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  • Åkesson, Emil
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Osteoarchaeological Research Laboratory.
    Age of the Cremated: On the estimation of age of burnt human remains2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The estimation of age is an important aspect in osteoarchaeological analysis. In order to understand people and their fates in past societies, researchers must turn to palaeodemography. Therefore, it is vital that the methods of age estimation, which the foundations of palaeodemographic reconstructions rest upon, are as accurate and reliable as possible. In current Swedish cremation-osteoarchaeology, two methods of age estimation are commonly used: suture closure and relative thickness of the diploë. However, no substantial evaluation of these two methods have been undertaken. This study aims to evaluate the two methods of age estimation of cremated remains, suture closure and relative thickness of the diploë. This was done by testing the two methods on two unburnt populations, Mediaeval city-dwellers from Helgeandsholmen, Stockholm, Sweden, and Middle-Neolithic hunter-gatherers from Ajvide, Gotland, Sweden. Suture closure and proportion of diploë was observed in comparison with age-related changes of the auricular surface of the ilium and the pubic symphysis. Based on the results of the study, possible courses of action were proposed and then applied on cremated remains from a Late Iron Age burial ground on Lovö, Stockholm, Sweden. The results showed significant moderate correlation with age for both methods (0.61 for suture closure and 0.58 for proportion of diploë). However, early stage of suture closure could identify a group consisting of juveniles and young adults, while advanced suture closure could identify a group consisting of middle adults and old adults. These results, which proved to be more reliable than existing methods, can, hopefully, lead to improvements of the assessment of age in cremated remains, and increase our understanding of the fates of people of the past.

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    Age of the Cremated
  • Jansson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Gustafsson Sofie: Medborgarskapande på olika villkor. Självbilder, skolkoder och syn på kunskap i den svenska gymnasieskolan.: Anmälan av Maria Jansson2017In: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 119, no 2, p. 341-345, article id 16963Article, book review (Other academic)
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  • Englin, Stafen Mattias
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Lövström, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Fritidshem och skola - ett träningsläger i konflikthantering: En mixad studie om utbildning i konflikthantering, delaktighet, ledning och konflikthanteringsmodeller2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka skolpersonals syn på hur utbildning i konflikthantering påverkar elevers och fritidshemspersonals delaktighet i konflikthanteringsarbetet. Vi vill även undersöka skolpersonals uppfattning om effekterna av de olika konflikthanteringsmodeller och/eller rutiner som man använder sig av vid konflikthantering. Som metod har vi i denna studie använt semistrukturerade intervjuer där vi har intervjuat biträdande rektorer, klasslärare med och utan bakgrund som fritidspedagog, fritidslärare, beteendevetare, socialpedagog samt utbildare i konflikthanteringsmodeller. Vi har använt oss av tematisk analys vid analys av de transkriberade intervjuerna. Den tematiska analysen utmynnade i fem teman som är formade av våra frågeställningar. I uppsatsens slutsats argumenterar vi att fritidspersonalen borde ges mer utbildning och därefter ansvar i arbetet med värdegrund och konflikthantering samt att vi även argumenterar för att eleverna borde bli mer delaktiga i arbetet med konflikter för att kunna lösa konflikter konstruktivt. Detta i enighet med teorin om dubbla angelägenheter där individen som ger sig in i en konflikt har olika strategier som tar sig form i annan-angelägenhet och egen-angelägenhet.

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  • Maatson, Jonas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Samuelson, David
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Fritidshemmet och skolan i den integrerade inomhusmiljön: En kvalitativ intervjustudie om fritidshemmets rum i skolan2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte var att undersöka inomhusmiljöns betydelse för personal i fritidshem och hur den integrerade delningen av lokaler med skolan påverkar fritidshemmets verksamhet. Genom att transkribera och analysera semistrukturerade intervjuer med hjälp av en tematisk analysmetod kunde vi erhålla kunskap om undersökningens område. Studiens resultat visade att den integrerade inomhusmiljön uppfattades försvåra och begränsa fritidshemmets verksamhet när fritidshemmet använde de klassrum som delades med skolans verksamhet. Vidare uppfattades den integrerade inomhusmiljön som ett problem då det kunde leda till förvirring hos elever gällande när verksamheterna börjar och slutar. Resultatet visade att fritidshem med egna lokaler inte påverkades av den integrerade inomhusmiljön även om verksamhetens lokaler användes av skolan. I studien drar vi slutsatsen att klassrummen upplevdes vara anpassade efter skolans verksamhet och fritidshemmet gavs ingen större möjlighet att anpassa de delade lokalerna efter sin verksamhet. Vidare kan vi dra slutsatsen att det fanns en önskan hos personal i fritidshem om att få tillgång till lokaler som är anpassade för verksamheten.

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  • Lages, Rebecca
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Lindroth, Hanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Tanke, känsla och handling: Stöttande strategier i den planerade matematikundervisningen i förskolan - en jämförande studie om barns lärande, utifrån tre olika arbetssätt2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studies syfte är att undersöka om, och i så fall vilka, stöttande strategier som framträder i den planerade matematikundervisningen i förskolan. Det är en jämförande studie mellan det pedagogiska arbetssättet learning study och de pedagogiska arbetssätt som används enligt Maria Montessoris idéer, samt i förskolorna i Reggio Emilia i Italien.

    Genom platsbaserade observationer på tre olika förskolor, belägna i norra Stockholmsområdet, har material samlats in med hjälp av anteckningar och ljudinspelningar. Det insamlade materialet ligger till grund för en analys ur teorin om relationella utvecklingssystem, med fokus på stöttande strategier inom ramen för denna teori. Studiens resultat indikerar att alla stöttande strategier framträder inom alla tre arbetssätt, fast i varierande mängd. Social stöttning framträder mest inom learning study, ekologisk stöttning är mer framträdande inom montessoriverksamheten och självstöttning är mest framträdande för arbetssättet enligt Reggio Emilia-pedagogiken.

    Slutsatser av denna studie är att stöttande strategier inom ramen för teorin om relationella utvecklingssystem, ger en mer helhetlig bild av de stöttande strategier som framträder under den planerade matematikundervisningen i förskolan, jämfört med vad den mer traditionella uppfattningen om stöttat lärande kan erbjuda. Därför bör dessa stöttande strategier läras ut till förskollärare och verksamma inom förskolan så att barn inom förskolans verksamhet kan få den bästa möjliga undervisningen.

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  • Beckman, Malin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Lindblom, David
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    "Hur mycket matematik du ser handlar bara om hur medveten du är": En kvalitativ studie om förskollärares upplevelser av undervisning i matematik i förskolan2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att utifrån en fenomenologisk ansats utforska hur förskollärarna uppfattar matematikundervisning i förskolan. För att undersöka detta använde vi oss av en kvalitativ forskningsmetod i form av semistrukturerade intervjuer. Studien berörde nedanstående frågeställningar: Vilka upplevelser har förskollärare i matematik? Hur arbetar förskollärarna med matematik i förskolan? Hur upplever förskollärarna sitt arbete för att uppnå läroplanens mål i förskolan? Resultatet i studien visade på att den didaktiska kompetensen och kunskapen i barnens matematiska utveckling har stor betydelse för hur förskollärare väljer att arbeta och medvetandegöra matematiken för att få barnen att utvecklas mot de matematiska läroplansmålen. Det sker hela tiden ett medvetet arbetssätt i att benämna och uppmärksamma matematiken i verksamhetens dagliga arbete, men även i andra situationer som planerade aktiviteter, i leken och skapande. Förskollärarna i studien visar tydligt på hur det går att påverka barns känslomässiga förhållningssätt till matematiskt lärande. Inte minst därför bör lärarnas arbete för att ständigt försöka skapa intresse betraktas som något oerhört betydelsefullt.

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  • Sanz Alvarez, Alba
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Marketing.
    Brand gender: An androgynous perspective: A gender inclusive study with the case of Acne Studios.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The vast majority of research based on brand gender has been developed focusing on consumers’ perspectives and behaviour. The implications of studying different perceptions of a brand’s gender can be related to brand equity, since this term is strongly associated with brand personality. Furthermore, as consumers reinforce themselves and their self-concept through brand identification, implications regarding self-representation are emphasized in terms of self-congruency having significant influence in brandcustomer relationships. During this thesis, a new holistic firm perspective approach was applied to brand gender. Acne Studios, iconic fashion brand based in Stockholm, was analysed and constituted as case study, aimed to comprehend how a brand could be perceived and identified as androgynous. Several brand related elements, covering a wide spectrum from typography to brand’s portfolio, including garment analysis, as well as brand presentation and communication features were studied in order to provide a whole picture of the firm’s gender comprehension. Using as a starting point androgyny definition as the sum of the feminine and the masculine, the setting of brand´s gender was further expanded as a result of the analysis performed for covering all possible gender identifications. Overall, this study conveys a broad and inclusive understanding of gender within the fashion brand Acne Studios and its elements to deepen and provide a new perspective within marketing and gender research.

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  • Stratoudakis, Jannis
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Javadzadeh, Yasamin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    “Det ska inte spela någon roll vilken handläggare man hamnar hos, riktlinjerna ska vägleda oss.”: Biståndshandläggares resonemang vid bedömning av behov av inköp för äldre.2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to contribute to knowledge about how care-managers within the City of Stockholm’s eldercare interpret the concept of reasonable standard of living and experience their discretion when assessing the need for every-day purchases. Eight caremanagers were interviewed from two different city district administrations and the responses were analyzed through thematic content analysis. The informants felt that the concept of reasonable standard of living can be vague and that gray zones may arise when assessing the various needs for every-day purchases. The participants stated that the municipal guidelines play a critical role in giving them guidance during the assessment process, but they also felt limited by the guidelines and they experienced that their discretion is minimal. 

