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  • Public defence: 2018-08-30 13:00 De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Knutsson, Daniel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Public Health Programmes, Healthcare and Child Health2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of three self-contained chapters.

    Modern Medicine, Public Policy and Infant Health: Evidence from a Preventive Health Programme in Sweden. This paper explores a universal preventive health programme targeting infants that coincided in time with the introduction and availability of an early antibiotic, sulfa. As sulfa only affects infant mortality by reducing pneumonia, the effect of medicine distribution through the program can largely be separated from preventive health inputs. I find that access to the program reduced infant mortality by 7 per cent, which can entirely be attributed to reduced mortality in pneumonia among infants. I find no effect on other infectious diseases. This means that the program was mainly effective through the spread and use of sulfa, facilitated by regular physician contacts and a decentralised health organisation. These findings suggest that universal infant monitoring can be an effective way of providing healthcare to groups with low access to healthcare. However, these gains did not translate to any detectable long-term benefits in health or labour market outcomes.

    Urban Water Improvement and Health: Evidence from the Early Stages of Industrialisation. Water and sewerage technologies can explain much of the decline in urban mortality during the early 20th century. However, the importance of information on how to use these technologies effectively for positive health effects is still unclear. This paper analyses how water technologies affected health when information on the communicability of infectious diseases was not available. The city of Stockholm introduced a water cleaning system and piped distribution network in 1861, enabling parts of the population in-house access. The historical context allows me to analyse these technologies without sewerage access as no major sewerage system was constructed at the same time. Water cleaning and piped distribution had a large positive impact on health, even without sewerages. However, the effect on infant mortality is smaller and less precise. Infants and small children could therefore be more sensitive than adults to inefficient use of the water technologies due to information constraints.

    Hospital Crowding and Quality: Evidence from Swedish Delivery Care Units. How hospitals can improve quality has been empirically difficult to establish. I explore resources in delivery care in Sweden as a possible margin for improvement by assessing the relationship between delivery-care crowding and health. Comparing crowded days to average patient volume, I find large effects on neonatal mortality. However, the effect on neonatal mortality is only apparent in large cities, where I find evidence that capacity constraints bind more often. In large city hospitals, crowding is associated with around 50 per cent higher risk of an infant dying in her first month of life. This effect is unrelated to if hospitals have neonatal intensive care units or not. Furthermore, I find that emergency caesarean sections are delayed at times of crowding and argue that delayed medical treatments due to capacity constraints is the most plausible explanation for the findings. These results suggest that there is scope for quality improvements in delivery care at times of high demand.

  • Public defence: 2018-08-31 13:00 Sal 108, Stockholm
    de Verdier, Kim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Children with blindness: Developmental aspects, comorbidity and implications for education and support2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this research is to deepen the knowledge about developmental aspects, comorbidity and implications for education and support provision, regarding children with blindness. Special focus is directed towards children with blindness and autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

    The research comprises three different projects, reported in five papers. The studies adopt different designs; one is record-based and explores clinical characteristics and etiologies of Swedish children with blindness, one has a longitudinal design with collection of qualitative as well as quantitative data, and explores the school outcome for braille reading students in inclusive education; and one has a mainly qualitative design and explores diagnostic challenges and support to children with blindness and ASD and their families. Both children’s, parents’ and teachers’ perspectives are included in the research.

    The results show that children with blindness are very rare; in average seven blind children per year are born in Sweden. Moreover, isolated blindness is unusual in children, and the rate of multidisability is high. The comorbidity with ASD and intellectual disability (ID) is high, especially in certain etiological groups. Competence about children with blindness is necessary in assessment and diagnostic procedures, to differentiate between effects of blindness and possible additional disabilities. The results also highlight the fact that the support provided to children with blindness, with and without additional disabilities, is perceived as insufficient and does not correspond to the complex needs of the population. Teachers need more competence in braille and teaching methods, especially regarding blindness and additional disabilities such as ASD. Parents ask for a more coordinated support with a life-long scope, provided by professionals with expertise in children with blindness.

    The opinions about inclusive education differ in the studies; both students, parents and teachers point to advantages as well as challenges. However, for the schools to be able provide equal educational opportunities for children with blindness in the inclusive setting, the support must be further developed and the national responsibility for unusual disability groups must be extended.


