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  • Abel Green, Rebecka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Avancerade appars samhandling med yngre barn i en förskolepraktik: En kvalitativ studie om ett- och tvååringars möte med appar utifrån posthumanistiska teorier2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien utgår ifrån posthumanistiska teorier som ser på mänsklig och icke-mänsklig materia som agentiska aktörer. Studien undersöker vad som uppstår emellan yngre barn och appar i förskolan. Utifrån utvalda videosekvenser där ett- och tvååriga barn samhandlar med avancerade appar i en förskolepraktik analyseras sekvenserna utifrån posthumanistiska begrepp och ANT-analys. Resultatet belyser mycket täta, intensiva och komplexa möten där varje intra-aktion förändrar och transformerar de innefattande aktörerna i nätverk. Fokus ligger på kommunikativa relationer av transdisciplinära tillblivelseprocesser av barns och avancerade appars möten.

  • Farm, Ante
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Labour demand and real wages2017Report (Other academic)
  • Lidén, Moa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sekventiella fotokonfrontationer i ett eller två steg: När fattas flest korrekta beslut?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att vittnen får de bästa möjliga förutsättningarna att fatta korrekta beslut vid en konfrontation är betydelsefullt för hela rättsprocessen. Rikspolisstyrelsen rekommenderar sekventiella vittneskonfrontationer där en person visas i taget, men specificerar inte om originalversionen eller tvåstegsproceduren bör användas. I originalversionen måste vittnet redan vid första visningen avgöra om gärningsmannen finns med i konfrontationsgruppen. I tvåstegsproceduren tillåts däremot vittnet att se samtliga personer en gång först och sedan fatta ett beslut vid andra visningen. Studiens syfte var att undersöka om vittnen tar fler korrekta beslut med någon av de två konfrontationstyperna samt att jämföra graden av konfidens som vittnena kopplade till sina beslut med respektive metod. Deltagarna var 164 gymnasieelever som fick se ett fiktivt brott på film. En vecka senare genomfördes individuella foto-konfrontationer. Resultatet visade att vittnen fattar signifikant fler korrekta beslut med originalversionen än med tvåstegsproceduren. Tvåstegsproceduren leder till fler felaktiga utpekanden av oskyldiga samt att besluten fattas med en högre grad av konfidens. Originalversionen förefaller därför vara den mest lämpliga typen av konfrontation att använda vid förundersökningsarbete.

  • Sefastsson, Ulf
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Sefastsson, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Inflation Forecasting in Sweden using Single Hidden Layer Feedforward Artificial Neural Networks2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Inflation affects many economic processes, and it is therefor crucial for economic agents to have reliable forecasts of it. In this thesis, single hidden layer feedforward artificial neural networks were used to predict the year-on-year consumer price index inflation rate in Sweden for the period 2013-01-01 – 2016-06-30. Separate networks were estimated for each prediction horizon, ranging from 1 to 24 months. The root mean square errors were computed for each horizon, which were then compared with the predictions issued by the Riksbank and two linear models (Autoregressive Moving Average and Autore- gressive) for the same period.

    The results show that the networks outperform the Riksbank’s predictions on 1–5 and 11–24 months, the ARMA model on 1–5 and 9–24 months, and the AR model on 1, 3, 5 and 20 – 23 months.

    The main conclusion is that artificial neural networks do have potential in forecasting the Swedish consumer price index inflation rate. There are, how- ever, several limitations in this thesis that need to be addressed and potential improvements to be investigated before a clear verdict can be made.

  • Public defence: 2017-05-12 10:00 Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Gomis, Melissa Ines
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    From emission sources to human tissues: modelling the exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Produced since the 1950’s, per- and polyfluoroalkyl (PFASs) substances are persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic compounds that are ubiquitous in the environment. Being proteinophilic with a tendency to partition to protein-rich tissues, PFASs have been found in human serum worldwide and in wildlife with a predominance of long-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxilic acids (C7-C14 PFCAs) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (C6-C9 PFSAs). Due to rising concern regarding their hazardous properties, several regulatory actions and voluntary industrial phase-outs have been conducted since early 2000s, shifting the production towards other fluorinated alternatives. This thesis explores the human exposure to long-chain PFASs and their alternatives using different modelling methods and aims to 1) link comprehensively the past and current industrial production with the human body burden and 2) assess the potential hazardous properties of legacy PFASs replacements, on which information is very limited. In Paper I, the historical daily intakes in Australia and USA were reconstructed from cross-sectional biomonitoring data of perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) andperfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS). The results indicate that humans experienced similar exposure levels and trends to PFOS and PFOA in both regions, suggesting a common historical exposure possibly dominated by consumer products. The model could not be fitted to PFHxS concentration in serum. In Paper II, the relative contribution of indirect (i.e. subsequent metabolism of precursors into legacy PFASs) versus direct exposure was evaluated on occupationally exposed ski wax technicians. The indirect exposure contributed by up to 45% to the total body burden of PFOA. In Paper III, the physicochemical properties, the persistence and the long-range transport of fluorinated alternatives were predicted using different in silico tools. Findings suggest that fluorinated alternatives are likely similar to their predecessors, in terms of physicochemical properties and environmental fate. Finally, Paper IV compares the toxic potency of PFOS, PFOA and their alternatives as a function of external and internal dose. While alternatives are less potent than their predecessors when considering the administered dose, they become similarly potent when the assessment is based on levels in the target tissue. This thesis demonstrates that pharmacokinetic models are effective tools to comprehensively reconnect the body burden to the exposure of phased-out chemicals. More importantly, the studies on fluorinated alternatives raise the necessity to provide more information and data on the potential hazard of these novel and emerging products.

  • Public defence: 2017-05-12 10:00 Magnélisalen, Stockholm
    Lindstedt, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Metal-Free O- and C-Arylation with Diaryliodonium Salts2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis concerns the development of metal-free applications using diaryliodonium salts. The first project describes an arylation protocol of allylic and benzylic alcohols in aqueous media. The method proceeds under mild conditions and the ether products were obtained in moderate to good yields. The methodology was also expanded to include arylation of phenols, giving diaryl ethers in good to excellent yields. In the second project, an arylation method that included a wider range of aliphatic alcohols was developed. The scope of accessible alkyl aryl ethers was studied and included a comparative study of phenylation and nitrophenylation of various alcohols. Finally, a formal metal-free synthesis of butoxycain was performed, illustrating the applicability of the developed method.

    The third project focused on the limitations and side reactions occurring in Chapter 2 and 3. First, an approach to access symmetric diaryl ethers via arylation of hydroxide was presented. This reaction gave rise to a number of side products, which we hypothesized to originate from aryne-type intermediates. A mechanism for the formation of these side products was suggested, supported by trapping and deuterium labeling experiments.

