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  • Järnefelt, Pia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Nog är ju viktigt: The role of modal particles nog and ju in responsibility attribution in L1 and L2 speakers2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates whether advanced adult L2 speakers comprehend the subtle linguistic cues that modal particles entail and seek to find if modal particles affect them in their responsibility attribution. Two groups of advanced L2 speakers of Swedish were tested; one group of L1 German speakers and one group of L1 English speakers. In an experiment that investigated responsibility attribution, participants read short stories that were manipulated with the modal particles nog and ju, to see if the use of these modal particles affected how they attributed  responsibility to a character in the short story. The L2 learners were tested to see if L1 background affects the L2 acquisition of modal particles. A control group of native Swedish speakers were also tested. As an exploratory and complementary measure, reading times were recorded for the critical sentences modified with ju and nog. The results show a main effect of group and a main effect of condition, but no interaction between the two. However, upon closer inspections of the numerical values in the groups, possible trends and curious directions are seen. The results yielded no significant differences between groups and conditions, and are presented as possible trends, and discussed. Contrary to the hypotheses, these trends are indicative of the English speakers being affected by the modal particles in the way that natives were expected to, while Germans showed a pattern that was different from native speakers. The results show no significant differences for the different conditions in the native control group. The results show no support for L1 transfer facilitation in the acquisition of modal particles.

  • Public defence: 2019-10-04 10:00 Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Stockholm
    Quaranta, Alessandro
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Development and application of alternative methods for profiling proteins N-glycosylation2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Glycosylation is a post-translational modification (PTM) that exerts profound structural and functional effects on the modified protein. Glycan synthesis and conjugation to proteins are regulated by a myriad of factors, both genetic and environmental, and are also influenced by external stressors. Glycosylation patterns are known to vary in correlation to a large number of diseases; therefore, it is possible to study such alterations to identify reliable biomarkers and help elucidate mechanisms underlying the disease. For these reasons, the development of analytical methods able to investigate the glycosylation of proteins in complex samples and to measure and characterize disease-related alterations is of great importance.

    In this thesis, the development and application of rapid and small-scale methods for the analysis of the glycosylation pattern on specific proteins in biological fluids, with a high degree of automation and potential for parallel sample treatment, is presented.

    Paper I illustrates a profiling method based on a microfluidic compact disc (CD) and its application to humans serum samples. The workflow integrated all the sample preparation steps, allowing a high degree of automation and sample treatment parallelization, significantly reducing the required processing time. In Paper II, a bead-based procedure for the immunoaffinity extraction of selected proteins from complex biological matrices was developed. This procedure improved and extended the applicability of the microfluidic CD method, increasing the flexibility and maintaining a good potential for automation. Paper III included a derivatization procedure in the bead-based methodology, to stabilize sialic acids for matrix-assisted lased desorption/ionization (MALDI) and to discriminate between connectivity isomers. Additionally, the method was applied to different biological fluids in order to highlight interpersonal variations of glycosylation. To increase the sample throughput, the method was scaled to a multi-wells format in Paper IV and subsequently applied to the investigation of alterations in the glycosylation pattern correlated to Alzheimer’s disease.

    Papers V and VI focus on applications based on electrospray ionization (ESI). In Paper V, a source for paper spray ionization (PSI) was modified to create a new set-up to extend the applicability of this mass spectrometry (MS) technique to large biomolecules. It was possible to measure intact proteins, identifying many glycoforms together with other PTMs, as well as to characterize released glycans, performing structural analysis by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). In Paper VI ESI-MS and the bead-based sample preparation method developed in Papers II, III, and IV were used for quantification of various glycoforms of intact proteins. Additionally, a travelling wave ion mobility spectrometry (TWIMS) MS/MS method was developed to structurally characterize the related N-glycans after enzymatic release.

    The methods proposed in this thesis show valid approaches, which could be applied to investigate alterations of glycosylation at different levels, with potential implementation for biomarker investigation and development.

  • Public defence: 2019-10-04 09:30 Vivi Täckholmssalen (Q-salen), Stockholm
    Salgado, Marco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Stockholm University.
    The actinorhizal plant Datisca glomerata: interpreting its symbiotic adaptations by omics-based comparisons with model and non-model organisms2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Nitrogen is the element that most often limits plant growth and development. Common agricultural practices rely on the application of large quantities of industrially-produced nitrogen fertilizer, which poses a worldwide environmental threat. Sustainable agriculture encourages the use of biologically fixed nitrogen. However, access to this is still limited to a restricted group of dicotyledonous plants that share among them the ability to form a root nodule symbiosis. After an intricate molecular dialogue, these plants accommodate in the cells of a newly root-derived organ - the nodule - a class of bacteria that produce the nitrogenase enzyme by which they are able to reduce di-nitrogen from air to bioavailable ammonia. This mutualism allows the plant access to nitrogen in exchange for carbon. This thesis focuses particularly on the actinorhizal symbioses established between the North American plant Datisca glomerata (Datiscaceae, Cucurbitales) and Frankia actinobacteria from cluster II (Frankiaceae, Frankiales).

    The main aim of this thesis was to improve our understanding about the genetic basis underlying the evolution of root nodule symbioses. Genome-wide comparative analysis indicated that the loss or fragmentation of genes coding for Nodule Inception (NIN) and/or Rhizobium-directed Polar Growth was a major event for the loss of nodulation in close relatives of plants that are able to form a root nodule symbiosis. To acquire more information about the requirements in plant adaptations to meet a symbiosis with Frankia cluster II strains, the nodule transcriptome of D. glomerata was compared with that of Ceanothus thyrsiflorus (Rhamnaceae, Rosales). This study suggested that cluster II Frankia strains use lipochitooligosaccharide Nod factors to signal to their host plants. In addition, it suggested that the nitrogen metabolism likely differs between these symbioses: while transcript profiles from nodules of D. glomerata supports pathways for arginine catabolism, which was previously suggested, those from nodules of C. thyrsiflorus support pathways for asparagine biosynthesis. Since nodules of both plants house Frankia strains from cluster II, the differences in nitrogen metabolism are most likely a feature of the host plant and not of the bacterial symbiont.

    As part of an approach to establish D. glomerata as a model organism for actinorhizal Cucurbitales, the effects of phytohormones towards expression of genes putatively involved in signaling for nodule development were investigated. In D. glomerata, similarly to legume plants, the phytohormones cytokinin and auxin were proposed to play a central role in nodule development as they exert a positive effect on the expression of NIN as well as on that of genes whose promoters are presumably transactivated by NIN.

    Furthermore, transporter proteins expressed in nodules of D. glomerata and of Casuarina glauca (Casuarinaceae, Fagales), which probably act in supplying C-metabolites to intracellular Frankia, were characterized for their substrate specificity. Results indicated that citrate, and not malate, might be the C-metabolite supplied to both Candidatus Frankia datiscae Dg1 and Frankia casuarinae CcI3 strains in symbiosis.

    To explore the option of D. glomerata-mediated control towards its microsymbiont, a nodule-specific defensin-like peptide was characterized (DgDef1). Whereas DgDef1 acts as an antimicrobial peptide against Gram-negative strains in a range compatible with a role in symbiosis, no differentiation was shown in assays with the Gram-positive Streptomyces coelicolor. Nonetheless, DgDef1 induced changes in membrane integrity of the legume symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021 as well as in its transcription profile, e.g., on transcription of genes associated with dicarboxylate uptake. Thus, a role for DgDef1 in acting against ineffective microsymbionts is suggested. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that actinorhizal nodule-specific defensins and legume nodule-specific cysteine-rich peptides share a common origin, which in an evolutionary scenario of symbiont shift leads to the hypothesis that these peptides have been lost in most legumes lineages.

    Collectively, the data presented in this thesis support the idea that root nodule symbioses share more mechanisms than previously assumed, e.g., in the defense against ineffective microsymbionts (“bacterial cheaters”), supporting the new paradigm that the common ancestor of legumes and actinorhizal plants had evolved a symbiosis that was later lost in most lineages.

  • Public defence: 2019-10-04 10:00 Reinholdsalen, Juristernas hus, Stockholm
    Dane, Louise
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Den reglerade invandringen och barnets bästa: Barns rätt till familjeliv och privatliv enligt barnkonventionen, Europakonventionen, EU-rätten och svensk utlänningslagstiftning2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis analyses the principle of the best interests of the child and the right to private and family life in relation to the societal interest of controlling immigration. The aim of the thesis is to contribute to ensuring more predictable and transparent legislation and decision-making.

    States, generally, have the right to control immigration. At the same time, a child’s right to family and private life is a human right – regulated, for example, by the UN Convention of the Rights of the Child, the European Convention on Human Rights and the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights. This means that states can only restrict these rights when such interference is justified. In migration cases concerning private and family life, an assessment therefore must be made as to whether a decision to refuse residence is proportional. When a child is affected by such a decision, the child's best interests must be carefully assessed and taken into consideration. 

    This thesis examines what is legally required of a correct decision in migration cases concerning a child’s right to private and family life. Particular attention is given to those requirements imposed on lawmakers and legal actors by the public law principles of legality, objectivity and proportionality, as well as the duty to give reasoned decisions. This thesis charts the development and foundations of Swedish migration law including those requirements arising from EU and public international law. The focus thereafter is more specifically on the assessments made balancing the interests of children's rights and immigration control.