  • Public defence: 2018-08-31 13:00 William-Olssonsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Toth, Jeanette
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    English-medium instruction for young learners in Sweden: A longitudinal case study of a primary school class in a bilingual English-Swedish school2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to highlight the policies, perspectives, and practices of language use in a bilingual English-Swedish primary class during Grades 4–6, where English was the medium of instruction in several subjects. A rapidly increasing number of Swedish compulsory schools offer these programs, which are often associated with high status and academic achievement (Skolverket, 2010). Although several studies have investigated content and language integrated learning (CLIL) and English-medium instruction (EMI) at upper secondary schools in Sweden, there is little research on such programs for young learners in the Swedish context. As students may start learning English in Swedish schools as late as Grade 3, young learners who begin attending English-medium programs in Grade 4 may have limited knowledge of English, which can have implications for their content learning. 

    In this thesis, which is situated within an ecology of language framework (van Lier, 2004), questions about language ideologies, teacher and learner beliefs regarding teaching and learning in an additional language, and translanguaging practices have been explored in the three studies included here. Data has been collected over three school years within the larger longitudinal case study, including policy texts, informational brochures, schedules, statistics, instructional materials, student texts, audiorecorded interviews with 13 members of staff and 22 students, audiorecorded lesson observations, fieldnotes, and photos of the school and classroom landscape as well as of instructional materials and student texts. 

    Study I, which focused on stated and practiced language policies concerning languages of instruction in an EMI program in a Swedish compulsory school, revealed a linguistic hierarchy privileging English and a native speaker ideal. While Swedish was also valued as the other language of instruction, minoritized languages such as multilingual students' mother tongues were marginalized. Likewise, in Study II, which explored stakeholder beliefs about the EMI program, it was found that while English was highly valued among the participants and Swedish was considered to be a source of support for students in the English-medium classroom, other languages were mostly invisibilized in the mainstream classroom. However, despite a prevailing belief that students learned English naturally through language immersion by being "forced" to use it to communicate with the native English-speaking teachers, there were also concerns about implications for students' development of subject-specific Swedish. Finally, in Study III, analysis of language choices in English-medium Science and Mathematics lessons revealed how the use of English and Swedish could function as resources for teaching and learning

    Although the findings from this case study may not necessarily apply to other English-medium programs, they nonetheless have implications for policymakers at the national and local levels, as well as for teachers and students involved in such programs. Ideological assumptions about languages and language learning have been shown to shape both policy and practice within educational contexts such as the school in this study. It is therefore imperative that stakeholders are made aware of the challenges involved with teaching and learning in an additional language, so that these programs can be organized in a way that promotes content learning as well as learners' multilingual development.

  • Public defence: 2018-09-03 14:00 De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Kessel, Dany
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    School Choice, School Performance and School Segregation: Institutions and Design2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of four self-contained chapters. 

    The first chapter, Are Parents Uninformed? – The Impact of School Performance Information on School Choice Behavior and Student Assignment, is co-authored by Elsisabet Olme. We investigate the effects of school performance information on school choice behavior and student assignment. A randomly selected group of students, about to choose middle school, were provided with information about the performance of the available schools. Households that received the information became more prone to choose a top-performing school. This effect is driven by native and high-skilled households. We simulate how this change in choice behavior translates into changes in school assignment. We find that enrollment in the top-performing schools increases but the effect is muted by limited capacity. We also find that the treatment increases the gap in school performance between advantaged and disadvantaged households, decreases segregation in terms of migration background and increases segregation in terms of parental skill-level. 

    The second chapter, School Choice Priority Structures and School Segregation, is also co-authored by Elsisabet Olme. We evaluate how school segregation is affected by altering the priority structures in a school choice program. We evaluate three priority structures, one proximity-based, one lottery-based and one based on soft quotas. Using actual choice data and simulations we find that that priority structures do affect school segregation. When reserving seats for different groups, schools are less segregated compared to when using systems where priorities are based on proximity or a lottery. We find that the average costs in terms of welfare are limited but that the different priority structures benefit different subgroups. 

    In the third chapter, Debiasing the Gender Differences in Willingness to Compete – The Effects of General Information on the Gender Gap and Efficiency, I explore if informing people about the gender differences in the willingness to compete and the accompanying inefficiencies can reduce said differences and inefficiencies. In an experiment where the participants got to choose whether to compete or not, a random sample of participants were informed about the gender differences in willingness to compete and the related inefficiencies. Among those not informed, men were much more likely to compete than women. There were also significant inefficiencies from low-performing men choosing to compete and high-performing women choosing not to. The treatment reversed the gender gap and significantly reduced inefficiency. 