    Oxidation of the alcohol to the corresponding ketone was also observed and the mechanism of this interesting side reaction was investigated. The latter was suggested to proceed via an intramolecular oxidation without the involvement of radicals or arynes.

    The fourth project covers a method to synthesize highly sterically congested alkyl aryl ethers via arylation of tertiary alcohols using diaryliodonium salts. The method displayed a broad scope of tertiary alcohols and was also suitable for fluorinated alcohols.

    The final project detailed in this thesis deals with C-arylation with diaryliodonium salts, showcasing nitroalkanes as well as a nitro ester as suitable nucleophiles for metal-free arylation. 

  • Public defence: 2017-05-12 13:00 JMK-salen, Garnisonen, Stockholm
    Borgen, Turid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    Mellom samfunnsoppdrag og marked: En studie av utviklingen av sjefredaktørrollen i utvalgte norske og svenske mediehus fra 1985 til 20152017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The dissertation analyses changes in the role of editors-in-chief in ten leading Norwegian and Swedish media houses – today owned by either Bonnier or Schibsted – in light of the potential tensions between journalistic ideals and market demands. This duality is studied over a period of 30 years, from 1985 to 2015. The most defining changes in the structural framework under which editors-in-chief work are the ongoing technological revolution, the transformation from an analogue into a digital society, and structural, economic changes related to this development. Methodologically, the study builds on data from qualitative in-depth interviews, mainly with 33 past and present editors-in-chief. It also contains a study of how the role of editors-in-chief has been reported and discussed in the magazines of two media branch organisations. The changing role of editors-in-chief is analysed within an institutional perspective. The main empirical results are as follows: (1) Owners and company management have considered the recruitment of editors-in-chief to be highly important throughout the period, and they have used their influence actively. Internal recruitment processes are a standard procedure. Very few of those chosen are women; men recruit other men. The last decade shows a recruitment process becoming more centralized and professionalized. (2) Most editors-in-chief represented in the study have a background in the newsroom. This has traditionally been the main qualification. (3) Regular meetings have structured most of the working hours for editors-in-chief. From an institutional perspective, meetings have played a norm-setting and ritualised role. During the last decade, some of those meetings have included not only journalists but also employees from other departments. (4) Those respondents who were active during the last period investigated perceive the increased speed of work on a daily basis and the more complex editorial role as the main changes and challenges. (5) Many of the respondents are so-called ‘silent’ editors. Due to a lack of time, they do not write much in their own papers. Lately, this has changed to some extent, especially among Swedish editors. This finding is one of the major differences between Norwegian and Swedish editors-in-chief. (6) Editors are still responsible for journalistic content, but demands on the part of commercial management have gradually become more important, and strategic decisions have become more centralized. The metaphor about the need to balance the demands of the ‘Marketplace and Cathedral’ has been replaced by the metaphor ‘We are all in the same boat’. The journalistic institution is under pressure. (7) Despite the immense technological and economic changes in the business and in the structural framework, there is also stability in the role due to the robust nature of journalism as an institution. The role of editor-in-chief is complex, and during the last 30 years, it has become even more so. The structural conditions have affected the role in various ways. While the basic tasks of editors-in-chief remain rooted in editorial work, downsizing and market demands have simultaneously undermined the autonomy and power of editors-in-chief, especially in relation to central media group management. 

  • Public defence: 2017-05-12 13:00 Lilla hörsalen, Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Stockholm
    Waermö, Mimmi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Dialectics of Negotiagency: Micro Mechanisms in Children’s Negotiation in Play Activity2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is about the children in a fourth and fifth grade Swedish primary school class and their play during breaktimes. The study takes the theoretical point of departure in seeing children’s breaktime play as a cultural historical activity. The overarching research problem concerns breaktime play emphasising the phenomena of children’s negotiation, participation and agency. It concerns how breaktime play takes shape and which capacities children possess, who are breaktime play literate, to participate and to uphold play. What is the significance of children’s capacity to negotiate rules and roles? How do they use culturally, historically developed objects and motives to transform and expand established versions of play and games? The research problem foregrounds how the play activity emerges, is carried out and how participation is enabled through negotiation. The aim of the study is to explore the phenomena of children’s negotiation and agency in dialectical change processes in breaktime play activity. The questions explored are: 

    RQ: What are the mechanisms in dialectical processes of collectividual action and collective object transformation in children’s play activity? 

    • How does the play activity emerge?
    • How does the object of the play activity transform?

    The data consists of field notes from participant observations and of audio memos. Audio memos, short smartphone recordings of the children’s verbal reflections on aspects of their actions and experiences, were continuously produced to get the children’s verbal reflections in the immediacy of acting. Various documents and interviews form additional data. The findings show how the children negotiate involvement, rules, role set-up and the hierarchy of demands as a continuous elaboration of the conditions to establish and maintain boundaries of playfully accomplished activity. The notion of negotiagency is introduced, uncovering that breaktime play literacy does not occur in the children’s minds apart from social interaction but develops in and through negotiation. Negotiagency emerges and is realised when the children are engaged in a playfully accomplished activity. The dialectical processes of collectividual action and collective object transformation in playfully accomplished activity are enabled through negotiation. This whole mechanism is referred to as Dialectics of Negotiagency.

  • Kilpi, Juha
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Rådne, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    När Gud började skolan: En morfologisk idéanalys av Skolverkets styrdokument och de konfessionella friskolornas praktiska efterlevnad2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    De konfessionella friskolorna har de senaste åren varit ett hett diskuterat ämne med omfattande debatter och medial uppmärksamhet som följd. Kritiker har menat att skolorna bedriver en verksamhet som inte är förenlig med de värderingar det är avsett att skolan skall förmedla, medan försvarare har hävdat att skolorna är nödvändiga för att uppfylla kravet på religionsfrihet.

    Denna studie undersöker om och på vilket sätt de konfessionella friskolorna kan sägas svara mot de krav som ställs på dem utifrån de centrala styrdokumenten. Detta görs genom en idéanalys och kategorisering av de centrala styrdokumenten vilket resulterade i dimensionerna jämställdhet, funktion och kunskapssyn som särskilt viktiga pelare i skolans arbete. Detta kopplas sedan till en systematisk morfologisk analys av samtliga konfessionella skolors senaste tillsynsärende och samtliga anmälningar dessa skolor fått emot sig mellan 2013 och 2016.

    Studiens resultat visar att även om det finns flera områden där de konfessionella skolorna kan anses sköta sin verksamhet helt i linje med de centrala styrdokumenten så finns det också flera områden, särskilt inom jämställdhet, identitet, innehåll samt verklighetsorientering där de uppvisar allvarliga brister. Vidare bidrar studien med en analysmetod som framgångsrikt kan appliceras inom studiet av ideologiska värdekonflikter.

