gap between what the children find important and what the audits can address in concrete terms.

    The theoretical ideas used to analyse the results are derived from institutional organisational theory and the thesis on the audit society. The overall analysis shows that 1) making certain core care aspects auditable and ensuring their impact is difficult (e.g., children-staff relationships, children’s views and use of research knowledge), 2) the system has a restrained character and is in many senses associated with inconclusive formative effects, 3) the use of uniform goals does not necessarily equal a more suitable care provision and 4) the audits signify strong symbolic values. Despite the limitations, the audits may help to discipline care providers, secure a minimum level relative to the audited care aspects and induce reflection among auditees.

  • Public defence: 2018-03-09 13:00 sal G, Arrheniuslaboratorierna, Stockholm
    Svensson Källberg, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Immigrant students' opportunities to learn mathematics: In(ex)clusion in mathematics education2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores immigrant students’ opportunities to learn mathematics. The research is concerned with issues of social justice and adopts a socio-political approach. Immigrant students are often described as students who do poorly in school because they lack “Swedishness” and have insufficient Swedish language skills. This deficit discourse is used when explaining immigrant students’ failure in mathematics, which this thesis aims to critique. Also, by adopting two theoretical frameworks, one that draws on the work of Skovsmose (1994, 2014) and one on the work of Foucault (2000, 2002), it aims at exploring possible understandings of immigrant students’ opportunities to learn mathematics.

    The research questions are addressed in a preamble and four articles. They address immigrant students’ perceptions of their opportunities to learn mathematics and how these perceptions come into existence, and the different contributions of using the theoretical frameworks.

    Data emanates from interviews, with immigrant students aged 15 to 16 years old and policy texts regarding schooling for newly arrived. Skovsmose’s notion of foreground is used when analysing immigrant students’ perceptions of their opportunities to learn mathematics. A Foucauldian perspective is used for exploring immigrant students’ identity formations as mathematical learners in a context of a forced school transition. The notions of fabrication and abjection (Popkewitz, 2012, 2013) are used as analytical tools when exploring how the newly arrived student as a mathematical learner is fabricated in policy texts.

    The findings show how conditions concerning future plans, otherness, Swedishness, perceiving their parents as deficit in relation to Swedish parents, segregation, feelings of exclusion and rowdy mathematics classrooms constitute their foregrounds, and affect their perceptions of their opportunities to learn mathematics. It was also shown how students’ identity formations as learners of mathematics are dynamic and enabled by discourse. For example, discourses operating in two different school contexts enabled the transitioning students to form identities as un-engaged and respectively engaged mathematics students. It was shown how students’ perceptions were influenced by public discourses, and thus how categorisations of them as immigrant students with deficiencies had looped into their lives. By exploring fabrication of the newly arrived student as a mathematical learner and the process of abjection information on how students may be ordered in relation to what degree they have come to master for example the Swedish language were provided. This may generate feelings of in(ex)clusion, which refers to the inseparability of inclusion and exclusion: any move to include brings with it potential exclusions.

    A conclusion is that to be able to understand immigrant students’ opportunities to learn mathematics and explain achievement in mathematics, deficiency explanations are not sufficient. Instead, it is of importance to try to understand the students’ perspectives and explore the role of discourse and power since it allows for explanations that ground students’ opportunities to learn mathematics in the socio-political conditions in which they emerge. This enables for learning more about what constitutes immigrant students’ perceptions and how they come into existence and thus allows for addressing processes of in(ex)clusion and critique deficiency explanations.

  • Public defence: 2018-03-09 13:00 JMK-salen, Garnisonen, Stockholm
    Dahlin, Emma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    Ontological Ordering: Achieving Audience in Internet Practice2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Against the backdrop of changing technological conditions of the contemporary media landscape, new questions arise regarding how audience can be can problematized and theorized. This dissertation seeks to shift the focus from conventional assumptions of what audience is to an empirical exploration of the specificities of the process through which audience is achieved in practice. This involves revisiting and questioning ontological assumptions about the nature of audience.

      The aim of the study is to develop an alternative approach for theorizing audience. A three year and seven months’ exploration of one example of an audience practice, the empirical focus is on the Gallifrey Base, an internet discussion forum for viewers of the TV series Doctor Who. To explore the specifics of audience as reality-in-practice, a methodological approach is developed that adjusts ethnographic research methods to align with a concern with ontology in audience practice – an audienceography. This dissertation thereby makes questions of ontology an empirical concern, drawing attention to how practices make up realities – that is, to how ontology is achieved. By turning to theoretical and methodological insights from Science and Technology Studies (STS), this study sets out to particularize how audience is achieved on the Gallifrey Base.