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  • Public defence: 2020-08-21 13:00 Oskar Kleins auditorium (FR4), AlbaNova universitetscentrum, Stockholm
    Calissendorff, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    Characterising Emblematic Binaries at the Lowest Stellar and Substellar Masses2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Stars are involved in most research fields of astronomy, ranging from studies of faraway galaxies, exploding supernovae, to more nearby exoplanets and even our own Sun. As such, it is paramount that our physical interpretation of stars is accurate. By observing stars at different epochs, we can fashion evolutionary models to predict important events that occur at different phases during their life-cycle. Thus, exemplary stars where properties including mass, age and luminosity can be observed become increasingly valuable as benchmarks for calibrating said models with. Sometimes, all of these essential properties can be measured for a single system. For instance, for a binary star which circles a common centre of mass we can from its orbital motion calculate the dynamical mass of the system. If the stellar system also has a well-determined age we may use it as a benchmark for our models, and hence refer to it as an emblematic binary system.

    In this thesis we are searching for exactly these emblematic binaries, both among lowmass stars and substellar brown dwarfs. We also show how to measure the different characteristics that make the systems into exemplary touchstones. We provide an overview over the different types of stellar binaries, how mass and age estimates are performed, as well as discuss the implications multiplicity has for the formation and evolution of stars and brown dwarfs. In Paper I we present the results from an orbital fit we constrained for a low-mass binary with a known age, making into a valuable and relatively rare benchmark. We also show in Paper II how long baseline astrometry can be exploited in order to place better constraints for orbital fits and dynamical masses for low-mass companions to stars by measuring the perturbation in proper motion over time. The dynamical masses are sequentially tested against evolutionary models, which at these low masses display several discrepancies compared to the observables, and are thus questioned. We explore more uncharted mass-regimes in Paper III, where we employ laser guide star assisted adaptive optics to search for multiplicity among faint substellar objects in young moving groups, detecting 3 new young brown dwarf binary systems. These new binaries will prove to be highly valuable systems for future research of brown dwarfs, and will be able to be studied further with for instance the Extremely Large Telescope or James Webb Space Telescope, which also makes them into prominent benchmarks for substellar evolutionary models. Furthermore, age estimation typically dominates the error budget for low-mass stars and brown dwarfs, requiring several different approaches for a robust assessment. In Paper IV we test and compare different techniques for age determination of 7 low-mass binary stars. These binaries have had their orbital motion monitored for a longer time, and will soon be constrained well enough that dynamical masses may be procured. As such, these low-mass binaries will extend the so far scarce number of exemplary systems where both mass, luminosity and age can be determined, to later be used to calibrate theoretical evolutionary models.

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    Characterising Emblematic Binaries at the Lowest Stellar and Substellar Masses
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  • Håkansson, Hanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Personals förhållningssätt till sexualitet på gruppboenden.: En kvalitativ studie om utrymmet för sexualitet för vuxna personer med intellektuella funktionsnedsättningar.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden there is a limited research about adults with intellectual disabilities and their sexuality through a social work perspective. This study aims to study how workers in group homes and their managers describes the residents sexuality and describes how they approaches their sexuality at work. And if there’s any facilities or hindrance that affects the sexual space. 5 semi-structured interviews with managers and coordinators, and 3 focus groups with carers where made. For analysis script theory and the charmed circle have been used. The result shows that people who works at group homes has no guidance or collective ways to approach sexuality in their work. They talk about an open approach but often describes the residents as asexual and connects sexuality with the level of disabilities. The respondents acknowledge that they need more knowledge. The conclusion is that there’s a need for more knowledge and guidance for people who work at group homes to extend the space for sexuality for adults with intellectual disabilities.

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  • Johansson, Hampus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Tilda, Carinder
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Samverkan – en emotionell process: En kvalitativ studie som belyser den fritidshemspedagogiska yrkesrollen samt emotionella och relationella aspekter vid samverkan2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna kvalitativa studie var att undersöka hur fritidshemspersonal, med skilda utbildningsbakgrunder, beskriver att de relaterar till samverkan med klasslärare samt till samverkan med sina kollegor i fritidshem. Fokus har legat på hur fritidshemspersonals emotionella aspekter är anknutna till synen på deras yrkesroll och relationsskapande processer i samverkan. Studien baserades på elva semistrukturerade intervjuer utförda med fritidshemspersonal som besitter skilda utbildningsbakgrunder. Intervjuerna har bearbetats genom en tematisk analys och genererat tre teman som analyserats utifrån Scheffs teori om sociala band. Studiens slutsats var att en välfungerande samverkan bygger på mer än fritidshemspersonals utbildning och erfarenhet, istället ses individers relationer samt sociala bands status som den avgörande faktorn i fritidshemspedagogiska sammanhang. För att lyckas få till ett gott samarbete i skolan krävs sålunda att arbetslag i sin verbala och icke-verbala kommunikation skapar samklang, vilket ger en djupare inblick i relationella och emotionella aspekter av samverkan, både hos sig själv och sina kollegor.

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    Samverkan – en emotionell process
  • Jarjes, Nour
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Turgay, Karolin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    ”Konflikter, de är ju så härliga ibland”: En kvalitativ studie om fritidspersonalens upplevelser avkonflikter och konflikthantering2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att ta reda på hur fritidspersonal upplever, hanterar och förebygger konfliktersom sker mellan elever på fritidshem. För att kunna inhämta kunskaper om dessa områden harkvalitativa semistrukturerade intervjuer utförts med tio fritidspersonal. Intervjuerna transkriberadesoch bearbetades med den tematiska analysmetoden. Resultatet visade att nästan alla intervjupersonerupplevde konflikter som något positivt, eftersom eleverna lärde sig mycket av dem, och som någotnaturligt förekommande i vardagen. Konflikter brukar uppstå i samspel med andra bland annat pågrund av missförstånd, elaka kommentarer, svordomar och otydliga regler. Resultatet visade även attintervjupersonerna inte använder någon särskild konflikthanteringsmetod, men alla hade gemensamtatt de talar och förhandlar med konfliktparterna i hopp om att finna en lösning. Intervjupersonernabrukar förebygga konflikter genom att främst tala med barnen om hur man är en bra kompis ochutifrån detta göra övningar som tränar på olika förmågor, rollspel som lär barnen att inta andrakonfliktperspektiv samt titta på filmklipp om konfliktsituationer. Slutsatsen är att kommunikation ochspråket är det främsta redskapet för att hantera och förebygga konflikter på fritidshemmet.

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  • Aziz, Hevy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Fritidspedagogers arbete med elevinflytande: En studie baserat på fritidspedagogers upplevelser2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • Do, Carina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    "Väck inte den björn som sover": En intervjustudie med pedagoger om deras arbete med rasism på fritidshem2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • Pettersson Sundberg, Lovisa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Runsäter, Lotta
    Synliggörande av omsorg i förskolan: En studie om hur förskollärare synliggör och dokumenterar omsorgen i förskolan.2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien syftar till att undersöka hur förskollärare i förskolan reflekterar över och synliggör omsorgen genom dokumentation av verksamheten. För att få syn på förskollärarnas perspektiv har vi genomfört en kvalitativ intervjustudie där vi intervjuat sex förskollärare i närförorter till Stockholm. När vi analyserat vårt material har vi använt oss av läroplansteori för att få syn på hur formuleringar i läroplanen påverkar vad som sker ute i verksamheten. Resultatet visar att de tillfrågade förskollärarna i studien har uttryckt svårigheter att definiera omsorgsbegreppet och att de ofta relaterar begreppet omsorg till lärande och/eller undervisning. Vidare visar resultatet av studien att omsorg i förskolan också handlar om omsorg om vårdnadshavare och kollegor. Ytterligare ett resultat av studien visar att det finns svårigheter att synliggöra omsorgen i dokumentationsarbetet på förskolorna.

    Utifrån studien har vi dragit slutsatsen att det blir svårt att dokumentera omsorg när detta inte efterfrågas i dokumentationsverktygen. Detta visar att dokumentationsverktyg ofta utesluter omsorgen vilket gör att vissa delar av verksamheten inte synliggörs. Ytterligare slutsatser av studien är att diskussion kan fungera som ett verktyg för att synliggöra omsorgen men att man bör dokumentera detta för att kunna utvärdera och utveckla. Slutligen visar vår studie att omsorgsbegreppet är mångtydigt och svårt att definiera, precis som forskning också visar.

