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  • Wickholm, Hanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Kapitalbuffertkraven ur ett konstitutionellt perspektiv2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Following the global financial crisis in 2007-2009, there has been a rapid regulatory development of the international financial market. Arguably, the magnitude of the costs resulting from this crisis was caused by the fact that banks and other financial institutions, due to inadequate regulation, did not have sufficient capital to handle the unpredicted disturbances in the financial market. Hence, a number of new international standards have been introduced to enhance the stability of both the financial system as a whole and individual financial market players. One of the most important new standards concerns additional capital buffers for financial institutions. The capital buffer requirements, which originally were adopted through international agreements, have now been introduced in Sweden due to EU-law.

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine the constitutional legality of capital buffer requirements in relation to the Swedish distribution of normative competence. As a separate and independent part of this legality test, the thesis also answers the question of whether decisions regarding the capital buffer requirements are categorized as norm decisions or administrative decisions. In order to be able to examine the constitutional legality of the capital buffers, the regulation that governs the capital buffer requirements must be thoroughly examined. Therefore, the thesis also explores the detailed and technically complex regulations that regulate the capital buffer requirements. Within the framework of this investigation the origin of the buffers, the Swedish implementation process and the application of the buffer requirements by the Swedish Financial Supervisory Authority is examined.

    The examination of the capital buffer requirement's compatibility with the Swedish distribution of normative competence shows that the use of delegation to implement the buffer requirements into Swedish regulation is legal. However, it is questionable if the legal technique used is appropriate. The categorization of decisions regarding the capital buffer requirements shows that all the capital buffer requirements cannot be attributed to one single category. This lack of coherence makes the Swedish implementation of the capital buffers questionable.

  • Kharel, Binita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    PENGARNA & RIKSBANKEN: Ett konstitutionellt perspektiv på Sveriges centralbank och digitala centralbankspengar2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract:

    The main aim of the current thesis is to investigate whether it is constitutional for Sweden’s central bank, the Riksbank, to issue a central bank digital currency. To answer this question, the Riksbank’s proposal for an account-based digital currency is discussed. This discussion is followed by an analysis of the expected consequences of keeping the present legislation, as compared to the consequences of changing it, in order to allow for a central bank issued account-based digital currency.

    The thesis concludes that both courses of action, keeping the current legislation and changing it, will likely lead to problematic consequences for the Swedish payment market. On the one hand, keeping the current legislation would result in the Riksbank no longer providing legal tender, something that is traditionally seen as one of the main responsibilities of a central bank. On the other hand, a revision of the legislation, granting the Riksbank the power to issue an account-based digital currency, risks leading to bank runs, and may thus jeopardize financial stability.

  • Hård af Segerstad, Rebecka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Parters möjligheter att avtala om negativ rättskraft: Specifikt om supplerande moment i stadfästa förlikningar2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Code of Judicial Procedure (Rättegångsbalken, RB) states that a judgment has binding effects and that the same matter can not be tried twice (17 ch. 11 §). The rule expresses the concept res judicata. It exists to benefit the administration of justice and to an effective economy of justice administration. It also brings security to parties in knowing a conflict has come to a final end. Moreover, the regulation is supposed to direct parties to prepare with all means required, before engaging the court with their dispute. The inconvenience with 11 § is that it is not foreseeable. It can cause a matter, that has not been examined by the court, to be covered by the binding effects – given the legal consequence of the new motion is either the same or alternative and economically equivalent to the previous one. Res judicata then prevents a new examination of the matter, even though the practical causes differ. Thus, it can be questioned if 11 § indeed provides security and predictability to disputing parties. This legal state is a consequence of a vaguely formulated law, the way it is interpreted by the Swedish Supreme Court and in legal scholar.

    In this essay I examine whether the rule in 11 § is better suited to be formulated by disputing parties themselves, than exclusively through hard law. Should the possibilities for disputing parties to make procedural agreements be expanded, and accordingly allowing parties to gain further insight and control over the binding effects of 17 ch. 11 § RB?

    The method used to answer this question is legal dogmatics. On the basis of established sources within the Swedish legal system – such as the Law, its motives, rulings from the Swedish Highest Court and legal doctrine – legal dogmatics is sufficient to establish the current legal situation, de lege lata. At the same time the method provides room for a critical perspective on the legal system and opens up for a discussion on what form the legal system should take, de lege ferenda.

    The conclusion presented in the essay is this. In civil disputes the conflicting parties in question have a major impact over the trial’s framework, on the basis of the principle of dispositions. In accordance with this it is logical for the legal system to allow the parties also to have an influence over the binding effects of 17 ch. 11 § RB. Conflicting parties are in some aspects well suited to make procedural agreements, especially in the form of vindicated settlements. This model, if interpreted in the procedural legal system, could result in predictability for conflicting parties and benefit the economy of justice administration.

  • Sandberg, Mina-Niqole
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Entreprenadvitets tillämpning och funktioner: Särskilt om jämkning av entreprenadvite2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis was to investigate the liquidated damages clause due to the Contractor’s delay; what purposes and functions such liquidated damages clause may have, how the liquidated damages clause is applied, and in which contexts the liquidated damages clause can be subject to reasonable modification. By using the General Conditions of Contract for Building and Civil Engineering Works and Building Services, AB 04, the contracting parties knows the division of responsibilities for the performance of the works on the contractor. By agreeing upon a liquidated damages clause in case of the Contractor’s delay in the Contract Document, the parties’ risks due to the Contractor’s delay are clarified. The purposes and the functions of a liquidated damages clause are several, and most of them are inseparably intertwined. A main purpose, for both parties, for using a clause like this is to make the risks and the costs foreseeable. Out of the Employer perspective a main purpose with the use of a liquidated damages clause is for it to work as pressure upon the Contractor in order for the Contractor to perform accordingly with the contract. In addition, the clause is a guaranteed compensation due to the Contractor’s delay, without the Employer needing to prove there has been any actual liquid damage. Out of the Contractor’s perspective the liquidated damages clause results in a possibility for the Contractor to calculate the Contractor’s cost due to delay. The clause also limits the cost for a delay, even if the Employer’s liquid damage would be larger than what the liquidated damages clause stipulates. In addition, the clause may have a signal value for the Contractor relative to the Employer. The thesis also presents and describes for other purposes and functions a liquidated damages clause may have and in which contexts the liquidated damages clause can be subject to reasonable modification.

  • Garpedal, Ebba
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Försäkrat intresse inom motorfordonsförsäkring2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Hagström, Lina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Det offentligas tjänstemän – rättsstatens väktare?2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is, according to its constitution, a state governed by law. The rule of law is upheld by the correct application of specific sources of law, consisting exclusively of legislation and its legislative history, court practise, established practise and the literature of jurisprudence. The non-regard for all other kinds of arguments, such as, for example, subjective justice in the matter at hand, ensures that formal justice is maintained. The outcome of two similar cases must result in the same ruling regardless of the person presiding.

    However, the courts are not the only place where the rule of law must be respected. In state and municipal administrations, legal decisions concerning individuals are made every day. Oftentimes administration officers are the first instance of adjudication. To achieve the same level of legality, administration officers must apply the same sources of law as do law graduates, but without any education in law.

    In this thesis, the method of legal problem solving that is practised by administration officers is studied, as well as the historical development of the profession of administration officers. Three representatives were interviewed about the scope of the method used in specific cases. The results showed that the methods clearly differed from the method of law graduates, in part due to organisational, economic and educational differences, and that the historical legacy is still very present in the administrative work.

  • Hammarén, Axel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    EU-rättslig minimireglering och den svenska modellen2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen syftar till att utreda hur EU-rättsliga minimiregleringar inom arbetsrätten påverkar den svenska modellen. Utvecklingen av arbetsrätten på EU-nivå har inneburit stora utmaningar för den svenska modellen och för partsautonomin. Ytterligare förändringar kan bli aktuella och kommer troligtvis att innebära ännu större påfrestningar på det svenska arbetsrättliga systemet. Troligtvis går vi mot en arbetsrätt med mer omfattande och detaljerad lagstiftning alternativt så krävs ett system med möjlighet till allmängiltigförklaring av kollektivavtal. I vilket fall kan man konstatera att den svenska modellen, som den ser ut idag, är under tryck på förändring.

  • Wallin, Josefina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Flyktingar – ett hot mot samhällets funktionalitet?: En studie om riksdagsledamöters retorik angående asylsökande och flyktingar hösten 2015 utifrån Köpenhamnsskolans säkerhetiseringsteori2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie har undersökt om retoriken kring asyl- och flyktingfrågan ändrades bland riksdagsledamöter under hösten 2015 utifrån Köpenhamnsskolans säkerhetiseringsteori. Detta har möjliggjorts genom processpårning som metodologiskt tillvägagångssätt där riksdags- och regeringsdokument analyserats genom säkerhetiseringsteorin. Studiens analys visar att flyktingar och asylsökande framställdes som ett existentiellt hot gentemot det svenska samhällets funktionalitet i slutet av hösten 2015 och de sedvanliga politiska rutinerna frångicks i hanteringen av frågan. En fullständig säkerhetisering skedde således i december 2015 i samband med proposition 2015/16:67 ”Särskilda åtgärder vid allvarlig fara för den allmänna ordningen eller den inre säkerheten i landet”. Dock visar studiens resultat att det finns en otydlighet i säkerhetiseringsteorins definitioner av nyckelbegreppet säkerhetiseringsaktör.