       Three chapters detail and analyze how practices on the Gallifrey Base achieve audience. Each build on the findings from the previous chapter, attending to ontological ordering in different ways, delving deeper into the details of the unfolding audience practice. The findings show how multiple ontologies can co-exist. In contrast to classic communication models, it is argued that the significance of communication by other means is about more than sending and receiving messages. An implication for the theorization of audience is that communication can have other purposes, as messages may be sent and received in order to maintain a particular communication practice.

      In relation to audience studies, the dissertation makes a theoretical contribution by connecting insights from recent debates on ontology and multiplicity in STS to empirical explorations of audience, thus widening the scope of the theoretical explanatory basis. The empirical contribution is to demonstrate that rather than a natural and stable structure, much work is invested in trying to maintain multiplicity even in the single audience practice of the Gallifrey Base forum. This suggests that ontologically fixed and given theoretical notions of audience are not compatible with contemporary audience practice. Audience practice, it is found, may include a range of multiple modes, which calls for attentiveness to the situated work carried out by various actors in the achievement of audience. In light of these findings, it is argued that approaching audience as ontology-in-practice provides a foundation for further theorizations of contemporary audience.

      Connecting the findings from Ontological Ordering to wider concerns in the humanities and social sciences – a concern with audience becomes a concern with the processes and implications of how we interact with media material and media devices, which in contemporary media environment is intensely technological. 

  • Public defence: 2018-03-15 10:00 De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Dalirian, Maryam
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Investigating parameters governing liquid-phase cloud activation of atmospheric particles2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aerosol-cloud interactions are one of the main sources of uncertainties in modeling and predicting the Earth’s climate. To overcome this uncertainty, we need to improve the understanding about the processes and parameters defining how aerosol particles turn into cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) or ice nuclei (IN) to produce cloud droplets or ice crystals. The focus of this dissertation is on liquid phase cloud droplets. The thesis investigates the effect of water solubility and surface tension on the CCN activity of atmospheric aerosol particles. These parameters are among the key properties defining how an aerosol particle can turn into a cloud droplet. The main goals of this thesis are to investigate 1) the CCN activity of aerosol particles containing both water soluble and insoluble substances and 2) the contribution of molecular-scale surface structure to the surface tension and CCN activity of atmospherically relevant aqueous mixtures.

    In the first part of this thesis, the CCN activity of water-insoluble aerosol constituents coated by water-soluble or sparingly soluble species was investigated. The results showed that the CCN activity of the insoluble silica and black carbon particles, with sizes between 100 and 300 nm, increased with the amount of the coating on the insoluble cores and at thick enough coating approached the CCN activity of the soluble species. Moreover, controlled dry coating of the insoluble BC cores yielded a size-independent distribution of the coating material on the insoluble cores, which was not achieved by wet coating of the silica particles. The results also confirmed that by knowing the fraction of soluble material (coating thicknesses), the existing theories gave a reasonable estimate of the CCN activity for the mixed soluble-insoluble particles. Finally, the results highlight the need for including the impacts of co-emitted or later condensed compounds in estimates of the climate impacts of atmospheric insoluble aerosol species.

    In the second part of the thesis, surface propensity of succinic acid, pure or mixed with soluble inorganic salts in the aqueous droplets, were quantified via molecular-level surface composition measurement by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The XPS and molecular dynamic (MD) simulations of succinic acid aqueous solutions showed strong enrichment of the succinic acid at the surface of the liquid droplets compared to the bulk solution. This effect was more pronounced in the presence of the highly soluble inorganic salts like NaCl and (NH4)2SO4 in the system. The modeled surface tension of the pure organic or mixture of organic and inorganic substances, using surface enrichment factors derived from the XPS experiments were in good agreement with the experimental surface tension data. This demonstrates the high potential of XPS for direct measurements of the surface composition of atmospherically relevant aqueous mixtures. The results suggest that for modeling the phase-state and water content of the atmospheric particles, the contribution by the surface layer needs to be considered, because aqueous droplet can contain larger amounts of organic compounds than the bulk solubility limit of the solutions. However, the effect of the aqueous surface composition on the CCN activation of particles consisting of the studied mixtures was estimated to be very small.