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  • Plynning, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies. Barn och ungdom Stockholms universitet.
    Grimlund, Rickard
    Stockholm University. Barn och ungdom Stockholms universitet.
    Vilken betydelse har material och miljö för barns sociala praktiker i förskolan?: En strudie med ett neomaterialistiskt perspektiv2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • Mattsvåg, Matilda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Pihlström, Jenna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Den virtuella lekplatsen: En kvalitativ studie om fritidslärares syn på sociala mediers påverkan på elevers relationer i fritidshem2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka hur lärare på fritidshem upplever att sociala medier påverkar elevers relationer, vilka för- och nackdelar det finns med dessa, samt hur fritidslärare ser på sin egen samt vårdnadshavarnas roll i elevernas sociala medie-användande. Insamlingen av empiriskt material har skett via intervjuer av fritidslärare som arbetar på sju olika skolor i Stockholms innerstad och förorter. Materialet har analyserats med hjälp av Scheffs (1994) teori om sociala band och resultatet har utmynnat i att lärarna på fritidshemmen upplever att sociala medier har stor betydelse för elevernas sociala relationer. Fritidslärarna upplever att sociala medier ger elever möjlighet att utveckla sin kommunikativa förmåga samt upprätthålla sina sociala relationer. De uttrycker även att elever lätt hamnar i konflikter, utsätts för näthat och har svårigheter med bemötanden av varandra vid kommunikation via sociala medier. De upplever även att eleverna har lättare att kränka någon via sociala medier eftersom man inte behöver mötas ansikte mot ansikte. Fritidslärarna upplever att användandet av sociala medier skapar gemenskap men även utanförskap hos eleverna samt att vuxna har en betydande roll i elevers användande av sociala medier för att förebygga eventuella konflikter.

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  • Boman, Richard
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Hjort, Stéphanie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Syns man så får man vänner: Personalens perspektiv på elevers sociala relationer i fritidshemmet2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien genomfördes med förhoppning om ökad förståelse för hur fritidspersonal relaterar till elevers relationsskapande och kamratgrupperingar, hur vissa elever inkluderas eller utesluts samt hur fritidspersonalen upplever sin betydelse för att främja elevers känsla av social tillhörighet och trygghet. För att finna inblick i detta genomfördes nio kvalitativa intervjuer med yrkesverksamma inom fritidshemmet. Intervjuerna har bearbetats utifrån en tematisk analysmetod, vilket utmynnat i fyra teman som analyserats utifrån det gruppsykologiska perspektivet. Studien framhåller resultat som dels styrker tidigare forskning men som även skiljer sig gentemot forskning om relationer och pedagogiskt ledarskap. Resultatet visar att fritidspersonal betonar vikten av närvarande pedagoger, att vägleda, stötta samt agera förebilder för eleverna, medan tidigare forskning betonar den fria leken som viktig avseende elevers sociala relationsskapande (Elvstrand & Lago, 2016). Då resultatet skiljer sig gentemot vad som tidigare framgår inom det fritidshemspedagogiska området, finns en förhoppning om att studien kan bidra med nya insikter inom forskningsfältet.

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  • Oja, Outi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Slavic and Baltic Studies, Finnish, Dutch, and German, Finnish.
    Varoittava ääni kertoo ruotsalaisen nyky-yhteiskunnan ongelmista: Leo Ylitalo: Kuningattaren Kellonsoittaja2019In: Liekki, ISSN 0347-3597, no 2, p. 24-25Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • Oja, Outi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Slavic and Baltic Studies, Finnish, Dutch, and German, Finnish.
    Ruotsalaista proosaa hauholaiseen tapaan: Taija Tuominen: Kuningaskobra (Tammi 2019)2019In: Liekki, ISSN 0347-3597, no 4, p. 26-27Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • Sultan, Hzar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Demokratiuppdraget och konflikten mellan det inre och yttre: Två svensklärares didaktiska tänkande kring demokratiuppdraget i sin undervisning.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study highlighted two Swedish teacher’s didactic thinking about the democratic mission in the Swedish subject in the upper secondary school. The two teacher interviews were then analyzed based on Ruohotie-Lyhty’s discourse-analytic concepts and Borg’s teacher cognition concept. These results illustrated how the teachers’ didactic thinking ends up in conflict. The conflict is between the external demands and norms, and the teacher’s inner, personal interpretations and drive. The teachers try to navigate between the knowledge mission and the democratic mission, which will prove difficult due to the vague wordings of the democratic mission.

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    Självständigt arbete_Hzar Sultan
  • Ivanisevic Paunovic, Jelena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies, Cinema Studies.
    From Low Budget to Big Business: Releasing Strategies for Indeoendent Films and Industry Division2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this thesis is observing the process of launching the small independent movie in the context of big film industry and its hegemony. We will observe the differences between low budget, independent, the auteur film and well known ’blockbuster' entertainment cinema products. In the analysis, we will not focus on the creative aspects of preproduction and production - such as script writing, film directing, casting, photography, and production design. We will observe the film from the pragmatic point of view in postproduction, film placement and distribution, from the last clip to the first introduction to the audience at film festivals. The complexity of the task is to make a distinction between defining free, independent, auteur film as a piece of art and expression, and everything else that auteur film is not, despite the pragmatism in realisation of each film.  This research will focus on film as art and as a sum of artistic teamwork, following its marketing and placement.

    Our aim is to find the factors that influence the success of launching low budget films of the independent film production in the US.  Analysing the literature and researching the adequate examples, accomplished results will give us an idea of forming a pattern or directions for successfully launching an Independent film in the US film market. 

    The example given in this paper is the authors' low budget film Boys Don't Cry(1999)produced by Chrisitne Vachon, where we can clearly analyse the way of developing of the film and postproduction activities of the producer, from the utmost postproduction margin, to winning an Oscar for the best female role by Hilary Swank, in the year of 2000. This film was chosen as an example in this thesis for being a successful low budget film with a strong women's author's identity, which finds its path in media from a marginalized queerfilm to a highly ranked film with great market placement. We pay special attention to an important detail - that women are in the role of the director and the producer. 

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  • Public defence: 2020-06-15 14:30 Stockholm
    de Boer, Menno
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics.
    A Proof and Formalization of the Initiality Conjecture of Dependent Type Theory2020Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this licentiate thesis we present a proof of the initiality conjecture for Martin-Löf’s type theory with 0, 1, N, A+B, AB, AB, IdA(u,v), countable hierarchy of universes (Ui)iєN closed under these type constructors and with type of elements (ELi(a))iєN. We employ the categorical semantics of contextual categories. The proof is based on a formalization in the proof assistant Agda done by Guillaume Brunerie and the author. This work was part of a joint project with Peter LeFanu Lumsdaine and Anders Mörtberg, who are developing a separate formalization of this conjecture with respect to categories with attributes and using the proof assistant Coq over the UniMath library instead. Results from this project are planned to be published in the future.

    We start by carefully setting up the syntax and rules for the dependent type theory in question followed by an introduction to contextual categories. We then define the partial interpretation of raw syntax into a contextual category and we prove that this interpretation is total on well-formed input. By doing so, we define a functor from the term model, which is built out of the syntax, into any contextual category and we show that any two such functors are equal. This establishes that the term model is initial among contextual categories. At the end we discuss details of the formalization and future directions for research. In particular, we discuss a memory issue that arose in type checking the formalization and how it was resolved.

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  • Public defence: 2020-06-12 13:00 sal FB52, AlbaNova universitetscentrum, Stockholm
    Späh, Alexander
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    X-Ray Investigations of the Liquid-Liquid Critical Point Hypothesis in Supercooled Water2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents experimental x-ray scattering studies on supercooled liquid water. A liquid-liquid transition between two structurally distinct configurations has been found in deeply supercooled water, indicating the existence of a liquid- liquid critical point. The experiments were performed at large-scale x-ray facilities, mostly using free electron x-ray lasers including PAL-XFEL in Korea, SACLA in Japan, LCLS in the USA, SwissFEL in Switzerland and European XFEL in Germany, as well as using synchrotrons including APS in the USA, PETRA III in Germany and ESRF in France.

    Two conceptually different experimental approaches have been used to investigate the metastable phase of supercooled water. The first approach is based on rapid evaporative cooling of μm-sized water droplets that are injected into a vacuum chamber. Using this method, supercooled liquid water samples with temperatures down to approximately 227 K have been obtained, with the lowest temperature limited by homogeneous ice crystallization occurring after just a few milliseconds. In a second approach, structurally arrested high-pressure and therefore high-density amorphous ice samples are heated by an ultrafast infrared laser pulse. The fast heating melts the ice into a corresponding high-density liquid. At short time delays between the heating laser pulse and a subsequent x-ray probe pulse, the supercooled liquefied sample still experiences the high internal pressure of the initial state. At longer pump-probe delay times the supercooled water sample releases its internal pressure through structural relaxation. Hence, varying the pump-probe delay allows to probe the sample at different pressures.

    Together, these two approaches have been used to access a region within the metastable phase diagram of supercooled water that has previously been inaccessible. Using elastic x-ray scattering measurements as a structural probe of the liquid, we identified the existence of a liquid-liquid phase transition in deeply supercooled water. The observed phase transition is interpreted as the transition between a high-density and a low-density liquid phase. At high pressure this phase transition is discontinuous or first-order like, featuring a characteristic double-peak feature in the observed x-ray scattering intensity of the first diffraction maxima. At ambient pressure, however, we observe a continuous shift of the first diffraction maxima that is consistent with a continuous or second-order phase transition between the two liquids. Further evidence of a continuous phase transition at ambient pressure is seen in the temperature dependent maxima of the measured correlation length, isothermal compressibility and heat capacity, which indicate the existence of a Widom line.

    In summary, the experiments support the existence of a liquid-liquid critical point where the experimentally observed Widom line and phase coexistence line would both meet. The main result, however, is the first experimental observation of a liquid-liquid transition within a pure liquid.