  • Bengtsson, Anna-Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Läs- och skrivundervisning på modersmålet med stöttning av multimodala verktyg inom sfi2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 60 credits / 90 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I uppsatsen undersöks metoder för läs- och skrivundervisningen inom sfi med utgångspunkt från modersmålet dari och multimodala verktyg. Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka de pedagogiska metoder som används vid läs- och skrivundervisningen på modersmålet dari inom sfi samt att se vilka multimodala verktyg som kan ges som stöttning vid läs- och skrivundervisningen för elever som ännu inte är litterata. Frågeställningarna var: Hur undervisar man i läs- och skrivundervisningen på modersmålet dari? Vilka didaktiska principer används tillsammans med multimodala verktyg? Undersökningen är en kvalitativ undersökning med intervjuer och observationer. Resultatet beskriver alfabetiseringsundervisning i en sfi-verksamhet som utförs på modersmålet dari med multimodala verktyg som stöd. Luke och Freebodys modell kan ligga till grund för undervisningen för vuxna (Freebody, 1992). Modellen belyser fyra centrala färdigheter: avkodning, meningsskapande, textanvändning samt kritiskt användande. En annan teori som genomsyrar synen på språkinlärning i uppsatsen är teorin om kognitiv inlärning som arbetades fram av den ryska psykologen Lev Vygoskij angående språk, tänkande och lärande (Vygotskij, 2001). Pauline Gibbons forskning har påverkat de teoretiska utgångspunkterna eftersom lärande av ett andraspråk sker i interaktion med andra (Gibbons, 2013).

  • Public defence: 2017-05-11 10:00 De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Strandberg, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology . SMHI.
    Modelling regional climate-vegetation interactions in Europe: A palaeo perspective2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies in paleoclimate are important because they give us knowledge about how the climate system works and puts the current climate change in necessary perspective. By studying (pre)historic periods we increase our knowledge not just about these periods, but also about the processes that are important for climatic variations and changes. This thesis deals mainly with the interaction between climate and vegetation. Vegetation changes can affect climate in many different ways. These effects can be divided into two main categories: biogeochemical and biogeophysical processes. This thesis studies the biogeophysical effects of vegetation changes on climate in climate models. Climate models are a necessary tool for investigating how climate responds to changes in the climate system, as well as for making predictions of future climate. The biogeophysical processes are strongly related to characteristics of the land surface. Vegetation changes alter the land surface’s albedo (ability to reflect incoming solar radiation), roughness and evapotranspiration (the sum of evaporation and tran-spiration), which in turn affects the energy fluxes between the land surface and the atmosphere and thereby the climate. It is not, however, evident in what way; denser vegetation (e.g. forest instead of grassland) gives decreased albedo, which results in higher temperature, but also increased evapotranspiration, which contrastingly results in lower temperature. Vegetation changes are in this thesis studied in four different (pre)historic periods: two very cold periods with no human influence (c. 44,000 and 21,000 years ago), one warm period with minor human influence (c. 6,000 years ago) and a cold period with substantial human influence (c. 200 years ago). In addition to that the present climate is studied. The combination of these periods gives an estimate of the effect of both natural and anthropogenic vegetation on climate in different climatic contexts. The results show that vegetation changes can change temperature with 1–3 °C depending on season and region. The response is not the same everywhere, but depends on local properties of the land surface. During the winter half of the year, the albedo effect is usually most important as the difference in albedo between forest and open land is very large. During the summer half of the year the evapotranspiration effect is usually most important as differences in albedo between different vegetation types are smaller. A prerequisite for differences in evapotranspiration is that there is sufficient amount of water available. In dry regions, evapotranspiration does not change much with changes in vegetation, which means that the albedo effect will dominate also in summer. The conclusion of these studies is that vegetation changes can have a considerable effect on climate, comparable to the effect of increasing amounts of greenhouse gases in scenarios of future climate. Thus, it is important to have an appropriate description of the vegetation in studies of past, present and future climate. This means that vegetation has the potential to work as a feedback mechanism to natural climatic variations, but also that man can alter climate by altering the vegetation. It also means that mankind may have influenced climate before we started to use fossil fuel. Consequently, vegetation changes can be used as a means to mitigate climate change locally.

  • Widgren, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    The settlement and farming system in Ostergotland, Sweden A.D. 1 to 5001984In: Settlement and economy in later Scandinavian prehistory / [ed] Kristian Kristiansen, Oxford , 1984, 111-127 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Söderqvist, Tord
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    En till en – för alla?: En dator per elev i inkluderande lärmiljöer2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Investing in one-to-one computing (1:1), i.e. a computer or tablet per student, is increasingly common in Swedish schools, but there is limited research on how this affects students with disabilities or with special educational needs.

    The purpose of the study was to investigate how 1:1 may affect students with disabilities or special educational needs. The purpose included identification of positive and negative aspects related to the constant access to personal devices in the classroom, as well as an analysis of how that relates to the concept of inclusive education.

    The methods used in the case study were semi-structured observations in two schools and semi-structured interviews with students at one of these schools. The analysis of the research material was made with the support of a model for teaching and learning processes based on a didactic design perspective.

    The results show that 1:1 can provide many possibilities in the form of adjustments based on each student’s needs, providing the technology is used in accordance with the teacher’s intentions with her or his teaching. Many students enjoy their computers and can overcome personal difficulties without showing it to their classmates. The use of personal devices also leaves more time for teachers to communicate individually or in small groups with their students, i.e. opportunities for formative assessment and further individualization.

    However, the study also identifies major difficulties with ICT in the classroom. Some students perform poorly as they cannot resist the social media, computer games and other issues that Internet connected devices can offer. In other words, there is a risk that the learning environment becomes inaccessible and excluding, especially for pupils with special needs. Teachers need to be aware of these possibilities as well as limitations with one-to-one computing in order to find strategies that benefit all pupils.