    The results presented in this thesis provide new insights into the relationship between aerosol particle composition and cloud condensation nuclei activity. However, the effect of more realistic complex mixtures will require more research. The results showed that for modeling semi-volatile species, the partitioning between the gas and condensed phase needs to be considered. In addition, along with the liquid-phase cloud activation, the ice nucleation ability of the particles made of soluble and insoluble species requires to be further investigated.

  • Public defence: 2018-03-15 10:00 Vivi Täckholmsalen (Q-Salen), Stockholm
    Galafassi, Diego
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    The Transformative Imagination: Re-imagining the world towards sustainability2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A central task for sustainability science in the Anthropocene is to offer guidance on alternative pathways of change. Even though this search and implementation of pathways towards sustainability is likely to require profound social-ecological transformations, little is yet known about the individual and collective capacities needed to support such transformations. This thesis explores the connection between human imagination and sustainability transformations, and introduces the notion of the transformative imagination to support methodological innovation in sustainability sciences, and practices aiming to support transformations towards sustainability. The transformative imagination is suggested to support fundamentally new ways of seeing, feeling, encountering and envisioning the world. The thesis takes a transdisciplinary action-research approach and studies how specific participatory practices, including the arts, may foster the transformative imagination as a means to more skilfully respond to, anticipate and shape social-ecological trajectories in the Anthropocene. The four included papers, each explores how practices may support particular features of the imagination as a transformative capacity. Paper I analyses a case in coastal Kenya where participatory modelling and future scenarios are applied to foster imagination of dynamics of interdependences and trade-offs within the context of poverty alleviation and ecosystems change. Paper II explores system diagrams and scenarios as practices for the development of social-ecological narratives that may support robust interventions in coastal Kenya and Mozambique. Paper III implements, and studies how an art-based approach based on performances, visual methods and an art installation, could support transformative visions of the Iberian Peninsula in the context of extreme climate change. Paper IV is a literature review of the potential contributions of the arts to transformations, in the context of climate change. These papers focus on different features of imagination, which under certain circumstances may progressively develop into societal transformative capacities with the potential to re-structure current social-ecological realities. Overall, this thesis is a step towards forging new kinds of reflexive, imaginative and deliberative practices that can support the emergence of local arrangements of a sustainable world where life can carry on.

  • Public defence: 2018-03-16 09:30 De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Winkens, Kerstin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Estimating children’s exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are highly stable, surface active chemicals, which are water- and oil/stain-repellent. Because of their unique properties, PFASs are widely used in consumer products. Their application ranges from personal-care products, food packaging and textiles to interior materials, thus leading to a continuous human exposure to PFASs in every-day life. Possible exposure pathways are the ingestion of food, drinking water and dust; the inhalation of fine dust and air; as well as dermal absorption after contact with the products and dust.

    Despite the increasing number of monitoring studies, including measurement of concentrations in human exposure media and blood, childhood exposure is poorly understood.

    The state of current knowledge on childhood exposure was investigated in paper I, by reviewing existing PFAS literature on exposure media, on daily intakes via different exposure pathways and on levels in blood and serum. Subsequently, recommendations for future research needs were made and implications presented on the regulation and assessment of PFASs. For paper II, III and IV, a cohort of background-exposed Finnish children was followed throughout childhood. Indoor air and floor dust samples of their bedrooms were taken at the age of 10.5 years in 2014/2015 and analysed for a wide range of PFASs (paper II and III). The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) via these two media were calculated in paper III. The EDIs revealed that dust ingestion and air inhalation are of similar importance for the intake of single perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA), if the metabolism of PFAA precursors to PFAAs was included. The metabolism of precursors contributed considerably to the total intake of PFAAs via the inhalation of air (e.g. 38 % for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and 90 % for perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS)) and to the total intake of PFOS via the ingestion of dust (69 %; median values at the intermediate exposure scenario). In paper IV, the internal exposure during childhood was monitored by measuring serum concentrations, which were decreasing with age; and by calculating body burdens at 1, 6 and 10.5 years of age, which were constant or increasing, depending on the respective PFAS. These results demonstrated that it is crucial to account for growth dilution when studying exposure trends and PFAS intakes during childhood.