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  • Public defence: 2020-06-12 10:00 Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Stockholm
    Menon, Preeti
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    The amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) and its adaptor protein Fe65: Two key players in Alzheimer’s disease2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the abnormal accumulation and aggregation of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides within the brain. Generation of Aβ occur when the amyloid-beta precursor protein (APP) is proteolytically processed by β- and then γ-secretase in the amyloidogenic pathway. However, if APP instead is cleaved by α- and γ-secretase in the non-amyloidogenic pathway, Aβ formation is prevented and neuroprotective sAPPα is generated. In addition to these canonical processing pathways, APP can also be cleaved along non-canonical pathways by Δ, η, caspase or Meprinβ, resulting in numerous fragments that have different functional properties. The trafficking and processing of APP is a complex process and can be regulated by the adaptor protein Fe65. Following γ-secretase mediated cleavage of APP, the intracellular domain of APP and Fe65 can together translocate into the nucleus and regulate nuclear signaling. However, the exact mechanisms of how APP processing and APP/Fe65 nuclear signaling are regulated is still unclear.  

    The aim of this thesis was to study different factors that may influence the regulation of APP processing and Fe65 nuclear localization. We found that phosphorylation of APP at Ser675 alters APP processing resulting in reduced levels of sAPPα and total sAPP, without affecting the plasma membrane level of APP. We could further observe an increased level of a slower migrating C99 like CTF, which was not generated by β-secretase cleavage of APP as there was no expression of BACE1 in the cell model used. Instead, generation of this CTF was blocked upon Meprinβ siRNA knockdown. Taken together these findings suggest that APP-Ser675 phosphorylation promotes Meprinβ processing of APP. In another study, we found that mutation of Ser228 at the Fe65 N-terminal dramatically increased the interaction between Fe65 and full-length APP. Moreover, this enhanced interaction resulted in decreased levels of non-amyloidogenic processing of APP and thus neuroprotective sAPPα. This suggest that the level of Fe65-APP interaction is important in regulating APP processing. Therefore, we also wanted to elucidate more about how the adaptor protein Fe65 is regulated. We found that Fe65 is likely phosphorylated on several residues in the N-terminus and that these phosphorylated forms preferentially localized in the cytoplasm. In addition, we could show that the nuclear level and nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio of Fe65 was decreased upon mutation of Fe65-Ser228 to glutamic acid, mimicking phosphorylation. Taken together this suggest that phosphorylation of Ser228 together with other residues in the N-terminus of Fe65 negatively regulate the Fe65 nuclear localization. In a third study, we could also show that the Fe65 PTB2 domain, rather than the WW domain, plays an important role in localizing Fe65 to the nucleus. Lastly, using different inhibitors, we found that blocking α-secretase processing decrease the Fe65 nuclear localization to the same extent as γ-secretase inhibition in both undifferentiated and RA or PMA differentiated cells. This suggest that α-secretase processing of APP or other Fe65 interacting transmembrane proteins play a more important role in regulation of Fe65 nuclear localization than previously thought. Interestingly, while ADAM10 was the most important α-secretase mediating this effect in undifferentiated cells, other α-secretases, likely ADAM17, played a more important role in RA or PMA differentiated neuroblastoma cells.

    In summary, the results obtained in this thesis have increased the understanding of APP processing and how the adaptor protein Fe65 may act as a molecular switch altering APP cleavage.

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    The amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) and its adaptor protein Fe65
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  • Public defence: 2020-06-12 13:00 sal G, Arrheniuslaboratorierna, Stockholm
    Almén, Daniel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Societal Impacts of Modern Conscription: Human Capital, Social Capital and Criminal Behaviour2020Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Opportunity Costs and Conscription: An Unintended Progressive Tax?

    Throughout history to present days, policymakers, social commentators and others have oftentimes viewed conscription as a natural extension of secondary education, and an important institution for vocational training. This paper uses Swedish administrative data and exploits a reform in 2004, implying a sudden downsizing of the military, to identify the causal effects of peacetime conscription on later labour market outcomes and education. I find that unemployment increased in the short run, and lasted up to four years after service. There are no significant overall effects on income or educational attainment. However, these average effects hide a large heterogeneity. High ability conscripts fall behind their counterparts who did not start military service, both in terms of income and employment. Furthermore, the results suggest that the effect is attributed to high ability conscripts assigned as privates. In contrast, no such evidence is found for conscripts assigned to officer training, despite the fact that all of them have a high ability, and a longer time in service. Plausibly, high ability conscripts have high opportunity costs of doing military service, and the civilian benefits from training as privates are too small to counteract these costs. The results highlight the importance of precise matching of aptitude to type of training or education, an insight that might be generalized to other contexts beyond conscription.

    Citizenship, Social Capital and the Role of Conscription: Evidence from Sweden

    Many scholars have argued that conscription has played an important role as a nation-builder throughout history. Today, advocates of conscription often put forward its potential to induce citizenship and civic engagement. This paper addresses this claim by studying the causal effects of military service on civic engagement by using Swedish administrative data on election participation, blood donation, and the payment of a mandatory, but highly evaded, fee to the public broadcasting service. I study two qualitatively very different conscription systems from two different eras in Sweden, yielding a high external validity. To study the effects of universal conscription (almost all healthy and fit men serve) during the early 1990s, I use an empirical strategy similar in spirit to work using randomly assigned judges as an instrument. To identify the effects of selective conscription (a small fraction of motivated and positively selected men serve), I exploit a reform in 2004, implying a sudden downsizing of the military. In contrast to the previous correlational literature, the results show small and insignificant point estimates for all outcomes in both populations studied. Hence, I find no evidence of any causal effects of military service on civic engagement in either a selective-, or in a universal conscription system

    The Effect of Military Conscription on the Formation of Criminal Behaviour: Evidence from a Natural Experiment

    Conscription has been suggested to be a policy-tool to break young men's anti-social life-trajectories. This paper uses Swedish administrative data and exploits a reform in 2004, implying a sudden downsizing of the military, to identify the causal effects of peacetime conscription on contemporaneous, short- and medium-term crime. I find no evidence of any effects on criminal activity while in service. However, the post-service results show crime increasing effects of military service at the intensive margin (number of convictions), but not at the extensive margin (probability of conviction). The overall crime increasing effect seems to be primarily driven by thefts. This study finds no support for increased overall violent behaviour or that the military context per se induces anti-social behaviour. Rather, some suggestive evidence for worsened labour market opportunities for some groups is documented as a plausible mechanism behind the crime increasing results.

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  • Public defence: 2020-06-15 10:00 sal FB42, AlbaNova universitetscentrum, Stockholm
    K Manikandan, Sreekanth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Non-equilibrium thermodynamics at the microscopic scales2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An inherent feature of small systems in contact with thermal reservoirs, be it a pollen grain in water, or an active microbe flagellum, is fluctuations. Even with advanced microscopic techniques, distinguishing active, non-equilibrium processes defined by a constant dissipation of energy to the environment from passive, equilibrium processes is a very challenging task and a vastly developing field of research. For small (microscopic) systems in contact with thermal reservoirs, the experimental / theoretic framework that addresses these fundamental questions, is called stochastic thermodynamics.

    In this thesis, we study the stochastic thermodynamics of microscopic machines with colloidal particles as working substances. In particular, we use a path integral based framework to characterize the fluctuations of thermodynamic observables, such as Work, Heat and Entropy production in colloidal heat engines. We obtain exact analytic solutions at finite operational times and the results reveal model independent features of Work and Efficiency fluctuations.

    We also discuss the thermodynamic uncertainty relations, which relate current fluctuations in non-equilibrium steady states to the average rate of entropy production. Based on this relation, as well as exact analytical solutions for explicit models, we propose a simple and effective way to infer dissipation from current fluctuations in non-equilibrium systems, from short empirical trajectories.

    Finally, we conclude with a discussion on possible extensions of our results.

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    Non-equilibrium thermodynamics at the microscopic scales
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  • Public defence: 2020-06-15 10:00 sal G, Arrheniuslaboratorierna, Stockholm
    Lorentzon, Louise
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Empirical Essays on Public Policies: Social Insurances, Safety Nets, and Health Care2020Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Screening Efficiency in Sickness Insurance: Evidence from a Spell Limit Reform

    I estimate the effects of the removal of a limit on sick leave spells in the Swedish Sickness Insurance program, on labor market outcomes and sick leave. The removal of the spell limit led to longer sick leave spells. I also find that the removal led to a reduction in the share of people who are neither working, nor receiving sickness benefits. A conceptual framework is used to interpret the results in terms of benefits screening efficiency, which is found to increase through the removal of the spell limit. The identification is based on a regression discontinuity design, using the timing of sick leave start dates and the abolition of the spell limit.

    Long-Term Effects of Cash Transfers: Evidence from a Swedish Reform

    Do short-term cash transfers to the poor deliver long-term benefits? This paper studies a unique program introduced in Sweden in the 1930s. The program made large transfers – on average approximately 30 percent of total income in the collected sample – to widows with children. Income and family-size thresholds, combined with child age cutoffs, generate plausibly exogenous variation in program exposure. By digitizing and linking historical records to later administrative datasets, I study the long-term effects of this program. Focusing on life expectancy, I find no significant long-term effects; however, the estimates are imprecisely measured due to the limited sample size.