    Whether a restriction of the right to private and family life is proportionate is determined by the specific circumstances in the individual case. However, the research conducted demonstrates that there is a lack of guidance concerning which circumstances Swedish legal actors can and should consider, as well as the weight that should be attributed to the considered circumstances. The interest of immigration control is particularly ambiguous. The thesis identifies four types of circumstances that the Swedish lawmaker appears to suggest legal actors consider within this interest; (a) public order and security, (b) maintenance and enforcement of immigration control, (c) national economic well-being (including number of migrants), and (d) protection of the rights and freedoms of others.

    Lack of clear guidance is problematic, particularly in light of the principles of legality, objectivity and proportionality, as the outcomes of cases depend on what individual legal actors choose to consider. Vague guidance on what constitutes relevant circumstances may also contribute to the problem of poorly formulated decisions as identified in previous research. In order to increase the probability of legal actors rendering more correct decisions – on the basis of applicable law – a five-step model is presented: (1) identifying private and/or family life (2) identifying the child's best interests (3) identifying the underlying motivations linked to the interest of immigration control (4) listing the arguments for and against granting residence in Sweden and (5) determining which interests should prevail.

    The thesis concludes with a number of recommendations aimed mainly at lawmakers that could contribute to strengthening children's rights and increasing adherence to the rule of law in migration cases concerning children's right to private and family life.

  • Public defence: 2019-10-04 14:00 William-Olssonsalen, Geovetenskapens Hus, Stockholm
    Olsson, Jonna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Work, wealth, and well-being: Essays in macroeconomics2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

        Structural transformation of the labor market and the aggregate economy

    Women's increased involvement in the economy has been the most significant change in labor markets during the past century. In this paper, I account for this period of structural change of the labor market in a macroeconomic model, and study how the increase in female labor force participation has affected the economy's response to aggregate shocks. I explicitly model heterogeneity in gender and household composition as well as the historical decrease of the gender wage gap. The model captures the salient features of historical data, including a strong increase in employment among married women, low crowding-out of married men, and relatively stable employment over time for single women. I then study how the changing labor force composition affects the economy's aggregate employment dynamics. The underlying trend in employment, driven by growth in female labor force participation, contributed to the perceived quick employment recovery after recessions before 1990. In general, incorporating both one- and two-person households matters for employment dynamics, with single households reacting more strongly to shocks and employment responses by subgroups changing over time.

     

    Labor supply in a quantitative heterogeneous-agent model

    Since long, the labor-supply channel has played a central role in macroeconomic analysis. Nevertheless, it has almost exclusively focused on representative-agent behavior. The aim of this paper is to examine frameworks that are significantly richer in terms of heterogeneity and uncertainty, and assess whether the predictions yielded by the starker frameworks are robust to these extensions.

     

    Subjective life expectancies, time preference heterogeneity and wealth inequality

    There is substantial heterogeneity in statistical and perceived life expectancy in the population. In this paper we document a systematic bias in survival beliefs: individuals with low survival probability relative to their peers underestimate their life expectancies, while individuals with high survival probability overestimate. To gauge the effect of heterogeneity in life expectancy on savings rates and ultimately wealth inequality, we introduce shocks to survival beliefs into an otherwise standard overlapping-generations model. We show that such a model exhibits counter-factual savings behavior as individuals increase their savings when their life expectancy drops. Nevertheless, overall wealth inequality in the economy is virtually unaffected by heterogeneity in survival beliefs, contrary to previous literature.

     

    Health dynamics and heterogeneous life expectancies

    In this paper, we provide improved estimates for age-dependent health transitions and survival probabilities for different subsamples of the US population. The estimated yearly transition matrices can be used in any life-cycle model where health and survival dynamics is of interest. The results show substantial heterogeneity in life expectancy in the population. For a 70-year-old man in excellent health, the probability of reaching his 80th birthday is around 75%, while the corresponding probability for a man in poor health is just below 40%.

      

  • Emelie, Lundin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    En förskollärarutbildning på neurovetenskaplig grund: Den neurovetenskapliga disciplinens relevans för utbildningspraktiken2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande litteraturstudie är att undersöka vilken kunskap som framträder i sammanförandet mellan neurovetenskap och utbildning, samt vilken neurovetenskaplig kunskap som kan tänkas anföras till utbildning för lärare och/eller utbildningspraktiker. Utifrån resultatet av analysen framträder det att innebörden av begreppen neuroplasticitet, ohälsosam stress, interaktioner likväl scientific literacy kan vara av vikt för förskollärare att få en djupare neurovetenskaplig förståelse för. Slutsatsen visar delvis på att om innebörden av dessa begrepp ska införas i den svenska förskollärarutbildningen är det av stor vikt att de ställs i relation till konkreta exempel i förskolans praktik. Utifrån analysen framträder det tydligt att biologiska och miljömässiga förklaringar står i en ömsesidig dubbelriktad relation och det är just detta som belyser den potentiella förmågan lärare har att influera barns hjärna, beteende, lärande, hälsa och framtida livsbana. 

  • Linder, Elin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    Food: A Sensuous Matter of the Everyday: A sensorial exploration of material and bounded natures of mundane food practices2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines everyday food practices such as sensed by seven households in the city ofStockholm, Sweden. By sensuously exploring the acts of acquiring, preparing, cooking, eating,and wasting food, I analyze how food is a matter of olfactory, gustatory, auditory, tactile, andvisual significance, as much as matter per se. More specifically, I address relational andbounded aspects of food, looking at how ambient surroundings, presences of material andimmaterial factors, sensuously influence everyday experiences of food. Intrigued by the at onceinter-, extra-, and re-corporeal matters of food, I analytically position myself alongside Latour,Ingold, Douglas, and Bennett. In entertaining their theoretical lines of thoughts, using them asanalytical springboards, this thesis explores socio-material dimensions of food practices, as wellas corporeal dynamics of human-material encounters. Methodologically carried out by meansof sensuous ethnography, following Pink’s notion of participatory practice, I have during tenweeks of fieldwork—in people’s homes and in their frequented grocery stores—engaged mysenses to experientially sense the world of food, such as lived by them. In our conjoint sensorialexploration, taken-for-granted mundane understandings of what food constitutes and whatconstitutes it, have emerged as domestically diverse, bounded to sensuous perceptionsderivative of the past, carried out in the presents, and cor(po)related to the future. By surveyingsituated meanings of what is smelled when savored, tasted when flavored, seen when looked,and felt when touched, simultaneously as accounting for nonhuman matters salient to coursesof actions, the thesis remarks context-sensorial-imbued figurations of everyday food.

  • Zakirova Engstrand, Rano
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Roll-Pettersson, Lise
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Westling Allodi, Mara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Hirvikoski, Tatja
    Needs of Grandparents of Preschool-Aged Children with ASD in Sweden2019In: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about needs of grandparents of young children with autism in family and community settings. This study investigated perceived needs of grandparents of preschool-aged children diagnosed with ASD in the cultural context of Sweden. Participants were 120 grandparents of children enrolled into autism intervention programs provided by the public disability services in Stockholm. The Grandparents’ Needs Survey and the SDQ Impact supplement were used to collect data. Grandparents expressed most needs in topic areas of information and childcare. No significant relations were found between grandparents’ demographics and perceptions of needs; grandparents’ needs were predicted by their perceived burden. The findings provide insight into understanding of grandparents’ needs essential for planning and provision of quality family-centered early intervention services.

  • Ilic, Ljubica
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Malmqvist, Åsa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ta skammen vid hornen: Om psykoterapeuters intrapsykiska upplevelser vid prematura avslut sett ur ett psykodynamiskt relationellt perspektiv2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta uppsatsarbete är en kvalitativ intervjustudie med syfte att undersöka vilka intrapsykiska processer som aktiveras hos psykoterapeuter vid prematura avslut. Vidare hur dessa upplevelser påverkar psykoterapeuters privata och professionella självbilder sett ur ett affekt-, anknytnings- och objekrelationsteoretiskt perspektiv. Med en fenomenologisk och hermeneutisk ansats genomfördes semistrukturerade intervjuer med nio legitimerade psykoterapeuter. Intervjuerna transkriberades, kodades och organiserades utifrån våra frågeställningar och teoretiska perspektiv i en teoridriven tematisk analys. Vi upptäckte att den intrapsykiska processen vid prematura avslut i huvudsak handlar om 1. upplevelse av skam och 2. skuld över att svika patienten. Efter den affektiva upplevelsen tog 3. hanteringsstrategier vid som är vårt tredje huvudtema. De hanteringsstrategier som stack ut var olika typer av undvikanden. Samtliga terapeuter upplevde ett professionellt självtvivel som i den initiala skam-fasen verkar tangera den privata självbilden. En intrapsykisk process med självkritiska tankar och känslor av att ”drabbas” som övergick i ett mer sunt självtvivel där avhoppen betraktades mer som lärotillfällen.