    The fourth chapter, The Housing Wealth Effect: Quasi-Experimental Evidence is co-authored by Roine Vestman and Björn Tyrefors Hinnerich. We exploit a quasi-experiment that occurred in Stockholm in 2007 when the contract of Stockholm's city airport was unexpectedly renewed. We estimate an immediate shock of approximately 16 percent to house prices close to the airport. This source of price variation is ideal to identify housing wealth effects since it is local and unrelated to variation in macroeconomic conditions. Using a household data set with granular geographic information on primary residence, we find an MPC on cars of less than 0.2 cents per dollar.

  • Public defence: 2018-09-07 09:30 Vivi Täckholmsalen (Q-salen), NPQ-huset, Stockholm
    Kari, Elina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Light conditions in seasonally ice-covered waters: within the Baltic Sea region2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Seasonal ice cover is a major driver of seasonality in aquatic ecosystems in the Baltic Sea region. Ice cover influences the underwater light conditions directly by limiting the light transfer and indirectly by modifying the mixing and circulation under the ice. Light conditions and stratification are key factors controlling the onset of the phytoplankton spring bloom. Therefore, the seasonal ice cover has an important role in setting the time frames for the primary production and in influencing the seasonality of the ecological processes. This thesis investigates the optical properties of the ice cover and the bio-optical substances in the water column.

    Bio-optical substances, suspended particulate matter (SPM), Coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), determine the availability and spectral distribution of light. Measuring turbidity is quick and easy compared to the gravimetrical determination of the SPM concentration. Paper I provides a new model to estimate the concentration of SPM from turbidity. The new SPM-turbidity model predicts SPM concentrations well, despite the high CDOM absorption and the optical differences in the coastal northwestern and southeastern Baltic proper. Therefore, the new SPM-turbidity model offers a cost-effective and reliable method to monitor SPM concentration.

    The light transfer through the snow and ice cover was studied both in freshwater lake ice and in brackish sea ice (Papers II and III). Additionally, the seasonal evolution of light transmission through lake ice was investigated during spring. The crystal structure of the ice cover was analysed both in the coastal fast ice zone and in drift ice in the open Baltic Sea. The snow and ice cover was found not only to reduce the amount of light, but also to change its spectral and directional distribution. The light field under ice depended strongly on the snow cover. In addition, the bio-optical substances were analysed within sea ice and in the underlying water, as well as their effect on the light conditions.

    The seasonal sea ice cover also limits the wind-driven mixing of the water column. The development of stratification was investigated in a coastal bay in the northwestern Baltic proper (Paper IV). The preconditions for an under-ice plume development were defined along with the spatial and temporal dimensions of the stratification pattern. Furthermore, an under-ice plume was found to cause a delay in the onset of the phytoplankton spring bloom, but the timing of the Chl-a maximum was not affected. The results also show that although diatoms dominate the phytoplankton community with and without under-ice plume, the dynamic conditions without under-ice plume seem to favour the motile photosynthetic ciliate Mesodinium rubrum. Overall, this thesis contributes to better understanding of the current role of seasonal ice cover on the light conditions and consequently on to the ecosystem.

  • Public defence: 2018-09-07 10:00 Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Stockholm
    Wang, Dong
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    New Reactions with Allyl- and Allenylboron Reagents: Transition-Metal-Catalyzed and Transition-Metal-Free Carbon-Carbon Bond Formation Processes2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Organoboron compounds have been widely used in carbon-carbon bond formation reactions in organic synthesis and catalysis. This thesis is focused on cross-coupling reactions of allyl-, allenylboronic acids and their ester derivatives via transition metal catalysis or transition-metal-free processes.

    The first part of the thesis describes Cu-catalyzed C(sp3)-C(sp3) formation reactions involving allylboronic acids and α-diazoketones. This coupling process shows high γ-regioselectivity, resulting in branched allylic products. When stereodefined cyclic allylboronic acids were employed as the substrate, the relative facial configuration was retained in the reaction product.

    The second part involves Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling of allylboronic acid and α-diazoketones. The reaction proceeds with high α-regioselectivity, affording linear allylic products. Accordingly, the palladium- and copper-catalyzed cross-coupling of allylboronic acid and α-diazoketones occurs with opposite regioselectivity.

    The third part concerns a new transition-metal-free carbon-carbon bond formation between allenylboronic acids and in situ generated diazo compounds. The diazo compounds are generated from tosylhydrazones in the presence of base. The reaction is suitable for synthesis of densely substituted conjugated dienes with high Z-selectivity.

    In the final part, the allylation of quinones with allylboronates is presented. The reaction was performed without any catalyst or additive. Various quinones can be employed as substrates, including unsubstituted, monosubstituted benzoquinones and naphthoquinones.

