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  • Persson, Cornelia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Marketing.
    Nilsson, Sabina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Marketing.
    "Äkta" reklam du ej kan ignorera: En studie av hur lyssnare upplever sig påverkas av native advertising som reklamformat  i podcasts2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Marketing is undergoing a continuous developing phase, in the same phase as the society is moving forward. Hence, there will always be new marketing formats to analyze and understand. Native advertising is a way of advertising that most media today use and podcasts are one of the media channels that has embraced this. Native advertising aims to lend credibility from editorial content and is also known as editorially disguised advertising.The purpose of this study is to attain a deeper understanding of how listeners to podcasts perceive that they are being influenced by native advertising as an advertising format. A lot of studies have been conducted of how consumers relate and experiencing native advertising in written medias such as newspapers. However, how listeners to podcasts experience this is significantly less explored. This study investigates consumers' perceptions of native advertising in podcast, with “Fredagspodden” as an empirical example as it was the first Swedish podcast to present their advertising in this format. To create a deeper understanding of the matter, a qualitative approach has been chosen, where 10 semi structured interviews have been conducted. The respondents' answers were then analyzed using the theory "Psychological Reactance" as well as advertising as influence and information tool. By the results of the study, it was found that the placement of advertising could be experienced as manipulative when it occurred in the middle of the podcast program, as it was not always clear that it was sponsored content. It was also discovered that the listeners partly perceived the editorial advertisement as entertaining and informative, but at the same time ridiculed which lowered its credibility. Well-targeted and customized advertising that becomes relevant to the listeners, proved vital for a positive response. Thus, the two chosen theories could be used to explain the problematization of the matter.

  • Fransson, Emma
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Karolinska universitetet.
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. Karolinska Institutet.
    Bergström, Malin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. Karolinska Institutet.
    What Can We Say Regarding Shared Parenting Arrangements for Swedish Children?2018In: Journal of Divorce and Remarriage, ISSN 1050-2556, E-ISSN 1540-4811Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Joint physical custody (JPC) refers to children living alternatively and about equally with both parents after a parental separation or divorce. The practice has been debated in relation to child well-being because of the frequent moves imposed on children and the potential stress from living in 2 homes. This study describes the background to the high frequency of Swedish children in JPC and the results from research on Swedish children’s well-being in this living arrangement. Children in JPC report better well-being and mental health than children who live mostly or only with 1 parent. No Swedish studies have found children’s health to be worse in JPC than in sole parental care from child age of 3 years and beyond. The existing literature cannot, however, inform us about the mechanisms behind the findings. The risks of selection effects into living arrangements are plausible. For this purpose, longitudinal studies are warranted.

  • Public defence: 2018-05-15 10:00 Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Stockholm
    Mobarak, Hani
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Synthesis and analysis of carbohydrates related to bacterial polysaccharides2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The outer surface of bacteria is composed of around 75% carbohydrates, which are vital for the bacteria to survive and communicate with the host biological system. The thesis discusses different properties of carbohydrates that are essential for understanding the bacterial behavior in biological systems. The first three chapters give an overview of carbohydrates.

    The fourth chapter discusses the synthesis of four amide-substituted 3,6-dideoxy-α-D-galactopyranosides, namely, methyl α-3,6-dideoxy-3-formamido-, acetamido-, (R)-3-hydroxybutyramido-, and (4-hydroxybutyramido)-D-galactopyranoside. These sugars were found as components of some bacterial O-antigens; the study is a step toward the synthesis of oligosaccharides that contain them. The fifth chapter describes the exchange kinetics of the formyl and acetyl derivatives that were synthesized. Both of them have two conformational states for the amide side-chain. 13C-NMR saturation transfer experiments are utilized for these measurements to reveal more about their properties in solution.

    In chaptr six, NMR and conformational analysis of oligosaccharides related to the O-antigen of Yersinia enterocolitica O:3 bacteria were carried out to obtain more information regarding their 3D structure.

    Chapter seven is focusing on the development of CASPER, a program for rapid assignment of 1H- and 13C-NMR chemical shifts of bacterial lipopolysaccharides, by adding more sugars into its database and testing it for naturally occurring LPS as well as extending the scope for synthetic carbohydrates, which is planned to be developed further in the future.

  • Karlsson, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Svärd, sandaler och skandaler. Antiken på film och i tv2016In: Scandia, ISSN 0036-5483, ISSN 0036-5483, Vol. 82, no 1, p. 156-158Article, book review (Refereed)
  • Hedermo, Viktor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Kollektiv identitet och bevarandestrategier i Malmberget: En studie om samhällsomvandlingen i Gällivare kommun2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Focusing on the town of Malmberget in northern Sweden, this study addresses the relationship between place, identity formation and social transformation among mining communities. Due to an expanding mining area, the town is being gradually demolished and remaining inhabitants will eventually have to be relocated. Concurrently, urban expansion plans are underway in the neighboring town of Gällivare. The aim of the study is to examine whether and how collective forms of identity are constructed in relation to Malmberget as place. What are the main values underlying such collective identity and are they being taken into considerations in the expansion plans? The study also examines if and how any attempts to preservation have been made in response to the demolition and redevelopment.

    The study is primarily based on interviews with inhabitants of Malmberget. It also draws on qualitative content analysis of documents on the expansions plans. As the study focuses on notions of place and collective identity, in its theoretical framework Lefebvre’s spatial triad is combined with a phenomenological approach of place and Jenkins’ conceptualisation of collective identity.  

    The findings suggest that there exists a collective ‘Malmberget identity’ consisting of certain values connected to place relations and community history. Some aspects of these values have implicitly been taken into considerations in the expansion plans in Gällivare, but far from all of them. The study also shows how interviewees have enacted preservation strategies as a way to cope with the urban transformation and to protect their shared collective identity.

  • Public defence: 2018-05-14 13:00 De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Pateli, Evangelia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Essays on International Trade: Theory and Evidence on the Determinants and Implications of Firms' Import Behaviour2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aspires to further contribute to our understanding of both the determinants as well as the implications of intermediate goods trade. Faced with intensifying global competition, firms are increasingly developing their production process and their sourcing strategies beyond national borders in order to take advantage of lower costs, superior quality and technological advances.

    In the first two chapters, I analyse firm-level import decisions in an environment allowing for unintentional exchanges of import-relevant information between firms. I build on the idea that any import-specific knowledge acquired by established importers, in a given region/industry, spills over to prospective importers lowering the costs associated with entry in international markets for intermediates. Chapter 1, using firm-level import data on the universe of Swedish firms, at the product level and by source market for the period 1998-2011, provides evidence for the existence of import spillovers and offers insights into the mechanisms through which they operate. Chapter 2, sets out a theoretical framework formalising import spillovers and their implications for the firm’s import behaviour and for consumer welfare.

    In the third and last chapter of this thesis, I turn to intermediate import dependence with an aim to explain the lack of sensitivity of trade flows to exchange rate movements. I propose a tractable framework and study how real devaluations affect firm-level export decisions and export performance, as well as aggregate exports and welfare in an environment where final goods production uses both domestic and imported intermediates.

  • Sandström, Sonja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Central Asian ice-marginal moraines of the global last glacial maximum: An analysis of topographic features affecting the glaciation pattern in the Tian Shan and Altai mountains2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Glacial runoff from the Tian Shan and Altai Mountains is an important water resource, especially for people living in the arid areas of Central Asia. Measured water volumes from glaciers have decreased, and glacier area have shrunk with 50-90% since the Little Ice Age. Lack of knowledge regarding glaciers in high mountain areas, and the impact from climate change makes this an important field to investigate. This thesis focuses on topographic features and their impact on spatial glaciation patterns; today and during the global last glacial maximum, 19-30 thousand years ago (ka). From selected marginal moraines in the Tian Shan and Altai mountains, with a deglaciation age between 19-30 ka, an analysis was created in ArcMap (GIS, Geographic Information System) with 1 arc second resolution ASTER GDEM2 (Digital Elevation Model) and in Google Earth. An elevation profile, hypsometry and mapping were created for the analysis. The interpretations made from the limited dataset resulted in topographic features affecting the glaciation extension today and percentage of decreasing glacier area since 19-30 ka, to be connected to north/south-facing direction of the drainage area and the elevation. Drainage areas experiencing the highest percentage of glacial shrinkage were southfacing and/or at elevation below 3961 m a.s.l. 

  • Fromholz, Eva
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Jacobsson, Maritha
    Wahlin, Lottie
    Victim offender mediation in Sweden: an activity falling apart?2018In: Nordic Mediation Research / [ed] Anna Nylund, Kaijus Ervasti, Lin Adrian, Springer , 2018, p. 67-79Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, the government has invested considerable resources to implement victim offender mediation (VOM) for young people (under the age of 21). Despite this, the number of mediations is decreasing. What appears to be a gap between the legislator’s intentions and practical applications raises questions about the reasons for this gap and the premises for mediation in penal matters in Sweden today. Our purpose in this article is to highlight and discuss some circumstances that can explain this decrease and the future of VOM in Sweden. We start by discussing the development of VOM in Sweden and continue by analysing possible reasons for why mediation is declining. The conclusion is that the decrease can be explained by problems related to legal and organisational structures as well as mediation practice. The conclusion is also that if the state and municipalities do not show more interest in VOM and restorative justice, then this activity will probably disappear.