  • Public defence: 2019-12-13 10:00 Vivi Täckholmsalen (Q-salen), NPQ-huset, Stockholm
    Keehnen, Naomi L.P.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Immunity & the butterfly: A functional genomic study of natural variation in immunity2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Butterflies are ubiquitous and abundant, occurring in a wide variety of environments that contain diverse microbial communities with varied pathogenic pressures. These pathogens and parasites present a constant threat to organisms, and have led to the evolution of complex and intricate immune responses. Despite strong selection against immunological threats, organisms display great variation in their immune capabilities, both on the genetic and physiological level. Investigating this variation remains challenging, since differences in immune responses might arise from changes in the amount, size or performance of cells or organs. Disentangling these relative contributions is important, as the targets of selection are expected to differ, ranging from immune genes directly related to the phenotype to genes indirectly involved via cell proliferation. This thesis focuses on characterizing the immune system of the butterfly Pieris napi and investigating its remarkable variation across populations by using both phenotypic and genotypic measurements. By integrating RNA-seq with life history measurements, I found that the cost of infection and wounding in the final larval stage carries over the metamorphic boundary in P. napi (Paper II). Using population comparisons, I identified both the action and potential targets of natural selection in wild populations within their respective immune responses (Paper I, III & IV). The immune genes in P. napi show increased genetic variation compared to the rest of the genome, and microevolutionary selection dynamics act on these genes between and among populations (Paper I). I measured the cellular immune responses related to phagocytosis and melanization in common garden reared larvae originating from two allopatric populations (Spain, Sweden) (Paper III & IV). The two populations were found to differ in their blood cell composition, and overall phagocytic capability, driven by the increased phagocytic propensity of each cell type (Paper III). However, genome wide analysis of divergence between these populations found no excess genetic differentiation in genes annotated to phagocytic capacity, suggesting that our observed population differences might arise from genes affecting the activation or transdifferentiation of cells, which currently lack functional annotation. Interestingly, genes involved in glutamine metabolism, which have been linked to immune cell differentiation in mammals, did show divergence between the populations. In addition, the populations also differed in prophenoloxidase activity, a common method for quantifying immune related melanization in insects, along with the abundance of the cell-type (oenocytoids) related to this important immune function (Paper IV). Integrative analysis using both transcriptomic and genomic data revealed that the genes involved in this phenotype showed no significant differentiation between the populations. However, a gene involved with proper trafficking of melanogenic enzymes in vertebrates was found to be highly expressed and highly diverged between the two populations, providing an interesting candidate for future studies. This thesis demonstrates the advantages of integrating several genomic tools with lab experiments to quantify natural variation in the immune system of butterflies.

     

  • Tiselius, Elisabet
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Institute for Interpreting and Translation Studies.
    Englund Dimitrova, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Institute for Interpreting and Translation Studies.
    Asymmetrical language proficiency in dialogue interpreters: Methodological issues2019In: Translation, Cognition and Behaviour, ISSN 2542-5277, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 305-322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Language proficiency of dialogue interpreters, who typically work in the public service sector, is an under-researched area. Contrary to conference interpreters, for dialogue interpreters there is no generally accepted definition of proficiency levels of working languages. This article discusses language proficiency in dialogue interpreting. It presents a methodological problem, namely, how to define and determine a given interpreter’s stronger and weaker working language. In our article we discuss different methods for determining the individual interpreter’s stronger and weaker working languages, such as self-assessment, demographic, socio-linguistic questionnaire and test score (Dialang). We conclude that there is a need for more research into this area.

  • Public defence: 2019-12-12 10:00 Vivi Täckholmsalen (Q-salen) NPQ-huset, Stockholm
    Ólafsson, Einar B.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Signaling determinants in Trojan horse-mediated dissemination of Toxoplasma gondii2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that infects all warm-blooded vertebrates including one third of the global human population. While infection is typically asymptomatic in healthy human hosts, reactivated and acute infection in immunosuppressed or immunecompromised individuals can lead to lethal toxoplasmic encephalitis After ingestion, the parasite crosses the intestinal epithelium and rapidly achieves systemic dissemination, ultimately establishing chronic infection in the brain. Shortly after crossing the intestinal epithelium T. gondii encounters dendritic cells (DCs). Paradoxically, T. gondii tachyzoites exploit the inherent migratory ability of DCs for dissemination via a “Trojan horse” mechanism. Within minutes of active invasion by T. gondii tachyzoites, DCs adopt a hypermigratory phenotype that mediates rapid systemic dissemination of T. gondii in mice. Previous studies have demonstrated that the hypermigratory phenotype involves cytoskeletal rearrangement, redistribution of integrins and high-velocity in vitro cell migration (termed hypermotility), which is initiated by GABAergic signaling. However, the downstream effectors of GABAergic signaling in parasitized DCs remain enigmatic. Leukocyte migration often relies on adhesion and proteolysis of extracellular matrix (ECM). However, the role of ECM proteolysis in hypermigration has not been addressed. In this thesis, the migratory activation of T. gondii-infected DCs is characterized in terms of cell signaling and ECM proteolysis.

    In paper I we demonstrate that MMP-mediated proteolytic activity of DCs is abolished upon T. gondii infection. To investigate DC pericellular proteolysis at the single cell level, we developed a high-content imaging and automated image analysis method. With pharmacological inhibitors and gene silencing, we show that T. gondii-infected DCs lose the ability to degrade ECM through the upregulation of TIMP1 and the loss of podosome structures.

    In paper II we show that the hypermigratory phenotype induced by GABAergic signaling in T. gondii-infected DCs is dependent on L-type voltage dependent Ca2+ channel (L-VDCC) activation, predominantly CaV1.3. Pharmacological antagonism of CaV1.3 and gene silencing of cav1.3 blocked hypermotility. Further, inhibition of L-VDCCs with benidipine significantly reduced T. gondii dissemination in a mouse model.

    In paper III we address the impact of TIMP1 on the migratory activation of T. gondii-infected DCs. Using pharmacological antagonism and shRNA-mediated gene silencing, we demonstrate that secreted TIMP1 induces motility and migration in T. gondii-infected DCs by activating ITGB1-FAK signaling through interactions with CD63.

    In paper IV we report that the GTPase Ras functions as a molecular switch in the migratory activation of T. gondii-infected DCs. We identify that VDCC-CaM-CaMkII and Met signaling converge on Ras-mediated Erk phosphorylation leading to migratory activation of T. gondii-infected DCs.

    In summary, my thesis details novel host signaling pathways hijacked by the protozoan parasite T. gondii in Trojan horse DCs for dissemination. Through the investigation of host-parasite interactions, we shed new light on mechanisms that govern leukocyte migration and strategies employed by T. gondii to achieve pervasive dissemination. Gaining further insights into the biology that underlies T. gondii pathogenesis and persistence will help ameliorate toxoplasmosis in at-risk groups.

  • Public defence: 2019-12-11 10:00 Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Stockholm
    Qureshi, Abdul Aziz
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Establishing the mechanistic basis of sugar transport2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sugar is a vital molecule required for cell viability and homeostasis. Sugar is important for metabolic energy, energy storage, signaling, structure and osmolyte regulation. Transport of sugar represents an important physiological process. Specific membrane transporter families have evolved to mediate the transport of sugar across biological membranes. In this thesis, we describe our work leading to a better mechanistic understanding of two sugar transporter families, namely glucose (GLUT) transporters and nucleotide-sugar (NST) transporters.

    Members of GLUT transporters, belonging to the Solute Carrier (SLC2) family, are involved in the uptake of various monosaccharides across the cellular membranes. Activity of different NSTs, belonging to the (SLC35) family, is crucial for the process of glycosylation by mediating the translocation of activated sugars from the cytoplasm into the lumen of either Golgi and/or ER organelles. GLUTs and NSTs families carry out transport processes fundamental to human physiology and pathophysiology. Despite the profound importance of GLUTs and NSTs in human health, comprehensive understanding of their architecture and mechanistic features with respect to determinants of substrate binding and allosteric coupling at the molecular level has remained elusive.

    In this thesis, we address key functional and structural properties of GLUT and NST mediated sugar transport. We combine crystal structures with robust binding and transport assays as well as computational approaches. The role of lipids in fine-tuning the activity of transporters is also exemplified by demonstrating the effect of lipid composition in the transport activity of GLUTs using in-vitro proteoliposome assays. Our work has not only enhanced the current understanding of GLUT and NST function, but also developed themes and methods that are likely relevant to many types of small molecule transporters.

  • Public defence: 2019-12-11 10:00 Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus
    Sjöberg, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Microbially mediated manganese oxides enriched in yttrium and rare earth elements in the Ytterby mine, Sweden2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Microorganisms are able to manipulate redox reactions and thus exert extensive control on chemical speciation and element partitioning in nature, affecting the formation and dissolution of certain minerals. One of these redox active elements is manganese (Mn), which in its oxidized states (III/IV), commonly forms Mn oxide-hydroxide minerals. A microbially mediated birnessite-type Mn oxide enriched in yttrium (Y) and rare earth elements (REE) has been studied in our research. The YREE-enriched birnessite was found in a tunnel to the main shaft of the former Ytterby mine in Sweden, well known as the place of discovery of scandium, yttrium, tantalum and five of the REEs. The thesis aims to define preconditions and processes leading to the formation of this Ytterby birnessite, with particular focus on microbial involvement and the potentially promoting role of biofilms. Dynamics and mineral products of the natural system are studied in combination with analyses of Mn phases produced in vitro by microbes isolated from this system. In addition, the nature of the YREE association with the birnessite-type Mn oxides is investigated.

    Natural birnessite has the composition Mx(Mn3+, Mn4+)2O4•(H2O)n  with M ususally being (Na,Ca) and x=0.5. An empirical formula based on element analyses for the Ytterby birnessite has been assessed as M = (Ca0,37-0,41YREE0.02Mg0.04Other metals0.02-0.03), with [Mn3+]/[Mn4+] = 0.86-1.00 to achieve charge balance. We find that there is a preference for the trivalent YREEs over divalent and monovalent metals. There is also a preferential uptake of light rare earth elements (LREE) relative to heavy rare earth elements (HREE), likely due to mineralogical preferences for charge and ionic radius. The YREEs are strongly bound to the mineral structure and not merely adsorbed on the surface. The Mn deposit subsystems (fracture water, Mn oxide precipitating biofilm and bubble biofilm) are phylogenetically significantly different and the microbial community composition of the feeding water has little impact on the derived biofilms. The signature microbial groups of the Mn oxide producing biofilm Rhizobiales (e.g., Pedomicrobium), PLTA13 Gammaproteobacteria, Pirellulaceae, Blastocatellia and Nitrospira are adapted to the specific characteristics of the biofilm: an emerging extreme environment (low temperature, no light, high metal concentration) which is in part generated by the biofilm components themselves. Known Mn oxidizers are identified among these niched microbial groups and four of the isolated bacterial species (Hydrogenophaga sp., Pedobacter sp., Rhizobium sp. and Nevskia sp.) as well as one fungal species (Cladosporium sp.) are involved in Mn oxide production. Hydrogenophaga sp. and Pedobacter sp. produce Mn oxides independently while results imply a synergistic relationship between Rhizobium sp. and selected species. Members of the Pedobacter and Nevskia genera are previously not known to oxidize Mn. Microstructural characterizaton show that the growth pattern of the birnessite-type Mn oxides is either dendritic/shrublike or spherulitic/botryoidal. Nucleation takes place in close association to the biofilm and initial Mn precipitates are observed at different locations depending on the mediating species. Encrustations of cells and other organic structures by Mn precipitates serve as stable nuclei for further growth. The close relationship appears to decrease in importance as the aggregates of poorly crystalline precipitates grow. In the more developed crystals, a repetitive pattern, Liesegang-type of rings, suggests that abiotic factors take over.