  • Smith, Chrissie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Är co-rumination en riskfaktor för psykisk ohälsa?2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Den psykiska ohälsan hos barn och ungdomar ökar och främst ökar depression och ångestsyndrom. Co-ruminering innebär att tillsammans med andra omfattande diskutera problem utan att lösa problemen och fokus är på orsaker, konsekvenser och negativa känslor. Forskning har visat blandade resultat avseende co-rumineringens effekt på psykisk ohälsa. Det övergripande syftet med studien har varit att studera betydelsen av co-ruminering som riskfaktor för psykisk ohälsa. Studien har tittat på samband mellan samt prediktion av co-ruminering och depressiva symtom, ångest samt social ångest. Studien har också tittat på eventuella modererande effekter av kön och ruminering. Studien är av longitudinell design med 1948 ungdomar 15-20 år. Resultatet visade svaga eller inga samband mellan co-ruminering och psykisk ohälsa samt inga predicerande effekter av co-ruminering och psykisk ohälsa. Varken kön eller ruminering fungerade som moderatorer för relationen mellan co-ruminering och psykisk ohälsa. Sammantaget tyder resultaten av denna studie på att co-ruminering inte är en bidragande riskfaktor till psykisk ohälsa. Ett mer renodlat mätinstrument för co-ruminering med uppdelning av co-rumineringens positiva respektive negativa aspekter samt typ av vänskapsdyad diskuterades.

  • Jönsson Erliksson, Olivia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Social ångest på sociala medier: Svensk översättning och psykometrisk utvärdering av Social Anxiety Scale for Social Media Users2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Measurement scales are needed to facilitate further research on social anxiety in the context of social media. This study aimed to translate the Social Anxiety Scale for Social Media Users (SAS-SMU) and evaluate its psychometric properties in a Swedish sample regarding its underlying dimensions, internal consistency, converging and diverging validity. Furthermore, relationships between passive, active and total use of social media and social anxiety were explored, since previous studies have shown a tendency towards passive use. Three factors were retained for SAS-SMU with satisfactory internal consistency. SAS-SMU converged with SPIN and diverged with OCI-R, SWLS, PHQ-9 and GAD-7. However, the association between its third factor and SPIN was weaker compared to the other factors. Results indicated that higher levels of social anxiety were more strongly associated with passive use than active use, as well as longer general social media use. This is at odds with previous studies only reporting significant correlations between social anxiety and passive use of social media.

  • Yilmaz, Melis
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Nordström, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Att tala eller tiga: En kritisk diskursanalys av kurslitteratur som berör så kallat hedersvåld för blivande socionomer2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to analyze the different discourses linked to so called honor related violence in course literature from term 1 through 6 during the fall of 2018 at the department of social work at Stockholm university. This due to the extensive debates on the subject that implies varied opinions from both media and the research community. To analyze the different discourses, Fairclough's critical discourse analysis is used by looking for modality, transitivity and intertextuality in the different texts. The analysis circles around three different discourses. One is the “us and them” discourse, which differentiates the Swedish ideals from “others” which are portrayed as worse. The second discourse handles “critique against polarization”, which can be connected to post colonialism that criticizes the “us and them” discourse. The third discourse is the “precautionary” discourse that can be connected to social constructionism, whereas the texts leave room for interpretation as they rarely make any certain statements. Throughout all of these discourses we also found that the perpetrator and the victim rarely is spoken of when talking honor related violence, as compared to “normal violence”, and more often structural explanations rather than individual ones were used.

  • Boström, Suzanne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Tanttu, Farida
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Hur gör vi med barnen? En kvalitativ studie om socialsekreterares syn på barnperspektivet inom ekonomiskt bistånd2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In previous research the lack of usage of a child perspective and child participation has been a recurring theme. The purpose of this study is to examine the usage of a child perspective within social assistance where the target group is adults and the main goal of the work is to support households to self-sufficiency. This study’s aim is to further highlight the presence of a child perspective, child participation and how social workers collaborate with other units within matters concerning children. This qualitative study has used research interviews as it’s data collecting method, the empirical material consists of interviews with six social workers who all work within one social assistance unit at a social services office. The results show the difficulties of defining what it means to practice a child perspective within one’s work. It also puts focus on the dilemma of wanting to practice a child perspective and their increased participation, versus how the respondents view their task as social workers within social assistance. The conclusions of this study further raise a question on how children's participation and a child perspective can be integrated into the practical work of social assistance.

  • Cakar, Josefin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Barkho, Khaton
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    ”Makten visar sig redan vid den första foten man sätter i receptionen, då man kliver in på vår planhalva”: En kvalitativ studie om hur socialsekreterare inom försörjningsstödsenheten upplever att deras yrkesroll och maktposition påverkar mötet med klienter.2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Our study aims to examine how the social workers at the social assistance unit experience that their professional role and their position of power can have an impact on the client meeting. To be able to answer the purpose of the study, we have chosen to conduct five qualitative interviews with experienced social workers within the social assistance unit.

    The results of the study show that the social workers are limited in their work as they must relate to the organization's laws and guidelines which in turn creates a limited discretion. The results highlight limitations that may arise in the meeting and what improvements that can be made to achieve a more equal meeting. The conclusions that can be drawn from our study are that factors such as lack of time, lack of language skills and the client's knowledge of their rights and obligations can limit the meeting. We can draw the conclusions that this creates a complex professional role for the social worker as they must satisfy the client's needs but also represent the organization. We can state that the social worker’s professional role in combination with their position of power can have an impact in the client meeting.

  • Johansson, Linnea
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Poijes, Matilda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    ”Delaktighet är ju svårt”: Barns delaktighet i barnavårdsutredningar ur socialsekreterares perspektiv2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to examine how social workers within the child protective services define children’s participation and what the strategies are to achieve it. Our method was to interview six social workers about their experiences of their pursuit to make children participate during a child protection investigation. The theoretical framework we used to analyze our results was Shier’s pathways to participation. This model is based on five levels of participation, which has different degrees of participation for children. The main finding of this study was that the social workers define children participation as that they should be listen to, be informed and have the ability to choose in what way they participate. Furthermore, we can see from the social workers descriptions about their strategies and the structure of the organisation that they live up to parts of Shier’s criterias for level one, two and tree. Our results both confirm and contrast international and national studies in this field of research.

  • Cilek, Ömer
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Shahoud, William
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Maskulinitet inom socialt arbete: Manliga socionomstudenters upplevelse av att studera i en kvinnodominerad utbildning2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Studying social work in Sweden is less popular among men than women. Only about one in five applicants who applied to the programme during the autumn of 2018 in Stockholm University were male, showcasing a gender imbalance. Thus, the aim of this study is to research why male social work students applied to the programme, how their environment influenced their choice, and their attitude towards working in a female dominated field. Furthermore, the study has a deductive approach where the two theories, socialization and Connells theory of masculinity, laid the groundwork for the analysis. Nine male students in Stockholm University were divided into two focus group interviews, and their discussions were later analyzed qualitatively. The empirical data was then constructed into four themes which were examined through previous research and the earlier mentioned theories. The results show that the respondents prioritize comfort and safety over status and income when choosing a profession, that they perceive important qualities in a social worker to be empathic yet assertive, that social work in general is viewed as an unclear subject which hinders others from seeing it as a viable career option and that men in social work are desirable in the labour market. 

  • Al-Tai, Sally
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Bragge, Ida
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    ”Jag är inte där för att få betalt, jag är där för att jag bryr mig” – relationsskapandets roll i socialt arbete och dess förutsättningar enligt professionella2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine the definition and meaning of a relationship-based social work, and what conditions are required for the professional to manage such. Based on seven qualitative interviews with professional social workers who work with children and adolescents, a thematic analysis was conducted based on the theoretical frameworks of Symbolic Interactionism and the organisational theories of Human Service Organisations and Street-Level Bureaucracy. The main results confirm the importance of the relationship between the client and the professional according to the respondents. Role clarity and empathy through self-awareness were seen as important qualities of the professional to maintain a good relationship with the child, for whom this might lead to a sense of security through the relationship continuity. Mentioned conditions that facilitated the possibility of relationship based client work were mostly organisational variables such as time and discretion. These were variables that varied depending on the organisation that the professionals worked within, leading to a comparative discussion between the organisational conditions of social services and schools. Another theme identified was experience which seemed to matter as a personal skill. These conditions affect the professional’s ability to create and maintain relationships with the children.

  • Ahlström Söderling, Celia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    VILKEN ORGANISATION IDENTIFIERAR SIG KONSULTER MED?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att anlita konsulter i stället för att anställa egen personal blir allt vanligare på arbetsmarknaden i Sverige. Syftet med föreliggande studie var att få inblick i vilken organisation konsulter identifierar sig med – konsultbolaget eller uppdragsgivaren. Åtta konsulter på ett konsultbolag inriktat mot offentlig sektor, i Sverige, intervjuades. Intervjuerna berörde både konsultbolagets befintliga upplägg för att öka identifikationen med bolaget samt möjliga sätt att öka denna. Även relationen mellan konsulten och uppdragsgivaren, ur konsultens synvinkel, berördes. I resultatet framkom en bild av att vid långa uppdrag på heltid så identifierar sig konsulterna generellt mer med uppdrags-givaren än med konsultbolaget. Att schemalägga en veckodag då konsulten ska vara på plats på konsultbolagets kontor framträdde som ett möjligt sätt att öka identifikationen med konsultbolaget vid långa heltidsuppdrag.