  • Sandberg, Erica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Art History.
    En apokalypsens besynnerliga influenser: En ikonologisk analys av Yttersta domen av David Klöcker Ehrenstrahl2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen behandlar karolinsk- och italiensk barockkonst samt dess historiska och kontextuella förhållanden. Syftet med uppsatsen är att analysera David Klöcker Ehrenstrahls monumentalmålning Yttersta domen ur ett ikonologiskt perspektiv. Uppsatsen behandlar komparativ metod, och ställer således Ehrenstrahls målning i komparation med Michelangelos frescomålning Ytterst domen samt Pietro da Cortonas takplafond Providentia Divina. Uppsatsen tillämpar ikonologisk teori med utgångspunkt i Michael Baxandall’s teoribildning och analyserar främst det bibliska motivet Yttersta domen i relation till samhälleliga- och sociala förhållanden under karolinsk tid samt jämför det katolska och lutherska formspråket. 

  • Rasmus, Sjöbeck
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Culture and Aesthetics.
    Uti hjertats sannskyldiga tempel: En ikonologisk studie av Sankta Maria Magdalena kyrkas altarskulpturer2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen ämnar att genom en ikonologisk analys undersöka altarskulpturgruppen, belägen i S:ta Maria Magdalena kyrka i Stockholm. Det man vet om skulpturgruppen är mycket begränsat. Man vet att gruppen gavs som gåva till kyrkan 1764 av slottsdeputationen vid Stockholms slott. Skulptören är än idag okänd. Syftet är att undersöka skulpturgruppens symboliska relevans i det religiösa klimat som rådde vid tiden då den flyttades till kyrkan. Uppsatsen ämnar koppla symboliken med pietismen – en religiös rörelse som växte fram i Tyskland under 1600- och 1700-talet och spred sig till Sverige under 1700-talet. Analysen kommer att använda sig av en komparativ metod där bl.a den pietistiska ikonografin jämförs med den katolska. Uppsatsens bildmaterial utgörs, förutom skulpturgruppen, huvudsakligen av emblem och andra gravyrer men även målningar och teckningar. Det ikonologiska perspektiv som kommer att användas i uppsatsen kommer ta stöd i Michael Baxandalls bok Patterns of intention.

          Resultatet visar på att skulpturgruppens ikonografi delvis kan kopplas till pietismens bildspråk. Cor ardens – ett brinnande hjärta – som kyrkans högra skulptur håller i sin hand. används flitigt i pietistisk retorik och emblematik. Symboliken blir även relevant när man analyserar den ur den religiösa konflikt som kretsade kring Maria Magdalena församling mellan pietister och lutheranska ortodoxa.

  • Blomberg, Kalle
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Financial Fetishism: Neoliberal Power and the Fictitious Sources of the Swedish Economy2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores the conditions of neoliberal power through the lens of finance as a specific form of social mediation. Based on the recognition that neoliberal financialisation is mediated by financial forms that are characterised by a high degree of abstraction, the conceptualisation proceeds through an immanent critique aimed at tracing out the social sources behind them. In doing so it seeks to uncover the deep structures that make neoliberal power possible yet which tend to remain misrecognised through the refraction produced by its apparent forms. The highly financialised economy of Sweden serves as the concrete case for examining this social phenomenon. Neoliberal power, it is argued, derives its strength from a deepening fetishism that naturalises the alienated condition of the globalised capital relation, ultimately rooted in the way that money absents its own social source. This absenting gives rise to the false but necessary narcissistic social consciousness upon which the process as a whole relies. The absence of a concept of money’s own absenting in theories of neoliberal power tends to reproduce the detotalizing abstraction that the process itself depends on, with implications for the possibility for transformative change.

  • Nyqvist, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Produktion av digitala läromedel för elever med blindhet: En problematiserande studie om tillgängliggörande2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to highlight how producers of teaching materials and the department for adapting teaching materials at The National Agency for Special Needs Education and Schools (SPSM) regard the impact of the ongoing digitization of the teaching aids market with focus on access to and accessibility of teaching materials for students with blindness. Another issue is the responsibility for this group of students to participate through accessibility to the same teaching materials as their peers. The results of the study can be of use to SPSM, publishers, local education authorities and schools. The methodology approach is discursive psychology and the method used is qualitative interviews. In total five separate interviews were carried out at five larger publishing companies, and four interviews with, in total, nine informants at SPSM, the department for adapting teaching materials, were performed, whereof three were group interviews. By analyzing what has been said the participants’ descriptions of accessibility to teaching aids are clarified, and so is responsibility and division of responsibility between different actors, and furthermore the consequences for students with blindness.

    The study illuminates changed requirements for support from society and teaching materials producers to satisfy the need of teaching materials for students with blindness reading braille, all due to the digitization of the current area. Demands to meet with new needs for changed work models and for an increased cooperation between actors, and within relevant agencies, are highlighted. In the study appear dilemmas arising between the following factors: expenses for accessibility, size of target group and conditions for different actors at a crossroads of government controlled businesses and commercial actors. The study clarifies the school’s responsibility for equivalence in education, which includes accessibility to teaching materials in use. There is a likelihood of a shift with schools and local educational authorities towards central procurement of digital teaching materials, which calls for client expertise. There is also concern about whether that expertise exists. Further research is needed on the increasing amount of digital teaching materials and its consequences for students with blindness. Interesting questions are, among others, how the pedagogical work is affected and which will be the impact on the student.

  • Pettersson, Karolina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    "Det som vi behöver, förutom det Glada Budskapet ni förkunnar, är också en bokhandel och ett apotekt": Svenska Missionsförbundets missions- och biståndsarbete 1964-19802017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the ways in which the Mission Covenant Church of Sweden could influence the Swedish Foreign Aid Policy for NGOs, with particular focus on financial support for their missionary activities. Furthermore, it investigates how the church’s involvement in the emerging Foreign Aid Policy work, and its relationship with the government agency NIB/SIDA during the years 1964-1980, influenced the church’s own policy-making. Using Mahoney, Streeck and Thelen’s concept of gradual change and Bourdieu’s theory of habitus this thesis investigates the influence the relationship had on 1) the Aid policy 2) MCCS: s evangelical mission. The results of this thesis indicate that the government agency’s original demand for a Foreign Aid work neutral from religious or political influence changed into a policy embracing missionary organisations.

    The results also indicate a change in the priority of the Mission Covenant Church of Sweden’s mission methods with the church prioritising social work over evangelisation. This study aims in general to deepen the knowledge of the NGOs involved in the Swedish Foreign Aid in order to further the understanding of their influence on the Foreign Aid Policy as well as their methods to remain uninfluenced in return.

  • Qvist, Martin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Johannesson, Livia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Ett megaprojekt tar form: Den tidiga planeringen av Nya Karolinska Solna2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta är en delrapport i forskningsprojektet ”Framtidens universitetssjukhus: beslut om Nya Karolinska Solna”, finansierat av Stockholms läns landsting. Rapporten redovisar resultat från en studie av processerna bakom beslutet om att bygga Nya Karolinska Solna och fokuserar därmed på perioden från initiering och inledande planering av NKS-projektet fram till det formella beslutet togs 2008.

  • Gustavsson, Caroline
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Unga vuxna, döden och ett förväntat liv2014In: Svensk kyrkotidning, ISSN 0346-2153, no 2, p. 35-37Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna artikel av Caroline Gustavsson står unga vuxnas tankar kring döden i fokus. Hur unga vuxna ser på döden synliggör den gräns de ser för livet men tankar kring döden synliggör också vad de betraktar som ett förväntat liv. Efter en kort presentation av sitt avhandlingsarbete ger författaren några exempel på de unga vuxnas tal om döden och hur det går att tolka och förstå deras uttryck som en bild av vår tid där död, sjukdom och smärta betraktas som en långtifrån självklar aspekt av livet.

  • Gustavsson, Caroline
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Ett pedagogiskt perspektiv på Svenska kyrkans gudstjänst2016In: Svensk kyrkotidning, ISSN 0346-2153, no 2, p. 47-50Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vilken betydelse har gudstjänstdeltagandet för körsångarna själva i Svenska kyrkans många körer runt om i landet? Hur ser körsångarna på gudstjänsten och möjligheten till utrymme för erfarenheter och livsfrågor? Caroline Gustavsson redogör i denna artikel för resultaten från en intervjuundersökning i fyra församlingar.