  • Public defence: 2019-12-10 09:00 sal FB54, AlbaNova universitetscentrum, Stockholm
    Valdés Santurio, Eduardo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. CERN.
    Development of the read-out link and control board for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Upgrade2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Phase-II upgrade plan for the ATLAS Hadronic Tile Calorimeter facing the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) era includes approximately 1000 radiation tolerant read-out link and control boards (Daughterboards) that will provide full-granularity digital data to a fully-digital trigger system off-detector through multi-Gbps optic fibres. Different Daughterboard (DB) revisions have been developed, each successively aiming to meet the demanding HL-LHC requirements. The DB communicates with the off-detector systems via four 9.6 Gbps uplinks and two 4.8 Gbps downlinks. The DB performs high-speed read-out of digitized Photomultiplier (PMT) samples, while receiving and distributing configuration, control and LHC-synchronous timing to the front-end system. The design aims to minimize radiation-induced errors and enhance data reliability by embracing a fully double redundant design using CERN radiation hard GBTx ASICs and Xilinx FPGAs, implementing Triple Mode Redundancy (TMR), adopting Soft Error Mitigation (SEM) to correct for configuration memory Single Event Upsets (SEU), and employing Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) and Forward Error Correction (FEC) in the data format of the uplink and downlink, respectively. Total Ionizing Dose (TID), Non-Ionizing Energy Losses (NIEL) and Single Event Effects (SEE) radiation tests have been performed in order to assess the radiation tolerance strategies followed in the design and to qualify the DB for the HL-LHC requirements according to the ATLAS policy on radiation tolerant electronics. This thesis presents the author's contribution to the development of the DB through the different revisions, the integration of the DB to the Demonstrator and the radiation tests performed aiming to demonstrate the readiness of the DB to withstand the radiation requirements imposed by the HL-LHC. Resulting of this document, the author proposes strategies to be used in the new DB design moving forward the final design to be produced and inserted in ATLAS during the 2024-2026 period.

  • Public defence: 2019-12-09 13:00 Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Stockholm
    Valencia, Luis
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Cellulose Nanofibril-based Hybrid Materials: Eco-friendly design towards separation and packaging applications2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanocellulose has been lately considered as the “Holy-Grail” in the design of sustainable materials due to its bio-origin and an unprecedented combination of prominent features, including good mechanical properties, anisotropy and versatile surface chemistry. In addition, nanocellulose in the form of cellulose nanofibrils, can adopt variable structures and morphologies depending on the processing technique, such as aerogels, films and monoliths.

    However, there are limitations that hinder the implementation of cellulose nanofibrils in “real-life applications”, such as inherent interaction with bacteria and proteins, thus leading to surface-fouling; and loss of integrity due to water-induced swelling. A way to overcome these challenges, and provide further functionality, is through hybridization strategies, at which the multiple components act synergistically towards specific properties and applications. In this thesis, the aim is to present multiple strategies for the synthesis of novel cellulose nanofibril-based hybrid materials, in the form of 2D-films and 3D-foams, towards their employment for separation applications or active food packaging.

    A novel strategy to surface-functionalize cellulose nanofibril-membranes is proposed via grafting zwitterionic polymer brushes of poly (cysteine methacrylate). The modification can suppress the absorption of proteins in an 85%, as well as decreasing the adhesion of bacteria in an 87%, while introducing antimicrobial properties, as demonstrated against S. aureus.

    The spontaneous formation of functional metal oxide nanoparticles occurring in situ on cellulose nanofibrils-films during the adsorption of metal ions from water is investigated, which occurs without the additional use of chemicals or temperature. Notably, this process not only enables the upcycling of materials through multi-stage applications, but also provides a cost-effective method to prepare multifunctional hybrid materials with enhanced dye-removal/antimicrobial activity.

    The processing of functional composite films from cellulose nanofibril-stabilized Pickering emulsions and their suitability to be used as active edible barriers was demonstrated. The presence of oil in the films fine-tuned the properties of the films, as well as acted as the medium to encapsulate bio-active hydrophobic compounds, providing further functionality such as antioxidant and antimicrobial properties.

    Anisotropic porous hybrid foams with ultra-high loading capacity of sorbents (e.g., zeolites and metal-organic frameworks) were produced via unidirectional freeze-casting method using cellulose nanofibrils/gelatin as template material. The foams indeed exhibited ultra-high loading capacity of sorbent nanomaterials, a linear relationship between sorbent content and CO2 adsorption capacity, and high CO2/N2 selectivity.

  • Ruesta Tirado, Gianluca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Transspråkande på SFI: En kvalitativ studie om lärares och elevers användning av sina språkliga repertoarer2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish for Immigrants (SFI) is a study program provided by Swedish municipalities to those who are resident in the country, above the age of 16 and in need to acquire basic skills in the Swedish language. Through this course, students are expected to develop their language knowledge to a level that allows them to participate actively in society as well as communicate freely at work or in other educational environments.

    The aim of this study is to analyse how teachers and students in two different SFI classrooms use their linguistic repertoires to make meaning in oral interaction with each other. Moreover, the study intends to investigate the study participants’ stance of the use of different languages at SFI.

    This has been done with translanguaging as the main theoretical framework. Translanguaging is an approach to multilingualism which takes into consideration multilingual individuals’ lived experiences and language practices as ways for them to make meaning. Through this approach, every language that is represented in the classroom and other semiotic resources are valued as a part of a multilingual person’s linguistic repertoire and can therefore be used in interaction. Because translanguaging has been mainly used in research about primary school and in contexts where English is the target language, this thesis wanted to further explore how translanguaging is used as a pedagogical approach in a Swedish as a second language course where the students are adults.

    Designed as a qualitative research, the study has employed classroom observations and semi- structured interviews as the research methods. First, classroom observations were conducted in the two studied classrooms and were documented by means of field notes and audio recordings. After an initial analysis of all the data collected through the observations, the study participants were interviewed about their stance on the use of multiple languages as a mean of instruction and about their recollections of some critical moments using the stimulated recall technique.

    The study results showed that the teacher in one classroom only used Swedish as the language of instruction, while the teachers in the second classroom drew upon both their and their students’ linguistic repertoires in their teaching. The interview with one of these teachers showed a positive stance towards the use of the different resources from both teachers’ and students’ linguistic repertoires. Students in both classrooms were observed using different languages, such as Swedish, English and their mother tongues, as well as body language and other resources as a way to make meaning in interaction with others and solve tasks. Interviews with students showed though different attitudes towards the use of different languages in SFI-instruction: while some students see positive sides in the possibility of using their other languages during classes, other students expressed an opposition to this

    practice and a preference for the use of Swedish only.

  • Vidal, Manuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Lärarna, låtarna och lusten: Om didaktiska musikaktiviteter i spanskundervisningen2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En undersökning av hur lärare i spanska, åk 6-9 och gymnasiet, använder musik i sin undervisning, vilka dessa aktiviteter är och syftet med dem. Studien visar att musik och sång bl.a är gynnsam för att undervisa kultur och att musikaktiviteter har motiverande effekter. 

  • Karlsson, Anna Klara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Man kan ju inte ha allt i huvudet: Sfi-lärares beskrivningar av bedömningsgrunder2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det svenska skolsystemet och det bedömningsarbete som utförs inom dess verksamheter ska präglas av likvärdighet. Resultaten av senare års bedömningsforskning visar dock på brister. Syftet med denna uppsats är att i relation till tidigare forskning undersöka hur Sfi-lärare beskriver sitt förfarande vid bedömningen av en elevtext. Uppsatsens frågeställningar är 1. Vilka aspekter lyfts fram i lärarnas beskrivningar och hur speglas kunskapskraven i beskrivningarna? och 2. Vilka strategier och stöd för bedömningen uppger lärarna att de använder?

    För att besvara frågeställningarna och uppnå det uppsatsen syftar till har 8 Sfi-lärare bedömt en och samma elevtext och vid personliga intervjuer beskrivit de tolkningar och avvägningar som ingått i bedömningsprocessen.

    Resultatet överensstämmer med tidigare forskningsresultat, då lärarnas beskrivningar av sina tillvägagångssätt och resonemang visar variationer gällande såväl vilka grunder lärarna baserar sin bedömning på, vilka strategier och bedömningsstöd som används, samt i betygssättningen av elevtexten.

  • Vollbrecht, Nathalie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    ”Känslan att inte bli bedömd": En studie om tre svenska som andraspråkslärares arbete med formativ bedömning2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie syftar till att undersöka hur tre svenska som andraspråkslärare tolkar och beskriver att det använder formativ bedömning i svenska som andraspråk. Forskningsfrågorna som ställts upp lyder: "Hur tolkas formativ bedömning i svenska som andraspråksundervisningen och vilken inställning har lärarna till arbetssättet?" och "Hur beskriver lärarna sitt arbete med formativ bedömning i svenska som andraspråk?". Vidare ska studien bidra till ökad kunskap kring hur implementering av formativ bedömning i svenska som andraspråkundervisning kan gå till. Slutsatser som kunnat dras är att formativ bedömning ur ett svenska som andraspråksperspektiv är ett relativt glest beforskat område. Däremot finns en hel del forskning av formativ bedömning som generellt begrepp och  andraspråksundervisning separat av tillgå vilket legat som grund för denna studie.

    Materialet har samlats in genom semistrukturerade intervjuer vilket är en rekommenderad metod att använda när målet är att få en bild av människors individuella tankar och  erfarenheter. Med hjälp av transkribering och en tematisk analysmetod har resultatet framställts med utdrag från respektive respondenters intervjuer Resultatet visar att respondenterna i denna studie ställer sig positiva till användning av formativ bedömning och att de ser ett behov av att tydliggöra mål och kriterier för andraspråkselever. Vidare visar resultatet att respondenterna anser sig undervisa enligt ett formativt arbetssätt men att de alla gånger inte följer strategierna som finns för arbetssättet till punkt och pricka. Kamratbedömning lyfts av samtliga som ett effektiva sätt att arbeta formativt med elever för att dels utveckla självreglerat lärande, dels för att spara tid vid rättning. Vidare poängterar samtliga respondenter att bedömningen i svenska som andraspråk är lika komplex som i andra ämnen men att det är skillnad i vad man behöver fokusera på i SVA. Respondenterna önskar därför att kartläggning av elevernas kunskaper blir mer organiserat på skolorna de arbetar på.

  • Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia (Contributor)
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyberg, Anna (Contributor)
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Trajectories of effort-reward imbalance in Swedish workers: Differences in demographic and work-related factors and associations with health2019In: Work & Stress, ISSN 0267-8373, E-ISSN 1464-5335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to identify trajectories of effort-reward imbalance (ERI), to examine these with respect to demographic (age, gender, socio-economic position) and work-related (employment contract, work hours, shift work, sector) factors, and to investigate associations with different health indicators (self-rated health, depressive symptoms, migraine, sickness absence). The study used four waves of data (N = 6702), collected biennially within the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH). Using latent class growth modelling, we identified four trajectories: a stable low imbalance trajectory, which comprised 90% of all participants, and three change trajectories including a decreasing trajectory (4% of the participants), an inverted U-shaped trajectory and an increasing imbalance trajectory, both in 3% of the participants. Results indicate that a sizeable proportion of Swedish employees’ experience imbalance between efforts and rewards at work. The most favourable trajectory comprised relatively more men and was characterised by better work-related characteristics than the less favourable ERI trajectories. All change trajectories were dominated by women and employees in the public sector. Health developments followed ERI trajectories, such that less favourable trajectories associated with impaired health and more favourable trajectories associated with better health. Sickness absence increased among all ERI trajectories, most so for the decreasing and increasing ERI trajectory.

  • Public defence: 2019-12-06 13:00 Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Stockholm
    Dawitz, Hannah
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Mechanistic Insights in the Biogenesis and Function of the Respiratory Chain2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mitochondria fulfill a plethora of functions, including harboring metabolic pathways and converting energy stored in metabolites into ATP, the common energy source of the cell. This last function is performed by the oxidative phosphorylation system, consisting of the respiratory chain and the ATP synthase. Electrons are channeled through the complexes of the respiratory chain, while protons are translocated across the inner mitochondrial membrane. This process establishes an electrochemical gradient, which is used by the ATP synthase to generate ATP. The subunits of two of the respiratory chain complexes, the bc1 complex and the cytochrome c oxidase, are encoded by two genetic origins, the nuclear and the mitochondrial genome. Therefore, the assembly of these complexes needs to be coordinated and highly regulated.

    Several proteins are involved in the biogenesis of the bc1 complex. Amongst these proteins, the Cbp3-Cbp6 complex was shown to regulate translation and assembly of the bc1 complex subunit cytochrome b. In this work, we established a homology model of yeast Cbp3. Using a site-specific crosslink approach, we identified binding sites of Cbp3 to its obligate binding partner Cbp6 and its client, cytochrome b, enabling a deeper insight in the molecular mechanisms of bc1 complex biogenesis. 

    The bc1 complex and the cytochrome c oxidase form macromolecular structures, called supercomplexes. The detailed assembly mechanisms and functions of these structures remain to be solved. Two proteins, Rcf1 and Rcf2, were identified associating with supercomplexes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our studies demonstrate that, while Rcf1 has a minor effect on supercomplex assembly, its main function is to modulate cytochrome c oxidase activity. We show that cytochrome c oxidase is present in three structurally different populations. Rcf1 is needed to maintain the dominant population in a functionally active state. In absence of Rcf1, the abundance of a population with an altered active site is increased. We propose that Rcf1 is needed, especially under a high work load of the respiratory chain, to maintain the function of cytochrome c oxidase.

    This thesis aims to unravel molecular mechanisms of proteins involved in biogenesis and functionality of respiratory chain complexes to enable a deeper understanding. Dysfunctional respiratory chain complexes lead to severe disease, emphasizing the importance of this work.

  • Public defence: 2019-12-06 10:00 Vivi Täckholmsalen (Q-salen), NPQ-huset, Stockholm
    Johansson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology . SMHI - Sveriges meteorologiska och hydrologiska institut.
    Improving the understanding of cloud radiative heating2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Clouds play an essential role in regulating Earth’s radiation budget by reflecting and absorbing energy at different spectra. As they interact with radiation, they can radiatively heat or cool the adjacent atmosphere and the surface. This heating effect can have a strong implication for the circulation and can change the surface properties by, for example, melting sea ice. The lack of high-resolution global observations has previously been a limitation for our understanding of the vertical structure of cloud radiative heating, and for evaluating the cloud radiative effect in climate models. In this thesis, we will investigate and document cloud radiative heating derived from space-based observations. We will focus on two regions, the Arctic and the Tropics, where cloud radiative heating plays an important, but fundamentally different role.

    In the Tropics, radiative heating at high altitudes influences the large scale circulation. Stratiform, deep convective, and cirrus clouds have a strong radiative impact in the upper troposphere. We found while investigating the Indian monsoon, that thick stratiform clouds will radiatively heat the upper troposphere by more than 0.2 K/day when the monsoon is most intense during June, July and August. Deep convective clouds cause considerable heating in the middle troposphere and at the same time, cool the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). These two thick cloud types will also cool the surface during the monsoon, weakening the temperature gradient between land and ocean. During these months, cirrus clouds are frequently located inside the TTL. We further find that in the Tropics, the climate model, EC-Earth, can capture the seasonal variations in cloud radiative heating seen in the satellite observations. However, the model overestimates the radiative heating in the upper region  and underestimates them in the middle region of the troposphere. This dissimilarity is caused by unrealistic longwave heating and low cloud fraction in the upper and middle of the troposphere, respectively.

    Radiative heating from cirrus, located inside the TTL, is considered to play an important role in the mass transport from the troposphere to the stratosphere. This heating generates enough buoyancy so that the air can pass the barrier of zero net radiative heating. We find that high thin single-layer clouds can heat the upper troposphere by 0.07 K/day. If a thick cloud layer is present underneath, they will radiatively suppress the high cloud, causing it to cool the adjacent air instead. The optical depth and cloud top height of the underlying cloud are two crucial factors that radiatively impact the high cloud above.

    Warm moist air is regularly transported from the mid-latitudes into the Arctic by low- and high-pressure systems. As the moist air enters the Arctic, it increases the cloudiness and warms the surface. This surface heating has the potential to affect the ice cover months after the intrusion. We find that during extreme moist intrusions, the surface temperature in the Arctic can rise by more than 5 K during the winter months with an increase in cloudiness by up to 30% downstream from the intrusion. These extra clouds radiatively heat the lower part of the atmosphere and cool the middle part, affecting the stability of the Arctic atmosphere.

  • Public defence: 2019-12-06 10:00 Aula Svea, Socialhögskolan, Stockholm
    Forsman, Hilma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Addressing poor educational outcomes among children with out-of-home care experience: Studies on impact, pathways, and interventions2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Children with out-of-home care (OHC; foster family/residential care) experience is a high-risk group for future adverse outcomes. With an ambition of supporting the design of effective preventive child welfare measures targeting children in OHC, the overall aim of this thesis is to examine education as a possible intervention path for improving their development and overall life chances.

    The thesis consists of four interrelated empirical studies that address different aspects of poor educational outcomes among children with OHC experience by means of analyses of longitudinal survey and register data, and evaluations of two interventions aimed at improving their basic academic skills.

    Study I examined the hypothesized causal effect of poor school performance on adverse outcomes in young adulthood among children with OHC experience. The results showed that poor school performance has an impact on later psychosocial problems net of observed and unobserved factors, suggesting that the estimated effects allow for causal interpretations.

    Study II explored educational outcomes at different stages in the educational career, and pathways to varied educational outcomes for children with OHC experience and their peers. The results showed that the OHC group had lower educational outcomes across the life course. Yet, by large, their educational pathways did not differ significantly from their peers – cognitive ability and previous school performance had the largest associations with the outcomes in both groups. However, the influence of these factors were weaker in the OHC group whilst the influence of the birth family’s attitude towards higher education was stronger.

    Study III aimed at furthering our understanding of the book-gifting program the Letterbox Club’s potential impact on foster family children’s reading skills. The results showed that participation in the program was associated with small improvements. In general, the program was well received by children and carers, and could result in increased reading. The study furthermore suggested that promotion of carer involvement may improve its potential impact.

    Study IV explored the process of conducting a structured paired reading intervention involving foster family children and their carers. Findings showed that it is possible to engage carers in interventions targeting the education of children in OHC, but that this is no automatic process – carers need a rationale for getting involved, and support in delivering the intervention.

    In sum, this thesis shows that improving the educational outcomes of children in OHC may be a viable intervention path in supporting their life course development, a path that historically has been overlooked. The thesis furthermore shows examples of promising interventions which may improve the basic academic skills of children in OHC. The results also point out that the child welfare system should provide early and continuous educational support, and highlight the importance of addressing adults’ attitudes, expectations, and involvement in these children’s education.

  • Public defence: 2019-12-06 10:00 Ahlmansalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Arvidsson, Klara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    « C'est ça, en fait. » Développer l'idiomaticité dans une L2 pendant un séjour linguistique: Trois études sur le rôle des différences individuelles2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with the development of idiomaticity in French as a second language (L2). Idiomaticity in this context refers to knowledge and use of multiword expressions (MWEs), such as for example c'est ça and en fait. Developing idiomaticity is an important yet challenging aspect of L2 learning, and requires substantial exposure to the target language (TL). This makes the study abroad learning context ideal. However, research shows that learners vary considerably with respect to their linguistic development during their stay abroad. The aim of this thesis is to investigate what factors promote the development of idiomaticity in L2 French during a semester abroad. The thesis comprises three studies which are informed by usage-based approaches to language learning and individual difference research, and which include a total of 43 participants. Study I quantitatively investigates the role of quantity of TL contact for the learning of MWEs used in informal conversations. The results show that quantity of TL contact during the stay abroad did not predict the development of MWE knowledge. Study II qualitatively explores what kind of TL contact and what psychological orientation (a constellation of psychological factors) might promote MWE learning by focusing on contrasting cases of learners from Study I. The findings suggest that a relatively varied contact with the TL in combination with a favorable psychological orientation promoted MWE learning, including a self-reported tendency to notice language forms, a strong L2 motivation, a sense of self-efficacy and self-regulatory capabilities. Study III explores the role of social networks for the development of idiomaticity in spoken L2 French. It is found that the learner's repertoire of MWEs was promoted by a social network including several relationships sustained in the TL. Overall, the findings suggest that a relatively varied TL contact in combination with a favorable psychological orientation and/or a social network including TL speakers promote the development of L2 idiomaticity during the semester abroad. In other words, mere exposure to the TL does not seem to be enough to develop idiomaticity. This thesis contributes to SA research on L2 learning and can hopefully be of use to future SA participants who want to develop their knowledge and use of MWEs which are key to successful communication in an L2.