    Inertia of Dominated Pension Investments: Evidence from an Information Intervention

    In this paper we empirically investigate potential causes of imperfect competition in the fund market, as characterized by high price dispersion among comparable funds. We discriminate between three main hypotheses on the demand side: a lack of awareness of price dispersion, search costs, and financial illiteracy. A large-scale field experiment is conducted in the Swedish Premium Pension system. Information letters are sent to pension savers in two index funds, where there exists a cheaper fund with the same index strategy. We show that an information intervention that increases awareness of a cheaper, dominating fund, and reduces search costs to find such an alternative, can significantly improve households’ real investment allocations. Nonetheless, a vast majority of savers who are sent information about the name of the dominating fund do not switch funds. Thus, the high degree of inertia in pension investments remains even when search friction for identifying dominating alternatives are eliminated.

    Midwives and Maternal Mortality: Evidence from a Midwifery Policy Experiment in 19th Century Sweden

    This paper estimates the effect of a historical midwifery policy experiment on maternal mortality, infant mortality, and stillbirth during the period from 1830 to 1894 in Sweden. Exploiting sharp changes or “discontinuities” across time and place in the availability of trained and licensed midwives as an exogenous source of variation, we find that a doubling of trained midwives leads to a 20-40 percent reduction in maternal mortality and to a 20 percent increase in the uptake of midwife-assisted homebirths. The results thus suggest that a 1 percent increase in the share of midwife-assisted homebirths decreases maternal mortality by as much as 2 percent, which is a remarkable finding given that midwife training was only 6-12 months at that time. The results of this study contribute to the current debate about the most effective strategy to reduce the unacceptably high rate of maternal mortality in many developing countries, especially in low-resource settings.

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    Empirical Essays on Public Policies
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  • Public defence: 2020-06-15 10:00 The link will be made available at su.se/romklass/evenemang, Stockholm
    Berton, Marco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Riqueza léxica y expresión escrita en aprendices suecos de ELE: Proficiencia general, competencia léxica pasiva, tipo y complejidad de la tarea2020Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study explored lexical richness in the written production of Swedish university students of Spanish as a foreign language. Two aspects of lexical richness were investigated in the study, i.e., diversity (the ability to use a varied lexical repertoire), and sophistication (the proportion of relatively infrequent words). The written data were elicited by means of two task types, namely a narrative task and a decision-making task. The main aim of the study was investigating the effect of the factors overall proficiency, passive vocabulary knowledge, manipulation of task complexity and task type on lexical richness. Moreover, the study inquired into the predicting power of the first three factors in relation to lexical richness within each task type. Overall proficiency was measured by means of a cloze test, while an estimation of passive vocabulary knowledge was obtained through a word recognition test. The effect of the manipulation of task complexity was examined by using two different versions of each task. The less complex version of the narrative task was based on a cartoon strip with a tight structure and no background events. On the contrary, in the more complex version the cartoon strip depicted a story without a clear sequence and with background events which are relevant to the story plot. Regarding the decision-making task, task complexity was manipulated by changing the number of elements involved. The task itself consisted in writing a message to a friend suggesting a holiday destination. To do so, the participants had to consider the friend´s needs and check them against the possibilities offered by a travel agency. The less complex version included two destinations, while the more complex one contained six. When analysing the effect of manipulating task complexity, structural complexity measures were included with the purpose of investigating if changes in lexical richness go hand in hand with or at the expense of changes in structural complexity. The results of the analysis of these three factors showed different patterns depending on the task type examined. These results suggest that overall proficiency seems to have an effect on lexical richness only in the narrative task, whereas passive vocabulary knowledge would influence lexical richness only in the decision-making task. The manipulation of task complexity apparently affected lexical diversity and structural complexity in the narrative task, on the one hand, and lexical sophistication in the decision-making task, on the other hand. When manipulating task complexity, the relationship between lexical richness and structural complexity turned out to be unclear, as it varied in unpredictable ways depending on the learners´ overall proficiency and passive vocabulary knowledge. The intrinsic complexity inherent to task type, i.e. the different cognitive load that different task types place on the learner, showed the most consistent effect in the study, as it was supported by all the measures of lexical richness and some measures of structural complexity. Finally, the regression model conformed by overall proficiency, passive vocabulary knowledge, and the manipulation of task complexity did not prove to be suitable to predict lexical richness in either of the task types under investigation in the study.

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    Riqueza léxica y expresión escrita en aprendices suecos de ELE
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  • Cehajic-Clancy, Sabina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology. Sarajevo School of Science and Technology, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
    Learning about moral exemplars and intergroup reconciliation2020Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • Cehajic-Clancy, Sabina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology. Sarajevo School of Science and Technology, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
    Perceptions of Shared Morality as an Important Socio-Psychological Mechanism for Finding the Common Ground2019In: Social Psychological Bulletin, E-ISSN 2569-653X, Vol. 14, no 4, article id e2325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When we think of human history, it is easy to conclude that violent conflicts are unavoidable. Furthermore, in remembering history, we usually recall violent times and are less likely to remember peaceful societal change. Given the way we remember our history, it is easy to lose sight of the existence of peaceful conflict resolutions or other positive societal changes. The Polish Round Table Talks (RT) that took place in 1989 at times of growing political and economic instabilities serve as an example of peaceful and effective negotiation between two opposing and, one might argue, exclusive ideologies. These talks resulted in an agreement between the Communist government of Poland and the opposition movement Solidarity and paved the road towards the present, democratic and independent Polish state. In this commentary I am going to extrapolate some important socio-psychological mechanisms in the light of contributions made by Janusz Reykowski and Janusz Grzelak - both social psychologists. More specifically, I would like to discuss a specific perception of the other negotiating partner that was activated, formed and maintained during the negotiation, which facilitated the successful outcome. I will argue that the perception of shared morality (perceptions of similarity between the in-group and the out-group on the dimension of morality) was an important socio-psychological mechanism that enabled a stream of other positive psychological processes such as development of trust, as well as cooperative and common-oriented goal tendencies.

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  • Gauffin, Karl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Precariousness on the Swedish labour market: A theoretical and empirical account2020In: Economic and Labour Relations Review, ISSN 1035-3046, E-ISSN 1838-2673Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to investigate emerging areas of precarious employment in Sweden. Based on the literature on dimensions of precariousness and neoliberalism, this article will begin with an analysis of the transitioning Swedish welfare state and the contextual environment of precarious employment in Sweden. This will serve as a point of departure for the development of an occupational classification scheme including measures of income and employment security. In an empirical analysis, the occupational classification will be applied to a population-based register material including two birth cohorts of employed Swedish residents aged 28–33, with a registered income. The development of income and employment security will be described and discussed. By applying this newly developed measure of precarious employment, this article will provide a platform for future theoretical and empirical research on precarious employment in a transitioning welfare state.

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  • Public defence: 2020-06-12 13:00 rum 2427 på Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik, Stockholm
    Malm, Tobias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Konsten att hålla ihop: Om lärande och organisering i rockband2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Rock bands are foundational for modern day music life. These small groups provide well-being and self-fulfillment to its members, as well as fuel for the cultural life and the increasingly highlighted creative industries. Rock bands, however, are particularly difficult to organize. Bands face a range of challenges in keeping together and developing as a group.

    The aim of this doctoral thesis is to develop knowledge on rock band formation and development over time. Based in the discipline of education, the thesis mainly contributes to the fields of organization studies, social theories of learning, and music and cultural life research.

    The thesis uses the theory of situated learning to explore rock band formation and development. The methodology is qualitative and ethnographic, and the research design builds on three studies: an interview study with three rock bands and two case studies. All five bands are Swedish and have found different degrees of success and popularity.

    The thesis investigates band activities and courses of events, band members’ identities, and challenges faced. The findings indicate that a rock band’s activities shift between a production mode – i.e. highly productive times associated with public performances, record releases and marketing, and behind the scenes processes of creating, recording and planning – and a contrasting less active hibernation mode without bigger public projects or goals. The amount of time spent in production mode depends on the band’s degree of “membership” in the music industry. Moreover, a band member forms and actualizes identities of colleague, creator, entrepreneur, friend, hobbyist and professional, in differing combinations, situations and modes. Furthermore, the members’ most significant challenges relate to identity dilemmas.

    Based on these findings, the thesis formulates a model for a rock band’s learning trajectory and argues that a band may develop as it approaches, or becomes a more central member in, the music industry. This development demands increased public success and organizational ability: the band members’ ability to form business-oriented practices, to participate uniformly in an overarching community of practice, and to be flexible as they must identify with, and ascribe meaning to, a variety of activities in different and sometimes contradictory ways.

    The thesis concludes that the challenges of persistence as a rock band or similar group relates chiefly to group member difficulties in identifying with different activities and situations that are necessary to sustain and develop as a collective. Eventually, individual members tend to handle the experience of uncertainty and ambivalence by holding on to one singular identity, which may prevent group development, foster intra- and interpersonal tensions, and ultimately can lead to significant conflicts and/or a band’s breakup.

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    Konsten att hålla ihop
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  • Public defence: 2020-06-12 15:00 Hörsal 7, hus D, Stockholm
    Kalniņš, Aigars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Slavic and Baltic Studies, Finnish, Dutch, and German.
    Studies in Latvian Comparative Dialectology: —with special focus on word-final *–āj(s)/*–ēj(s) and *–āji(s)/*–ēji(s)2020Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis consists of four interconnected studies of various topics in the fields of Latvian dialectology and historical linguistics: (1) apocope and shortening; (2) loss of the present 2nd singular endings *i and *ɨ; (3) the development of the participle desinences *–ājis *ējis; (4) the ā and ēstem locative singular endings. A recurrent theme is a potential loss of *j in the phonological sequences *āji(s) *ēji(s), which were subsequently contracted to *āj(s) *ēj(s). In this regard, the first study provides the necessary East Baltic context, while studies 2, 3 and 4 investigate the relevant evidence in the Latvian dialects. At the same time, however, each of the topics is also studied on its own terms.