  • Gustavsson, Caroline
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Dialogen som tankefigur2014Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Gustavsson, Caroline
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Mellan verklighet och vision en diskursanalys av Riktlinjer för Svenska kyrkans konfirmandarbete2016In: Prismet, ISSN 0032-8847, Vol. 67, no 3, p. 201-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Lutheran Church of Sweden, Guidelines for the Confirmation Work serves as a framework for the confirmation process and presents the conditions within which Swedish church congregations can conduct high-quality confirmation work. The latest version of the document was presented in 2008; the previous version was released in 2000 and the version before that was published in the late 1990s. The present article aims to contribute to a perspective on the 2008 edition by exploring the discourses that are reflected in the document. The analysis reveals three dominant Orders of discourse: the target group, the context, and the content. The results raise the question of how guidelines can be expected to balance the expectations and visions from the national church, the dioceses, and the congregations.

  • Wermke, Wieland
    et al.
    Wettergren, Sanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    En profession utan funktion eller en profession i mellanrummet mellan skola och akademi?: En studie om forskarutbildade lärares syn på sin utbildning och vad som hände därefter2017Report (Other academic)
  • Pettersson, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Myndigheters outsourcing av personuppgiftsbehandling i molntjänster: Särskilt om legalitetsprincipen och personlig integritet2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines the legal means by which the Swedish government authorities can outsource personal data to be processed on digital clouds by private cloud providers as of May 25th, 2018. The objective of the thesis is to identify and examine to which extent legal obstacles and restrictions to such procedures occurs in the personal data protection regulation. Cloud computing is an information technology business model which could provide government au-thorities with higher administrative efficiency and lower administrative costs. The essential charac-teristics of cloud computing require that the cloud providers are entrusted with a portion of control of the IT-environment and data security, depending on the types of clouds and services provided. The thesis analyses particularly two questions. The first question is to which extent the legal require-ment to provide personal data with an appropriate level of security constrains government authori-ties to submit control of the IT-environment to private contractors. The second question targeted in the thesis is whether government authorities can disclose personal data that is subjected to official secrecy to the cloud providers.

  • Lonka, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Profiling through Ultrasound Technoogy, the Right to Privacy and the Right to Data Protection2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The right to private and family life and the right to the protection of personal data are two fundamental rights of the EU. The protection of these rights is addressed in the new General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), the Directive on Privacy and Electronic Communications (ePrivacyDirective) and the upcoming new Regulation on Privacy and Electronic Communications (draft ePrivacy Regulation). In this thesis these three legal acts are evaluated in light of profiling through ultrasound tracking technology. Their technology neutrality and their functioning as safeguards of the two fundamental rights against the use of profiling through ultrasound tracking technology is tested. The GDPR is found to differentiate between profiling in the context of automatic decision-making and profiling in other contexts.

    The process of profiling is described in general terms. It is shown how tracking technologies in general and ultrasound tracking technology in particular have a central role in the profiling process.It is found that ultrasound tracking technology enables far wider tracking and data collection than the other tracking technologies. Differences and similarities between ultrasound tracking technology and other tracking technologies are described.

    According to the findings, the three legal instruments, the GDPR, the ePrivacy Directive and the draft ePrivacy Regulation, all live up to their aim of technology neutrality on theoretical level, since profiling through ultrasound tracking technology is within the material scope of all of them. An exemption is Article 8(2) of the draft ePrivacy Regulation that, unlike Article 9 of the ePrivacyDirective, does not stretch to cover location tracking through ultrasound technology. However, as will be shown, there are risks related to the practical implementation of these legal frameworks.

  • Bulhan, Ahmed Mohamed
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Att definiera extremism: En kvalitativ innehålls analys av begreppet våldsbejakande extremism i Sverige2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

     

    In 2016, the Swedish Government appointed a national coordinator to set up a strategy against violence-making extremism (Regeringskansliet, 2016). When the study aims at studying whether the concept of terrorism is racially and whether terrorism is described with regard to prejudices about people's background or origin, the author makes an analysis of how Government produces and produces violence-violent extremism. The study takes its theoretical basis in Robert Miles (1989) Theory of Reason, and the study uses a qualitative content analysis as method selection. By examining public documents published by the government in the work on violence-violent extremism, analysis concludes that racism occurs in the use of "terrorism" as a result of violence-violent Islamic extremism interconnecting cultural and religious beliefs that do not share the same value base as the Western world. The study's conclusion is that the results of the analysis, supported by previous research, show that the political context takes a position in the various types of violence-fighting extremism.

  • Public defence: 2018-05-04 13:00 sal FP41, hus 1, Stockholm
    Ertan, Emelie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Quantum chemical calculations of multidimensional dynamics probed in resonant inelastic X-ray scattering2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is devoted to the theoretical study of the dynamical processes induced by light-matter interactions in molecules and molecular systems. To this end, the multidimensional nuclear dynamics probed in resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) of small molecules, exemplified by H2O (g) and H2S (g), as well as more complex molecular systems, exemplified by NH3 (aq) and kaolinite clay, are modelled. The computational methodology consists of a combination of ab initio quantum chemistry calculations, quantum nuclear wave packet dynamics and in certain cases molecular dynamics modelling. This approach is used to simulate K-edge RIXS spectra and the theoretical results are evaluated against experimental measurements.

    Specifically, the vibrational profile for decay back to the electronic ground state of the H2O molecule displays a vibrational selectivity introduced by the dynamics in the core-excited state. Simulation of the inelastic decay channel to the electronic |1b1-1,4a11> valence-excited state shows that the splitting of the spectral profile arises from the contribution of decay in the OH fragment. The character of the S1s-1 and S2p-1 core-excited states of the H2S molecule has been investigated and distinct similarities and differences with the H2O molecule have been identified. RIXS has also been used as a probe of the hydrogen bonding environment in aqueous ammonia and by detailed analysis of the valence orbitals of NH3 and water, the spectral profiles are explained. Finally, it is shown that vibrations of weakly hydrogen bonding OH are excited in RIXS decay to the electronic ground state in kaolinite. 

  • Public defence: 2018-05-04 10:00 Magnéli Hall, Chemical Practice Laboratory, Stockholm
    Heusser, Stephanie A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Allosteric modulation of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels by general anesthetics2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs) are key components of fast synaptic transmission and are targets of neuroactive drugs such as benzodiazepines, alcohol and muscle relaxants. Although early theories of general anesthesia suggested non-specific lipid interaction as the mechanism of anesthetic action, it has now become evident that they too bind to pLGICs. While general anesthetics act as positive allosteric modulators on most anion-conducting pLGICs, they inhibit cation-conducting channels. A detailed structural mechanism of how such opposite allosteric effects emerge has yet to be presented.

    This thesis investigates the structure-function relationship underlying the dynamics of channel activation and explores the mechanisms behind allosteric modulation by general anesthetics. Key model systems include the glutamate-gated chloride channel of C. elegans (GluCl) and the G. violaceus ligand-gated ion channel (GLIC), that show considerable structural homology to mammalian channel but with the added simplicity of homomeric assembly and accessibility to crystallization. Functional assessment is performed through recombinant expression of the channels in Xenopus oocytes, which are then used for two-electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology. These measurements are combined with recent advances in structure determination and computational simulations to propose structural mechanisms behind the functional effects.

    In this thesis I present the exploration and validation of the crystallographic construct GluCl as a model system to explore fundamental questions of mammalian pLGIC function. Further studies contribute to the understanding of the basis of allosteric modulation by identifying responsible binding sites for both potentiation and inhibition by general anesthetics in GLIC and substantiate a structural mechanism for these effects. The studies also offer a link between receptor- and lipid-based theories of anesthesia, and demonstrate successful discovery of new lead compounds with general anesthetic properties using virtual screening. The thesis therefore makes a contribution to the fundamental understanding of allosteric modulation in pLGICs and builds on the basis for rational drug discovery.

  • Public defence: 2018-05-04 13:00 Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Ye, Rebecca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    The Aspirants: How faith is built in emerging occupations2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Anticipating future demands in skills and workforce development has been a longstanding practice and challenge for governments and policy-makers. While such developments are examined closely at the national and regional levels, an even more pressing issue is to advance our understanding of how people who take on jobs in new and emerging fields embark on and persist in their occupational pathways. A striking feature of these occupations is their weakly defined and unstable nature. How do individuals traverse career trajectories with these characteristics? What drives and enables them to take the road less travelled? To address such questions, this research project set off from a distinctive occupational school in Sweden that prepares individuals for emerging occupational roles in digital work. Using an interpretative, longitudinal, and multi-method approach, this study focuses on a group of aspirants who were being trained to become specialists in extracting, analysing, and using digital data for the growth and profit of organisations. These individuals can be viewed as experiencing a double “not-yet” situation, since not only are they at the stage of aspiring to certain work roles, but the occupations to which they aspire are also in a nascent, not yet fully defined stage. This study accompanies them through significant events over the years: from when they are in training, to when they search for jobs, and, finally, when they are in work.