  • Public defence: 2019-12-06 13:00 hörsal 8, hus D, Stockholm
    Hermansson, Klara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Symbols and emotions in Swedish crime policy discourse2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The general public has assumed an increasingly prominent position in crime policy discourse, both in Sweden and internationally. Nowadays crime policy initiatives often acknowledge and respond to the presumed concerns of the general public, for instance through the promise of safety. This thesis analyses how political parties encourage the public to engage emotionally in crime policy matters. Since public involvement is crucial in elections, the election campaigns of political parties have served as the empirical basis of my studies. The three articles included in the thesis together examine the election campaigns in Sweden from 2006 to 2018.

    In this body of work, it is assumed that the emotional address of the political parties can be analysed by paying specific attention to the political use of symbols and the discursive organisation of emotions. The thesis illustrates how the welfare context influences the ways in which crime policy is communicated and legitimised in Sweden. Values and ideals associated with the welfare state and with the related notion of a ‘Nordic exceptionalism’ – such as equality, benevolence, social cohesion, trust and safety – permeate the Swedish crime policy discourse. By interpreting these values and ideals as a system of symbols, I stress the need to explore them in relation to the general public and with regards to the emotional appeal these symbols might have.

    In my work, I emphasise variation and contradiction regarding emotional tones and I explore the norms circumscribing emotional expressions in crime policy discourse. I have treated emotions as being present in all political communication. This suggests that emotions are not only being encouraged in the ‘hot’ emotional climate, but also in the more emotionally restrained discourse and when politicians allude to the utility of political measures. The results point towards the need to distinguish between emotions and to the exploration of the relationship between them since different emotions are associated with their distinct consequences and they influence how we are encouraged to perceive and feel for different crime policy measures.

    The thesis concludes that the political use of symbols and emotions should be understood as having a reassuring function. It is further suggested that symbols and emotions can be used politically both in order to limit and to promote change with regards to Swedish crime policy discourse.

  • Sourlamtas, Konstantinos
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Soil Erosion estimation for the Göta Älv river using remote sensing, GIS and the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    According to previous studies, the study area of Göta Älv river has high risk of landslides along the river banks due to the water flow. Soil erosion can affect the increase of the landslides in an area with unstable soils caused by the increase rainfall. The Swedish climate is getting more vulnerable thus there is a potential increased risk in erosion and landslides due to unpredictable rainfall intensity. This study aims to calculate soil erosion for the Göta Älv river using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) where a comparison of data from remote sensing and meteorological and geological agencies were completed. Two research questions will be addressed, first if the different calculation of the soil erodibility (K) factor affects RUSLE result, and second how much soil erosion occurs and will potentially occur in the future. Factors including rainfall erosivity (R), soil erodibility (K), slope length and steepness (LS), land cover management (C) and conservation practices (P) were analyzed and used as inputs for the RUSLE model. Moreover, three scenarios were applied for the calculation of K factor in order to show how each one can affect the soil erosion result. The scenarios includes the K-scenario 1, 2 and 3, where the values were derived from a world soil database, a table with literature values and estimated field measurements, respectively. Also, three scenarios for R factor were applied for the periods 2000-2018, 2021-2050 and 2069-2098 (R-scenarios 1, 2 and 3) in order to show how future changes to rainfall patterns could affect soil erosion in the Göta Älv river and if it increases the risk of the landslides. The results suggest that the soil erosion varied between 0 – 0.5 t/ha for all the time periods with mean annual soil loss between 20 – 22 t/ha/yr and maximum soil loss between 2158- 5443 t/ha. The difference between the three K factor scenarios is almost 4%, which is pretty low thus, no influence on the soil erosion results. In conclusion, the different calculations of the K factor affected more the estimated maximum soil loss instead of the mean annual soil loss. The different calculations of R factor showed that more than 90% of the total area was not affected by the soil erosion when the soil loss will not be increased considerably in the future due to the rainfall increase.

  • Allègre, Xavier
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Different generation of controlled moraines in the glacier foreland of Midtdalsbreen, Norway2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A series of small mounds (< 3m) were sampled in the foreland of Midtdalsbreen outlet glacier, southern Norway. These landforms were interesting, especially at site number 1 because they were located very close to a higher Little Ice Age (LIA) moraine (> 5 m), thereby informing the dynamic of the glacier after the LIA at this location. It was yet to determine if these specific mounds are controlled moraines. If they are controlled moraines, then this would have implication for the glacier dynamics and the geometry of the snout after the LIA. It could be determined, based on the landform record evidence, whether the ice at the snout of Midtdalsbreen was thin and cold shortly after the LIA. Furthermore, whether the landscape was deglaciated by downwasting and then by backwasting was the main question addressed in relation to the nature of the mound and the thickness of ice at the snout during and after the LIA. In order to better understand the nature of the landform record and the mounds near the LIA moraine, satellite imagery coupled with careful field investigations were used in the foreland of the Midtdalsbreen outlet glacier. A geomorphological map was produced, and it was useful to put the mounds in a geographical context. Further sedimentological investigation; including clast-shape analyze, produced more evidence about the inner nature of these landforms. Both few controlled moraines and other landforms throughout the glacier foreland indicate that the ice geometry for Midtdalsbreen, shortly after the LIA was such that the snout of the glacier was a thin sheet of ice flowing against the previously deposited LIA moraine. The sedimentology of the controlled moraine is such that the sediments are deposited in steeply dipping layers, and they could even be misinterpreted as permafrost terrains at first glimpse. However, other sedimentological evidences such as the presence of sorted sand and sometimes dipping beds of gravels in addition to the geomorphological mapping make it meaningful to interpret few of the mounds as controlled moraines. A modern analogue to these controlled moraines is dirt cones present on top of the glacier snout as well as controlled moraines a few hundred of meter from the snout. Observations both on the glacier snout and on the foreland involve that dirt-cones later evolve into these sedimentological hummocky units with steeply dipping layers within the paleo-landscape. These observations constrain the thickness of ice at the snout of Midtdalsbreen after the LIA as well as the glacier dynamic during its melt: for controlled moraines to be generated by glaciers, these accumulations of sediments would have to thaw by downwasting and then by backwasting, directly at the glacier snout. This process -comprising of different stages- allows enough time to deposit controlled moraine. It is then a thin, cold-based sheet of ice which is by the end responsible for the deposition of such a landform record. There was even dead-ice present on the landscape at that point. After deposition of dirt cones on top of the ice, important meltwater action is contributing to the glacifluvial origin of these hummocks which evolve from dirt-cones onto the glacier, to ice-cored moraines, and then to controlled moraines onto the foreland. Details about the multistage processes leading to the formation of controlled moraines is also at the center of the investigations.

  • Malmborg, Pernilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Hästhållningens roll i det föränderliga peri-urbana landskapet: En kvalitativ fallstudie av Österåkers kommun2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The rural landscape surrounding the bigger cities are becoming increasingly fragmented due to pressures from urbanization and higher demands on conflicting usages of available buildable land. This has resulted in the natural and cultural landscapes in peri-urban areas being threatened. One usage of this land by equine sport is expanding where the horses need access to land and nature. A great majority of the horses in Sweden are kept in peri-urban areas, but horse keeping is also a factor that increases the risk for land use conflicts.

    The aim of this study is to better understand the role of horse keeping in the peri-urban landscape, by investigating these activities through the lens of ecosystem services. This study looked into the challenges and potential of horse keeping in physical planning, and how it is currently included by the local government of Österåker municipality in Stockholm county. This was achieved as a qualitative case study, consisting of interviews with local horse keepers, a web based survey for municipal residents and an analysis of available local government planning policies, reports and strategic documents.

    Horse keeping was found to be primarily associated with cultural ecosystem services, by its contribution to the equine sport sector and the preservation of the rural cultural and natural landscape with high recreational values. By preserving farmland and grazing pastures for horses, horse keeping can also be linked to supporting, regulating and provisioning ecosystem services.

    In addition, horse keeping in peri-urban areas was found to end in the periphery of the local physical planning. However, there is a need to integrate a long-term strategy and holistic perspective to achieve the full potential of the horse keeping, considering the contribution to the ecosystem services. There is a need for a more creative planning if horses should reach the potential as a resource and a planning tool for a sustainable development in the dynamic peri-urban landscape.

  • Frögren, Kristin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Miljöproblem i Sverige: Definition och vanligt förekommande termer2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental problems currently lack a definition in the Swedish language. Subjective definitions could lead to counterproductiveness and misunderstandings between parties, which is why the aim of this thesis is to construct a definition for environmental problems. Using quantitative methods, and a literature study, the most frequently used terms describing environmental problems were compiled. An analysis of the results gives us the following definition: ”Something that causes pollution, causes loss of biodiversity, or impairs production and functions.” This definition is broad enough, and yet specific enough, to encompass environmental problems in a practical and useful way in both everyday language, and when working in scientific or humanistic fields. Further research is required, since it is currently extremely sparse. The definition formulated in this thesis will not last forever, but rather it will continue to grow, evolve and develop alongside new discoveries, new knowledge and new environmental goals in this field.

  • Heinold Johansson, Lina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    På spaning efter interkulturell kompetens: En analys av representationer av mat i tre läromedel i sfi (svenska för invandrare)2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats undersöker temat mat i övningsuppgifter i tre läromedel i svenska för invandrare (sfi) utifrån Skolverkets definition av interkulturell kompetens. I tidigare forskning om sfi-läromedel och interkulturell kompetens har temat mat inte varit det centrala studieobjektet. Syftet med undersökningen är att ta reda på huruvida de analyserade texterna främjar utvecklingen av interkulturell kompetens eller inte. De tre läromedlen Mål (2012), Rivstart (2014) och Framåt (2015) har granskats utifrån en kunskapskritisk analys med utgångspunkt i begreppen kulturoch interkulturell kompetens. Urvalet har gjorts med hänsyn till läromedlens utgivningsår utifrån det faktum att Skolverket 2012 införde en ny kursplan för sfi där interkulturell kompetens ingår som ett av utbildningsmålen. Studiens resultat och analys visar att de tre läromedlen varierar i sin samstämmighet med rådande styrdokument för sfi-undervisning. Ett av läromedlen har fler likheter med föregående kursplan än den nuvarande, medan övriga två läromedel har beröringspunkter från båda kursplanerna. Vidare uppvisar samtliga läromedel i olika grad tendenser till att förmedla en statisk syn på kultur, men två av läromedlen gör det i en liten utsträckning. Då dessa två läromedel har fler förtjänster än brister har de bedömts som undervisningsmaterial med potential att kunna utveckla interkulturell kompetens. Avslutningsvis presenteras några förslag för vidare forskning inom området och reflektioner över vad resultaten kan innebära utifrån ett didaktiskt perspektiv.