  • Matscheck, David
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Inst för socialt arbete, Stockholms universitet.
    Piuva, Katarina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Eriksson, Lisbeth
    FoU Nordväst.
    Åberg, Martin
    FoU Nordväst.
    The coordinated individual plan: - is this a solution for complex organizations to handle complex neeeds2018In: Nordic Social Work Research, ISSN 2156-857X, E-ISSN 2156-8588Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Karkkonen, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Ethnology, History of Religions and Gender Studies, Gender Studies.
    Kvalitet och gatekeeping inom den svenska jazzbranschen: En fallstudie om två jazzklubbsproducenters syn på kvalitet, genus och sitt eget ansvar för ökad jämställdhet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Haeffner, Anton
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Erstavik: Fideikommiss ur ett resursperspektiv2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    By examining the spicific structure of ownership associated with a fideikommiss, this study uses a geographic perspective to explain how Erstavik remain a rural-like area surrounded by urban development. The results based on questionnaire and literature search shows that laws and regulations for fideikommiss does not fully protect property within a fideikommiss from development. However, the consequences of the specific rules for fideikommiss shows to impede urban development within a fideikommiss over time. In addition, the function of the area as a large greenspace with high conservation values largely accessible for visitors, does show to be a likely explanation for the prolongation of Erstavik as a fideikommiss. By analyzing the results in a context of urban greenspace, ecosystem services and land use, previous studies on related topics are presented and compared with for an added scientific perspective. As a method to view Erstaviks fideikommiss from a resource perspective, the local municipality, county administration and landowner gives their view on todays' land use in Erstavik based on each respective agenda. Lastly, the varying meanings of a resource in a context of geography is briefly applied to each respective agenda.

  • Li, Ran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Tracking Microplastics from Artificial Football Fields to Stormwater Systems2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Microplastic pollution as a global environment problem in marine systems has substantially raised public concern in recent years. In 2016, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency performed a study about potential sources and pathways of microplastics spreading to the marine environment. Microplastics from artificial turfs have been recognized as the second most important source of microplastic emission in Sweden. Between 1640 to 2460 tons per year of microplastics are estimated to be lost from artificial turfs. The lost microplastics are potentially transported to stormwater wells by runoff during rainfall events, eventually reaching marine environments. This study aims to track microplastics from artificial turfs to stormwater wells.

    Since the research of microplastic in stormwater has so far shown to be limited, field work and laboratory analysis have been developed in this study. Four artificial football fields located in Stockholm municipality were taken as sampling sites. First, pathways for microplastics from artificial turfs to stormwater were investigated. Second, the characteristics of microplastic granulates infill used in the football fields have been analyzed. Finally, stereo microscopy was used to visually identify microplastics in stormwater.

    The results showed that rainfall as a driving force of runoff process contributes to microplastics transport from artificial turfs to stormwater. During this transport process, a fraction of microplastics is captured by the soil. The size of microplastic granulates identified not only in stormwater but also in stormwater sediments is typically between 1 mm to 3 mm. Due to its limitations, stereo microscopy is quite a subjective method for identifying microplastics and thus not suitable for quantitative analysis, since microplastic particles are comparable in size to and visually difficult to differentiate from organic particles co-occurring in stormwater.

    In order to accurately quantify the amounts of microplastics transported to stormwater systems from artificial turfs, it is necessary to develop new methods for microplastics identification. This study presented an attempt in this direction, highlights its limitations, and discusses more suitable alternatives.

  • Ljubimova, Julia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Lärplattan som ett komplement till lärande i förskolan: En kvalitativ studie om pedagogers erfarenheter kring användningen av lärplattan i förskolan i språkutvecklingssyfte2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna studie har vi som syfte att undersöka hur pedagoger i förskolan uppfattar användandet av lärplattan som medierande artefakt, samt om hur de använder dessa i arbetet med barns språkutveckling. För att undersöka detta har vi samlat in data genom intervjuer. Vi har använt oss av kvalitativ analysmetod för att analysera våra intervjuer.  Det empiriska materialet har sedan analyserats utifrån ett sociokulturellt perspektiv. Studiens resultat visade att pedagoger bör ha kompetens och intresse för att kunna använda digitala verktyg som ett komplement till lärandet. Pedagogerna påpekar vikten av pedagogstyrda aktiviteter för att lärandet ska formas på rätt sätt. Slutsatsen är att digitala verktyg främjar språkutvecklingen och lärandet hos barnen under förutsättningen att rätt metoder används. Kunskap och kompetens är nödvändiga för att utföra rollen som pedagog och genomföra arbetsuppgifter i enlighet med läroplanens tydliga mål.

  • Brag, Gustava
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies, JMK. Snip.
    PREDICTING THE FUTURE OF INFLUENCER MARKETING: How Public Relations Experts perceive and measure the impacts of Influencer Marketing in their organizations. A Critical Study reflecting the discussions and future thinking of this particular phenomenon2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The body of marketing is drastically changing, pushing frontiers in numerous of domains, geographically, behaviourally and strategically with much enhanced technology in an increasingly globalized world. As this phenomenon pushes forward on many fronts, it is worthwhile to ask what will happen in the near future in this field. In today’s society ‘Influencer Marketing’ is known to be an incredibly popular and successful marketing tool, where one might be wondering: What is a plausible future in this area? What are the potential threats and challenges (if any) that we may encounter? What drives Influencer Marketing in organizations and what questions do they have about its impacts and measurements? I am hoping to fulfil this gap with the assistance of Critical Future Studies, Inayatullah (1990,1998) Luke Goode, Michael Godhe (2017,2018) in analysing the various facts and information that are being addressed and most importantly critically assess what is being missed. This Master thesis is a critical study, reflecting the future thinking and strategies relating to Emotional Branding, Danny Brown, Sam Fiorella (2013) made by experts in the fields of Public Relations, using a quantitative content analysis and semi-structured interviews. The chosen methods demonstrate two distinctive results, the content analysis showing a rather positive overview whereas the semi-structured interviews unpack the complexities and challenges in Influencer Marketing and has a negative stance towards its future.

    Future Studies, is a rigorous branch of study, where unfortunately no one can know for certain what the future holds, however I believe that it is important that we acknowledge values and invite scholars to join this critical dialogue about possible futures and the way we can imagine and discuss the future. The results in this thesis also further demonstrates the necessity in studying this branch of study due to the contradicting answers that are being addressed in the analysis. This thesis also intends to signify that it will not be closure but an encouragement to consider the impetus for a much larger conversation.

  • Beckman, Ludvig
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    Popular sovereignty facing the deep state. The rule of recognition and the powers of the people2019In: Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy, ISSN 1369-8230, E-ISSN 1743-8772Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the relationship between the idea of popular sovereignty and the conditions for legal validity and argue that the latter imposes definitive limits to the former. Popular sovereignty has been defined as the condition when the will of the people is the "supreme authority in the state". Following this conception, there is no authority above the people and this is traditionally understood to mean that the authority of the people is above the constitution. Legal validity, though admittedly still debated, is here understood along Hart's "rule of recognition" According to which the validity of norms ultimately depends on the social practices of public officials. Though presumably uncontroversial that democratic peoples are entitled to remake the constitution, the powers of the people with respect to the substance of the law are nevertheless limited with respect to decisions of legal validity. The most basic rules in a legal system are not found in the constitution as they are the rules deciding what is to count as a legal norm within that system. They are more fundamental than the constitution because they also define what norms is the constitution legally speaking.

  • Hylberg, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Förskolans mångfacetterade didaktik: Ett spårande-och-kartograferande arbete om undervisning som innehåll och uttryck2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I den nya läroplanen för förskolan skrivs undervisningsbegreppet fram och får en framträdande roll i relation till barns utveckling och lärande. Syftet med den här studien är att ta reda på hur undervisning som innehåll och uttryck konstitueras i olika förskoledidaktiska texter som har getts ut som svar på realiseringen av läroplanen. Den formulerade komplexiteten som har framträtt i ett förskolehistoriskt sammanhang har föranlett en föränderlig ontologisk och metodologisk utgångspunkt. För den här studien tillämpas därför en spårande-och-kartograferande metodologi. Ansatsen ämnar ta reda på hur olika artikulationer påverkar hur undervisning görs och talas om. Trots att förskolan beskrivs i linje med en mångfacetterad didaktik framträder ett flertal dominerande och normativa territorium om hur undervisning ska implementeras. Den nyanserade didaktiken får stå tillbaka där undervisning snarare artikuleras i termer av rationalistiska, realistiska, socialkonstruktivistiska och materialistiska idéer. Den spårande-och-kartograferande ansatsen möjliggör dock ett omkonstituerande av undervisning som innehåll och uttryck vilket påvisar hur förskolans didaktik har potential att skifta natur.