    The monograph contains three empirical sections that are sequenced by the aspirants’ school-to-work pathways. The first section examines the processes of socialisation into the occupational school; the second analyses their efforts to meet the labour market; and the final one investigates the ways in which they persist in their occupational trajectories. Following these stages reveals how a strong school culture, coupled with a strong labour market, facilitates the building of “faith” into weak-form occupational pathways. Through the ceremony of being selected into the educational organisation and performing everyday rituals that engender confidence in their individual and collective futures, the analysis reveals types of “scripts” that are fashioned into the school’s methodology as well as the expectations of future hirers. It becomes apparent that aspirants generally accept these scripts as necessary and adhere to them to navigate the constantly changing demands of the labour market. However, when these interpretive schemes fail to help them cope with their unclear occupational futures, uncertainties of worth, and the unstable normative logics they encounter at work sites, the aspirants are compelled to deliberate and adapt conceptions of what is possible and permissible through individual and collective projections. In all, the empirical findings form the basis for a sociological model that offers a perspective on how to treat temporality, anticipation, and the “not-yets”, particularly in the context of education to work transitions.

  • Svedin, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeological Research Laboratory.
    Storå, Jan (Contributor)
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Osteoarchaeological Research Laboratory.
    Engerdahl, Tomas (Contributor)
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeological Research Laboratory.
    Isacson, Mimmi (Contributor)
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeological Research Laboratory.
    Hällbrink, Birgitta (Contributor)
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeological Research Laboratory.
    Arkeologisk undersökning av Raä 447 i Korsnäs, Grödinge socken, Södermanland maj 20112011Report (Other academic)
  • Höglund Hellgren, Jasmin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Does Free, Prior and Informed Consent ensure self-determination?: A relational approach to mining activities and indigenous communities in northwestern Argentina2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last decades the struggle for indigenous rights has accomplished great achievements within international law. In relation to development projects and resource extraction on indigenous lands, the principle of Free, Prior and Informed Consent (FPIC) has gained increased recognition and is today expressed as an important instrument to realize indigenous peoples’ right to self-determination. Nevertheless, empirical evidence have identified power asymmetries as one of the major obstacles for effective and meaningful FPIC implementation. This study investigates how power asymmetries emerge and affect the right to self-determination through the four FPIC requirements. Based on field research and by applying a relational approach, the study investigates a case of mining activities in northwestern Argentina where indigenous communities currently experience an increased interest in lithium deposits on their lands from transnational corporations. The study shows how relations characterized by dependency and clientelism create a situation where actors hold unequal power positions which permeate all FPIC requirements severely undermining the principle’s potential to fulfill its purpose. Lastly, based on the findings the study argues substantial underpinnings in terms of necessary preconditions are needed if FPIC are to be able to ensure self-determination.

  • Sjöström, Jenny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Reconstruction of Holocene atmospheric mineral dust deposition from raised peat bogs in south–central Sweden2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Atmospheric mineral dust plays a dynamic role in the climate system acting both as a forcing and a feedback mechanism. To date, the majority of paleodust studies have been conducted on marine sediments or polar ice cores, while terrestrial deposition has been less studied. As such, it is important to produce new terrestrial Holocene paleo–dust records and fill existing regional gaps. Ombrotrophic (atmospherically–fed) peat bogs can be used to reconstruct dust deposition through elemental chemistry analysis. Multi–elemental data sets are commonly used infer net dust deposition rates, source changes, grain size, and mineral composition. Mineralogical identification of dust particles is particularly important because it allows both provenance tracing and increased understanding in climate and ecosystem feedbacks. Establishing mineralogy from elemental data of mixed mineral matrixes can however be challenging. X–ray diffraction analysis (XRD) is a standard technique for mineral identification which ideally requires removal of organic matter (OM). Therefore, a test procedure was undertaken where common OM removal methods were evaluated on bulk peat samples was therefore undertaken. The results showed that combustion at 500°C was most efficient in removing OM, while leaving the majority of minerals intact, but not all. In this Licenciate thesis, early result of a paleodust study from Draftinge Mosse, southern Sweden, are also outlined. Here, the method development mentioned above was applied, enabling a combination of elemental data with mineralogy. Future work includes minor and trace element analysis by ICP–AES and ICP–MS, evaluation of the reproducibility of single core reconstructions, tests of some of the methodological assumptions used in previous paleodust studies, source tracing and paleodust reconstruction from a second site (Gällsered Mosse). 

  • Gdaniec, Sandra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    231Pa and Th isotopes as tracers of deep water ventilation and scavenging in the Mediterranean Sea2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The naturally occurring isotopes 231Pa and 230Th are used as tracers of marine biogeochemical processes. They are both produced from the radioactive decay of their uniformly distributed uranium parents (235U and 234U) in seawater. After production, 231Pa and 230Th are removed by adsorption onto settling particles (scavenging) and subsequently buried in marine sediments. 230Th is more particle reactive compared to 231Pa. Consequently, 230Th will be removed from the open ocean by adsorption onto settling particles, while 231Pa tend to be laterally transported by currents and removed by scavenging in areas of high particle flux (e.g. ocean margins). The primordial 232Th indicates lithogenic supply via rivers and resuspension of sediments, which provides additional information about processes involved in the cycling of particle reactive elements in the ocean. The preferential deposition of particle reactive elements at ocean margins (boundary scavenging) has important implications for our understanding of the distribution and dispersion of micronutrients (e.g. iron) and pollutants in the ocean. It is therefore valuable to understand the nature of boundary scavenging processes in order to evaluate the relative contribution of circulation and scavenging behaviors.The major characteristics of thermohaline circulation in the Mediterranean are well known and have been studied for decades. This sea is an almost land-locked area, where limited water-exchange with the Atlantic Ocean only occurs through the Strait of Gibraltar. Therefore, this marginal sea is often referred to as a “miniature ocean” suitable as a “laboratory” for marine environmental research. In this licentiate thesis, distributions of 231Pa, 230Th and 232Th in seawater and marine particles collected during the GEOTRACES MedSeA-GA04-S cruise in 2013 are presented. Observed nuclide distributions indicate the impact of deep water formation processes, where observed differences can be linked to the type of deep water formation process that occurs in respective basin. Essentially all in-situ produced 230Th is buried in Mediterranean Sea sediments. Despite lower affinity of 231Pa for marine particles, most 231Pa is also scavenged and deposited in Mediterranean Sea sediments. The efficient scavenging of 231Pa produces a relatively low fractionation between 231Pa and 230Th in terms of the fractionation factor FTh/Pa. This licentiate thesis presents a summary of the methods used for the analysis of 231Pa and Th-isotopes with details on the exchange chromatography method and the treatment of mass spectrometric data. The study of 231Pa, 230Th and 232Th in the Mediterranean Sea has important implications for our understanding of processes that control their water column distributions and how their behavior can be utilized to trace chemical flux in modern and past ocean environments.

  • Gdaniec, Sandra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    231Pa and Th isotopes as tracers of deep water ventilation and scavenging in the Mediterranean Sea2017Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The naturally occurring isotopes 231Pa and 230Th are used as tracers of marine biogeochemical processes. They are both produced from the radioactive decay of their uniformly distributed uranium parents (235U and 234U) in seawater. After production, 231Pa and 230Th are removed by adsorption onto settling particles (scavenging) and subsequently buried in marine sediments. 230Th is more particle reactive compared to 231Pa. Consequently, 230Th will be removed from the open ocean by adsorption onto settling particles, while 231Pa tend to be laterally transported by currents and removed by scavenging in areas of high particle flux (e.g. ocean margins). The primordial 232Th indicates lithogenic supply via rivers and resuspension of sediments, which provides additional information about processes involved in the cycling of particle reactive elements in the ocean. The preferential deposition of particle reactive elements at ocean margins (boundary scavenging) has important implications for our understanding of the distribution and dispersion of micronutrients (e.g. iron) and pollutants in the ocean. It is therefore valuable to understand the nature of boundary scavenging processes in order to evaluate the relative contribution of circulation and scavenging behaviors.The major characteristics of thermohaline circulation in the Mediterranean are well known and have been studied for decades. This sea is an almost land-locked area, where limited water-exchange with the Atlantic Ocean only occurs through the Strait of Gibraltar. Therefore, this marginal sea is often referred to as a “miniature ocean” suitable as a “laboratory” for marine environmental research. In this licentiate thesis, distributions of 231Pa, 230Th and 232Th in seawater and marine particles collected during the GEOTRACES MedSeA-GA04-S cruise in 2013 are presented. Observed nuclide distributions indicate the impact of deep water formation processes, where observed differences can be linked to the type of deep water formation process that occurs in respective basin. Essentially all in-situ produced 230Th is buried in Mediterranean Sea sediments. Despite lower affinity of 231Pa for marine particles, most 231Pa is also scavenged and deposited in Mediterranean Sea sediments. The efficient scavenging of 231Pa produces a relatively low fractionation between 231Pa and 230Th in terms of the fractionation factor FTh/Pa. This licentiate thesis presents a summary of the methods used for the analysis of 231Pa and Th-isotopes with details on the exchange chromatography method and the treatment of mass spectrometric data. The study of 231Pa, 230Th and 232Th in the Mediterranean Sea has important implications for our understanding of processes that control their water column distributions and how their behavior can be utilized to trace chemical flux in modern and past ocean environments.