  • Heinold Johansson, Lina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Culture and Aesthetics.
    Mötet med förfadern: En tematisk och komparativ analys av Tove Janssons Trollvinter och Sent i november2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats syftar till att lyfta fram förfadern i Tove Janssons böcker Trollvinter (1957)

    och Sent i november (1970) via en i första hand tematisk och i andra hand komparativ analys.

    Via närläsning av texterna undersöks de utmärkande dragen för Mumintrollets respektive

    Onkelskruttets sökande efter och möte med förfadern samt den betydelse som förfadern har

    för dessa två romanfigurer. Texterna tolkas med hjälp av Sigmund Freuds teorier om

    fantiserande och lekande respektive det kusliga.

    Resultatet i studien visar bland annat att båda romanfigurerna styrs av önsketänkande och

    gör sig illusioner om vem förfadern är och vad han vill. De är båda nyfikna på förfadern, men

    deras drivkrafter till att söka efter honom skiljer sig åt. Deras respektive möte med honom har

    flera gemensamma nämnare såsom beundran och avståndstagande. Förfaderns betydelse för

    såväl Mumintrollet i Trollvinter som Onkelskruttet i Sent i november hänger samman med

    identifikation och behovet av att känna samhörighet.

  • Public defence: 2019-12-04 10:00 sal 14, hus 5, Stockholm
    Wahl, Felix
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics.
    Micro-level claims reserving in non-life insurance2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Actuarial reserving deals with the problem of predicting outstanding claims payments on policies issued up to today to find an appropriate amount of capital, the claims reserve or technical provisions, to set aside in order to be able to meet obligations to policyholders. Historically, and commonly still today, this has been approached using purely algorithmic and deterministic methods, not based in any statistical models. This thesis contains five individual papers, mainly concerned with statistical models for use in the area of reserving in non-life insurance.

    Paper I sets out all the components needed for the valuation of aggregate non-life insurance liability cash flows based on data in the form of claims triangles. The paper contains all necessary ingredients for use in practice, including the estimation of model parameters and a bias correction of the plug-in estimator of the valuation formula. The valuation framework that the paper takes as its starting point is compatible with the view of the Solvency IIdirective on how to compute the value of the technical provisions, i.e. that the value should equal the amount which a so-called reference undertaking would demand in order to take over and handle the run-off of the liability cash flow.

    Paper II deals with the problem of estimating the conditional mean squared error of prediction(MSEP), conditional on the observed data. The paper presents an approach that yields analytically computable estimators for a wide range of different models — otherwise readily computable using simple numerical methods — and, moreover, it shows that the approach reproduces the famous MSEP formula for the distribution-free chain ladder model given by Mack in 1993. The approach is particularly useful when considering run-off triangles since itis then not feasible to perform a prediction assessment based on out-of-sample performance.

    Paper III is concerned with properties of the variance of the variance parameter estimator ina general linear model, mainly in the form of finite sample size bounds that are independent of the covariates and that are such that, asymptotically, the lower and upper bounds are the same. As opposed to the other papers of this thesis, this paper is purely theoretical without an immediate insurance context — except for a small example.

    Paper IV introduces a discrete-time micro-model called the collective reserving model (CRM). The model is highly accessible since, even though it is a micro-model, it is modelled on the aggregate level using two triangles, one for the number of reported claims and one for the claims payments. The paper shows, among other things, how the model gives predictors of outstanding claims payments separately for incurred but not reported and reported but not settled claims, and, interestingly, shows that the chain ladder technique is a large exposure (e.g. the number of contracts) approximation of the CRM.

    Paper V is chiefly concerned with deriving closed-form expressions for moments in a class of continuous-time micro-models. It is the first paper to accomplish this task, hopefully making continuous-time micro-models accessible to a broader audience.

  • Granmar, Claes
    European University Institute.
    Trade Mark Paradoxes in European Brand Competition2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • BRAG, Gustava
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    PREDICTING THE FUTURE OF INFLUENCER MARKETING: How Public Relations Experts perceive and measure the impacts of Influencer Marketing in their organizations. A Critical Study reflecting the discussions and future thinking of this particular phenomenon2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The body of marketing is drastically changing, pushing frontiers in numerous of domains, geographically, behaviourally and strategically with much enhanced technology in an increasingly globalized world. As this phenomenon pushes forward on many fronts, it is worthwhile to ask what will happen in the near future in this field. In today’s society ‘Influencer Marketing’ is known to be an incredibly popular and successful marketing tool, where one might be wondering: What is a plausible future in this area? What are the potential threats and challenges (if any) that we may encounter? What drives Influencer Marketing in organizations and what questions do they have about its impacts and measurements? I am hoping to fulfil this gap with the assistance of Critical Future Studies, Inayatullah (1990,1998) Luke Goode, Michael Godhe (2017,2018) in analysing the various facts and information that are being addressed and most importantly critically assess what is being missed. This Master thesis is a critical study, reflecting the future thinking and strategies relating to Emotional Branding, Danny Brown, Sam Fiorella (2013) made by experts in the fields of Public Relations, using a quantitative content analysis and semi-structured interviews. The chosen methods demonstrate two distinctive results, the content analysis showing a rather positive overview whereas the semi-structured interviews unpack the complexities and challenges in Influencer Marketing and has a negative stance towards its future. Future Studies, is a rigorous branch of study, where unfortunately no one can know for certain what the future holds, however I believe that it is important that we acknowledge values and invite scholars to join this critical dialogue about possible futures and the way we can imagine and discuss the future. The results in this thesis also further demonstrates the necessity in studying this branch of study due to the contradicting answers that are being addressed in the analysis. This thesis also intends to signify that it will not be closure but an encouragement to consider the impetus for a much larger conversation.

  • Allen, Axel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies, JMK.
    Imagining intelligent artefacts: Myths and a digital sublime regarding artificial intelligence in Swedish newspaper Svenska Dagbladet2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Artificial intelligence (AI) has over the past years become a hot topic for discussion in Sweden, as the technology presents exciting unique possibilities and challenges for the country and its citizens. Coverage of AI in Swedish news media presents imagined scenarios with both current and future AI that contribute to myths about how the technology is able to radically transform life, that spring out of a central digital sublime. Through a mixed-method study of 55 newspaper items about AI from Svenska Dagbladet from 2017 to 2018, the thesis studies what evident AI myths occur in coverage and how such discourses spring out digital sublime regarding AI. A total of four AI myths are found in news media coverage that revolve around existing and future intelligent computers, robots, machines and perceptions with them. Myths and hopes and concerns with them point to digital sublime regarding AI as a force of intelligent digitization that promises to empower a sublime citizen, economy, and welfare state. Emotional values with sublime AI are understood to reflect a general Swedish techno-optimism as digital artefacts have allowed Sweden to become prosperous.   

  • Claésson, Linnea
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Managerial representation: Are Women Better Off in the Public or the Private Sector?: A quantitative study of gender inequality in managerial authority in the Swedish welfare state service industries2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades, Sweden has seen a rapid increase in the share of health care, education and social care that is delivered by privately-owned companies. Such privatisation of welfare state services has by some of its advocators been viewed as a means to enhance gender equality in labour market outcomes; one of them being access to managerial positions. This thesis uses Swedish registry data to examine how the underrepresentation of female managers differs between public sector and private sector providers of welfare state services. Moreover, the analysis pays close attention to how employees’ family statuses – partnership and parenthood – influence careers in each of the sectors. The result shows that the gender gap in managerial authority is narrower in the public sector than in the private sector. However, family responsibilities are shown to have a smaller and more gender-equal influence on managerial authority among employees in the private sector. The thesis’ conclusion is, thus, that even though career opportunities might be more gender-equal in the public sector than in the private sector, the theoretical assumption that women’s careers are better off in the public sector because it is more “family-friendly” does not receive support. 

  • Public defence: 2019-12-02 10:00 Vivi Täckholmsalen (Q-salen), NPQ-huset, Stockholm
    Dou, Dan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Influenza A Virus: Spatial analysis of influenza genome trafficking and the evolution of the neuraminidase protein2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are a common infectious agent that seasonally circulates within the human population that causes mild to severe acute respiratory infections. The severity of the infection is often related to how the virus has evolved with respect to the pre-existing immunity in the population. For IAVs, the most common mechanisms to avoid the immune response are to vary the surface antigens, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), by processes known as antigenic drift and shift.

    Antigenic drift refers to point mutations that accumulate in HA and NA as a result of the antibody-mediated selection pressure that exists in the population. The majority of the changes attributed to antigenic drift localize to HA and NA surface exposed regions, however this does not exclude that drift can also result in the selection of residues that are not exposed. One region where non-exposed residues have potentially been selected for is the NA transmembrane domain (TMD) of human H1N1 IAVs, where a temporal bias exists for the accumulation of polar residues. By examining these sequence changes in the NA TMD, we found that the polar residues contribute to the amphipathic characteristic of the NA TMD, which mediates the oligomerization of the N-terminus. As more polar residues became incorporated, the strength of the TMD-TMD interaction increased, presumably to benefit the NA head domain assembly into a functional tetramer. We determined that the amphiphilic drift in the NA TMD is able to bypass the strict hydrophobicity required for membrane insertion at the endoplasmic reticulum because it can utilize the co-translational translocation process to facilitate the insertion and inversion of its non-ideal TMD. The contribution of the TMD to proper NA assembly was traced to the formation of the Ca2+ binding pocket that is located at the center of the tetrameric assembly, as this pocket lies above the stalk linker regions and must be occupied for NA to function.

    In addition to antigenic drift, NA and HA can also undergo antigenic shift. Antigenic shift occurs when either of the gene segments encoding NA or HA are exchanged with ones from another IAV encoding another subtype of NA or HA. Different from antigenic drift, antigenic shift can only occur when a cell is co-infected and most investigations on the process of reassortment have been made at the protein level due to the methodological issues for labeling the RNA genome in situ. To overcome these technical limitations, we developed an in situ RNA labeling approach that provides highly specific spatial resolution of the IAV genome throughout the infection process. By applying this approach to temporally analyze the co-infection process, we found that the entry of a second IAV is stalled in the cytoplasm if another IAV has begun to replicate. Together, these results provide insight into the low frequency of antigenic shift in nature and provide evidence that non-exposed residues may make an underappreciated contribution to NA antigenic drift in human H1N1 viruses.