  • Public defence: 2018-09-07 10:00 föreläsningssalen, Filmhuset, Stockholm
    Thorslund, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    Do You Have a TV?: Negotiating Swedish Public Service through 1950's Programming, "Americanization," and Domesticity2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation presents a cultural history of early Swedish television. The focus is on the investigation of 1950s programming, intermedial connections, processes of “Americanization,” and domestic, socio-cultural change in direct relation to the new medium. By using a wide range of sources—archival materials, official records, newspaper articles, advertisements, and more—the dissertation examines discourses on how television was experienced during its installation years in Swedish homes, as well as how U.S. television contents were perceived and came to be a sizeable part of early Swedish television. This thesis thereby endeavors to contribute to a wider, transnational framing of Swedish television history.  

    The first chapter examines the scheduling practices and ideas of television programming in the 1950s. The engagement is with notions of medium specificity and intermedial connections between television, radio and film. The chapter further provides a background to how principles for programming were discussed before the televisual start and during the medium’s first years of operation in Sweden. 

    The second chapter offers a case study of television program schedules between 1956 and 1959. It addresses the kind of programs, or categories, the Swedish Broadcasting Corporation invested in; patterns in the daily, weekly and seasonal schedule; increase in broadcasting hours; and prominent countries within the international television material. The case study primarily displays a hitherto largely overlooked influence that came from the U.S. and its commercial television program model.

    The third chapter discusses various forms of American influences on early Swedish television. A recurring cause of concern in Swedish media in the 1950s was that the Swedish public service television could be, and at times was, associated with “Americanization” and commercial popular culture at large. However, instead of defining Swedish public service television in contrast to the U.S. commercial television model, this dissertation argues that the formative years of Swedish television, in various ways, was a convergence of the British public service model and of U.S. program techniques, ideas and formats. 

    Lastly, the forth chapter deals with the cultural changes that resulted from television’s incursion into private homes and living rooms. The chapter examines the television set as a new furniture, within a broader framework of the “people’s home” and the functionalistic ideals of the 1950s. It further addresses how the new medium was marketed to the public, and states that the excitement for television segued to a variety of product advertisements that used the new media as a promoter for an array of commodities.

    The study concludes that programs, formats, and ideas from the U.S., and not—as one might have thought—the UK, constituted the largest number of imported materials on Swedish television during the 1950s. Swedish public service television thus made use of transnational flows from U.S. commercial television networks right from the start, while simultaneously discursively distancing itself from this model of television. Furthermore, the dissertation shows that these programs and formats were pivotal for rapidly turning television into a popular media of entertainment, and a soon-to-be-natural part of the Swedish domestic setting in the 1950s. 

  • Public defence: 2018-09-07 10:00 Ahlmannsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Jennische, Ulrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    Small-Small: Moral Economy and the Marketspace in Northern Ghana2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past decade, the Ghanaian government has tried to include and accommodate the many people working in the so-called informal economy. This formalization process is in line with a global market-driven development discourse. The small-scale traders selling their goods from marketplaces and along the streets in major cities have been of particular interest.

    While the Ghanaian government defines these actors as working in an “informal sector” and thus beyond the formal political and economic system, it simultaneously targets them with welfare services and various policies with the purpose of including them in the creation of a modern welfare state and shaping them into moral and entrepreneurial citizens.

    In Tamale in northern Ghana, years of political neglect, violence, and structural adjustment have led to small-scale traders taking over streets, sidewalks, and infrastructure, which has created a boundless and dynamic marketspace that far exceeds the delimited and politically defined marketplaces. For the state, therefore, much of the formalization process is about restoring the control and power of public space through evictions and relocations of traders. In conjunction with the inclusive welfare services, this demonstrates the contradictions entailed in the politics of informality.

    The study is based on an ethnographic fieldwork among small-scale traders in northern Ghana with a specific interest in the events that occur at the intersection where state, market, and citizenship meet. By asking what it means to be a trader in this contradictory process of formalization, the dissertation aims to understand this transformative moment in Ghana’s political and economic history.

    In this study the emic notion of small-small is used to frame the norms of gradual progress and letting others in that define the moral economy of small-scale trade. Norms, values, and obligations generate trust and solidarity within the marketspace. But more than that, small-small produces a form of politics against an obstructive and unreliable state and it guides traders into the future by shaping dreams, aspirations, and possibilities. Situated in traders’ daily lives, work, and relationships, and through the small-small lens, this thesis investigates the underlying moralities of formalization. It describes the politics of the Ghanaian state, which in its attempt to create an inclusive welfare society, struggles to both protect the moral dynamics of small-scale trade while adhering to the norms and standards of an open liberalized economy.