  • Setréus, Maja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Kärlek eller elände, det svåra valet: En studie om lärares val av skönlitteratur inom ämnet Svenska som andraspråk på gymnasieskolans introduktionsprogram.2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie behandlar lärares val av skönlitteratur inom gymnasieskolans språkintroduktionsprogram samt hur dessa val motiveras ifråga om tema och tänkbar identifikation för den aktuella elevgruppen. Syftet är att undersöka vilka litterära teman som föredras och varför samt att även identifiera om särskilda teman undviks i undervisningen. Genom att även inventera den litteratur som studiens informanter använder så undersöks skolans föreställningar om de nyanlända eleverna och deras erfarenheter för att utreda huruvida stereotypa roller riskerar reproduceras genom det skönlitterära valet. Resultatet visar att de intervjuade lärarna i Svenska som andraspråk ser litteraturvalet som en stor utmaning men att de har vitt skilda strategier vad gäller val av tema och innehåll i de böcker som de arbetar med. Här framkommer en vattendelare ifråga om att välja litteratur som behandlar flykt och krig som de nyanlända eleverna har egna erfarenheter av eller att tvärtom välja bort denna till förmån för allmänmänskliga teman eller litteratur som behandlar svenska förhållanden. Vidare framgår att oavsett ståndpunkt i frågan så skildrar merparten av informanternas använda litteratur just teman såsom invandring, flykt, krig och utanförskap. Detta kan ses som en implikation på att gruppen nyanlända särskiljs från skolans övriga elever i en andrafierande process. Frågan är av stor av vikt för att belysa de utmaningar som lärare i Svenska som andraspråk möter i sitt arbete samt för att säkerställa en jämställd och likvärdig utbildning för alla, oavsett ursprung och bakgrund.

  • Hodosi, Georg
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Rusu, Lazar
    How Do Critical Success Factors Contribute to a Successful ITOutsourcing: A Study of Large Multinational Companies: A Service Buyer Perspective2013In: Journal of Information Technology Theory and Application, ISSN 1552-6496, E-ISSN 1532-4516, ISSN 1532-4516, Vol. 14, no 1, 17-43 p., 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing competition on the market means that multinational companies (MNCs) as well as many otherorganizations must take advantage of business improvements. This research addresses the critical success factors(CSFs) for the service receiver of IT outsourcing (ITO). It delivers a limited number CSFs that, with a correctimplementation, can deliver favorable results that are necessary for an efficient ITO. These 11 CSFs, are describedin detail, and a critical study is performed to identify the value they could create. In addition, the way theimplementation of the provided CSF could mitigate the ITO risk has been analyzed using transaction cost theory. Apriority list describing the order in which the CSFs should be implemented has been developed and enhanced with arecommendation as to when in the ITO life cycle each CSF should be implemented. A case study research with twoMNCs with more than 20 years’ experience in ITO has been used to prove the results.

  • Skånöy, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Åkerlund, Eva-Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Skriva tillsammans: Uppfattningar om strukturerad skrivundervisning som stöd för att utveckla skrivundervisningen i grundsärskolan2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Folkman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Distans, disciplin och dogmer - om ett villkorat lyssnande i förskolan: En studie av lyssnandet i en Reggio Emiliainspirerad pedagogik2017Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte är att undersöka hur olika aspekter av "lyssnande" tar sig uttryck i en Reggio Emiliainspirerad pedagogik - även kallad "lyssnandets pedagogik". Genom intervjuer med nitton pedagoger och arton barn på sex förskolor undersöks lyssnandebegreppet utifrån tre huvudsakliga frågeställningar: Hur gestaltar sig själva lyssnandeakten - det vill säga vad konstituerar enligt pedagogerna ett lyssnande förhållningssätt och hur beskriver barnen sina upplevelser av att lyssna och vara lyssnad till i en förskolekontext; hur visar sig barnens röst - vilka av barnens alla olika intressen får gensvar och vilka får det inte, samt vad är det enligt pedagogerna "möjligt att tänka" i en Reggio Emiliakontext. Intervjusvaren tolkas utifrån utvecklingspsykologisk teoribildning enligt Daniel Stern och ett diskursanalytiskt perspektiv enligt bland annat Michel Foucault. Resultaten visar att "lyssnande" på de Reggio Emiliainspirerade förskolorna inordnas i specifika lyssnandetekniker som riktar pedagogernas lyssnande i vissa riktningar och strävar bort från det omedelbara och det spontana. Lyssnandeteknikerna leder in barnens kunskapande i givna ramar och omdirigerar deras eget meningsskapande i riktning mot vad man som barn bör och inte bör skapa mening kring. Även förskolornas organisation och iscensättningen av den pedagogiska miljön ger budskap till barnen om vad som betraktas som önskvärt och värdefullt i den förskolepedagogiska praktiken. Resultaten tyder också på att den Reggio Emiliainspirerade pedagogiken på de undersökta förskolorna är bärare av en kultur där man som pedagog undviker att ifrågasätta det man tycker är problematiskt i den egna verksamheten. Istället inordnar sig pedagogerna inom Reggio Emiliaideologins ramar i vad som kan kallas "Reggiodiskursens doxa".

  • Public defence: 2017-05-05 13:00 De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Matta, Corrado
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    A Field of Veiled Continuities: Studies in the Methodology and Theory of Educational Research2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Empirical educational research enjoys a methodological and theoretical debate that is characterized by a number of unresolved and lively debated controversies. This compilation thesis is an attempt to contribute to this debate using the toolbox of philosophy of science.

    The thesis consists of an introductory chapter and four essays. In the introductory chapter I identify three methodological and theoretical controversies that are discussed within the field of educational research. These are: 1) the controversy concerning the scientific status of educational research; 2) the controversy between cognitive and sociocultural theories of learning; and, 3) the controversy between realist and constructionist interpretations of theories of learning.

    I provide in the essays a critical assessment of the claims behind each of these controversies, and argue for an alternative reconstruction of these issues.

    In Essay I, I criticize a view about the interpretation of human action, labeled in the text as interpretivism. This view posits a sharp separation between the natural and social sciences, to the effect that the methods of the latter cannot be applied to the former. The first controversy seems to rest on this position. As I argue, the arguments in support of interpretivism are contradicted by actual research practice. I conclude that the interpretivistic claims lack support and that the general separation claim appears as problematic.

    A further debate has fueled the first controversy, that is, the supposed distinction between qualitative and quantitative methods. In Essay II, I argue against this distinction. More specifically, I discuss the concept of empirical support in the context of qualitative methods (for short, qualitative support). I provide arguments that although there are two specific and non-trivial properties of qualitative support, there is no methodological separation between quantitative and qualitative methods concerning empirical support.

    Considered together, the first two essays indicate two points of methodological continuity between educational research and other scientific practices (such as the natural sciences). I therefore conclude that the controversy concerning the scientific status of educational research rests in large part on unjustified claims.

    Essay III focuses on the second controversy. In this article I argue that Suárez’ inferential approach to the concept of scientific representation can be used as an account of scientific representation in learning, regardless of whether learning is understood as a cognitive or social phenomenon.

    The third controversy is discussed in Essay IV. Here, I discuss some ontological aspects of the framework of the actor-network theory. Reflecting on the use of this framework in the research field of Networked Learning, I argue that the assumption of an ontology of relations provides the solution for two puzzles about the ontology of networks. The relevance of my argument for the third controversy is that it suggests a point of connection between constructionist and realist interpretations of the ontology of learning.