  • Hemmingsson, Christoffer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Phosphate and Arsenic Cycling under Experimental Early Proterozoic Marine Conditions2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Nutrient dynamics in the Archean-Paleoproterozoic oceans strongly influenced primary productivity and the rise of atmospheric O2. Reconstructing the cycling of key nutrients such as dissolved inorganic phosphate (DIP) at this time is important for our understanding of the timing, rate and extent of atmospheric oxygenation at this time. Banded iron formations (BIF) can be used as proxies for global DIP content in Precambrian marine waters. Estimating Precambrian DIP requires understanding of the mechanisms by which Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides scavenge DIP which has come mainly from experimental studies using NaCl solutions that mimick Precambrian marine conditions with for example, elevated Si and Fe(II) concentrations. The two DIP binding modes suggested for Early Proterozoic marine waters are 1) Adsorption - surface attachment on pre-formed Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxides, and 2) Coprecipitation - incorporation of P into actively growing Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxides. It has been suggested that the elevated Si concentrations suggested for Precambrian seawater, strongly inhibit adsorption of DIP in Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides. However recent coprecipitation experiments show that DIP is strongly scavenged by Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides in the presence of Si, seawater cations and hydrothermal As. In this study we show that the DIP uptake onto Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides by adsorption is less than 5% of that by coprecipitation. The data imply that in the Early Proterozoic open oceans, the precipitation of Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides during mixing of deep anoxic Fe(II)-rich waters with oxygenated ocean surface waters caused DIP removal from surface waters through coprecipitation rather than adsorption. Local variations in DIP and perhaps even stratification of DIP in the oceans were likely created from the continuous removal of DIP from surface waters by Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides, and its partial release into the anoxic bottoms waters and in buried sediments. In addition to a DIP famine, the selectivity for DIP over As(V) may have led to As enrichment in surface waters both of which would have most likely decreased the productivity of Cyanobacteria and O2 production. 

  • Public defence: 2018-05-03 10:00 Magnélisalen, Stockholm
    Larsson, Veronica J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Characterization of the inner nuclear membrane protein Samp1, during interphase and mitosis2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The nucleus, a hallmark in eukaryotic cells, contains the genome separating it from molecules in the cytoplasm. The nucleus is surrounded by a nuclear envelope consisting of two concentric membranes, the outer nuclear membrane and the inner nuclear membrane, the nuclear lamina and nuclear pore complexes. The cytoskeleton is physically connected with the nucleoskeleton by the LINC complexes, spanning the nuclear envelope. In this way, the cell surface is linked directly to chromatin. There are hundreds of unique inner nuclear membrane proteins, but today we only know the functions of a handful. The best characterized inner nuclear membrane proteins are involved in chromatin organization and gene regulation.

    This thesis focuses on Samp1, an integral membrane protein that localizes to the inner nuclear membrane during interphase. During mitosis, a fraction localizes to the mitotic spindle, which is responsible for accurate segregation of chromosomes.

    It is difficult to investigate inner nuclear membrane protein-protein interactions, because transmembrane proteins are often associated with the “hard-to-solubilize” nuclear lamina. MCLIP was developed as a method to detect interactions between proteins of the nuclear envelope in live cells. MCLIP has been valuable in identifying interaction partners of Samp1. In interphase, Samp1 distributes in distinct micro-domains of the inner nuclear membrane and interacts with the nuclear lamina, emerin and the LINC complex protein SUN1, suggesting that Samp1 might have a functional role associated with both the nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton.

    In mitosis Samp1 distributes in filamentous membrane structures partially overlapping with kinetochore microtubules of the mitotic spindle. Samp1 binds directly to γ-tubulin and recruits γ-tubulin and Haus6 to the mitotic spindle and thus contributes to spindle assembly. Samp1 also interacts with Aurora B, a kinase important for k-fiber error correction at the kinetochores. Depletion of Samp1 caused an increased activation and distribution of Aurora B at the metaphase plate, decreased formation of stable k-fibers, metaphase prolongation and increased chromosome mis-segregation. Samp1 is the first transmembrane protein found to be involved in mitotic spindle assembly and stability, important for correct segregation of chromosomes.

     

     

  • Wendel, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Tholinder, Cajsa Stina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Film och fritidshemmet – fiende eller frände?: En kvalitativ studie om filmens plats i fritidshemmet2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta arbete undersöks filmens plats i fritidshemsverksamheten, vad som visas i verksamheten och hur det motiveras. Utifrån detta har vi utfört 11 kvalitativa intervjuer med pedagoger verksamma inom fritidshemmet. Vi har i vår datainsamling kunnat urskilja resultat som pekar på hur pedagogerna använder film och deras syn på film i verksamheten. Vad vi kan se är att filmens främsta användningsområde är att underhålla barngruppen och ge utrymme för rekreation. Alla informanter upplever svårigheter i samband med filmvisning. Svårigheterna grundar sig i yttre faktorer som föräldrar och ledning samt en oro för att filmerna i sig innehåller problematik. Alla informanterna har en vilja att skydda barnen från att utsättas för olämpliga filmer, vad som är olämpligt är dock till viss del subjektivt. Vissa av pedagogerna ser film som en källa till pedagogiska diskussioner samt en given del i temaarbeten, detta kan vi även se stöd för i forskningen.

  • Virtala, Carolina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeology.
    Jämtländska reliefspännebärare: Ledande kvinnor under folkvandringstid2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with two women who wore relief brooches from Häste and Brunflo during the Migration period in Jämtland. The purpose of the essay is to investigate similarities and differences in the women’s relief brooches, graves and places in order to understand the women’s relations to each other and their time. The essay has implemented gender theory and a comparative method, complemented by a landscape analysis. The conclusion is that the women from Häste and Brunflo were leaders during their time. 

  • Börstell, Carl
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Jantunen, Tommi
    University of Jyväskylä.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Kimmelman, Vadim
    University of Amsterdam.
    Oomen, Marloes
    University of Amsterdam.
    de Lint, Vanja
    University of Amsterdam.
    Transitivity prominence within and across modalities2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The idea of transitivity as a scalar phenomenon is well known (e.g., Hopper & Thompson 1980; Tsunoda 1985; Haspelmath 2015). However, as with most areas of linguistic study, it has been almost exclusively studied with a focus on spoken languages. A rare exception to this is Kimmelman (2016), who investigates transitivity in Russian Sign Language (RSL) on the basis of corpus data. Kimmelman attempts to establish a transitivity prominence hierarchy of RSL verbs, and compares this ranking to the verb meanings found in the ValPal database (Hartmann, Haspelmath & Bradley 2013). He arrives at the conclusion that using the frequency of overt objects in corpus data is a successful measure of transitivity prominence, and that the prominence ranking of RSL verbs correlate with that found for spoken languages in Haspelmath (2015). In this paper, we expand on these intra- and cross-modal comparisons of transitivity prominence by introducing four other sign languages to the sample: Finnish Sign Language (FinSL), Swedish Sign Language (SSL), Sign Language to the Netherlands (NGT), and German Sign Language (DGS). FinSL and SSL are known to be historically related (cf. Bergman & Engberg-Pedersen 2010), while the other are not related, which allows us to look at both modality and relatedness effects in our sample. Of the 80 core verb meanings in the ValPal database, Kimmelman (2016) included the 25 most frequent verbs in his corpus. For our study, we have annotated all occurrences of these 25 verb meanings in a subset of the corpora of FinSL (2h 40min; 18,446 tokens), SSL (2h 5min; 16,724 tokens), NGT (≈80,000 tokens), and DGS (≈58,000 tokens). We annotate whether a verb occurs with an overt object as well as the type of object (direct, indirect, clausal, or a locative). Looking at the ValPal verb meanings with ≥5 sign tokens in all four new languages, we arrive at 12 verbs that are found in all five sign languages and the spoken languages (SpL) of the ValPal database – see Table 1. In Table 1, we see that there is a general agreement across languages – both signed and spoken – in how transitivity prominent a verb meaning is. Spearman’s rank correlation shows a significant (p<0.05) correlation between all possible pairs except SSL–SpL (p=0.091) and SSL– RSL (p=0.074), corroborating Kimmelman’s finding that there are patterns of transitivity prominence present across languages and modalities. It is interesting that SSL thus diverges from the other sign languages in this sample: this deserves further investigation. We also wanted to investigate the transitivity prominence as a property of individual languages. In order to do so, we took the individual languages of the ValPal database and measured each verb meaning in each language with regard to its transitivity prominence. This meant calculating how many of the verb forms associated with a specific verb meaning took a P argument. Note that this is quite different from calculating transitivity prominence based on corpus data: with corpora, we calculated the proportion of verbal tokens occurring with an overt object, and with the ValPal database, we calculated the proportion of transitive verb associated with a particular concept. We included the 12 verb meanings found across all languages (the five sign languages and 33 spoken languages). We then calculated mean distances across verb meanings and languages, and plotted this with multidimensional scaling in Figure 1. In the figure, we see that the five sign languages form a part of a cluster, suggesting either modality-based similarities, or similarities that come with the difference in data (corpus data rather than lexical data). On the other hand, sign languages as a group are not clearly opposed to spoken languages as a group, which implies that the corpus-based and lexical calculations of transitivity are comparable. Interestingly, FinSL and SSL are not more strongly associated than the other sign languages, which implies that their historical relatedness is not directly relevant to transitivity. In our presentation, we will present the results and the conclusions in more detail, as well as discuss the possibilities of using corpus data to establish valency patterns for languages in the signed modality.