  • Public defence: 2018-09-07 10:00 De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Hansman, Reuben Johannes
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Cryptic Orogeny: uplift of the Al Hajar Mountains at an alleged passive margin2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mountains evolve and grow because of the large forces that occur from the collision of tectonic plates. Plate boundaries change and move through time, and regions that were once stable, shallow-marine environments can be dragged into subduction zones and get transformed into vast mountain ranges. The Al Hajar Mountains in Oman consist of carbonate rocks which show that during most of the Mesozoic (c. 268 Ma – 95 Ma) they had not yet formed but were flat and below sea level. Following this, in the Late Cretaceous (c. 95 Ma), a major tectonic event caused oceanic crust to be obducted onto this Mesozoic carbonate platform. Then after obduction a shallow marine environment resumed, and Paleogene sedimentary rocks were deposited. Currently, the central mountains are located on the Arabian Plate and are 200 km away from the convergent plate boundary with Eurasia. Here, Arabia is being subducted. Further towards the northwest Arabia and Eurasia are colliding, forming the Zagros Mountains which initiated no earlier than the Oligocene (c. 30 Ma). At this time the mountains were even further away from the plate boundary. The problem with the Al Hajar Mountains is that they record a collision, but are not in a collisional zone. To better understand the formation of the Al Hajar Mountains, a multidiscipline approach was used to investigate the timing at which they developed. This included applying low-temperature thermochronology, U-Pb dating of brittle structures, and balanced cross-sections. Results indicate that the orogeny began in the late Eocene and had concluded by the early Miocene (40 Ma – 15 Ma). Therefore, the uplift of the Al Hajar Mountains is not related to either the older Late Cretaceous ophiolite obduction or the younger Zagros collision, and a new tectonic model is proposed. This research shows that the Cenozoic tectonic history of northern Oman is more cryptic than what has been formerly presented.

  • Public defence: 2018-09-07 13:00 David Magnussonsalen (U31), Stockholm
    Jemstedt, Andreas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Metacognitive Aspects of Learning: What Influences Magnitude and Accuracy of Ease-of-Learning Judgments?2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To learn efficiently, many situations require people to judge what will be easy or difficult to learn, or how well it has been stored in memory. These metacognitive judgments are important to understand because they most likely guide how people behave when they learn, and consequently how much they learn. In this thesis, I focus on what is referred to as ease-of-learning (EOL) judgments, that is judgments about how easy or difficult a material will be to learn. EOL judgments have received relatively limited attention in the metacognitive literature. Therefore, this thesis also considers for comparison the more extensively researched judgments of learning (JOL), which are judgments of how well a studied material has been learned or how likely it is to be remembered on a later memory test. I had two major aims with my research. First, I aimed to investigate how accurate EOL judgments are, that is, how well they can predict the ease of future learning, and what moderates this accuracy. More precisely, I investigated what affects EOL judgment accuracy by varying how much an item-set varies in a predictive item characteristic, as well as varying methodological aspects of the judgment situation. The second major aim was to investigate what sources of information people use to make EOL judgments and how the information is used to make metacognitive judgments. In three studies, participants made EOL judgments for word pairs (e.g., sun – warm), or single words (e.g., bucket), studied the items, and tried to recall them on memory tests. In Study II, participants also made JOLs after studying the items. To estimate the accuracy of the judgments, the judgments were correlated with recall performance on memory tests. The results of the thesis show that EOL judgments can be accurate when they are made on a to-be-learned material which varies in a predictive item characteristic (Study I and II). In some conditions, EOL judgments are even as accurate as JOLs (Study II). Study II also supports the cue competition hypothesis, which predicts that, when people judge memory and learning, they sometimes rely less on one source of information if other information is available. Furthermore, Study III shows that processing fluency (the experience of effort associated with processing information), may be an important source of information for EOL judgments, and that people’s beliefs about available information can moderate how the information is used to make EOL judgments. Overall, the results show when EOL judgments will be accurate and when they will not, and provides evidence that people may use processing fluency to make EOL judgments even when it contradicts their beliefs. Importantly, the results also indicate that when multiple sources of information are available, information may compete for influence over metacognitive judgments.

  • Public defence: 2018-09-07 13:00 sal FA32, AlbaNova universitetscentrum, Stockholm
    Robustini, Carolina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    The dynamic chromosphere: Results and techniques with an observational approach2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The chromosphere is a critical interface between the relatively cold photosphere and the hot corona. Its landscape is rich in very dynamic phenomena such as jets, spicules, and surges, which are thought to play an important role in the heating of the Sun’s upper atmosphere. However, these events are often driven by mechanisms that are not entirely understood owing to the complex physical conditions governing the chromosphere. In the average chromosphere, the magnetic pressure often dominates over the gas pressure. Thus the structure and dynamics of this layer are mainly regulated by the magnetic field configuration.