    The last two essays suggest two points of continuities between theoretical frameworks that have been and still are argued to be incompatible.

  • Public defence: 2017-05-03 10:00 föreläsningssalen, Filmhuset, Stockholm
    Lindblad, Emma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    Looking vanlig; neither too much nor too little: A study of consumption of clothing among mainstream youth in a Swedish small town2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis studies consumption among young people who identify as mainstreamers in a Swedish small town. In order to map patterns of clothing consumption and to understand what was central in the young people’s self-identification, the research was conducted using a mix of ethnographic methods and wardrobe studies. This is an inverted study of the subcultural, that problematizes the assumption that the majority (the mainstream) and the minority (the countercultural) are opposites when it comes to identity creation. The central concepts used here are ordinary (vanlig), mainstream, and subculture. One of the main findings is that the youth studied self-identify as ordinary. This finding is used to problematize not only the traditional markers of masculinity and femininity as they present themselves in this context, but also what is characterized as new patterns of consumption. There are two main conclusions. First, being mainstream and ordinary was not a static identity position, as the literature would have it; instead, being an ordinary mainstreamer required constant work in order to stay within certain culturally negotiated boundaries. Second, the ethnographic findings contribute in the field of subcultural studies by questioning the convention of portraying the mainstream and the subcultural as polar opposites: contrary to the literature, it is argued that neither is so very different from the other, making it an unhelpful dichotomy in understanding young people today.

  • Public defence: 2017-05-05 09:00 Vivi Täckholmsalen, NPQ-huset, Stockholm
    Wallner-Hahn, Sieglind
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Fishing for sustainability: Towards transformation of seagrass-associated small-scale fisheries2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Small-scale fisheries employ many millions of people around the world, and are particularly important in developing countries, where the dependency on marine resources is high and livelihood diversification options are scarce. In many areas of the world however, small-scale fisheries are at risk which threatens the food security and wellbeing of coastal people. Small-scale fisheries management has in many cases been insufficient and new comprehensive approaches are recommended to achieve social-ecological sustainability in the long-term. The aim of this thesis is to analyze empirically how social-ecological elements of seagrass-associated small-scale fisheries in the Western Indian Ocean region can be addressed for a transformation from the current mostly degraded state to more sustainable social-ecological systems and secure future livelihoods. The main method used was semi-structured interviews with local fishers. The main findings show the crucial contributions seagrass-associated small-scale fisheries make to food security and income generation and highlight the need to acknowledge the social-ecological importance of seagrasses in the seascape (Paper I). A discrepancy between low societal gains of the fishing of sea urchin predator fish species and their crucial importance in the food web (in controlling sea urchin populations and the associated grazing pressure on seagrasses) was identified (Paper II). These results suggest catch-and-release practice of sea urchin predator fish species, which could contribute to more balanced predator – sea urchin – seagrass food webs in the long run. The use of illegal dragnets was identified as a major threat to local seagrass meadows (Paper IV). Institutional elements influencing the use of such destructive dragnet were identified to be normative, cultural-cognitive and economic, which constitutes an institutional misfit to the current emphasis on regulative elements in a hierarchical manner (Paper III). Concerning future co-management initiatives, gear restrictions and education were the favoured management measures among all fishers (Paper IV). A majority of fishers were willing to participate in monitoring and controls, and most fishers thought they themselves and their communities would benefit most from seagrass-specific management. These findings highlight the need for actions on multiple scales, being the local-, management-, policy- and governance levels. The suggested actions include: education and exchange of ecological and scientific knowledge, gear management including the cessation of dragnet fishing, strengthening of local institutions, an active participation of fishers in enforcement of existing rules and regulations and an introduction of adequate alternative livelihood options.

  • Public defence: 2017-05-02 10:00 Magnélisalen, Stockholm
    Liu, Jianguo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Iridium Catalysed Asymmetric Hydrogenation of Olefins and Dynamic Kinetic Resolution in the Asymmetric Hydrogenation of Allylic Alcohols2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The work described in this thesis is focused on exploring the efficacy of iridium-catalysed asymmetric hydrogenation of precursors to chiral alcohols and chiral cyclohexanes. A range of allylic alcohols including γ,γ-dialkyl allylic alcohols and (Z)-allylic alcohols were prepared and evaluated in the asymmetric hydrogenation using iridium catalysts resulting in chiral alcohols in high yields and excellent enantioselectivity. This methodology was applied in the formal synthesis of Aliskiren, an efficient renin inhibitor drug, using the asymmetric hydrogenation of an allylic alcohol as a key-step. Another project concerned the dynamic kinetic resolution of racemic secondary allylic alcohols using Ir-N,P catalysts under hydrogenation conditions. A range of secondary allylic alcohols and protected alcohols were evaluated in the asymmetric hydrogenation via dynamic kinetic resolution using Ir-N,P catalysts. The corresponding chiral saturated alcohols were formed in good yield with excellent diastereoselectivites (up to 95/5) and enantioselectivities (>99% ee). The last part of this thesis is directed towards the development of highly regio- and enantioselective asymmetric hydrogenation of 1,4-cyclohexadienes and its application in the preparation of useful chiral cyclohexenone intermediates. Non-functionalised, functionalised and heterocycle-containing cyclohexadienes were evaluated. Good yield of regioselectively mono-hydrogenated silyl protected enol ethers were obtained in most cases with excellent enantioselectivity. 

  • Collewet, Marion
    et al.
    Sauermann, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Working Hours and Productivity2017Other (Other academic)
  • Dahlgren Strååt, Kim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Simulating Transport and Understanding Future Fluxes of Organic Carbon in Rivers Draining into the Baltic Sea2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Riverine organic (TOC, Total Organic Carbon) and inorganic (DIC, Dissolved Inorganic Carbon) carbon are the main sources of carbon in the Baltic Sea. While the importance of this contribution has been evaluated, there are currently several gaps in our knowledge of the mechanisms governing organic carbon dynamics in this region, especially for the particulate form, and the impact of future climate change on organic carbon transport. This licentiate thesis addresses this research deficit by (1) developing a model for assessing the flux of particulate organic carbon (POC), and by (2) simulating the potential climate effects on the transport and fate of TOC, both particulate and dissolved organic carbon, in the Baltic Sea environment.