    References Bergman, Brita & Elisabeth Engberg-Pedersen. 2010. Transmission of sign languages in the Nordic countries. In Diane Brentari (ed.), Sign languages: A Cambridge language survey, 74–94. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Hartmann, Iren, Martin Haspelmath & Taylor Bradley (eds.). 2013. Valency Patterns Leipzig. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. http://valpal.info/. Haspelmath, Martin. 2015. Transitivity prominence. In Andrej Malchukov & Bernard Comrie (eds.), Valency classes in the world’s languages: Vol 1 - Introducing the framework, and case studies from Africa and Eurasia, 131–148. Boston, MA: De Gruyter Mouton. Hopper, Paul J. & Sandra A. Thompson. 1980. Transitivity in grammar and discourse. Language 56(2). 251–299. Kimmelman, Vadim. 2016. Transitivity in RSL: A corpus-based account. In Eleni Efthimiou, Stavroula-Evita Fotinea, Thomas Hanke, Julie Hochgesang, Jette Kristoffersen & Johanna Mesch (eds.), Proceedings of the 7th Workshop on the Representation and Processing of Sign Languages: Corpus Mining, 117–120. Paris: European Language Resources Association (ELRA). Tsunoda, Tasaku. 1985. Remarks on transitivity. Journal of Linguistics 21(2). 385. doi:10.1017/S0022226700010318.

  • Forsman, Hilma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Letterbox Club för barn i familjer med ekonomiskt bistånd: Resultat från ett pilotprojekt2018Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Forsman, Hilma
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Bejbom, Johanna
    Letterbox Club för barn i familjehem2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Bra skolresultat är viktigt för barns utveckling. Ett sätt att hjälpa barn att lyckas bättre i skolan är att ge dem stöd med sin läsning. I Storbritannien finns The Letterbox Club – en bokklubb för barn i familjehem som lett till förbättringar i barnens läsförmåga.

    Under 2014-2015 genomfördes det första svenska projektet med The Letterbox Club. Projektet startades av Bokspindeln och genomfördes i samarbete med Socialförvaltningen i Stockholms stad, åtta stadsdelar, Institutionen för socialt arbete vid Stockholms universitet och Regionbibliotek Stockholm.

    Syftet med projektet och utvärderingen var att testa och utvärdera idén med en bokklubb för familjehemsplacerade barn i Sverige.

    Projektet innebar att 31 barn i årskurs 2-4 fick bokpaket hemskickade med posten en gång per månad i ett halvår. I varje paket fanns det en faktabok och en kapitelbok, brev från Letterbox Club Sverige, författare och det närliggande biblioteket samt extra saker som pennor och bokmärken. 

    Några barn och familjehemsföräldrar blev intervjuade om vad de tyckte om projektet, bokpaketen och deras innehåll. Intervjuerna visade att projektet var mycket uppskattat. Barnen tyckte att det var spännande att få bokpaket och roligt att få olika typer av böcker. Många hade läst mer under projektet än vad de vanligtvis gjorde, men för några var böckerna antingen för lätta eller för svåra. Familjehemsföräldrarna tyckte att det var ett bra och sympatiskt projekt. De trodde att det hade väckt barnens läslust och hade själva engagerat sig i barnens läsning på olika sätt.

    Som en del av utvärderingen gjordes även jämförelser av barnens testade läsförmåga före och efter att de hade fått alla bokpaketen. Resultaten visade att barnen i genomsnitt hade förbättrat sin läsålder med tolv månader under de sex månader projektet pågick. Det innebär att de som grupp sett förbättrade sin läsålder med sex månader mer än vad man normalt förväntar sig.

    Sammantaget verkar det som om The Letterbox Club kan starta en kedja av positiva processer och att dessa tillsammans kan bidra till att förbättra läsförmågan hos barn i familjehem.

    Det är dock viktigt att påpeka att de här resultaten bygger på en studie. Undersökningsgruppen har varit liten och utvärderingen har gjorts med en svag design eftersom det inte finns någon jämförelsegrupp (det vill säga en grupp barn som gjort samma tester, men inte fått några bokpaket). Det behövs därför fler utvärderingar och helst med jämförelsegrupp. Resultaten från pilotprojektet kan ändå ses som lovande.

  • Matevski, Daniel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Culture and Aesthetics.
    Stilens och berättarteknikens betydelse för tolkningen av Inger Edelfeldts novell "Sommar"2012Student paper second term, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    ”Sommar” är ett av de allra främsta exemplen på Inger Edelfeldts skicklighet som novellförfattare. Genom ett antal stilistiska och berättartekniska grepp utnyttjar hon novellens begränsade utrymme optimalt. Edelfeldt förmedlar här motiv och tema, utan att behöva ge avkall på vare sig person- eller miljöskildring och hon lyckas dessutom förmedla en rikedom av känsla och undermening. Uppsatsens syfte är att klargöra på vilket sätt Inger Edelfeldt skapar mening i novellen, utan att behöva skriva ned varenda bokstav i den historia hon vill förmedla: Vilka stilistiska och berättartekniska grepp används? Och vilken betydelse får dessa för tolkningen av berättelsen? Uppsatsen fokuserar på fyra olika analysområden (med såväl kvantitativa som kvalitativa drag): det sinnliga, det ljusa och det mörka, det rituella samt det utelämnade och det antydda. Det är just genom att använda sig av dessa stildrag och berättartekniska grepp som Edelfeldt, trots den knapphändiga informationen, skapar en djupare mening i texten.

  • naomi, korang
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Ett jobb för en kvinna?: En kvalitativ studie om genusföreställningar bland förskolelärare.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka genusföreställningar som förknippas med

    förskolläraryrket från förskolepersonalens perspektiv. Vidare undersöks om

    förskolepersonalen upplever att de påverkas av dessa föreställningar. För att studera

    fenomenet har jag förhållit mig till två teoretiska ramverk: doing gender perspektivet och

    Collins perspektiv om genus. Dessa är teoretiska förhållningssätt som betonar att genus

    skapas i den vardagliga praktiken bland människor i social interaktion.

    Empirin har tagits fram med hjälp av den semistrukturerade intervjumetoden, där sammanlagt

    sex intervjuer har gjorts med jämn könsfördelning. Denna fördelning var en strategisk sådan

    för att få en så rättfärdigad bild av fenomenet som möjligt.

    Resultatet visade att förskolepersonalen är medvetna om de genusföreställningar som

    förknippas med deras yrke men tycker att denna tvetydiga syn är väldigt gammalmodig.

    Förskolläraryrket präglas av föreställningar kring vad som anses vara maskulint och feminint,

    detta är något som även uttrycks i skillnaden i arbetsuppgifter mellan kvinnlig och manlig

    personal. Respondenterna beskriver också hur skillnader i bemötande bland vänner, familj och

    barnens föräldrar påverkar det dagliga arbetet och menar att det kan ligga till grund för den

    låga representationen av män i yrket. Vidare menar samtliga respondenter att förskolan skulle

    gynnas av att fler män söker sig till yrket.

  • Lorentz-Meyer, Dagmar
    et al.
    Åsberg, Cecilia
    Fredengren, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeological Research Laboratory.
    Sõrmus, Maris
    Treusch, Pat
    Vehviläinen, Marja
    Zekany, Eva
    Žeková, Lucie
    Anthropocene Ecologies: Biogeotechnical Relationalities in Late Capitalism2015Other (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This position paper outlines a multidirectional approach to what we call Anthropocene ecologies, its diverse genealogies, and methodological and conceptual foci. Under the heading of Anthropocene ecologies we seek to fertilize the sciences of ecology with approaches of queer and feminist new materialisms, and engage in multiple collaborations across the humanities, sciences, and everyday ecological practices. Specifically we draw on ecology as the object of analysis and the methodology, building on concepts and approaches from the sciences, material feminisms, science and technology studies, human/animal studies and material ecocriticism. Five modes of attention become particularly salient for our analysis of the Anthropocene ecologies of solar energy, humananimal relations, organic food production, wetlands, and human-robot relations. First we attend to how these ecologies are generated within and affect the webs of multispecies ecologies in late capitalism. Second we suggest the concept of biogeotechno-power to capture the entanglements of the biological, the geologic and the technological in new formations of power that invest, regulate, enhance, and dispose of (more-than-)human bodies in particular ecological relationalities. Third we examine the multiplicities of ecological temporalities, including the deep time of mineralisation, fossilisation and past and future species survival. Fourth we attend to affect as an entangling force in ecological relations. And fifth we investigate an affirmative posthuman ethics of concern and response-ability in relations with living and nonliving materialities that might not be close by (spatially and/or temporally). Anthropocene ecologies thereby include the technical, informational, temporal, affective, and ethical as integral parts of ecological intra-actions, and remain attuned to the differential, paradoxical and unexpected.