    This thesis is based on three projects that investigate some chromospheric dynamic phenomena and their relation with the magnetic field. In these projects, we follow an experimental approach, by analysing high-resolution ground-based observations with spectropolarimetry as well as satellite co-observations.

    The first project focuses on exotic fan-shaped jets that are sometimes observed above sunspot light bridges. We investigate the thermal properties and the dynamics of these jets, and suggest magnetic reconnection as the mechanism producing these events.

    In the second project, we study a δ-sunspot penumbra that harbours fan-shaped jets. By using inversion techniques, we retrieve the 3D structure of the magnetic field and temperature, which reveal that the magnetic reconnection driving the fan-shaped jets occurs in the lower chromosphere.

    In the third project, we investigate the role of the magnetic field in a unipolar supergranular network cell having a radial arrangement of the fibrils. For this chromospheric structure, we suggest a model of the magnetic topology based on multiwavelength observations and inversion techniques.

  • Public defence: 2018-09-07 13:00 Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens Hus, Stockholm
    Eriksson, Åsa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Ethnology, History of Religions and Gender Studies.
    Resisting feminised precarity: Farm workers in post-strike Western Cape, South Africa2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation seeks to contribute to the body of research on gender, neoliberal globalisation and work, and on the forms of resistance people engage in within a deeply unequal global order. It was devised in relation to developments during and after widespread, unprecedented labour and social protests among farm workers in export-oriented agriculture in the Western Cape, South Africa, 2012–2013. The protests, referred to in popular discourse as the ‘farm worker strike’, are widely held to have been spearheaded by people in the most precarious positions: seasonal workers, including migrants both from within and outside South Africa, many of whom were women. The dissertation draws on multi-sited ethnography conducted among farm workers in several of the areas to which the protests spread, during what I refer to as the post-strike moment.

    The aim of the study is to contribute to an understanding of differently positioned farm workers’ experiences of work and life precarity, organising and resistance – as well as to the interlinkages between these phenomena. Using intersectionality as an ‘analytic sensibility’, the dissertation explores how power relations linked to gender, race/ethnicity and nationality/migration status may be understood as shaped by, and contributing to shaping, work and life precarity. It also looks at how these hierarchies are articulated through labour regimes on farms and through workers’ resistance. Moreover, it interrogates labour activism as a route to resisting not only socio-economic deprivation and apartheid legacies, but further to restoring a sense of dignity (of labour).

    The dissertation engages with various broader theoretical discussions. It deliberates on the overlaps between the notions of feminisation of labour, precarious work and precarity – conceiving of precarity as a feminised phenomenon. Experiences of precarity in the Western Cape farmlands, it suggests, are shaped by the devaluing of some workers, linked to racism, sexism and global inequalities, as well as to historical and contemporary processes of dispossession. The dissertation also describes how (some) female farm workers, through presenting themselves as knowledgeable about their rights, and through accentuating feminised aspects of care and responsibility in their activism, position themselves as respectable. Furthermore, through identifying silences and exclusions in representations of farm workers, it contributes to writing black/African female migrant workers back into the strike narrative as important and militant actors. Finally, the dissertation argues that attention to multiple forms of violence – slow, structural, symbolic and direct – and the violence of globalisation under neoliberalism is crucial in order to understand the messy and violent aspects of the ‘farm worker strike’. Importantly, it explores these topics as informed by broader global developments, through which power, control and the retention of value are increasingly placed outside of the deeply unequal spaces that constitute commercial farming areas, discussing links with Sweden as a destination for South African wine and deciduous fruit.