  • Backman, Rebecca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Jämställdhetsmyndigheten och motståndet: En studie av debatten kring en ny form av jämställdhetspolitik2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Public defence: 2019-09-27 10:00 Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Stockholm
    Salvatore, Marco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Science for Life Laboratory.
    Predicting the route: from protein sequence to sorting in eukaryotic cell2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Proteins need to be localised in the correct compartment of a eukaryotic cell to function correctly. Therefore, a protein needs to be transported to the right location. Specific signals present in the protein sequence direct proteins to different subcellular localisations. The correct transport is essential for the life of the cell, while, possible errors during the transport can cause irreversible damage and interfere with the activities of surrounding proteins. For more than 30 years, the development of methods to identify the localisation of proteins using both experimental and computational approaches has been an important research area. The objective of this thesis is to develop better computational methods for the classification of the subcellular localisation of eukaryotic proteins. I first describe the development of a consensus method, SubCons, which improves the subcellular prediction of human proteins. Next, I present the SubCons web-server as well as an additional benchmark using protein annotation from novel mass-spectrometry studies in two eukaryotic organisms Mus musculus and Drosophila melanogaster. Then, I present the new version of TargetP and how deep learning can improve the identification of N-terminal sorting signals by focusing on relevant biological signatures. Finally, I describe the development of a novel method for sub-nuclear localisation prediction. Here, I show that the performance of a deep convolutional neural network is improved when using an augmented dataset of homologous proteins.

  • Public defence: 2019-09-27 13:00 sal E306, Arrheniuslaboratorierna, Stockholm
    Ring, Andreas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    In vivo analysis of amino acid permease folding in yeast2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Plasma membrane (PM) proteins are critical for cells to respond to environmental cues, such as the availability of nutrients. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to sense extracellular amino acids using the SPS sensing system. Activation of the multimeric PM-localized SPS(Ssy1-Ptr3-Ssy5)-sensor complex occurs upon binding of external amino acids to Ssy1, inducing a conformational change. In a Ptr3-mediated event, the catalytic activity of the Ssy5 endoprotease is unfettered, leading to the proteolytic processing of two latent transcription factors, Stp1 and Stp2. Ssy1, the primary sensor component, is a non-transporting member of the amino acid permease (AAP) family of transport proteins, a family of eighteen complex integral membrane proteins comprised of 12 transmembrane segments (TMS). The AAPs exhibit a common requirement for the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized membrane chaperone Shr3 to fold and to be transported to the PM. The absence of Shr3 leads to the accumulation of misfolded AAP species that are targeted for ER-associated degradation. Thus, proper Shr3 function is required as the most upstream and most downstream component of the SPS sensing system. In paper I, we investigate the chaperone function of Shr3. We report a surprisingly low level of sequence specificity underlies Shr3-AAP interactions. We used a split-ubiquitin approach to probe Shr3-AAP interactions in vivo. The Shr3-AAP interactions initiate early after the first two-to-four TMS of AAPs insert into the ER membrane, successively strengthening and then diminishing after all 12 TMS partition into the membrane. In paper II, we clarified the localization and trafficking determinants of Ssy1. A study by Kralt et al. 2015 reported that Ssy1 primarily localizes to the ER and is sorted to ER-PM tethers. These reported findings are clearly incompatible with the accepted model of amino acid sensing by the SPS-sensor. We critically re-examined the localization of Ssy1 and found that it indeed localizes to the PM, and importantly does so independent of ER-PM tethers. We also identified a novel ER exit motif in the carboxy-terminal tail of Ssy1 required for proper PM localization and SPS-sensor function. In paper III, we report that Ssy5 is able to cleave substrates in unusual contexts, i.e., an engineered substrate carrying rearranged recognition and cleavage determinants placed ectopically at the carboxy terminus of Stp1, and an ER-anchored substrate with Stp1 fused to the carboxy terminus of Shr3. Strikingly, Ssy5 catalyzed cleavage of Shr3-Stp1 in cells lacking ER-PM tethers, indicating that once activated, Ssy5 can find and cleave substrates distant from the PM. Consequently, cells must be able to rein in the activity of the Ssy5 protease to prevent spurious and improper proteolysis. Consistent with this notion, we report that the catalytic domain of Ssy5 is ubiquitylated in a Ptr3 and Yck1/2 dependent manner, and under amino acid-inducing conditions is subject to degradation. We propose a model that degradation of the Ssy5 catalytic domain is essential for resetting the SPS sensing system and a requisite for cells to regain the ability to correctly sense extracellular amino acids.

  • Public defence: 2019-09-27 10:00 sal P216, Stockholm
    Kyryliuk, Dmytro
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Baltic Sea from Space: The use of ocean colour data to improve our understanding of ecological drivers across the Baltic Sea basin – algorithm development, validation and ecological applications2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Coastal areas are the most densely populated areas in the world and thus are under immense anthropogenic pressure. To ensure their function and ecological role, coastal areas require continuous monitoring and management. The rapidly emerging field of satellite remote sensing provides a unique opportunity to monitor both land and oceans from Space. This thesis explores recent developments in ocean colour remote sensing, tests several image processing algorithms, evaluates and maps water quality indicators – both on local and Baltic Sea-wide scale – as well as provides essential monitoring data to complement already existing ship-based monitoring and modelling techniques. The overall aim of the thesis is to broaden our understanding and applicability of ocean colour remote sensing for improved modelling and management of the Baltic Sea and its coastal areas.

    The thesis deals with four independent research topics. In paper I the spatial distribution of Total Suspended Matter (TSM) during the summer season is evaluated using the European Space Agency’s (ESA) MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS). The TSM distribution and concentration is retrieved quantitatively from MERIS data for the HELCOM-defined Baltic Sea sub-basins for the summer seasons 2009, 2010, 2011, and summarized in a 3-year summer composite image. Manuscript II deals with the correspondence between satellite, in situ and modelled data in Bråviken bay, NW Baltic proper, which is optically dominated by Coloured Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM). Chlorophyll-a (CHL-a) and Secchi depth data are analyzed along a horizontal transects reaching from the inner coastal bay out into the open sea. The study addresses the scarcity of in situ monitoring data in comparison to satellite and modelled data. Further, an empirical relationship is established between modelled total nitrogen and CHL-a derived from satellite, potentially allowing to infer information on the distribution of total nitrogen from satellite data. Paper III evaluates the performance of MERIS’s successor – the Ocean and Land Colour Instrument (OLCI) launched on board Sentinel-3A (S3A) satellite. The water quality products derived from S3A OLCI using the Case-2 Regional CoastColour Processor are evaluated via several dedicated validation campaigns (2016-2018) in the NW Baltic proper. In manuscript IV, the in-water relationship between particle scatter at 440 nm and Inorganic Suspended Particulate Matter (ISPM) is used to develop a novel algorithm to derive ISPM from satellite-derived scatter. This algorithm was applied to OLCI data and tested on an independent dataset. The algorithm allows to map the distribution of ISPM across the Baltic Sea basin and to assess the influence of coastal processes.

    The key outcome of this thesis are reliable water-quality products generated on a Baltic Sea-wide scale, using state-of-the-art Ocean Colour data. Specifically, the thesis highlights the benefits of using remote sensing to improve our understanding of coastal and dynamical processes, as well as Baltic Sea ecology on a wider scale, which simply is not possible by any other scientific means. 

  • Public defence: 2019-09-27 13:00 Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Morosow, Kathrin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Side Effects: Unintended Consequences of Family Leave Policies2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The transition to parenthood is a major life event and a critical juncture in terms of gender equality within a couple. How a couple divides paid and unpaid work following the birth of a child has long lasting consequences for their relationship, their economic situation and their children’s development. Family policy plays a crucial part in this process. Today, job protected family leaves – maternity-, paternity-, parental- and/or childcare leave – are available across most developed countries to support parents in combining work and family and to enhance gender equality. However, there exists large variation in provision and leave lengths across countries, as well as disparities in take-up within countries. Further, different types of family leaves share different aims that may be contradictory. Whether family leaves achieve their stated objectives, or whether they produce unintended consequences or ‘side effects’ is an important part of policy research.

    This dissertation consists of an introductory chapter, followed by four empirical studies which analyse the consequences of family leave. The dissertation departs from a comparative study, before the case of Finland is investigated in the remaining three studies. Two main questions are addressed throughout this dissertation. First, do family leave policies have unintended consequences in terms of labour market and family outcomes? Second, are individuals with specific characteristics disproportionately advantaged or disadvantaged by family leave?

    Comparing 20 countries, Study I analyses the association between paid family leave length and mother’s labour force status. Existing research has yet to distinguish between the non-employment categories: unemployed and inactive. Results point towards a trade-off where longer leaves are associated with higher unemployment risks, while shorter leaves are associated with higher inactivity among mothers.

    Study II investigates whether single mothers are disproportionately disadvantaged by longer family leave compared to partnered mothers in Finland. This study finds heterogeneous leave consequences in terms of unemployment risks to single mothers’ detriment, which are not merely due to selection, but potentially due to discrimination or work-family reconciliation problems. No differences in earnings consequences were found for partnered and single mothers, however, conditional on being employed.

    Turning to fathers, Study III examines whether fathers’ fears of economic penalties when taking leave are justified. Assessing penalties across fathers’ wage distribution, this study finds that only fathers at the lower end of the distribution face wage penalties, while fathers at the upper end of the distribution show wage premiums. The study concludes that even some progressive policies fail to address the disproportional penalties among the least-advantaged fathers.