    In the first study, an improved account of apocope and shortening is formulated. It is argued that the primary apocope affected all unaccented short vowels, including *u, but that it took place before the accent retraction. Endings that were only affected in immobile paradigms were restored on the model of their counterparts in mobile paradigms. The secondary apocope in second posttonic syllables, which traditionally accounts for the occasional loss of inherited long vowels and diphthongs, is dated after accent retraction but restricted to *i. This implies that a series of endings such as d.sg. am, d.pl. Vms, ill.sg. Vn, 1.pl. Vm a.o. contained short vowels when the primary apocope set in. Unless Leskien’s Law operated in Latvian, the evidence suggests that the final vowels in these endings were short. If Lithuanian excludes Leskien’s Law in a given case, then the Latvian evidence is compelling, e.g., PEB d.sg.m. *amu or *ami rather than *amọ̄(i̯).

    The second study investigates present 2nd singular forms with and without a distinct ending in the Latvian dialects. The most archaic distribution seems to be the one found in Blīdene106, where only the derived presents are endingless in the indicative. Studies 2, 3 and 4 also give a comprehensive overview of the development of word-final *āj(s) *ēj(s) and *āji(s) *ēji(s). Both *āj *ēj and *āji *ēji yielded ā ē in Low Latvian, while High Latvian might have a contrast between accented āi̯ ēi̯ and unaccented ā ē. High Latvian reflects *ājs *ējs and *ājis *ējis as ājs ējs, but the Low Latvian developments are unclear. Accented *ājs *ējs yield āš ēš but in unaccented position there may be up to three phonologically regular reflexes: āš ēš, aiš eiš and ais eis. In Vidzeme and Zemgale, *ājis *ējis must have merged with *ājs *ējs, but in Courland *ājis *ējis were possibly apocopated only after *ājs *ējs had become āš ēš.

    Accordingly, only Low Latvian â ê can be reflexes of the old inessive. Low Latvian ai ei cannot be cognate with â ê but might continue the old adessive. If Low Latvian ã2 2 reflect the illative, then the three pairs, along with dialectal adverbs in uop, represent all four East Baltic local cases, which therefore must have existed at least as syntactic constructions in ProtoEast Baltic. The enigmatic High Latvian āstem locative singular ending â is identified with Low Latvian ai rather than â, which explains its remarkable lack of labialisation but implies a development *ˌaî > ˌâ.

    The utility of the proposed phonetic loss of *j is limited to disyllabic forms like l.sg. *tâji ‘that’ prs.2.sg. *smeji ‘laugh’ ptc. *gãjis ‘go,’ all of which might also be analogical, and it seems best to reject it.

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  • Public defence: 2020-06-11 10:00 Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Stockholm
    Stephan, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Biogenesis of the bc1 complex in mitochondria2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mitochondria perform a variety of tasks, but the function they are most prominent for is the energy conversion to form ATP, the universal energy equivalent of the cell. The majority of this ATP is created by the oxidative phosphorylation system, consisting of the respiratory chain and the ATP synthase. These elaborate machineries channel electrons through the respiratory complexes and thereby generate an electrochemical gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane. This, so called proton motive force, is in turn utilized by the ATP Synthase to produce ATP.

    A particularity of the oxidative phosphorylation complexes is that their subunits are derived from two genetic sources. As a result, and the fact that the respiratory chain complexes contain redox cofactors, the biogenesis of these enzymes is challenging and involves multiple, highly coordinated and regulated assembly steps. For the obligate homodimeric bc1 complex, a handful of assembly factors are known and its assembly can be divided into distinct assembly intermediates. In this work we provided insights into the maturation of the catalytic subunit cytochrome b. We revealed that the insertion of the redox active heme b groups is sequential and that it depends on the interaction with the early assembly factor Cbp4. With successful insertion of both heme bs, the binding of the structural subunit Qcr7 is necessary for stabilization and further assembly.

    Furthermore, we were able to delineate the dimerization event in detail. We could establish that the interaction of the two matrix subunits, Cor1 and Cor2, with the bc1 complex assembly intermediate II, as well as the dissociation of Cbp4, are the triggering point for dimerization.

    In our subsequent work we investigated the roles of the fairly uncharacterized assembly factor Bca1 and its interplay with the structural subunit Qcr7. We could demonstrate that Bca1 interacts early and transiently during assembly and is an important factor for efficient assembly. Additionally, we could show that Qcr7 is not only a structural subunit but also serves as an assembly checkpoint for the maturation of the bc1 complex.

    With our work we could illustrate the necessity for basic biochemical research within the model organism yeast, as the fundamental molecular mechanisms are well conserved. This is exemplified by our work on UQCC3, the human orthologue of the bc1 complex assembly factor Cbp4.

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  • Public defence: 2020-06-10 13:00 sal 14, hus 5, Kräftriket, Stockholm
    Muhinyuza, Stanislas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics.
    Statistical Inference of Tangency Portfolio in Small and Large Dimension2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis considers statistical test theory in portfolio theory. It analyses the asymptotic behavior of the considered tests in the high-dimensional setting, meaning k/n c ∈ (0, ∞) as n → ∞, where k and n are portfolio size and sample size, respectively. It also considers the high-dimensional asymptotic of the product of components involved in the computation of the optimal portfolio. The thesis comprises four manuscripts:

    Paper I is concerned with the test on the location of the tangency portfolio on the set of feasible portfolios. Considering the independent and normally multivariate asset returns, we propose a finite-sample test on the mean-variance efficiency of the tangency portfolio (TP). We derive the distribution of the proposed test statistic under both the null and alternative hypotheses, using which we assess the power of the test and construct a confidence interval. The out-of-sample performance of the portfolio determined by the proposed test is conducted and through an extensive simulation study, we show the robustness of the developed test towards the violation of the normality assumptions. We also apply the developed test to real data in the empirical study.

    Paper II extends the results of paper I. It is concerned with the study of the asymptotic distributions of the test on the existence of efficient frontier (EF) and the efficiency of the tangency portfolio in the mean-variance space in the high-dimension setting under both the null and alternative hypotheses. Finite-sample performance and robustness of the proposed tests are studied through an extensive simulation study.

    In paper III, we study the distributional properties of the TP weights under the assumption of normally distributed logarithmic returns. The distribution of the weights of the TP is given under the form of a stochastic representation (SR). Using the derived SR we deliver the asymptotic distribution of the TP weights under a high-dimensional asymptotic regime. Besides, we consider tests about the elements of the TP weights and derive the asymptotic distribution of the test statistic under the null and alternative hypotheses. In a simulation study, we compare the power function of the high-dimensional asymptotic and the exact tests. Moreover, in an empirical study, we apply the developed theory in analysing the TP weights in a portfolio made of stocks from the S&P 500 index.

    In paper IV, we derive a stochastic representation of the product of a singular Wishart matrix and a singular Gaussian vector. We then use the derived SR in the obtention of the characteristic function of that product and in proving the asymptotic normality under the double asymptotic regime. The performance of the obtained asymptotic is shown in the simulation study.

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  • Public defence: 2020-06-11 13:00 Endast online: https://stockholmuniversity.zoom.us/j/5073530222 (inte i Lilla hörsalen, NOD-huset, Kista)
    Aspling, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Unleashing Animal-Computer Interaction: A Theoretical Investigation of the “I” in ACI2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-human animals have had a long co-existence and relationship with human culture and society, and we interact with them in a number of ways, and for various reasons. Their involvement in technology can be traced back more than half a century, initially restricted to scientific contexts, for example, for the study of animal behavior, cognition, or language learning abilities. The advancement and growing ubiquity of technology has extended their interactions with technology beyond scientific settings to other domains and everyday contexts, and for a broader set of reasons. This development is also driven by the emerging research area of animal-computer interaction (ACI), in which scholars of human-computer interaction (HCI) are starting to explore the possibilities of designing interactive technology for and with animals. This requires engagement with the difficult task of understanding this new set of actors and the types of interactions and functionality they possibly would like to have with computing. This is a challenge even when it comes to humans, but the challenge escalates when considering other animals, and presents even more challenges. Animals live different lives to us, and include a broad and diverse category of species, with different ways of experiencing and being in the world, and we have difficulty understanding each other due to these interspecies differences. The shift from human to animal interaction is far from straightforward.

    This new and embryonic situation contests traditional notions of what a “user” is and can be, and how both digital technologies and other species, are being used. Consequently, it also challenges previous theoretical foundations and methods for understanding and designing user-computer interactions. The latter has received special attention, where user-centered design approaches and methods from the field of HCI and interaction design (IxD) has become a natural point of departure. As a complement, ACI needs a bolder and more creative way of progressing when it comes to building a theoretical framework to account for these new forms of interaction. There is a need to extend our thinking and the conventional ways of doing research and design, and to preserve curiosity and theoretical and methodological openness. As an alternative to many other design approaches, this thesis advocates the theoretical investigation of the “I” in ACI, aiming to extend the conventional notion of how interaction is conceptualized, a topic that has suffered from negligence. Drawing on ethnomethodological and ethnographic fieldwork – covering a maximum variation of extreme and deviant of cases – this thesis investigates the boundaries of the field and different theoretical perspectives and empirical insights, in order to increase our understanding of the emerging dynamics of multispecies-computer interactions, and also how these insights can excite the imagination and generate topics for zoocentric design and computing.