  • Michał, Dzieliński
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Finance.
    Talpsepp, Tõnn (Contributor)
    Tallinn University of Technology.
    Asymmetric attention and volatility asymmetry2018In: Journal of Empirical Finance, ISSN 0927-5398, E-ISSN 1879-1727, Vol. 45, p. 59-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analyzing a large sample of U.S. firms, we show that the asymmetry of stock return volatility is positively related to investor attention and differences of opinion. Using the number of analysts following a given firm to capture attention and the dispersion in analyst forecasts as a common proxy for differences of opinion, we show that the two effects are complementary. Furthermore, the effect of attention is strongest among stocks with low institutional ownership and high idiosyncratic volatility. Our results are robust to the traditional ‘‘leverage effect’’ explanation of volatility asymmetry. The findings relate to the previously documented relationship between attention and volatility and suggest that volatility asymmetry is driven by asymmetric attention.

  • Wu, Dexiang
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Finance.
    Kwon, Roy H
    Costa, Giorgio
    A Constrained Cluster-based Approach for Tracking the S&P 500 Index2017In: International Journal of Production Economics, Vol. 193, p. 222-243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider the problem of tracking a benchmark target portfolio of financial securities in particular the S&P 500. Linear integer programming models are developed that seeks to track a target portfolio using a strict subset of securities from the benchmark portfolio. The models represent a clustering approach to select securities and also include additional constraints that aim to control risk and transactions costs. Lagrangian and semi-Lagrangian methods are developed to compute solutions to the tracking models. The computational results show the effectiveness of the linear tracking models and the computational methods in tracking the S&P 500. Overall, the models and methods presented can serve as the basis of the optimization module in an optimization-based decision support for creating tracking portfolios.

  • Rosén, Alexander
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    "Vitheten är ett sjunkande skepp och jag tänker inte rädda dem": en kvalitativ intervjustudie om rasifierade adopterades upplevelser av strategier och stöd i relation till rasism2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study’s aim was to identify what racialized adoptees experience as strategies and support in relation to racially differentiating expressions (racism). Data was collected using qualitative interviews with five racialized transracially adopted adults. The transcriptions from the interviews were analyzed via thematic analysis. The theoretical approach was based in critical race theory and postcolonial theory. Identified strategies was modification of the body, use of adoptionhood, identity, silence, violence and knowledge of racism. Identified sources of support was other racialized people, white people with special relations to the respondents, the adoptive parents, the LGBTQ-community, separatist rooms for people of colour and the internet. White people are described as a particular group with less ability to give support. The study’s results show that racialized adoptees have little support in their immediate environment and have to develop strategies mostly on their own.

  • Wittbom, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Styrning i fokus: en studie hos Transportstyrelsens avdelning Väg och järnväg2018Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur kan Transportstyrelsens avdelning Väg och järnväg följa upp och utvärdera sin verksamhets påverkan på de transportpolitiska målen? Frågan behandlasi denna forskningsrapport. En kvalitativ fallstudieresulterar i en konceptuell styrmodell utformad med syfte att underlätta den fortsatta utvecklingen av myndighetens verksamhetsstyrning. Intervjuer, dokument och en workshop utgör empiri som tolkas med teorier om hur det går att styra mot önskade samhällseffekter.Myndighetens styrningharbåde sakpolitiskaoch förvaltningspolitiska mål att förhålla sig till,vilket bland annat innebär att verksamheten ska genomsyras av demokrati, rättssäkerhet och effektivitet.

    Effektivitet diskuteras med hjälp av en utvecklad input-output-modell i form av den så kallade resursomvandlingskedjanmed de fyra elementen resurser, aktiviteter, prestationer och effekter. Resurseranvänds för att genomföra aktiviteter. Resultaten av verksamhetens aktiviteter och processer ses som prestationer,vilka i sin tur leder till effekter. Resursomvandlingskedjan innebär ett inifrån-och-ut-perspektiv som visar hur givna resurser används för att försöka uppnå uppställda mål.De politiska målen pekar på önskvärda effekter vilket betyder att denna resursomvandlingskedjainte ger tillräckligt stöd för styrningen. Att utgå från effekterna och ett utifrån-och-in-perspektiv ger bättre underlag för att kunna styra effektivt. Genom att söka efter värdeskapande aktiviteter och prestationer går det att åstadkommaeffekter som skaparvärde för pengarna. Resursbehovet behöver hela tiden uppdateras, inte minst när det gäller kompetens. Diskussionen visar att båda perspektiven –utifrån och inifrån –är relevanta för att kunna styra mot önskade samhällseffekterpå ett kostnadseffektivt sätt.

    Det är svårt att bedömavilka effekter den egna verksamheten leder till. Tydliga orsak-verkansamband går sällan att fastställa och samhällseffekter uppnås tillsammans med en mängd andra aktörer. Transportstyrelsens uppdrag är att påverka andra aktörermed regelsättning, tillståndsgivning och tillsyn i transportsektorn.Dessa aktörer kan vara andra myndighetersomockså styrs av regeringens transportpolitiska mål, men även andra organisationer som styrs av andra mål.

    Studien visar hur avdelningen Väg och järnväg strävar efter att utvecklaorganisatoriskt lärande med hjälp avett systemsynsätt där utifrån-och-in-perspektiv ska leda till bättre kunskap om vilka effekter verksamheten både bör leda till och i praktiken leder till. En ny controllerfunktion verkar för att stödja kärnverksamheten att finna former för att förstå merom effekter. Den konceptuella styrmodellen lyfter in deomvandlingskedjor som finns hos varje aktör i transportsektorn –oavsett om de verkar utifrån-och-in eller inifrån-och-ut. Att förstå hur dessa olika aktörer förhåller sig till sina resurser, aktiviteter, prestationer och effekter kan ge bättre precision i styrningenmot de transportpolitiska målen.

  • Almhagen, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Development and validation of a scanned proton beam model for dose distribution verification using Monte Carlo2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background and purpose: Although proton therapy is becoming increasingly common as a radiotherapy modality, facilities offering proton therapy are still scarce in comparison to photon therapy. Sweden's new proton therapy facility, Skandionkliniken, is scheduled to being operation during August 2015, employing the pencil beam scanning technique. Given Skandionklinikens unique stance as the only facility offering proton therapy in Sweden as of this writing, it is important to minimize the need for measurements during quality assurance to free up beam time for patients and other endeavors. It is the purpose of this work to create a foundation for a method whereby dose distribution verification is done via Monte Carlo simulation by developing and performing simple validation of a beam model. As input for simulating a dose distribution, log files storing a wide variety of data on how the dose distribution was delivered were used.

    Method: GATE, an open source Monte Carlo code and built on top of Geant4, was used for all simulations. A beam model parameterizing phase space at the nozzle exit was developed. The beam model development process made use of the beam data library and log file data. Using an in house developed code to convert log file data to treatment plans readable by GATE allowed simulation of delivered dose distributions. For validation, gamma index tests were performed comparing measured and simulated dose distributions.

    Results: The beam model was found able to predict the spot size in almost all cases within 0.2 mm. Likewise, the beam model was able to predict the proton range within 0.2 mm. The energy spread was found to be more difficult to estimate; comparisons of simulated and measured curves for at six points around the Bragg peak yielded a maximum deviation of 0.86 mm. Several difficulties prevented easy interpretation of the results of the gamma index tests. If allowance is made for certain data manipulation, pass rates of 90% or above using the global method can be achieved for all depths and for both treatment plans scanned.

    Conclusion: Although some complications arose during validation, the beam model performance appears capable of producing accurate results. To produce a full product suitable for routine patient specific quality assurance, further work will be necessary. Significant computing power would also be mandatory for routine use, necessitating the acquisition of a dedicated computer cluster or using GPUs.

  • Yacoub, Chahed
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Measurement of absorbed dose to the skin and its relation with microcircular changes in breast cancer radiotherapy2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Radiation therapy has been shown to increase local and regional control as well as overall

    survival with breast cancer, but the vast majority of patients develop acute skin reactions,

    which are in part related to microvascular changes. These reactions vary between different

    skin sites. The aim of this work is to determine the absorbed dose to the skin by measurements

    and investigate if there is a correlation between the absorbed dose at different areas of

    the breast and the local changes in microcirculation in the skin after breast cancer radiotherapy.