  • Broman, Elias
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Asmala, Eero
    Carstensen, Jacob
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Dopson, Mark
    Distinct Coastal Microbiome Populations Associated With Autochthonous- and Allochthonous-Like Dissolved Organic Matter2019In: Frontiers in Microbiology, ISSN 1664-302X, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 10, article id 2579Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coastal zones are important transitional areas between the land and sea, where both terrestrial and phytoplankton supplied dissolved organic matter (DOM) are respired or transformed. As climate change is expected to increase river discharge and water temperatures, DOM from both allochthonous and autochthonous sources is projected to increase. As these transformations are largely regulated by bacteria, we analyzed microbial community structure data in relation to a 6-month long time-series dataset of DOM characteristics from Roskilde Fjord and adjacent streams, Denmark. The results showed that the microbial community composition in the outer estuary (closer to the sea) was largely associated with salinity and nutrients, while the inner estuary formed two clusters linked to either nutrients plus allochthonous DOM or autochthonous DOM characteristics. In contrast, the microbial community composition in the streams was found to be mainly associated with allochthonous DOM characteristics. A general pattern across the land-to-sea interface was that Betaproteobacteria were strongly associated with humic-like DOM [operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to family Comamonadaceae], while distinct populations were instead associated with nutrients or abiotic variables such as temperature (Cyanobacteria genus Synechococcus) and salinity (Actinobacteria family Microbacteriaceae). Furthermore, there was a stark shift in the relative abundance of OTUs between stream and marine stations. This indicates that as DOM travels through the land-to-sea interface, different bacterial guilds continuously degrade it.

  • Rutström, Linnea
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Om andraspråksinlärning och andraspråksinläraren i debatten om Sfi: En kritisk diskursanalytisk studie2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att beskriva och analysera de diskurser som manifesteras inom mediedebatten om Sfi 2018, samt synliggöra de underliggande budskapen inom dessa diskurser och förankra dem i rådande språkideologier. Studien ämnar besvara följande forskningsfrågor: Vilka diskurser kring Sfi kan identifieras i mediedebatten 2018? Vad sägs om andraspråksinlärning och andraspråksinläraren inom dessa diskurser? Vilka språkideologier framträder i debatten? Med teorier om språkideologi som bas och kritisk diskursanalys (CDA) som metod fokuserar studien på hur verkligheter konstrueras genom olika yttranden om Sfi. 17 tidningsartiklar från svensk media 2018 har analyserats. Resultaten visar att det finns fem framträdande diskurser i den mediala debatten om Sfi: bristdiskursen, driftformsdiskursen, strukturdiskursen, flerspråkighetsdiskursen och komplexitetsdiskursen. Trots de olika egenskaper varje diskurs besitter i sitt sätt att framställa och konstruera utbildningsformen Sfi, delar de alla, förutom komplexitetsdiskursen, en liknande syn på andraspråksinlärning och andraspråksinläraren. Andraspråksinlärning beskrivs allt som oftast i termer av effektivitet med arbete som slutgiltigt mål och andraspråksinläraren framställs främst som passiv och maktlös.  Resultaten visar vidare på hur att yttranden om Sfi inom samtliga diskurser bottnar i en enspråkig norm och i en språkideologisk idé om svenska språkets högre status. Trots ett på senare tid pluralistiskt skifte och en officiell betoning av språklig mångfald framträder i debatten om Sfi en puristisk språkideologi. 

  • Aceto, Giulia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Att använda eller icke använda förstaspråket, det är frågan: En kvalitativ studie om användningen av engelska respektive svenska för att främja engelskinlärning i årskurs 4–62019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I takt med globaliseringen har engelskans betydande roll och globala utbredning medfört en utmaning för elever att utveckla sina engelskkunskaper. Tidigare forskning visar att målspråksanvändning (L2) för att maximera L2-exponering är att föredra, men andraspråksforskare anser även att förstaspråket spelar en viktig kognitiv roll vid språkinlärning. Syftet med denna studie är att öka förståelsen för hur målspråk respektive förstaspråk används i engelskundervisning i årskurs 4–6, samt hur lärare upplever att de arbetar med båda språken för att främja engelskinlärningen. Studien utgår från Stephen Krashens monitormodell samt tvåspråkighet, och bygger dessutom på en intervju med en lärare. Resultatet visar att läraren ser målspråksanvändning som språkutvecklande men upplever att exklusiv användning kan vara svårt i de yngre åldrarna. För att stödja elevernas behov för individuella instruktioner växlar läraren mellan engelska och svenska så att engelskan byggs upp successivt och förståelsen ökar på sikt. 

  • Harkin, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    What's fotböja?: Translanguaging som pedagogiskt verktyg i kompletterande svensk undervisning2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att öka kunskapen om translanguaging som pedagogiskt verktyg.  Mer specifikt syftade arbetet till att se i vilken utsträckning translanguaging förbättrade interaktionen mellan eleverna och hur eleverna upplevde translanguaging.

    Studien utfördes i ett engelsktalande land i en undervisningsform som kallas kompletterande undervisning i svenska som erbjuds svenska barn och ungdomar som bor utomlands.

    I studien användes strukturerade observationer med ljudinspelning under två arbetsmoment samt semistrukturerad fokusgruppintervju med sex elever om hur de upplevde det nya arbetssättet med translanguaging.

    Det framgick att eleverna använde sig av sina språkliga resurser, det vill säga både svenska och engelska, när de löste uppgifterna i klassrummet. Eleverna ansåg också att translanguaging underlättade arbetet: De hjälpte och fick hjälp av varandra i grupparbetena. Däremot ansåg eleverna inte att interaktionen dem emellan hade ökat till följd av translanguaging.

  • Eklöv Alander, Gunilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Innefattar undervisningen i redovisning etik?2019In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 47, no 6, p. 43-54Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vid Sveriges högre lärosäten examineras varje år hundratals studenter med en kandidatexamen i företagsekonomi, inriktning redovisning. Under senare år har ett flertal företagsskandaler väckt uppmärksamhet, där finansiella rapporter visat sig innehålla missvisande information som företagsledningen avgivit till aktieägarna. Dessa felaktiga rapporter drabbar aktieägarna ekonomiskt, men angår också hela samhället. Här undersöks hur kursplanerna vid Sveriges sju största lärosäten med utbildning i företagsekonomi behandlar etik inom delämnesområdet redovisning. Resultatet visar att endast 19,5 procent av kurserna har etik i innehållsbeskrivningen och 37 procent har etik i lärandemålen. Etik hanteras i förekommande fall ytligt och främst inom ramen för principal-agentteorin och hållbarhet. 

  • Public defence: 2019-11-29 13:00 sal FB54, AlbaNova universitetscentrum, Stockholm
    Wallängen, Veronica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Performance Improvements for Particle Tracking Detectors in Extreme Rate and Radiation Environments2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to increase its discovery potential, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is being transformed into a higher luminosity machine expected to be operational around 2026. The number of particle collisions will increase by a factor of 10 beyond the current design value, which means that the detectors installed around the LHC are facing various new challenges. The most demanding challenges include handling the enormous data quantities that will be transferred from the front-end readout modules at significantly higher rates than previously, as well as the radiation effects that arise as a consequence of the intense particle flow and that cause damage to sensor elements and electronics.

    At the ATLAS experiment, a multipurpose detector operating at the LHC, the impact of the luminosity increase is especially severe for the silicon pixel tracking detector, being the central subsystem located closest to the particle interaction point and therefore exposed to the highest radiation dose and hit density. The extreme radiation doses that the pixel modules will be subject to will cause deformation of the sensor material structure and thus loss of the signals, which after subsequent digitization by the pixel readout chip must be transferred over relatively long distances through a low-mass data link, causing further signal distortion.

    The work presented here addresses both major challenges described and outlines solutions for the upcoming upgrade of the ATLAS pixel detector system with regards to these. Firstly, it is demonstrated how improved accuracy of detector simulations and reconstruction of particle trajectories through the detector can be achieved as higher particle fluences are approached, by modeling radiation damage effects that occur in the pixel sensors. Secondly, it is shown how a receiver integrated circuit utilizing an industry standard technique novel within high-energy physics applications has been designed as an integral part of a high-speed transmission link to efficiently restore the signal quality in order to achieve adequate data readout rates.

  • Public defence: 2019-11-29 09:00 Vivi Täckholmsalen (Q-salen), NPQ-huset, Stockholm
    Mata Forsberg, Manuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Bacterial Regulation of Peripheral Immunity: Mechanistic insights from lactobacilli and Staphylococcus aureus2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a constant cross-talk between our immune system and the colonizing microbiota. The gut resident bacteria produce a broad range of molecules with regulatory activities in both local and distal tissues. Staphylococcus (S.) aureus is a commensal bacterium with high pathogenic potential due to production of several potent virulence factors including staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs). These SEs are known to induce overwhelming T cell responses, which can result in a serious condition known as toxic shock syndrome. In contrast, several species of bacteria from the genus Lactobacillus exhibit probiotic features and promote beneficial physiological and immunological effects in its host. The underlying mechanisms behind bacterial activation and regulation of peripheral lymphocytes remain elusive. In this thesis, we explored how secreted factors present in the cell free supernatants (CFS) of cultured S. aureus and lactobacilli mechanistically impact the activation of different types of T cells and NK cells. In paper I, we investigated the influence of S. aureus-CFS and SEA on regulatory T cells and found that despite de novo induction of FOXP3 expression, TREG cells also produced pro-inflammatory cytokines, which associated with CD161-expression. In paper II, we could show that S. aureus-CFS and SEA induce proliferation, cytotoxicity and cytokine production in conventional and unconventional T- and NK cells. Moreover, we also showed that the lactobacilli-CFS were able to dampen immune cell activation, which was partly linked to lactobacilli-derived lactate. In paper III, we continued to investigate the mechanism behind Lactobacillus-mediated dampening of induced lymphocyte responses and identified extracellular membrane vesicles to be one of the main components involved in Lactobacillus-mediated regulation of cytokine responses. Other observations made in paper II brought about several questions regarding the ability of SEs to activate unconventional T- and NK cells, which lacks certain receptors known to be required for SE-mediated activation of conventional T cells. In paper IV, we therefore investigated the mechanism behind SE-mediated activation of γδ T-, MAIT- and NK cells and found that SEs indirectly activated γδ T- and NK cells, which required the presence of conventional αβ T cells. In summary, this thesis presents novel insights into how soluble components from bacteria modulate immune cell responses and extends the general understanding of bacterial influence on peripheral immunity. 