    Study IV turns to family outcomes and examines whether childcare leave affects family stability in the short and long run. Results suggest lower union dissolution risks during take-up but not thereafter, and indicate that the temporary gendered division of labour and income loss of mothers may lead to postponement of separation.

    Family leave policies are an important part of gender egalitarian policy schemes with great advantages. Nevertheless, this dissertation shows that family leave policies may have unintended consequences. Family leave can affect family stability temporarily, while lengthy family leaves lead to negative labour market effects for both men and women and can reproduce social inequality. Unintended consequences and disproportional disadvantages need to be evaluated in order to develop more universal and socially just forms of family leave.

  • Public defence: 2019-09-27 10:00 hörsal 11, hus F, Stockholm
    Oraby, Tarek
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    A Darwinian Theory of International Conflict2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation aims to advance the current understanding of the general conditions affecting the likelihood of military conflicts and wars between states. To that end, the dissertation develops a Darwinian theory of international conflict. This theory is developed by generalizing Darwinian principles as they are used in the study of biological entities, and applying those principles to study states and their behavior. Though states are markedly different from life forms, the same Darwinian principles—at a high level of abstraction—provide a parsimonious explanation of states’ conflict behaviors. Based on this Darwinian theory, the key substantive argument of this thesis is that military conflicts between states are more probable when the use of force is likely to enhance the material power of the involved states. The specifics of this argument entail novel predictions about the likelihood of conflict occurrence that differ in important respects from existing claims in the study of international relations. Among other things, and contrary to the prediction of the influential neorealist tradition, this thesis predicts that states are more likely to join the strong side of an ongoing conflict than the weak. This, and other Darwinian-based predictions are statistically evaluated in this thesis using all incidents of conflict initiation, conflict reciprocation, and conflict joining occurring in the international system over the period from 1816 through 2010. The results of these statistical analyses are largely consistent with the Darwinian-based predictions. Moreover, the variables derived from the Darwinian framework are found to have a large substantive effect in predicting whether a state will participate in conflict. Indeed, the substantive effects of the Darwinian variables match (and occasionally exceed) the substantive effects of some of the most important determinants of conflict identified in the literature, such as those related to geographical proximity, the democratic character of states, and the presence of military alliances between states.

  • Salihoglu, Serife
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Sundin, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Hallen - en mötesplats för kommunikation: En kvalitativ studie om hur pedagoger kommunicerar med barnen i förskolans hall2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Public defence: 2019-09-26 13:00 Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Stockholm
    Ndi, Mama
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Structure and Biogenesis of Membrane Proteins2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Membrane proteins make up about one-third of the cellular proteome. The diverse roles that membrane proteins have in cells include major life-sustaining processes, making them major drug targets. The respiratory chain comprises a series of complexes of membrane proteins residing in the inner mitochondrial membrane, which serve as major drivers of ATP synthesis. Assembly of the respiratory chain complexes (RCC) requires coordinated synthesis of nuclear and mitochondrial subunits. Cbp3-Cbp6 complex binds to the mitoribosome as translational activator for cytochrome b synthesis and binds the nascent polypeptide to facilitate its hemylation. Cbp3 consists of an N-terminal domain specific to mitochondrial homologues and a conserved C-terminal ubiquinol-cytochrome c chaperone domain. In this thesis I present the first crystal structure of the C-terminal domain from a bacterial homologue that has enabled us to identify the interaction sites of yeast Cbp3 with Cbp6 and cytochrome b using site-specific photo-crosslinking. Our finding suggests that Cbp3 contacts the mitoribosome via the N-terminal domain in a manner that positions the substrate binding site close to the tunnel exit. In the second project, we have analyzed the effects of disease causing cytochrome b mutations, on bc1 complex assembly. We found that complex III assembly is blocked at either intermediate 0 or I due to impaired insertion of bL or bH heme respectively, which indicates that assembly processes are involved in disease development. We then focused on NADH; a product of alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDH) catalyzed citric acid cycle reaction and one of the substrates that supply electron to the respiratory chain. Kgd4 is a novel subunit of this enzyme complex and two functional variants (Kgd4S and Kgd4L) of unknown origins exist in yeast. We report in our work that Kgd4L originates from a UUG alternative start site, 90 nucleotides upstream and in frame of the annotated start codon. The sequence context upstream of UUG determines the efficiency of recognition of this alternative start codon. Finally, Na+/H+ antiporters are present in all species and are involved in regulation of intracellular pH, cell volume and sodium concentration. ATP formed during oxidative phosphorylation serves as energy source for Na+/K+ ATPase to generate Na+ gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane, which drives local Na+/H+ antiporters. We show that K305 is involved in proton transport and responsible for the electrogenicity of NapA, while human NHA2 shows electroneutral antiporter activity.

  • Public defence: 2019-09-26 13:00 Lilla hörsalen, NOD-huset, Kista
    Käck, Annika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Digital Competence and Ways of Thinking and Practising in Swedish Teacher Education: Experiences by teachers with a foreign teaching degree2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish government recognises foreign academic education and the professional qualifications of its immigrants by allocating resources to programmes that bridge the gap between immigrants’ education and the specific requirements for work in Sweden. The context of inquiry for this thesis is teachers with a foreign teaching degree, who come from 57 countries or regions and are studying at four Swedish universities. They attend a bridging programme called “Further Education for Foreign Teachers” (in Swedish, Utländska Lärares Vidareutbildning). The purpose of this thesis is to study the unfamiliar ways of thinking and practising teachers with a foreign teaching degree encounter in Swedish teacher education, emphasising digital competence. Five different theoretical frameworks and models are used in this thesis: ways of thinking and practising, redefined transformative learning, the framework of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK), the European Digital Competence Frameworks for Citizens (DigComp 2.1), and the Digital Competence of Educators framework (DigCompEdu). A convergent mixed methods research design was applied; the combined datasets consisted of: (a) a web survey to which 228 teachers responded; (b) five focus groups each consisting of 25 teachers; (c) nine individual interviews; (d) 30 reflective texts written by 15 teachers. Findings show that the participants are not a homogenous group and cannot be treated as such. The common ground is that they are foreign-born teachers who have all immigrated to Sweden. The diversity covers a range, from being quite familiar to being unfamiliar with the Swedish educational context. This thesis reveals the diversity of their digital competence, as they score from foundational proficiency levels to highly specialised ones in TPACK as well as in the European framework DigComp 2.1. Furthermore, their expressed digital competence is found within all role descriptors in the European framework for the digital competence of educators DigCompEdu, from newcomer to pioneer. Diversity was found in teaching philosophy, the role of a teacher, view of the students, how learning occurs, and finally, comprehension of the relationship between education and society. Moreover, the findings highlight that some ways of thinking and practising were unfamiliar to the participants, such as teaching and learning methods, new learning environments, examination practices, further, the communication between teachers and students. Unfamiliarity was also found regarding the extent to which society demands digital competence in the curricula. The participants expressed that their roles as teachers in a new country were unfamiliar and took time to get used to. Therefore, placement supervisors were found to be of great importance for the development of teachers’ digital competence, as they function as mediators and model what it is to be a teacher in Sweden. The analysis shows that all teachers, not only teachers with a migrant background, need digital competence at an advanced level to develop digital competence among students. Thus, educators must identify unfamiliar ways of thinking and practising, plan for authentic competence development, and address the diversity in digital competence. This thesis contributes to empirical findings, developing tools and models to assist teacher educators to change monocultural teaching to an inclusive practice in which diversity is integrated.

  • Public defence: 2019-09-26 10:00 FA31 sal, AlbaNova universitetscentrum, Stockholm
    Marks, Kess
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Experimental investigations of model catalytic surface reactions on metal and metal oxide surfaces2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the development of renewable energies catalysis plays an important role, for example in the production of H2 gas that drives fuel cells, or in the decomposition of annoying by-products of renewable energy production. Most catalysts and catalytic processes currently used in the industry have their roots in macroscopic empirical investigations and trial and error-based optimization. In order to be able to design novel catalytic processes more efficiently, detailed understanding of the catalyst-reactant interaction and the dynamics of the microscopic reaction steps is needed. The present thesis aims to contribute to the fundamental understanding of catalyst reactant systems by means of experiments using model systems in Ultra High Vacuum. For this purpose, several surface science techniques were employed such as vibrational sum-frequency generation (SFG), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and femtochemistry.

    In the present thesis the results of three different projects are presented. The first concerns the adsorption and decomposition of naphthalene on Ni(111). Using scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and density functional theory (DFT) we identify the adsorption energy and geometry of the naphthalene molecule. Using SFG and TPD we investigate the temperature dependent breakdown of the naphthalene molecule and identify geometrical changes of the adsorbate as an intermediate step in the decomposition reaction. Additionally, we observe poisoning of the surface due to graphene growth using both STM and XPS and explore the possible effect of co-adsorption with oxygen on the reaction pathway and the poisoning of the catalyst.

    The second section concerns the adsorption and decomposition of ethanol and methanol on cuprous oxide (Cu2O). Using mainly XPS and SFG we show that ethanol adsorbs dissociatively on Cu2O(100) and (111) and that methanol adsorbs dissociatively on the (100) but molecularly on the (111) surface. Furthermore, we identify intermediate surface species and products of the temperature dependent dehydrogenation of both alcohols and show that the (111) surface is the more effective catalyst for decomposition.