    This thesis contributes to a better understanding of children’s exposure to PFASs, especially the internal exposure during childhood and the relative importance of both, indoor exposure pathways, as well as individual PFASs.

  • Public defence: 2018-03-16 10:00 Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Stockholm
    Kerdphon, Sutthichat
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    NHC,P- and N,P-Iridium Catalysts for Hydrogenations and Hydrogen Transfer Reactions2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The work described in this thesis is focused on hydrogenation and hydrogen transfer reactions using iridium catalysts. The first part concerns the use of N-heterocyclic carbene-phosphine iridium complexes in alkylation reactions (Chapters 2 and 3) and the hydrogenation of ketones (Chapter 4). A number of N-heterocyclic carbene-phosphine iridium complexes have been prepared and evaluated as catalysts for C-N bond formation of amides using alcohols as the electrophile. This catalytic system can be used with a wide range of substrates at low catalyst loading (only 0.5 mol%) to furnish the desired products in up to 98% isolated yield. The achiral N-heterocyclic carbene-phosphine iridium complexes were also found to catalyze the methylation of ketones with methanol under mild conditions to afford the mono-methylated products in up to 98% isolated yield with low catalyst loading (1.0 mol%). Additionally, several chiral N-heterocyclic carbene-phosphine iridium complexes were synthesized and evaluated in asymmetric hydrogenation of ketones. The reactions were carried out at room temperature under base-free conditions to obtain the chiral alcohols in up to 96% ee in 30 minutes.

    The second part of this thesis (Chapter 5) details the preparation of new N,P-iridium complexes which were found to be highly efficient catalysts for the asymmetric hydrogenation of challenging tetrasubstituted olefins. This catalytic system results in optically active compounds of high enantiomeric excess (up to 98% ee) as the single diasteroisomer.

  • Public defence: 2018-03-16 13:00 Hörsal 7, Hus D, Stockholm
    Nilsson Mohammadi, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History. Forskarskolan i kulturhistoriska studier (FoKult).
    Den stora gruvstrejken i Malmfälten: En muntlig historia2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation explores how the miners’ strike in the Norrbotten ore fields 1969–70 has been made meaningful. For a long time, this strike has been a centre of debates and reflections on society, culture, and history in Sweden. The popular support for the miners’ strike was high, and a solidarity movement comprising loosely organised individual and collective initiatives was formed. Journalists, documentary film-makers, playwrights, scholars, and others within this movement documented the strike. Following the strike, actors within the solidarity movement expressed concerns that the experiences from the strike would be scattered and forgotten. Therefore, the strike has been depicted many times and in many genres. The authors of these depictions have commonly used the participants’ voices to narrate the strike.

    Through the miners’ strike, consecutive depictions of it, and memories from its participants, this dissertation studies the relationships between memories from individual actors, shared memory processes on a societal level, and history-writing. The central concept is meaning-making, which in this dissertation stands for people’s ever ongoing work to make themselves, others, and shared situations comprehensible. Meaning-making is studied through the more empirically oriented concepts memory and narrative. A combination of what historian Alistair Thomson has called ‘a popular memory approach to oral history’ and Gérard Genette’s narratology is put to use in the studies. The focus is thus how the participants in the strike and actors in the solidarity movement have made stories out of their memories, and how they then relate to existing accounts. This leads to a discussion on how voices from actors can be used in order to produce knowledge and/or change.

    On an empirical level, the dissertation contributes with knowledge on how the strike has been made meaningful through time, but also about the strike as an event in the past. The most important material is a new collection of oral history interviews with participants in the strike and people who took part in the solidarity movement, but the dissertation also studies books, articles and dramas that depicts the strike. In the first empirical chapter, constructions and discussions of the miners’ voices in texts by actors within the solidarity movement during the period 1968–2009 is discussed. The second empirical chapter explores how two persons that reported from the strike describes and discusses their journeys to the strike as well as their texts about the strike. The third empirical chapter analyses the different stories about the strike that the collection of oral history interviews contains, and shows how the strike has been made into an event. The fourth empirical chapter shows how participants relate to existing stories about the strike when the mediate their memories of it in the oral history interviews.