    Study I developed a novel dynamic model for simulating the generation and transport of POC in all the major rivers discharging into the Baltic Sea. The POC load was assessed using algorithms for the processes governing the input i.e. erosion, litterfall and in-stream primary production. Using daily information on precipitation and temperature, the water discharge from each river was calculated. The total annual POC load from the Baltic Sea drainage basin was predicted within a factor of about 2 and was estimated to be 0.34 Tg POC, or 7-10 % of the annual TOC. The prediction of the timing of the monthly peak loads, however, was hampered by the current lack of field measurements of POC loads to the Baltic Sea.

    Study II assessed the potential future climate effects on riverine TOC (particulate and dissolved organic carbon, DOC) in the Baltic Sea drainage basin. A small decrease in POC load (-7 %) was predicted and no changes in DOC load on an annual and total basin scale, but the simulations showed significant variations between seasons and across sub-basins by the end of this century. Seasonal total loads were predicted to increase in winter and decrease in summer. Due to counterbalancing increases and decreases in predicted TOC loads in various parts of the Baltic Sea catchment, the impact of climate change on the total carbon budget in this region was limited. However, our simulation results indicated significant differences over time in POC and DOC export across the six Baltic Sea sub-basins, and an altered seasonal pattern in the timing and magnitude of the delivery.

    This thesis comprises a first attempt to better describe the mechanisms and dynamics of OC generation and transport in the Baltic Sea catchment and assess the potential climate effects on the transport with a spatiotemporal resolution. The work provides a starting point for further development of the understanding of large scale organic carbon export and how it may be affected in the future. This thesis also discuss the role of riverine organic carbon in biogeochemical processes, food web structures and contaminant transport in inland, coastal and marine waters.

  • Sjöström Bedziri, Sofia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kylbergh, Caroline
    Stockholm University.
    Attityder kring sexualbrottsoffer utsatta online vs. offline2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Grooming, sexuella övergrepp onlina, ökar och enligt forskning tillskrevs dess offer mer negativa attityder i kontrast till offer som utsatts för sexualbrott som skett i verkligheten. Studiens syfte var att undersöka skillnader i studenters attityder gällande en flicka som utsatts för grooming kontra sexuella övergrepp utan initerad kontakt online. Även könsskillnader i negativa attityder undersöktes. Fyra enkäter med olika scenarion besvarades av 290 studenter mellan 17-59 år. Resultatet visade att mer negativa attityder tillskrevs offret som utsatts online i jämförelse med offret som utsatts för övergrepp utan initierad kontakt online. Män påvisade mer negativa attityder än kvinnor i samtliga scenarion. Resultaten överensstämmer med tidigare forskning. Att bemötas av negativa och skuldbeläggande attityder från omgivningen kan utöver de personliga konsekvenserna leda till att färre anmälningar görs, vilket följdaktligen bidrar till att fler gärningsmän går fria.

  • Östberg, Wilhelm
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Hundra år gamla sånger från Kenya sätter fart på grävkäppar och dansstavar2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Östberg, Wilhelm
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Newly digitized 100-year old recordings bring African song and dance to life2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Östberg, Wilhelm
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Matumizi ya ardhi katika vilima vya Uburunge1994Report (Other academic)
  • Östberg, Wilhelm
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Imani za Waburunge kuhusu ardhi na mmononyoko wa udongo1994Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Public defence: 2017-04-28 10:00 Vivi Täckholmsalen (Q211), NPQ-huset, Stockholm
    de Jong, Jasper
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Who is Who in the Adipose Organ: A look at the Heterogeneity of Adipocyte Biology2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing prevalence of obesity and related health complications, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer, demands thorough investigation of the underlying processes. One of the key tissues investigated in this context is adipose tissue. It is becoming increasingly clear that adipose tissue is a very dynamic and heterogenic organ. This thesis provides an overview of various aspects of adipose biology that illustrate its heterogenic nature and describes my own scientific contributions to this field.

    We typically distinguish between thermogenic, energy-expending brown adipocytes and energy-storing white adipocytes that are located in anatomically distinct adipose depots. In addition, brite (or beige) adipocytes are functionally thermogenic, but are located among white adipocytes.

    Related to functional variation, adipocytes and adipose tissues display a wide range of morphological appearances. An additional property that illustrates the heterogeneity among adipose cells and depots is the variation of cellular responses to physiological cues, such as changes in diet or environmental temperature. Furthermore, the developmental origins of various adipose types display great heterogeneity, which may explain some of the functional and dynamic differences that are observed.

    In line with the complexity of developmental origins, molecular markers that were initially proposed to distinguish between brown, brite/beige and white adipose subtypes have added to the notion that the composition of the adipose organ is much more complex than has long been appreciated.

    My own work has contributed to the enhancement of our understanding of the heterogeneity of adipose subtypes. In particular, my findings related to marker gene expression patterns have led to increased appreciation of the complex nature of adipose gene expression patterns and the complications of translating results obtained in mice to humans. Some of my other contributions have increased the understanding of the differences and similarities in thermogenic adipose tissue functionality and dynamics. With cell culture studies, I have revealed new characteristics of pre-adipose cells from various depots that further add to the appreciation of the adipose heterogeneity.

    Overall, this thesis provides an overview of important characteristics of the adipose organ, illustrating its heterogenic nature. Realization of this heterogeneity is of importance in order to properly study the adipose organ to ultimately understand how the adipose organ can be therapeutically targeted to effectively treat adipose-related diseases.

  • Public defence: 2017-04-28 10:00 Gröjersalen, hus 3, Kräftriket, Stockholm
    Stenlund, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Läsutveckling under mellan- och högstadiet: En longitudinell studie av läsfärdigheter hos elever med och utan lässvårigheter2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation consists of two studies, a middle school study and a follow-up study. In the middle school study, the reading ability of a group of middle school students, of which some have reading difficulties, is described and analyzed along with the classroom conditions the students are given for the development of their reading abilities. The overall aim of the follow-up study is to describe and analyze the reading ability development in the same group of students from the beginning of middle school to the end of lower secondary school, as well as examine the students’ use of strategies in grade 9.

    In lower secondary school decoding, vocabulary and reading comprehension were tested like in middle school. Students’ reading comprehension was tested on both stages based on a reading comprehension test and a national test. Since the use of strategies seems to be important for students’ reading comprehension, even the use of learning strategies were examined by including a question from the PISA (2009) student questionnaire. Furthermore, six students who in the beginning of middle school had shown poor results in one or more of the reading aspects were, referred to as the small sample group and, were interviewed in grade 9 regarding their use of comprehension strategies when reading an age-appropriate historical factual text in a textbook.