    The study includes characterisation of the Gafchromic EBT3 film and Epson Perfection

    V600 Photo scanner which are used for absorbed dose determination. The measurements

    were done both on an anthropomorphic female phantom and on a patient undergoing breast

    cancer radiotherapy. Twenty-one pieces offilm (2x1 cm2) were placed on the surface of

    the breast (both for the phantom and patient) and irradiated with a prescribed dose to the

    target of 2.66 Gy with two opposed fields using 6 MV beam.

    It was observed that mainly 45-64 % of the prescribed dose was deposited at the surface,

    both for the phantom and patient. Using laser speckle contrast imaging and polarised light

    spectroscopy, the regional changes in mean blood perfusion and in mean red blood cell

    concentration (RBCC) at the end of the treatment with a total prescribed dose of 42.6

    Gy, compared to baseline, were measured in both the treated and untreated breast of the

    same patient. Although marked increases in perfusion were seen in different areas of the

    treated breast, there was no significant correlation between the changes in perfusion and

    the absorbed dose at these areas. However, a statistical correlation was found between the

    changes in RBCC and the absorbed skin dose at the same areas. To further elucidate the

    relation between the changes in skin microcirculation and the absorbed radiation dose during

    breast cancer radiotherapy, future studies using a larger number of patients are needed.

  • Dul, Emilie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Monte Carlo simulation of the spatial response function of a SPECT measurement device for nuclear fuel bundles2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The PGET device is currently being developed for partial-defect verication purposes on nuclear fuel assemblies. It Comprises CdTe detector elements in a heavy tungsten-alloy collimator, for which collimator slit openings define the field-of-view. This study aims at calculating the spatial response function of this device for further deployment in tomographic reconstruction algorithms. In this work, the detector response for 2 dierent sources (662 keV from Cesium-137 and 1274 keV from Europium-154) was simulated using the MCNPX software package. In the simulations, energy windows used in measurements with the PGET device were deployed. The results show the expected characteristics with strong response for a source position directly in front of the collimator slit opening and decreasing response as the source is moved into the penumbra and umbra region. The uncertainty of the simulated response function was less than 3.5 % for both sources. Separate simulations were made to quantify contributions from septal penetration and scattering from the collimator material into the detector for the energy windows covering the full -energy peak. These contributions were found to be around3% for the source of Cesium-137 and 6% for the source of Europium-154.

  • Mondlane, Gracinda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    A comparative treatment planning study of radiotherapy of clinical liver- and stomach-cancer cases with either photon or proton beams2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There has been an increasing interest in proton beam therapy (PBT) in recent years related to the advantageous depth-dose characteristics of proton beams compared to what is achievable with standard external photon beam radiotherapy (RT). With PBT, improved target dose conformity can be achieved together with a reduction in the dose to the organs at risk (OARs). This can for certain cases lead to an increased tumour control probability (TCP) at the same time as the probabilities for normal tissue complications (NTCP) and radiation-induced secondary cancers are reduced. However, there are challenges with PBT, in the form of uncertainties in the dose delivery to the patient, due to different influencing factors. These perturbing factors are contributing to the uncertainties during different steps in the RT flow process, from the treatment planning to the irradiation.

    In the present work, a comparative treatment planning study of PBT and photon RT for a few clinical liver- and stomach-cancer cases were performed with the aim of determining possible advantages of PBT. The treatment planning comparisons were performed by means of dosimetric evaluations and by use of tissue response models. The later included the calculation of TCP and NTCP as well as the assessment of risk of radiation-induced secondary cancer for the two compared RT techniques. A total of eleven patients previously treated with RT at Karolinska University Hospital were included in the study. Three of these patients had been treated for liver cancer and eight for stomach cancer. The photon plans which had been used in the real treatments at the hospital were taken as reference plans. The treatment planning for the liver cancer cases had been performed on conventional CT images, but 4D-CT images were used for target definition to account for the target motion.  Three distinct CT images were used in the planning of the stomach cancer cases, the original CT image study on which the photon plans had been done and two CT image studies with artificially changed physical density for some of the internal organs to simulate different possible fillings of the stomach. The extra- or reduced gas filling was drawn on the CT slices by the radiation oncologist to estimate two worst-case scenarios for changes in density within the irradiated volume.

    The results indicate an improved target dose conformity, dose homogeneity and sparing of OARs for the PBT plans compared to the photon RT plans for the two clinical cases studied. The sparing of the OARs was also observed in the form of decreased NTCP for the PBT plans. The PBT plans showed to be worse than the photon plans when some structures were replaced by air and water. In the case of extra air there was a shift of the higher doses beyond the distal edge of the planned proton range which caused both an increase of the irradiated volumes of sensitive normal tissues and of the maximum doses to the OARs. In the case of extra water in the stomach, the maximum range of the protons was reduced causing target underdosage.  The calculations of probabilities for radiation-induced secondary malignancies indicated a reduced risk for all the OARs with the proton plans for the liver cancer cases. For the stomach cancer cases, reduced risks were obtained for induction of cancer in the liver but an increased risk was calculated for the bowel(-)PTV, with the proton- compared to the photon-plans. The results of the calculations of risk for radiation-induced cancer in the kidneys were inconclusive. The assessment of risk of secondary cancer for other organs, not delineated in this work (to obtain the whole body risk), is needed in order to obtain more comprehensive and clinically useful results.

  • Södergren, Cecilia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Bergendal, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Strategier för läsförståelse: En aktionsforskningsstudie om reciprok undervisning i grundsärskolan2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte med denna studie är att undersöka huruvida strukturerade textsamtal i form av reciprok undervisning (RU) kan bidra till ett ökat lärande i grundsärskolan. Vi har med aktionsforskning som metodansats, inspirerade av fenomenografi, undersökt hur några lärare i grundsärskolan beskriver att de arbetar med metoden reciprok undervisning, samt vilka hinder och möjligheter de upplever att de möter under arbetet med metoden. Fokusgruppsamtal, lektionsobservationer och loggboksanteckningar har utgjort studiens primära data, och en ambition med studien har också varit att bidra till ett utvecklingsarbete på den aktuella skolan.

    Resultatet visar att lärarna uppfattar metoden RU – som kan knytas till ett sociokulturellt perspektiv på lärande och till ett whole language-perspektiv på läsning– som gynnsam för grundsärskolans läsförståelseundervisning: den ger enligt lärarna eleverna en läsupplevelse som möjliggör ökad interaktion och lärande elev till elev. RU anses av lärarna i studien vara en möjlig metod för att bearbeta texter i många olika slags grupper där förutsättningarna kan se olika ut. Metoden anses mycket användbar även i en-till-en-undervisning. Resultatet visar dock även att det finns vissa förutsättningar som måste uppfyllas för att RU ska fungera väl. Lärarna beskriver hur de ser en risk för att läsupplevelsen går förlorad och eleverna riskerar att tappa fokus när texten blir upphackad. RU:s struktur, där grunden är att läraren modellerar lässtrategier, utgör en viktig scaffolding/stöttning för eleverna, men gör också att risken ökar att läraren ökar sitt eget talutrymme. Studiens resultat lyfter också fram ytterligare en risk med användningen av bilder och figurer inom modelleringen i RU. Bilder på karaktärer och figurer måste användas på ett genomtänkt sätt.

  • Ståhl, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Nilsson, Hanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Daglig fysisk aktivitet i klassrummet för elever med neuropsykiatrisk funktionsnedsättning-ett specialpedagogiskt verktyg?2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Interest in research for the relationship between physical activity and cognition among children and adolescents has increased substantially in recent years. The positive effects of physical activity appear to be particularly important for students with neuropsychiatric disability. Physical activity within the classroom is an area that so far has been relatively unexplored. The purpose of this study is to investigate both students with neuropsychiatric disability and their teachers' experiences of daily physical activity during an implementation period of an exercise program inside the classroom and how it affects the study situation, The purpose is also to identify obstacles and opportunities for implementation of daily physical activity inside the classroom for student with neuropsychiatric disability.  Based on the purpose of the study, we have investigated whether daily physical activity in school can be a special educational tool in the work of students with neuropsychiatric disabilities. An intervention with daily physical activity inside classrooms was conducted over four consecutive weeks in two groups at two different schools. Teachers and their students estimated experiences of daily physical activity were collected through surveys before and after intervention as well as through logbooks during intervention. The results show that students and teachers have predominantly estimated positive experiences of daily physical activity in the classroom. The main positive change in students and teachers’ estimation is the students' completion of tasks. The transition between movement activity and other classroom teaching and the poor physical condition of some students are perceived by the teachers as an obstacle for implementation of physical activity within the classroom.  Safety and harmony in the group, as well as clear and simple instructions, are important prerequisites for implementation. This study's conclusion is that daily physical activity in the classroom is perceived positively by teachers and students and has a predominantly positive impact on the study situation for students with neuropsychiatric disability and therefore can be a special educational tool.