    The third section explores the physics of non-thermal excitation methods and discusses CO oxidation on ruthenium (0001) induced by an optical laser and by X-rays from a free electron laser. Based on these femtochemistry experiments we discuss in particular the energy transfer both for direct excitation and for substrate mediated excitations. We show that we were able to control the branching ratios of competing mechanisms and understand the role of non-thermal electrons in the mechanisms of optical laser excitation. Furthermore, we show that it is possible to induce CO oxidation by direct X-ray core hole excitation and can rationalize the relaxation process that leads to CO oxidation.

  • Yousif, Rafat
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Investigating the influence of water in lysozyme structure and dynamics using FT-IR and XRD2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Water is “the matrix of life” for its fascinating properties. The well-known simple water molecule consists of one oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms, covering most of planet earth’ssurface. It is the most studied element in science; however, its properties are still not fully understood. Another essential building block of life is proteins, which manifest naturally in aqueous environments. The protein activity is controlled by the protein folding process that is dependent on the surrounding environment. It is hypothesized that the hydrogen bond network of water plays an important role in the folding process. Here, we investigate the protein lysozyme in liquid water as well as in the crystalline state ice Ih, exploring various temperatures, using FT-IR and XRD. Our main finding is that a transition occurs at approximately T=210 K, indicative of the hypothesised protein dynamic “glass” transitionobserved by previous studies in supercooled water at similar temperatures.

  • Ljungberg, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Fungerande stöd i skolan för elever med synnedsättning - En fallstudie2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur stödet kan se ut för elever med måttlig synnedsättning i grundskolan. En synnedsättning är en ovanlig funktionsnedsättning och kunskap på området finns sällan hos den enskilda skolan eller kommunen. Då det därför ofta finns många aktörer inblandade runt de här eleverna har fokus legat på hur systemet runt de här eleverna ser ut och hur samverkan kan se ut mellan de olika aktörerna. Vidare undersöks vilka utmaningar vårdnadshavare och aktörer från kommun, landsting och stat möter i sitt arbete med att skapa ett fungerande stöd för elever med synnedsättning. Studien försöker också synliggöra framgångsfaktorer i arbetet med att skapa ett fungerande stöd i skolan för denna elevgrupp.

     

    Studien omfattar totalt 12 semistrukturerade intervjuer med 14 informanter, två av intervjuerna genomfördes som parintervjuer. De intervjuade är vårdnadshavare, skolpersonal, personal från Syncentraler och Specialpedagogiska Skolmyndigheten (SPSM) som intervjuats utifrån att de arbetat runt någon av tre specifika elever. Intervjuerna har sedan legat till grund för tre fallbeskrivningar kring hur stödet är uppbyggt runt de olika eleverna.

     

    I samtliga tre fall beskrivs i nuläget en fungerande skolgång och ett fungerande stöd. Hur vägen till det fungerande stödet har sett ut och vilka olika aktörer på olika nivåer som varit och är aktiva är dock olika i de tre fallen. Samverkan mellan de olika aktörerna är central men det råder emellanåt vissa oklarheter kring hur rollfördelningen ser ut mellan t.ex. Syncentral och SPSM. I studien framkommer det att stort ansvar läggs på vårdnadshavare i att vara aktiva i att skapa ett fungerande nätverk runt eleverna och att det inte alltid är självklart vart man kan vända sig.

     

    Fortsatt forskning bör fokusera på hur samverkan styrs på huvudmannanivå men även elevernas egna röster bör lyftas fram.

     

  • Bouchard, Marie-Eve
    Concordia University, Canada.
    A distinctive use of R as a marker of Santomean identity2018In: Jounal of Belonging, Identity, Language, and Diversity, ISSN 2561-7982, Vol. 2, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the ideologies that surround the use of rhotics (or r-sounds) in the Santomean variety of Portuguese. This emerging variety spoken in São Tomé and Príncipe diverges from the European and Brazilian Portuguese norms and shows great variability in its use of rhotics. More specifically, Santomeans often use a strong-R in positions that require a weak-r in other Portuguese varieties (Bouchard, 2017). I argue that this distinctive use of rhotics is becoming a marker of Santomean national identity. Through the use of sociolinguistic interviews, I examine where this new variety of Portuguese is emerging from, and how Santomeans view their distinctive use of rhotics. Results demonstrated that the use of strong-R is associated with younger Santomeans who grew up after the independence of the country (in 1975), and who are starting to show pride in their national variety of Portuguese.

  • Bouchard, Marie-Eve
    New York University, US.
    Subject Pronoun Expression in Santomean Portuguese2018In: Journal of Portuguese Linguistics, ISSN 1645-4537, E-ISSN 2397-5563, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies on Subject Pronoun Expression (SPE) in the Portuguese-speaking world have shown a distinction between European Portuguese, which is a Null Subject Language (NSL) with high rates of null subjects, and Brazilian Portuguese, which is controversially treated as a partial-NSL and exhibits a considerably lower rate of null subjects. No specific studies have been conducted on the matter on Santomean Portuguese, but we know that both null and overt subject personal pronouns exist in this variety of Portuguese. The objective of this paper is to investigate variation in SPE in Santomean Portuguese, and to situate this variety of Portuguese in comparison with other varieties. Results of the variationist analyses show that Santomean Portuguese patterns more like European Portuguese in its high rate of use of null subject. Interestingly, and contrary to previous studies, Santomeans with a higher level of education disfavor the use of null subject, which I relate to a sensitivity to grammatical ideology and the favoring of the overt subject in more formal situations. Most of the results regarding the linguistic predictors, which are stronger than the social predictors, relate Santomean Portuguese to other varieties of Portuguese, and to Spanish.

  • Public defence: 2019-09-25 13:00 Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Boström, Charlotta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Education, skills and gender: The impact of a grading reform and the business cycle on labor market outcomes2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of three self-contained essays in economics, all concerned with different aspects of education and labor market outcomes. The abstracts of the three studies are as follows.

    A flight of hurdles? Effects on graduation and long-term labor market outcomes of a nationwide grading reform.

    In the academic year 1994/1995, a grading reform was implemented in Swedish upper secondary schools. The reform replaced norm-referenced grading with criteria-referenced grading that raised the hurdle to graduate on time. By exploiting exogenous variation in exposure to the reform due to exact date of birth coupled with implementation date, the effects on upper secondary school completion and subsequent long-term labor market outcomes are explored in a difference-in-discontinuity design. Results indicate that the probability to graduate from upper secondary school decreased throughout the ability distribution, with the strongest effects at the left tail. Furthermore, many of these individuals still lack a degree at age 33. Nevertheless, the grading reform does not seem to have had any clear effects on long-term labor market outcomes.

    The effects of graduating from college in a recession: The case of Sweden

    This paper studies the long-term labor market consequences of graduating college into the Swedish economic crises of the 1990s. I use a sample of Sweden born men who graduated college between the years 1985 and 1998. I estimate the effects of labor market conditions at the time of graduation on labor market outcomes using a panel covering 12 years post-graduation. Since the timing of graduation might be affected by economic conditions, I instrument the unemployment rate at graduation using the unemployment rate at age 25, which is the modal age of graduation. I find a significant negative effect on real annual earnings that last up to 5 years after graduation before fading out. The heterogeneity analysis reveals that graduates in the lower end of the distribution of cognitive abilities experience a substantial earnings loss that persists for at least eight years before fading out, while individuals with high cognitive ability are unaffected. Furthermore, I find that graduates well-endowed with noncognitive abilities, individuals we would expect to perform well on the labor market, also experience significant earnings losses.

    Gender and field of study: The impact of graduating college into a recession.

    The aim of this paper is to investigate if there are gender differences from entering the labor market during an economic downturn. Using a sample of Swedish college graduates who completed their first college degree between 1996 and 2007, I estimate short- and medium-term effects of graduating into adverse labor market conditions on a range of labor market outcomes such as annual earnings, nonemployment and skill-mismatch. I find that the overall differences between the genders of graduating college into a recession are driven by the choice of field of study and the fact that females outnumber male graduates with degrees aimed towards occupations in the public sector. The analysis shows only small differences between the genders when I compare outcomes within Business, Law and Engineering graduates, degrees leading to occupations that typically require workers to maintain a high degree of labor market attachment.