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  • Public defence: 2020-06-12 10:00 Vivi Täckholmsalen (Q-salen), Stockholm
    Scher, Sebastian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Artificial intelligence in weather and climate prediction: Learning atmospheric dynamics2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Weather and climate prediction is dominated by high dimensionality, interactions on many different spatial and temporal scales and chaotic dynamics. This makes many problems in the field quite complex ones, and also state-of-the-art numerical models are - despite their immense computational costs - not sufficient for many applications. Therefore, it is appealing to use emerging new technologies such as artificial intelligence to tackle these problems.

    We show that it is possible to use deep neural networks to emulate the full dynamics of a strongly simplified general circulation model, providing both good forecasts of the model state several days ahead as well as stable long-term climate timeseries. This method partly also works on more complex and realistic models, but only for forecasting the model's weather several days ahead, not for creating climate runs. It is sufficient to use 50-100 years of data for training the networks. The same neural network method can be combined with singular value decomposition from numerical ensemble weather forecasting in order to generate probabilistic ensemble forecasts with the neural networks.

    On a more fundamental level, we show that in a simple dynamical systems setting there seem to be limitations in the ability of feed-forward neural networks to generalize to new regions of the system. This is caused by different parts of the network learning to model different parts of the system. Contradictory, for another simple dynamical system this is shown not to be an issue, raising doubts on the usefulness of results from simple models in the context of more complex ones. Additionally, we show that neural networks are to some extent able to “learn” the influence of slowly changing external forcings on the dynamics of the system, but only given broad enough forcing regimes.

    Finally, we present a method to complement operational weather forecasts. Given the initial fields and the error of past weather forecasts, a neural network is used to predict the uncertainty in new forecasts, given only the initial field of the new forecast.

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  • Public defence: 2020-06-12 10:00 Sal P216, NPQ-huset, Stockholm
    Hurtig, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Divisive structures: Two billions years of biofilament evolution2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Our understanding of the functional and regulatory complexity that existed in the eukaryotic progenitor is poor, and investigations have been hindered by our nebulous understanding of where eukaryotes stem from. Recently discovered archaeal lineages with hitherto unseen homology to eukaryotic systems suggest archaea can further our understanding of the eukaryotic cell’s ancestry. However, much of archaeal biology remains largely unexplored. Two eukaryotic systems with archaeal homologues, namely the actin and ESCRT-III protein filament systems, are essential for diverse processes in eukaryotic biology. In this thesis, we show that an archaeal homologue of ESCRT-III divides the cell under proteasomal regulation, a regulatory mechanism central to eukaryotic cell cycle regulation. Additionally, we show how predicted putative profilin and gelsolin homologues regulate the postulated proto-cytoskeleton of Asgard archaea. In investigating the function and regulation of these archaeal systems we demonstrate compelling parallels between archaeal and eukaryotic regulatory strategies which stresses the close evolutionary relationship that exists between these two domains.

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  • Public defence: 2020-06-10 10:00 Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Stockholm
    Gestin, Maxime
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    PepFect14, a Versatile Cell-Penetrating Peptide2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cell-penetrating peptides have been discovered almost three decades ago and there are, nowadays, thousands of available sequences. They offer multiple applications in the field of drug delivery as they are able to carry therapeutic macromolecules across the plasma membrane. Throughout the years, new sequences have been developed and designed to achieve new applications such as specificity for certain kinds of cargoes, intrinsic therapeutic effects and targeted delivery.

    In this thesis, we focused on a single most promising cell-penetrating peptide named PepFect14 and aimed at reaching a better understanding of the factors involved in the cellular uptake through paper I and paper II. Notably, in paper I we screened a library of small molecule drugs that influences signaling pathways and discovered that three drugs had an unreported influence on endocytosis. In paper II, After performing an RNA sequencing on cells treated with PepFect14, we demonstrated the involvement of autophagy in the intracellular trafficking of the cell-penetrating peptide. A second aim of this thesis, covered in paper III and paper IV, was to discover new applications for PepFect14 in order to broaden its potential. In paper III, we successfully used PepFect14 to mediate the intracellular delivery of heat shock protein 70kDa. This was the first protein delivery assisted by PepFect14. In paper IV, PepFect14 was covalently fused to mtCPP1, a cell-penetrating peptide that targets mitochondria and reduce the level of reactive oxygen species. The constructs showed the ability to keep the properties of both peptides and achieved a mitochondria-targeted antisense therapy.

    Overall, this thesis summarizes our effort to develop and bring to their full potential already existing cell-penetrating peptides instead of developing new sequences for each new application.

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  • Shanks, Emelie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Lundström, Tommy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Meagher, Gabrielle
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Macquarie University, Australia.
    Sallnäs, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Wiklund, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Impression management in the market for residential care for children and youth in Sweden2020In: Social Policy & Administration, ISSN 0144-5596, E-ISSN 1467-9515Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In what has become quite a turbulent quasi‐market for residential care for children and youth, providers now compete for public contracts. To create visibility and attract customers, many providers use marketing activities to project the desired impression of themselves to maintain or strengthen their market position. In this article, we analyse how companies that provide residential care for children manage the impressions they project on their websites and in advertisements. The results reveal that residential care providers use a range of impression management strategies to enhance their organizational image and to respond to potentially damaging or threatening images. The information providers choose to disclose leaves customers—in this case, the social workers responsible for choosing and purchasing care on behalf of clients—with rather limited opportunities to evaluate the quality of care. This is a significant problem considering other, more reliable, sources of information are difficult to access.

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  • Pergament Crona, Nicole
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Ethnology, History of Religions and Gender Studies.
    Ecce Equus! Egalitära hästgemenskapers erkännande av hästen som subjekt2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Within human animal studies (HAS), as well as within the posthumanistic field in general, it has been pointed out that we still lack knowledge of how animals can be recognized as subjects and agents with the possession of cognitive and social abilities. At the same time, we see a re-evaluation of the human anthropocentric boundary between Man and the Beast – in the academic world as well as in the practice of everyday life. One example is how the prevalent ways of relating to and handling with horses – our traditional equine cultures – are under transition. Norms, attitudes and practices – not least those relating to equestrian sports – are changing; some people even believe in a “paradigm shift”, while others predict a future “horse revolution”. This ethnological contribution to the field of HAS aims to study the acknowledgement of the horse as subject, how it is being expressed and practised by egalitarian communities within the Swedish horse society, and what the implications of that acknowledgement are, for both human and horse. Consisting of interviews and participant observations and seen through the lens of a phenomenological HAS-perspective, the empirical material shows that the egalitarian approach implies ethical and practical consequences. Not only does it entail considerations regarding such things as horse keeping, riding style, competitions, training and conditioning methods – for some individuals it may also implicate a personal change, as they discover the horse’s message of presence and authenticity

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  • Public defence: 2020-06-09 13:15 sal FB42, AlbaNova universitetscentrum, Stockholm
    Mahyaeh, Iman
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Study of the phase diagram of Zn symmetric chains2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis we study the phase diagrams of Zn symmetric chains. We start with investigating the topological phases of the Kitaev chain, a Z2 symmetric model, with long range couplings and a phase gradient. Then we go beyond the free fermion classification of topological phases and consider the effect of interactions by studying the Kitaev-Hubbard chain, incorporating a density-density interaction. Next we move on to the Z3 symmetric models and present a frustration free model with an exact three-fold degenerate ground state. In the end we present the phase diagram of a hopping model of Z3 Fock parafermions, the generalization of polarized Dirac fermions which could host at most two particles per site. The model has a pairwise hopping which is forbidden for fermions. In our studies we use analytical methods like the Lieb-Schultz-Mattis method, bosonization and conformal field theory, as well as numerical ones like exact diagonalization and the density matrix renormalization group.

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  • Public defence: 2020-06-09 10:00 sal G, Arrheniuslaboratorierna, Stockholm
    Blomqvist, Niklas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Essays on Labor Economics: The Role of Government in Labor Supply Choices2020Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    "Right to Work Full-time" Policies and Involuntary Part-time Employment

    This paper investigates the effect of right to full-time policies implemented to decrease involuntary part-time work for public care workers employed by Swedish municipalities. Taking advantage of a staggered decision process, these policies are evaluated using a difference-in-differences approach. Results show that involuntary part-time employment is real and significant, with 10% of part-time employed workers choosing full-time when given the opportunity. The effect mainly comes from a decrease in contracts of <75% of full-time and an increase in contracts of 80% of full-time and above. Further results from the full-time policies show that being more flexible in the choice of hours worked is popular among workers, indicated by an increase in tenure and reduced turnover in municipalities that offer more flexibility in the choice of hours worked.

    Hours Constraints and Tax Elasticity Estimates - Evidence from Swedish Public Care Workers

    There is a concern that tax elasticity estimates may be downward biased in the presence of optimization frictions for workers. So far, there is limited evidence on the nature of these optimization frictions. This paper provides new insight into one part of the optimization frictions black box, namely hours constraints. Using unique and newly collected data, I exploit a staggered implementation of a policy that gave some public care workers the opportunity to choose their preferred hours of work. Taking advantage of this policy, I estimate differences in tax elasticities between constrained and unconstrained public care workers by comparing bunching at a large tax kink in the Swedish tax system. The empirical evidence points to the conclusion that hours constraints do not affect tax elasticity estimates.