    Analyses show that there is a small development in reading comprehension from the beginning of middle school to the end of lower secondary school. Even the development of correct reading and vocabulary is relatively small. The largest development is shown for the reading rate, but analyses show that the reason for that is not merely a more automated process of decoding. A comparison between the results in the reading comprehension tests and the national tests at both stages show higher results for the national tests, which can depend on the different aims of the two tests. Regarding learning strategies, the entire study group stated in the questionnaire that they mostly use the deeper monitoring strategies, while the students in the small sample group reported that they tended to use the more superficial memory strategies. The results of the interviews show that the small sample group as a group found it more convenient to use comprehension strategies for superficial rather than for deeper comprehension.

  • Public defence: 2017-04-28 13:00 William-Olssonsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Fausch, Jürg
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Essays on Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Asset pricing implications of a DSGE model with recursive preferences and nominal rigidities. I study jointly macroeconomic dynamics and asset prices implied by a production economy featuring nominal price rigidities and Epstein-Zin (1989) preferences. Using a reasonable calibration, the macroeconomic DSGE model is consistent with a number of stylized facts observed in financial markets like the equity premium, a negative real term spread, a positive nominal term spread and the predictability of stock returns, without compromising the model's ability to fit key macroeconomic variables. The interest rate smoothing in the monetary policy rule helps generate a low risk-free rate volatility which has been difficult to achieve for standard real business cycle models where monetary policy is neutral. In an application, I show that the model provides a framework for analyzing monetary policy interventions and the associated effects on asset prices and the real economy.

    Macroeconomic news and the stock market: Evidence from the eurozone. This paper is an empirical study of excess return behavior in the stock market in the euro area around days when important macroeconomic news about inflation, unemployment or interest rates are scheduled for announcement. I identify state dependence such that equity risk premia on announcement days are significantly higher when the interests rates are in the vicinity of the zero lower bound. Moreover, I provide evidence that for the whole sample period, the average excess returns in the eurozone are only higher on days when FOMC announcements are scheduled for release. However, this result vanishes in a low interest rate regime. Finally, I document that the European stock market does not command a premium for scheduled announcements by the European Central Bank (ECB).

    The impact of ECB monetary policy surprises on the German stock market. We examine the impact of ECB monetary policy surprises on German excess stock returns and the possible reasons for such a response. First, we conduct an event study to asses the impact of conventional and unconventional monetary policy on stock returns. Second, within the VAR framework of Campbell and Ammer (1993), we decompose excess stock returns into news regarding expected excess returns, future dividends and future real interest rates. We measure conventional monetary policy shocks using futures markets data. Our main findings are that the overall variation in German excess stock returns mainly reflects revisions in expectations about dividends and that the stock market response to monetary policy shocks is dependent on the prevailing interest rate regime. In periods of negative real interest rates, a surprise monetary tightening leads to a decrease in excess stock returns. The channels behind this response are news about higher expected excess returns and lower future dividends.

  • Michelsson, Sanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    McDonough, Greta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    När manliga män klär sig kvinnligt: En genusanalys av Åhléns normbrytande modekampanj- kläder som uttryck för kön i relation till rådande kulturella koder2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Följande arbete är en studie kring mediers reproduktion av könsstereotypa framställningar inom reklam. Genom att låta tidigare discipliner såsom medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap, genusvetenskap, feminism och sociologi inneha en central roll, ämnar studien komma närmare en förståelse för hur djupt rotade och kulturella koder kring kvinnlighet och manlighet bidrar till en rådande könsmaktsordning. Där normer för kvinnligt och manligt mode anknyts till förgivettagna könsroller, vilka reproduceras och upprätthålls av reklambranschen. Syftet med arbetet är således att undersöka på vilka sätt Åhléns, självuttalat, ifrågasätter dessa könsnormer och utmanar dem genom sin modekampanj ”Bryt klädmaktsordningen”. Frågeställningar som besvaras rör på vilka sätt Åhléns genom sin modekampanj ifrågasätter varför manlig klädsel förknippas med mer status och makt än traditionellt kvinnlig, vad som talar för att modekampanjen är normbrytande. Vad i modekampanjen, beroende på vår kulturella kontext, blir normbrytande ifråga om maktstrukturer kring kön? Samt hur Åhléns val av kända profiler i modekampanjen kan motiveras och används som symboler för normbrytande i relation till kön och mode. Dessa frågeställningar besvaras med hjälp av tidigare forskning och teoretiska ramverk tillsammans med en semiotisk analys av Åhléns modekampanj i film och tryckt format. Vidare diskuteras resultatet av studien som visar att Åhléns modekampanj endast ifrågasätter könsnormer ur hänsyn till ett konsumtionsmål. De normbrytande budskapet är diffust, men framgår genom text och tal. Rent visuellt framgår de kända profilerna som normbrytande klädda endast jämte varandra. Resultatet visat att det krävs stereotypt manliga män och stereotypt manliga kvinnor för att våga sig över könsgränserna ur en kapitalistisk agenda.

    Med följande arbete vill vi bidra till det genusvetenskapliga fältet inom medie- och kommunikationsvetenskapen. Arbetet är menat att belysa hur reklam som medium användas för att påverka samhället; makten att influera människans förhållande till könsnormer och hur budskapsförmedlingen av detta är kontextuellt bunden.

  • Sjöberg, Kristine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    Svenskhet i kulturdebatten: En kvalitativ innehållsanalys av identitetskonstruktion inom kulturjournalistik2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie utgör en retorisk analys av svenskhet i kulturdebatten. Kulturjournalistiken i svenska medier har kommit att bli en röst för politisk, demokratisk och etisk debatt samt ge uttryck för ett samhällskritiskt perspektiv. Syftet med denna uppsats är att studera hur svenskhet konstruerats i svenska kulturdebatten under perioden november 2013 till oktober 2016, i avseende att bidra till diskussionen hur svensk identitet förstås och vem som får ingå i begreppet. Diskussionen förs kring frågeställningarna: Hur har svenskhet konstruerats inom svenska kulturdebatter i dagspressen november 2013 till oktober 2106? Vem kan vara svensk enligt debatten? Vem förs debatten för och av vem? Studien kommer endast att beröra en begränsad del av debatten, tidningarna som studeras är Dagens Nyheter, Svenska Dagbladet och Sydsvenskan. Studien utförs på ett relativt outforskat område och kommer kunna ligga till underlag för vidare studier. Uppsatsen behandlar teorier kring hur medier kan verka identitetsskapande samt vilken betydelse de har för identitet och nationalitet. Vidare går de in på hur det finns en spänning mellan det globala och nationella. Utifrån teorier om ”vi och dom” redogörs för hur olikheter kan vara väsentliga för identitetsskapande, men samtidigt riskerar att bidra till en exkludering och konstruerande av föreställda gemenskaper. En redogörelse görs även av hur vi kan förstå etnicitet. Sökningen på material genererade nio artiklar. Analysen av artiklarna utförs med metoden retorisk analys där den retoriska situationen beskrivs, appellformerna logos, ethos och pathos studeras, samt studiet av doxa där vilka implicita kunskaper, antaganden samt värdegrunder som förs fram i artiklarna analyseras. Slutresultatet visar att flertalet artiklar argumenterar för en inkluderande svenskhet som bygger på en social gemenskap. De flesta för även en explicit antirasistisk och antinationalistisk talan. En tendens finns däremot att tilltala de som redan är insatta i debatter, samt svensk historia, politik och kultur. 