  • Public defence: 2018-09-07 14:00 Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Stockholm
    Elías-Wolff, Federico
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    A computational approach to curvature sensing in lipid bilayers2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Local curvature is a key driving force for spatial organization of cellular membranes, via a phenomenon known as membrane curvature sensing, where the binding energy of membrane associated macromolecules depends on the local membrane shape. However, the microscopic mechanisms of curvature sensing are not well understood. Molecular dynamics simulations offer a powerful complement to biochemical experiments, yet their contribution to the study of curvature sensing has been limited, due in part to the lack of efficient methods, not least because of methodological difficulties in dealing with curved membranes. We develop a method based on simulated buckling, which has been previously employed to study mechanical properties of membranes. Here, we describe, validate and evaluate this method. We then apply to study curvature sensing properties of three model systems, using coarse-grained simulations. On the first system, we study lipid sorting in a three-component lipid mixture with emphasis on cardiolipin. We find that if curvature is high, curvature sensing is strong enough to drive cardiolipin molecules to negative curvature regions, outcompeting other lipids, without the need of external interactions or cooperative effects. We then simulated three systems consisting of a short amphipathic peptide attached to the surface of a buckled membrane. All three peptides localize to positive curvature, in agreement with the so-called cylindrical hydrophobic insertion mechanism. Their orientational preferences, however, defy the prediction of alignment perpendicular to the direction of maximum curvature. They also fail to show expected symmetries, indicating there is more to the picture than purely shape-based effects. The curvature sensing probe of the next system is a transmembrane trimeric protein, which shows preference to intermediate curvature, in agreement with theoretical predictions. But the lack of an expected 2-fold rotation symmetry indicates that the trimer senses the local curvature gradient, and not just the point-wise local curvature. Finally, dispensing with the buckling methodology, we simulated a series of symmetric transmembrane multimers embedded in cylindrical bilayers. Based on the results of these simulations and theoretical arguments, we discuss the relationship between structural symmetry and curvature sensitivity. We conclude that anisotropic (i.e. orientation-dependent) curvature sensing is strongly limited by odd and high order rotational symmetries. However, measurements of in-plane orientation on peptides and asymmetric proteins, as well as dimers and tetramers, should yield valuable information. Our method, along with our initial conclusions, provides an useful tool for the understanding of the relationship between membrane shape and membrane protein function, and should prove useful to biophysicists in the design and interpretation of experimental curvature sensing assays.

  • Public defence: 2018-09-07 14:00 Ahlmannsalen , Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Kilström, Matilda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Households' Responses to Policy in Labor and Credit Markets​2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Household Debt and Monetary Policy: Revealing the Cash-Flow Channel We examine the effect of monetary policy on spending when households hold debt linked to short-term rates, such as adjustable-rate mortgages (ARMs). Using registry-based data, which is broadly representative of Swedish households, we find substantial heterogeneity in consumption responses to changes in monetary policy. We find that consumption responds more strongly to changes in interest rates for households with high debt than for households with little or no debt. Moreover, households with ARMs appear to be more interest-rate sensitive than households with fixed-rate mortgages. Our results are consistent with hand-to-mouth behavior and an important transmission of monetary policy through the cash-flow channel.

    Should I Stay or Must I Go? Temporary Refugee Protection and Labor-Market Outcomes We study a Danish reform in 2002 that lowered the ex-ante probability of refugees receiving permanent residency by prolonging the time period before they were eligible to apply for such residency. Adherence to the new rules was entirely determined by the date of the asylum application and the reform was implemented retroactively. We formulate a simple search and matching model to derive predictions that can be tested using our data. Using registry based data on individuals in Denmark, we then study the effects on educational and labor-market outcomes and find that the reform significantly increased the enrollment in formal education, especially for females and low-skilled individuals. In terms of employment and earnings, the coefficients are in general negative but insignificant. Other outcomes of interest are also studied.

    Risk-sharing and Entrepreneurship We study the role of risk-sharing in facilitating innovation. Studying entrepreneurship and innovation entails modelling an occupational choice and an effort choice. Risk-sharing may increase the number of individuals who become entrepreneurs by limiting the downside risk. The effort of entrepreneurs may, however, be hampered by high risk-sharing if this limits the returns faced by successful entrepreneurs relative to unsuccessful entrepreneurs. We construct a theoretical model where risk-sharing may be private or public, i.e., provided through the welfare state by means of taxation. We show that the level of risk-sharing matters for the characteristics of entrepreneurs. Moreover, high taxes, which imply high equilibrium benefits paid out to entrepreneurs, encourage entrepreneurship but discourage effort.

    Portfolio and Housing Decisions in the Presence of Intergenerational Links There is ample support for the idea that parents matter for the housing market choices of their children. Despite this, our understanding of the effects of these intergenerational links remains limited. I set up a partial equilibrium overlapping generations model with intergenerational links and study housing and portfolio decisions. I use the model to characterize individual behavior, as well as behavioral responses to a change in borrowing conditions. In steady state, the main determinant of both children's and parents' behavior is parental wealth and stricter borrowing conditions have a limited effect. During a transition with positive house price growth, however, the difference between parents who are homeowners and renters (and between their children) is amplified and stricter borrowing conditions have a stronger impact on behavior.