  • Public defence: 2018-03-16 13:00 Gröjersalen, hus 3, Kräftriket, Stockholm
    Lokatt, Cristoffer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Auditors’ Constitution of Performance: a study on the duality of performance in the auditing profession2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For decades, the auditing profession has been under scrutiny, due in part to its close association with a business rationale. This has led to some to call for de-professionalization, where accountability, control, and commerce would threaten auditing’s autonomy. Yet auditing is regarded as a principle of social organization and control, wherein it produces trust and legitimacy to society. By focusing on the individual auditor and the micro-level dynamics in the auditor’s organizational context, this dissertation challenges traditional notions of professionalism and commercialism as dichotomies. Based on documents, observations, and in-depth interviews with auditors holding different levels of experience, performance was targeted as a central concept for auditors’ understanding of auditing as a social and organizational phenomenon. Accordingly, by critically appraising the significance of performance in the professional-organizational context of Big Four firms, this dissertation engages with auditors’ reasoning and everyday work activities. Here, performance is suggested to hold a central role in how auditors manage and reconcile conflicting institutional logics — as well as accountability demands — in their everyday work. By theorizing on the mediating role of performance, this dissertation explores how performance is enacted in both structure (control, rituals and norms) and agency (reflexive monitoring and rationalization). Drawing on structuration theory, performance is shown to constitute modalities in actors’ use of structure, a process in which conflicting institutional logics are replicated, revised, and rejected. The findings further pinpoint the active role of auditors in mobilizing and defining legitimate performances within particular local settings. In this, a previously neglected interplay between bureaucratic and social performance practices that is performed by auditors is recognized as essential in exploring auditing as defined in the local professional-organizational settings. This interplay suggests a need to further attend how auditing is performed by practitioners in micro-level, everyday work. To conclude, this dissertation indicates that auditors’ reasoning on and mobilization of performance define the evolving auditing profession, one where rules and accountability regimes dominate. As a consequence, the influence of individual agency, professional communities, and social interaction are emphasized as key components for our understanding of the continuously developing professional field of auditing and the maintenance of a strong professional ethos.

  • Public defence: 2018-03-22 10:00 Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Fransner, Filippa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Organic carbon dynamics in the Baltic Sea: A modelling perspective2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Coastal seas constitute a link between land and the open ocean, and therefore play an important role in the global carbon cycle. Large amounts of carbon, of both terrestrial and marine origin, transit and are transformed in these waters, which belong to the more productive areas of the oceans. Despite much research has been done on the subject, there are still many unknown factors in the coastal sea carbon cycling. 

    This doctoral thesis investigates the carbon dynamics in the Baltic Sea, with a focus on the production and fate of marine and terrestrial organic carbon and its influence on the air-sea CO2 exchange in its northernmost part, the Gulf of Bothnia. The main approach is the use of a coupled 3D physical-biogeochemical model, in combination with a long series of measurements of physical and biogeochemical parameters. 

    A new coupled 3D physical-biogeochemical model, which includes the stoichiometric flexibility of plankton and organic matter, is set up for the Gulf of Bothnia. It is found that phytoplankton stoichiometric flexibility in particular, with non-Redfieldian dynamics, is key to explaining seasonal pCO2, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and nutrient dynamics. If the Redfield ratio is instead used to predict organic carbon production, as done in most biogeochemical models currently in use, the uptake of atmospheric CO2 is reduced by half. Furthermore, it is shown that the organic carbon production needed to reproduce the summer pCO2 drawdown is larger than measured estimates of primary production. This discrepancy is attributed to a substantial production of extracellular DOC, which seems not to be captured by measurements. 

    The dynamics of terrestrial dissolved organic carbon (tDOC) is studied by the use of a passive tracer released from rivers into the physical model of the Baltic Sea. It is found that 80% of the tDOC released in the Baltic Sea is removed, and the rest is exported to the North Sea. Two different parameterisations of tDOC removal are tested. In the first one a decay rate with a timescale of 1 year applied to 80% of the tDOC, and the remaining 20% is assumed to be refractory. In the second one a decay rate with a timescale of 10 years applied to 100% of the tDOC. Trying these parameterisations in a full biogeochemical model shows that only the one with the faster decay is able to reproduce observations of pCO2 in the low-salinity region. A removal rate of one year agrees well with calculated removal rates from bacterial incubation experiments, indicating that bacteria have the potential to cause this remineralisation. It is not only remineralisation of tDOC that affects the pCO2; it is also suggested that a strong tDOC induced light extinction is needed to prevent a too large pCO2 drawdown by phytoplankton in the low salinity region.