  • Bouchard, Marie-Eve
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Álvarez López, Laura, Perpétua Gonçalves and Juanito Ornelas de Avelar (eds.). 2018. The Portuguese Language Continuum in Africa and Brazil2019In: Journal of Ibero-Romance Creoles, E-ISSN 2184-5360, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 445-448Article, book review (Other academic)
  • Forsgren, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Uusmann Hellgren, Mari
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Inkludering: Var läggs ansvaret för elevers skolsvårigheter?2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna kvalitativa uppsats syftar till att undersöka hur olika yrkesroller inom skolans värld definierar och upplever inkludering och var läggs ansvaret för elevers skolsvårigheter. Uppsatsen fokuserar på inkluderingsbegreppet, elevers lärmiljöer och förändringsarbetet i skolan, vilka också är våra tre huvudteman. Arbetet genomfördes som en intervjustudie med semistrukturerade intervjuer, bestående av åtta enskilda intervjuer och en gruppintervju. Dessa analyserades sedan tematiskt med en fenomenologisk ansats. Respondenterna poängterade vikten av att man har en klar begreppsdefinition kring inkludering vilket var något som flera saknade i våra svenska styrdokument. Det har också visat sig vara viktigt att klargöra begreppen inom läs- och skrivundervisningen. Även många tankar kring nödvändigheten av att låta eleverna bli mer delaktiga i sin egen skolsituation än vad våra respondenter upplever att sker idag lyftes. Flera respondenter ansåg också att skolor fortfarande i alltför hög utsträckning utgår från ett kategoriskt perspektiv och menade att skolor istället borde vinnlägga sig om att utgå från ett relationellt perspektiv för att möjliggöra en inkluderande och tillgänglig skola. Ett sätt som skulle kunna hjälpa skolorna med detta perspektivbyte är att hålla sig uppdaterad med aktuell forskning. I detta arbete skulle specialläraren kunna spela en viktig roll genom att verka som bro mellan forskning och verksamheten i skolan. I arbetet från det kategoriska till det mer relationella synsättet i skolan menar respondenterna att det krävs ett systematiskt utvecklingsarbete med tydligt ledarskap som tydliggör skolpersonalens olika roller. Vidare pekar respondenterna på att inkluderingsarbetet är något som måste genomföras gemensamt för att säkerställa alla barns rätt till utbildning. Respondenterna lyfte också synvändan som behöver göras i den svenska skolan med antalet anpassningar. De menar att genom att skapa en bra pedagogik som utgår från den elevgrupp man undervisar och göra den tillgänglig för alla så behövs inte vare sig generella eller extra anpassningar. Åtminstone inte i den omfattning som det görs idag.

  • Mohamoud, Mohamoud
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Kennergren, Carl-Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    IKT i matematikundervisningen: Matematiklärares användning och syn på IKT imatematikundervisningen för elever i matematiksvårigheter2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Digitaliseringen påverkar det mesta i samhället, så även i skolan och i lärarrollen. Syftet med studien var att undersöka matematiklärarnas IKT-uppfattning, IKT-användning och IKT-kompetens för att undervisa elever i matematiksvårighet. En tvärsnitts kvantitativ studie genomfördes via en webbaserad enkät. Genom ett bekvämlighetsurval skickades enkäten till 205 matematiklärare i Sverige varav 85 svarade. Resultatet visade att lärarna hade mycket god tillgång till IKT, var positivt inställda till tekniken och använde IKT-verktygen i tillräcklig omfattning för alla elever. Men inga signifikanta samband mellan tillgång till IKT-verktyg, lärarnas IKT-uppfattning och lärarnas IKT-användning hittades. Studien visade också att dålig tillgång till IKT-support samtidigt som lärarna uppgav bristfällig kompetens i samspelet mellan teknik, pedagogik och ämnesdidaktik, riskerar att äventyra de förväntade goda resultaten. 

  • Karlsson, Eva
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Posserud Ek, Ingrid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Speciallärarens komplexa verktygslåda: En intervjustudie med nio speciallärare i matematik om identifiering, insatser och utvärdering beträffande stöd i matematik2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Speciallärare med inriktning matematikutveckling har identifierats som en viktig person för alla elevers lärande i matematik, men lite har forskats på hur identifiering, insatser och utvärdering förstås av specialläraren. Syftet med studien är att studera uppfattningar som speciallärare med inriktning matematikutveckling ger uttryck för beträffande forskningsfrågor gällande matematik. Studien utgår från intervjuer med nio speciallärare verksamma i årskurs 1 - 9 samt i gymnasiet. I studien används en fenomenografisk analysprocess för att komma åt djupet i speciallärarnas uttalanden om identifiering av stödbehov, insatser för lärande i matematik samt utvärdering av gjorda insatser. Resultat synliggör följande beskrivningskategorier: kartläggning och bedömning, möten och samtal, informella identifieringsmetoder, organisation, metod, material, relationers betydelse, formell utvärdering, utvärdering i samspel med andra, informell utvärdering samt speciallärarnas uttalade dilemman beträffande dessa.  

  • Frenning, Linda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Ekstrand, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Problematisk skolfrånvaro: Att förstå skolfrånvaro ur ett relationellt perspektiv2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien har varit att undersöka hur skolpersonal ser på skolrelaterade orsakerna till frånvaro samt vilka åtgärder de arbetar med för att öka närvaron. I vår studie har vi intervjuat och genomfört gruppsamtal med 10 personer som alla har lång erfarenhet av att arbeta med elever med omfattande skolfrånvaro. Vi har använt oss av ett relationellt perspektiv för att tolka materialet för att att förstå och analysera hur skolpersonal resonerar kring vilken betydelse lärmiljön kan ha för att elever utvecklar problematisk skolfrånvaro och vilka skolrelaterade åtgärder som kan vara betydelsefulla för att öka elevers närvaro.I undersökningen har vi lyft fram fem teman som samtliga av våra informanter har berört i intervjuer och gruppsamtal. De fem temana är ”att förstå skolfrånvaro utifrån komplexitet”, ”synen på det frånvarande barnet”,” det sociala sammanhanget”, ”lärmiljön- diversitet i hur den ska anpassas” och ”samhällets ansvar för elever med omfattande skolfrånvaro”. I analysen av dessa teman framkommer det att informanterna anlägger olika perspektiv när de lyfter fram förklaringsmodeller till varför elever hamnar i långvarig skolfrånvaro. De olika perspektiven påverkar även hur man ser på eleven och vilka åtgärder man lyfter fram för att åtgärda frånvaro. Vi kan se att ett kategoriskt perspektiv finns representerat där mycket av orsaksförklaringarna läggs på den individuella eleven och hens familj. Även det relationella perspektivet lyfts när informanterna betonar att orsakerna till elevens frånvaro är ett problem för skolan. Vi ser även att flera informanter lyfter fram ett perspektiv där de betonar “sårbarheter” hos den individuella eleven och skolans bristande förmåga att möta eleven. Detta har vi tolkat som uttryck för ett slag tredje perspektiv, där dikotomiseringen mellan de två perspektiven uteblir och man tar både individuella och relationella faktorer i beaktande.

  • Muntean, Natalia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies, JMK.
    Intimacy and distance in the age of technology: How technology and digital media platforms help couples in long-distance relationships create and nurture intimacy2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study looks into the intricacies of long-distance romantic relationships and the ways in which intimacy is created and nurtured with the help of technology and digital media platforms. It uses a methodological triangulation, combining quantitative content analysis with qualitative interviews, as tools to investigate the doings of couples who find themselves geographically challenged. The results point out to the fact that people adapt to these  circumstances and use technology as a third player of the relationship, creating and maintaining intimacy mainly through conversations and stepping away from the physical side of a romantic relationship.  

  • Studer, Nanina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies, JMK.
    Women Sell Mascara, Men Sell Machines?: A Content Analysis of Gender Portrayals in Swiss Prime-Time TV Advertisements2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzes gender portrayals in Swiss prime-time television advertising with regard to gender stereotypes. A content analysis of 449 characters of 412 distinct advertisements sampled from four selected German-speaking TV channels in Switzerland was carried out. Characters in the ads were coded for physical appearance, sexualization, social role, and occupation. The data show significant variations between the representation of women and men in all four aspects. An international comparison of the gender portrayals used in Swiss advertising suggests that they are almost identical to internationally used stereotypes. Only small deviances occur, such as the portrayal of both women and men in a home setting, an equal share of female and male characters doing housework, and no differences in the arguments given by women and men on why to use a product they advertise.

  • Östblom, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Provisionsförbudet vid investeringsrådgivning: En enhetlig reglering?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Nuss, Simon
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Attention Process Training kontra sedvanliguppmärksamhetsträning i tidigt skede av hjärnskaderehabilitering: - en analys av påverkan på svarsmönster i Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Utifrån teorin att bristande eller inadekvata uppmärksamhetsfunktioner kan visa sig i form av instabila svarsmönster på testet Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) undersöktes effektiviteten av ett intensivt uppmärksamhetsträningsprogram (APT) genom att studera svarsprotokoll från RAVLT av 60 patienter i det akuta skedet (<1 år) av rehabilitering efter hjärnskada. Tre testtillfällen undersöktes: före träning, efter träning samt som uppföljning sex månader efter avslutad behandling. Hälften av patienterna hade erhållit APT och hälften sedvanlig uppmärksamhetsträning (TAU). Antalet tillagda och tappade ord samt antalet svarsglapp användes för att kartlägga förvärvande och konsolidering i inlärningsdelen av RAVLT. Ingen signifikant skillnad mellan grupperna erhölls för något av måtten vid något av tillfällena, däremot erhölls en signifikant förbättring gällande antal svarsglapp för APT-gruppen från före- och eftertestning till uppföljningstestningen. Antalet svarsglapp framstår som ett användbart mått på stabilitet i svarsmönster på RAVLT, och APT tycks ha en positiv inverkan på denna stabilitet.