  • Public defence: 2018-09-07 14:00 Salle des Actes, Sorbonne Université, Paris
    Balkir, Elif
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Culture and Aesthetics. Sorbonne Université.
    Étude comparative des approches créatrices et technologiques au Groupe de Recherches Musicales à Paris et à l’Elektronmusikstudion à Stockholm 1965-1980: Deux directions artistiques différentes à partir d’une idée commune2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The current research is a comparative study investigating the development of creative and technological approaches at GRM (Groupe de Recherches Musicales) and EMS (Elektronmusikstudion) from 1965 to 1980. The thesis examines the main interactions between two pioneers of electroacoustic music in France and in Sweden, namely, Pierre Schaeffer and Knut Wiggen and the evolution of artistic directions within their institutions. The comparative method borrows two main perspectives from linguistics, such as diachronic and synchronic. To this direction, the first part of the thesis evaluates a sort of historical synthesis of musical genres, which lead the artistic directions of those two studios, including their institutional organization, musical creation, technological research as well as Schaeffer’s and Wiggen’s musical concepts. The second part of the thesis focuses on pioneer works analysis in order to explore closely compositional ideas and the problem of acousmatic music analysis. The analysis method is based on Jean Molino’s tripartite theory developed by J.J. Nattiez (poietic/neutral/esthesic level of an art work) and Stéphane Roy, which contributes to analyze the compositional structure, organization and the composer’s style related to technological equipment of the studios. The first step of music analysis reconstructs a sort of transcription within the neutral level analysis by means of Lasse Thoresen’s graphical symbols inspired by Schaeffers’s typo-morphology. The second step seeks to confront the neutral level results with external poietic information in order to explore and to compare some hypothetical significations of analyzed musical pieces. In conclusion, the end goal is to determine a methodology inspired by the tripartite theory for an in-depth understanding of acousmatic music analysis and to establish a historical documentation on French and Swedish electroacoustic music within the development of technology.

  • Public defence: 2018-10-05 13:00 Nordenskiöldsalen, Stockholm
    Letzter, Eva-Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Med öga för publiken: Moralisk fostran genom heliga Birgittas och de svenska predikanternas exempelberättelser, cirka 1340-15002018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation is a comparative and deconstructive study of the use of narrative exempla in the Revelations of Saint Birgitta (also known as Saint Bridget of Sweden) and in Swedish sermon collections from the Late Middle Ages. The purpose is to show how Birgitta during the 14th century and Swedish preachers during the 15th century morally educated their audiences through the inclusion of exemplary stories in their works. Furthermore, this dissertation discusses and analyses the ways in which these authors adapted their stories to suite their respective audience. It distinguishes between how Birgitta addressed the worldly and religious leaders of Europe and how the Swedish preachers addressed a socially stratified Swedish congregation by applying Jonathan Cohen’s theory of identification with media characters. This dissertation hereby contributes not only to research concerning the didactics of Christian exemplary literature, but also to the methodology in which audience adaptation in this literature can be evaluated.

    Among the results of this study one finds that the exemplary stories in the Revelations and Swedish sermon collections are often used to rhetorically reinforce doctrinal lessons concerning man’s reciprocal relationship with God. Many of the lessons deal with Christ’s justice, the devil’s evil nature and man’s proper faith and hope in God. However, Birgitta tends to use her stories as analytical explanations for theses lessons, while the Swedish preachers use theirs as simple arguments for them. In view of narrative structure and content, Birgitta tends to focus on describing protagonists’ thoughts and inner disposition in her stories, whereas the Swedish preachers focus on protagonists’ physical course of action in their stories. Moreover, both authors depict international characters, settings and complication motives. Still, Birgitta highlights those associated with the higher estates, while the Swedish preachers emphasize those associated with general church life and the lower laity.

    These results correlate well with strategies suggested in media research for enticing audience identification with characters. In particular, I find that the virtuous or sinful way of life, led by the protagonists in the exemplary stories, mimics that of Birgitta’s and the Swedish preachers’ different target groups. Yet even more strikingly, numerous protagonists are also found to possess attractive heroic ideals. They embody heroic role models, which the authors’ respective audience can be expected to have wished to emulate themselves, and which Birgitta and the Swedish preachers likewise wanted their audience to follow, though to different extents and in different manners. While Birgitta and the Swedish preachers both used exemplary stories to morally educate their recipients in accordance with the Christian exemplary tradition, I thus conclude that their teaching differed in several significant ways, supporting the premise that the authors knew what they wanted to convey, and that they had a good eye for their respective audience.