    Restricting Residence Permits - Short-Run Evidence from a Swedish Reform

    In June 2016, the Swedish parliament decided to restrict the granting of permanent residence permits for asylum seekers in Sweden. The new status quo for a refugee is a temporary rather than a permanent residence permit. In a first evaluation of this reform we use a Regression discontinuity analysis in which we follow refugees, aged 25-65, over their first years after arrival. Our main results show that a temporary residence permit increases the probability of working and enrolling in regular education.

    Mom and Dad Got Jobs: Natural Resources, Economic Activity, and Infant Health

    The impact of local economic shocks, such as the discovery and exploitation of natural resources, on labor markets and health is not well understood. Both positive and negative effects have been documented in the literature. In this paper, we show that the phase before active resource extraction begins directly affects the local economy. This implies that previous estimates – typically based on designs exploiting differences before and after the active phase of extraction begins - may have understated the actual effect of natural resource extraction on outcomes of interest. Using rich data from Sweden combined with differences in the timing and location of mineral exploitation permits, we find a positive impact on female and male employment and earnings and a negative effect on housing prices. Children’s health outcomes are also negatively affected, an effect likely driven by the increase in local economic activity rather than extraction-related externalities.

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  • Rydell Johnsén, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Ethnology, History of Religions and Gender Studies, History of Religions.
    Dionysios Areopagita, Paradoxernas Gud – verk i urval2019In: Patristica Nordica Annuaria, ISSN 2001-2365, Vol. 34, p. 114-115Article, book review (Other academic)
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  • Sundström, Rebecca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Bistånd till andrahandshyror - ett främjande av den svarta hyresmarknaden?2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, individuals who cannot support themselves can apply for financial aid from their municipality. The ultimate responsibility to ensure social rights lie upon the municipalities according to the law. The social services decide on financial support in individual cases and through the aid, one shall be assured of a reasonable living standard. One ́s right to financial support is not uncondi- tional. Primarily, each person themselves are responsible for their own liveli- hood. Financial support can be obtained inter alia for reasonable housing costs. If the social service finds an applicant ́s housing costs reasonable, financial support will be given towards the rental charge. However, some municipalities are denying financial support for rental costs for people living in unauthorized sublet apartments. The law states that subletting a rented apartment without the property owner ́s consent is prohibited. In 2019, unauthorized subletting along with charging an exorbitant rent was criminalized in order to address the ex- panding exploitation of the housing market. For the same reason, some munic- ipalities refuse to provide financial support regarding rental costs for unauthor- ized sublets. This thesis addresses the question of whether such a decision is aligned with the legal obligations which controls and determines the duties of municipalities and social services. Whether or not financial support can be re- fused based on an unauthorized sublet contract is not regulated. However, there are several legislations and standards that municipalities and social ser- vices must abide by in regard to financial support. The author concludes that the decision in question lacks sufficient legal support and violates significant provisions. According to the principle of legality, all measures taken by a mu- nicipality must be supported by the legal system. Neither should municipalities be concerned with official duties such as police matters. Furthermore, the prin- ciple of proportionality requires that the measure, to refuse financial support to unauthorized sublets, must not exceed what is necessary to achieve the pur- pose, to access the criminality. In extension, individuals are at risk of ending up homeless or below the limit of reasonable living standards. The rental housing market is only available to financially secure individuals who can obtain a first- hand rental contract. Sublet apartments are in many cases the only housing option accessible for someone in need of financial support. The author acknowledges the problem with tax money potentially being used to finance illegal activities. However, a municipality does not have the right to establish its own rules in order to fill in the gaps within the legal system, since that particular task belongs to the legislator and the court of law.

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  • Public defence: 2020-06-08 13:00 Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Stockholm
    Rathore, Sorbhi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Structural characterisation of mitochondrial macromolecular complexes using cryo-EM: Mitoribosome biogenesis and respiratory chain supercomplex2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mitochondria, popularly known as powerhouse of the cell, contain specialised mitoribosomes that synthesise essential membrane proteins. These essential proteins are required to form enzyme complexes, which carry out the process of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). OXPHOS is carried out by five enzyme complexes (Complex I-V), out of which complex I, III and IV pump protons during electron transfer from NADH to Oand complex V uses the generated proton gradient to synthesise ATP. Cryo-EM, as a revolutionary technique in structural biology made it possible to determine the structures of mitoribosome assembly intermediates and respiratory chain supercomplexes. These structures have allowed us to investigate the mitoribosome biogenesis pathway in human and yeast and to gain deeper insights into the architecture of supercomplexes. In the first area of research, using cryo-EM we were for the first time able to capture mitoribosomes in different late stages of assembly and to determine their high-resolution structures with novel factors bound. Investigation of this process was previously unreachable due to lack of techniques to trap these mitoribosome complexes in different states of assembly. The structures of these assembly intermediates establish the role of assembly factors such as MALSU1, LOR8F8, mt-ACP, MTG1 and mitoribosomal proteins (MRPs) in mitoribosome biogenesis and to ensure proper maturation of each subunit, reflecting their role in regulating translation. Furthermore, genetic deletion studies of MTG1 and uL16m in yeast show the importance of transiently acting factors and MRPs in the mitoribosome assembly process and their effects on translation. The assembly pathway of mitoribosomes is critical for protein synthesis since defects in the translation process causes inherited human pathologies. Therefore, elucidation of mitoribosomal biogenesis pathways may also contribute to the development of potential new therapeutic opportunities. In the second research area, structures of the respiratory chain supercomplex from yeast were determined. These are the first near-atomic resolution structures that show organization of complex III and complex IV into two distinct classes that form higher order assemblies (III2IV1and III2IV2). Moreover, the architecture of the supercomplex structures differs from the previously determined respirasomes (I1III2IV1) structures in mammals. We obtained a near-atomic resolution structure of the yeast complex IV, revealed core protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions that hold the supercomplex together. Moreover we found novel subunits required for supercomplex formation in S. cerevisiae. The last part of my study focuses on cryo-EM sample method development where we could successfully demonstrate the usefulness of a simple pressure-assisted sample preparation method for microcrystals, proteins and mitochondria. Our findings show great resolution improvements of selected area electron diffraction patterns of microcrystals, a significant reduction in needed sample concentration for single particle studies and an enrichment of gold nano-particles for tomographic studies.

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  • Folke, Olle
    et al.
    Rickne, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Sexual Harassment and Gender Inequality in the Labor Market2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper offers a comprehensive empirical analysis of sexual harassment in the Swedish labor market. First, we use nationally representative survey data linked with employer-employee data to describe rates of self-reported sexual harassment across occupations and workplaces. The risk of sexual harassment is clearly imbalanced across the sex segregated labor market. In gendermixed and male-dominated occupations and workplaces, women have a higher risk than men, and men have a higher risk than women in female-dominated contexts. We use a hypothetical job-choice experiment with vignettes for sexual harassment to measure the disutility of sexual harassment risks. Both men and women have an equally high willingness to pay for avoiding workplaces where sexual harassment has occurred. But the willingness to pay is conditional on the sex of the fictional harassment victim. People reject workplaces where the victim is the same sex as themselves, but not where the victim is of the opposite sex. We return to the administrative data to study employer compensation for the disutility of sexual harassment risks. Within workplaces, a high risk is associated with lower, not higher wages. People who self-report sexual harassment also have higher job dissatisfaction, more quit intentions, and more actual quits. Both these patterns indicate a lack of full compensation. We conclude that sexual harassment should be conceptualized as gender discrimination in workplace amenities, and that this discrimination reinforces sex segregation and pay-inequalities in the labor market.

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  • Volvach, Natalia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Still Ukrainian or Already Russian? The Linguistic Landscape of Sevastopol in the Aftermath of Crimean Annexation2019In: Euxeinos - Culture and Governance in the Black Sea Region, E-ISSN 2296-0708, Vol. 9, no 28, p. 93-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The annexed city of Sevastopol as a part of the Crimean peninsula remains de jure a Ukrainian territory for the most of the European countries and be- yond. De facto this city is a new subject of the Russian Federation. A case study conducted in November 2017 demonstrates that in spite of its politically con- tested status, the linguistic landscape of Sevastopol indexes the Russian pow- er. Through the foundational principles of indexicality and emplacement, the study shows how Ukrainian and Crimean Tatar refer to Sevastopol’s past, and Russian represents its present and its future.

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  • Lindh, Arvid
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    McCall, Leslie
    Class Position and Political Opinion in Rich Democracies2020In: Annual Review of Sociology, ISSN 0360-0572, E-ISSN 1545-2115, Vol. 46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many high-income countries today, scholarly interest in the politics of class has coincided with growing economic inequality, rising support for nonmainstream political parties and candidates, and increasing flows of immigration. We review social science research on the views of different class segments vis-à-vis economic, political, and sociocultural issues, finding greater scholarly attention to the interdependence of economic, social, and political concerns and preferences than arguably was the case even a few years ago. Our main aim is to synthesize and critically evaluate this rapidly expanding literature, but we also provide empirical data on class differences and similarities in political opinion across 18 countries, and we pinpoint several areas of research that are in need of further empirical, methodological, and theoretical inquiry.

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