  • Public defence: 2019-11-29 10:00 Högbomsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Wang, Tongmei
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Seasonality and variability of stratospheric water vapour2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Stratospheric water vapour (SWV) plays a critical role in the climate system by modulating the radiation budget and influencing the stratospheric chemistry. Studying changes of SWV on global scale is helpful for our understanding of climate change. This thesis aims to gain an improved understanding of the stratospheric processes and dynamic mechanisms that determine the seasonality and variability of SWV. 

    Water vapour is characterized by its compound, which leaves an isotopic fingerprint in relevant atmospheric and hydrologic processes. The thesis starts with analyzing the global features of three stable water isotopes (SWIs) in the stratosphere by using satellite retrievals from Odin/SMR. The spatial pattern of SWI indicates clear effects of methane oxidation in the upper stratosphere, dehydration at the tropopause and stratospheric transport via the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC). In addition to the tropical tape recorder in the lower stratosphere, a pronounced downward propagation of the seasonal signal from the upper to the lower stratosphere is observed in high-latitudes. These observed features are further compared to model outputs to identify possible causes of model deficiencies in reproducing the distribution of SWV.

    The downward propagation signal of zonal wind has been demonstrated in the high-latitude stratosphere in spring seasonal transition in the Southern Hemisphere, but not in the Northern Hemisphere. This inter-hemispheric difference is due to the stronger stratospheric planetary wave activity in austral spring than in boreal spring. With strong wave activity in spring, the transition is inclined to occur first at the stratopause followed by a downward propagation to the lower stratosphere. In particular, the stronger the upward propagation of planetary waves in high-latitudes in spring the earlier the stratospheric seasonal transition. 

    The new generation reanalysis ERA5 represents climatological distribution and seasonal cycle of SWV better than its predecessor ERA-Interim by assimilating more satellite observations. The variability of SWV in ERA5 is highly consistent with SDI MIM observation. The interannual variability of water vapour in the lower stratosphere is found to be closely linked to the tropical Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) and QBO-induced residual circulation. On decadal scale, the deficit of SWV in boreal winter is associated with a warm sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly in the North Atlantic, which leads to stronger upward propagation of planetary waves, resulting in a warmer pole in the lower stratosphere, colder tropical tropopause and stronger BDC, hence less water vapour enters the stratosphere through the tropopause and the anomaly extends to the entire stratosphere. 

    Sensitivity experiments for a CO2 doubling scenario are performed with the model WACCM to investigate the SWV response to climate change. The response of SWV is dominated by the warm SST, which is induced by CO2 doubling in a coupled ocean-atmosphere system. The enhanced SST leads to a moist troposphere and warmer tropical and subtropical tropopause, resulting in more water vapour entering the stratosphere from below. A large increase of SWV in the lower stratosphere, in turn, affects stratospheric temperature. It results in a warming in the tropical and subtropical lower stratosphere, offsetting the cooling caused by CO2 doubling in general.

  • Hägerdal, Hans
    et al.
    Wellfelt, Emilie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Tamalola; Transregional connectivities, Islam, and anti-colonialism on an Indonesian island2019In: Wacana: Journal of the Humanities of Indonesia, ISSN 1411-2272, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 430-456Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study focuses on a set of events in the Aru Islands, Maluku, in the late eighteenth century which are documented in some detail by Dutch records. A violent rebellion with Muslim and anti-European overtones baffled the Dutch colonialists (VOC) and led to a series of humiliations for the Company on Aru, before eventually being subdued. As one of the main catalysts of the conflict stands the chief Tamalola from the Muslim island Ujir. Interestingly, this persons also a central figure in local traditions from Ujir. Moreover, his story connects with wider cultural and economic networks in eastern Indonesia. Thus the article asks how the imprints of the Tamalola figure in textual and non-textual sources can add to our knowledge of how communities of Eastern Indonesia ordered their lives outside colonial control.

  • Public defence: 2019-11-28 13:00 sal 14, hus 5, Kräftriket, Stockholm
    Hansson, Disa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics.
    Modelling Sexual Interactions: Sexual behaviour and the spread of sexually transmitted infections on dynamic networks2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis we develop statistical and mathematical models to study different factors of relevance for the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Two special interest groups for STI interventions are considered: sexually active youths and men who have sex with men (MSM). The statistical models developed make it possible to estimate individuals’ dispositions towards sexual behaviours related to the spread of STIs: condom use and anal sex. To study the spread of an infection in a population we use mathematical models. The mathematical models in this thesis give insights into the transmission process of HIV among MSM in Sweden—a population at high risk for HIV infection.

    The focus of the first paper is on mechanisms giving rise to observed sexual behaviour, such as condom use, among sexually active youths in Sweden. We study the sexual dispositions of individuals and how these interact and generate the observed sexual outcomes.

    The second paper concerns the sexual behaviour of MSM in Sweden and the transmission process of HIV within this population. The population is modelled by a stochastic dynamic network model that incorporates both steady partnerships and casual contacts. We model the spread of an infection where individuals are susceptible, infectious or diagnosed (unable to transmit) and derive the basic reproduction number R0, the probability of a major outbreak, and the endemic prevalence.

    The third paper further develops the dynamic network model of the second paper. The model now takes into account that individuals may be sexually high-active or sexually low-active. The division into two activity groups makes it possible to study a preventive intervention against HIV that is only targeted to sexually high-active. The intervention studied is pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV (PrEP), i.e. that the antiviral drugs tenofovir-emtricitabine are taken by individuals with negative HIV serostatus to prevent getting infected by HIV. We study the PrEP coverage needed to reduce the observed HIV prevalence of 5% to a value close to 0%.

    In the fourth and final paper we focus on condom dispositions among MSM. The disposition models from the first paper are extended to better fit an MSM population and are additionally extended to be used for more types of sexual behaviour data.

  • Public defence: 2019-11-28 10:00 Vivi Täckholm-salen (Q-salen), Stockholm
    Wassing, Gabriela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Bacteria-host cell interactions: Studies on initial colonization, antimicrobial peptides, and biofilms2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The obligate human pathogen Neisseria meningitidis asymptomatically colonizes the upper respiratory tract, but crossing of the epithelial barrier can cause life-threatening meningitis and/or sepsis. N. meningitidis encounters numerous environmental challenges during colonization in the host, and has evolved different evasion strategies and virulence factors to ensure its survival. In contrast, Lactobacillus species are part of the human microbiota and their commensal colonization confers many benefits to the host, including the inhibition of pathogens.

    The first cell type encountered by invading bacteria are epithelial cells and immune cells, which can effectively sense and respond to the presence of bacteria by alerting the immune system or by release of antimicrobial peptides. Antimicrobial peptides are small peptides that are able to directly kill bacteria, but also play a role in modulation of immune responses.  

    This thesis focuses on the interaction between the human host and bacteria. Paper I shows that epithelial colonization by different bacterial species induces the transcription factor early growth response protein 1 (EGR1). Induction of EGR1 is mediated primarily by signaling through EGFR and ERK1/2 pathway. In paper II the ability of N. meningitidis and Lactobacillus to modulate expression of antimicrobial peptide human beta-defensin 2 (hBD2) in epithelial cells is compared. Expression of hBD2 is upregulated by lactobacilli. In contrast, N. meningitidis dampens this effect, likely mediated by induction of the host molecule A20, a negative regulator of NF-κB. Since N. meningitidis is susceptible to hBD2-mediated killing, exploitation of A20 may be an immune evasion mechanism. In paper III we demonstrate that hBD2 is able to kill N. meningitidis without causing membrane permeabilization. N. meningitidis DNA can bind hBD2 and thereby inhibit hBD2-mediated killing, presenting a possible evasion mechanism. Finally, paper IV shows that the absence of D-lactate dehydrogenase LdhA in N. meningitidis promotes aggregation and biofilm formation through increased autolysis-mediated release of extracellular DNA.

  • Finnveden, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Finding case through personal names in parallel texts2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to evaluate whether the ‘richness’ of the marking on personal names is an adequate indirect measure of a language’s case usage. The method uses parallel texts to identify, and group by lemma, names in over a thousand languages. These groupings are compared with data for case usage from a typological database for those languages for which it is available. This material is then used to test a method for assessing whether a language uses case or not. Results indicate that the maximum number of word types a proprial lemma is attested with in a text is a useful tool for inferring case usage. However, it only yielded clear results for a subset of the languages tested. It was not particularly useful for inferring the absence of case usage. Estimation of number of case categories was also performed. An entropy measure based on word types that a personal name lemma is attested with and the occurrences of these word types was used. It was found to be a fair indicator of number of case categories for languages, if somewhat inaccurate. Markings on languages which had no case were investigated. They were found to be of several types: pragmatic markers, non-case grammatical markers and case-like markers. Two languages with few markings on personal names and with case were investigated. They were found to not use any case marking on their personal names, but still use such markers on common nouns. This contrasts with a tentative generalization that this study is based on: ‘No languages have case marking exclusively in the domain of [personal names] or [common nouns].’ (Handschuh, 2017).

  • Public defence: 2019-11-22 10:00 Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Stockholm
    Nilsson, Tobias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Protein and lipid interactions within the respiratory chain: Studies using membrane-mimetic systems2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy conversion from nutrients to ATP is a vital process in cells. The process, called oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) is performed by a combination of membrane-bound proteins. These proteins have been studied in great detail in the past, however much is still unknown about how they interact with each other. Studying the OXPHOS proteins in their native environment can be difficult due to the complexity of living cells. By isolating parts of the OXPHOS system and inserting them into membrane-mimetic systems it is possible to investigate their functions in a controlled environment.

    In the work presented here, we co-reconstituted several of these proteins into liposomes made from synthetic lipids. We demonstrated production of ATP at steady-state conditions with the ATP synthase, driven by proton pumping by cytochrome bo3. Introduction of anionic lipids decreased the coupled activity and we could correlate this effect to weaker interactions between ATP synthase and cytochrome bo3 in the membrane. We also reconstituted cytochrome c oxidase (CytcO) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae with Respiratory supercomplex factor 1 (Rcf1) into liposomes and submitochondrial particles (SMPs). Loss of Rcf1 has previously been found to result in a lower CytcO activity. We found that activity could be restored upon co-reconstitution of CytcO with Rcf1, but only after unfolding and re-folding of the latter, which shows that Rcf1 can adopt two configurations in the membrane.