  • Taylor, André
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    Rytmer och (o)ljud i medieoffentligheten: Musikkritik och house/techno: En diskursanalytisk studie om andlig respektive sinnlig estetik2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Med en blandning av tematisk och kritisk diskursanalys, undersöker denna studie den moderna svenska storstadspressens musikestetiska förhandlingar om house och techno. En hypotes antas om att recensionerna om dansmusik (som till stor del är ett sinnligt och kroppsligt förfarande) förväntas förhandla med den klassiska musikestetikens diskurs, där musikens ses som ett andligt eller abstrakt objekt. Musikkritiken, som är en del av medieoffentligheten, ställs likväl inför ett dilemma om objektivism och subjektivism. Det skrala materialutbudet försvårar förvisso utvidgade slutsatser, men undersökningen visar på svårigheter med att recensera dansmusik och problem i musikkritiken. Recensioner om house och techno söker sig till viss utsträckning mot en andlig eller objektivistisk diskurs för att legitimeras i det offentliga samtalet. Detta kan förstås som att de sinnliga musikdiskurserna ingår i en underordnad kulturell hierarki präglad av en dikotomi uppställd i den dominanta västerländska filosofiska traditionen. 

  • Forsberg, Olivia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    Underhållning eller reklam?: En studie av produktplaceringar i "Finaste familjen".2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Every day people get in contact with thousands of messages. On the radio, on the train, on the street and through the television. Not too infrequently messages in the form of advertising for products and services from businesses companies. The need for product placement partnerships are increasing as the traditional advertising decreases in efficiency in parallel with the film productions that require increasingly large budgets. More products and services on the market is leading to bigger competition between companies about the consumers interest. It is increasingly important to be creative and to find modern strategies for successful marketing. A way to market a product or service is through product placement, a phenomenon in which a brand, service or product occurs in a context that is not really the intended.

    The main purpose of the study was to investegate the extent of product placements appearing in the swidish comedy series "My perfect family" and how product placements are used and what signification product placements have for both brands and identity. The analysis is based on scenes from the series' first episode where brand products appear (Samsung, Volkswagen, Tsarine, Porsche, Ferrari and Instagram). The selection is based on how eye-catching the products are. The clearer product placement the bigger opportunity to influence the film's character.

    To answer the first question a compilation of the clearest and most abundant investments during the first episode of "My perfect family" was made. The selected brands formed the basis for the semiotic analysis used to answer question nubmer two and three (how product placements are used and what significance they have for both brand and identity). One or two different scenes belonging to each brand were selected and analyzed.

    The analysis shows different types of product placement and product placement methods, based on Lehus (2007) and Russells (2002) different categorizations. The study of "My Perfect family" shows that both brands and brand identity are important for the character and identity. Characteristics that are associated with the brand strengthens the character's identity. Product placements provide the ability to define characters and enrich, clarify and illustrate the series based on a cultural context. Ill-conceived product placements can have an adverse effect if the placed brand product not fill a natural feature. 

  • Johansson, Emma
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies, JMK.
    Björkman, Sophie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies, JMK.
    "A Lady shouldn't play with swords": En studie om genus och makt i TV-serien Game of Thrones2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Game of Thrones är en serie som började sändas 2011 på HBO. Efter att säsong sex hade släppt sista avsnittet var tittarsiffran uppe i 23 miljoner tittare världen över. Denna studie har som avsikt att studera utvalda karaktärer ur serien Game of Thrones ur ett makt- och genusperspektiv. En semiotisk metod utfördes samt en kvalitativ intervju i form av en fokusgrupp med fem respondenter. De som intervjuades valdes ut via ett strategiskt urval där vi utgick från personer som vi visste hade kunskap om serien. I den semiotiska delen valde vi att undersöka utvalda scener som var representativa för hela serien eller som påvisade generella beteenden hos våra karaktärer. Som material användes en del tidigare uppsatser som hade gjort liknande studier, där fokus på de flesta verken låg på karaktären Daenerys Targaryen. Även böcker som berör ämnet användes, Women in Game of Thrones: Power, Conformity and Resistance (2014) som är skriven av Valarie Estelle Frankel tar bland annat upp hur de kvinnliga karaktärerna porträtteras, allt ifrån mödrar till prostituerade. Women of Ice and Fire (2016) som är redigerat av Anne Gjelvvik och Rikke Schubart är ett samlingsverk av artiklar som behandlar ämnen som sexualitet, prostitution och makt. Det vi kommit fram till under studiens gång är att det finns en tydlig uppdelning mellan män och kvinnor, där mannen ofta är kopplad till våld och kvinnan till manipulation för att kunna uppnå makt.

  • Ardung, Ola
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Closed To Open Sourve GIS: First Steps In Reverse Engineering ESRI's Layer Defintion File Format2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Visualization of digital geographic data is often accomplished through custom symbology that is saved in a proprietary format called a layer file (.lyr). The sharing of free geographical information system (GIS) data can be limited as the symbology data is bound inthe .lyr file format. This makes it harder and more tedious to work with open software tools since it is not possible to convert or open the .lyr file in free and open GIS software and thus limits the distribution of free GIS data. The aim of this thesis is to increase the interoperability of .lyr data between proprietary and free and open GIS software. This was done by revers eengineering the .lyr file format to document the file structure and to distribute the knowledge and metadata gained from this project to the open source community. Reverse engineering the.lyr format provided a well needed metadata and documentation about the format which increases the interoperability and enable future work to continue to lessen the gap between open source and commercial software. This groundwork can therefore, enable a continued development of data interoperability between proprietary and free and open GIS software.

  • Karlsson-Wessén, Micaela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hur upplever du din ålder?: Unga vuxnas syn på framtid och livsval uifrån ålder2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Övergången från ungdom till vuxen har länge setts som en kritisk period i livet där stora förändringar sker och där individer ingår i en ny social roll. Studier inom bland annat sociologi har visat att normer om ålder och centrala livshändelser formar människan till att inta sociala roller. Däremot finns det mycket lite forskning som studerat den subjektiva uppfattningen av denna period i livet. Syftet med föreliggande studie var att undersöka hur unga människors egna förställningar om ålder ser ut och upplevs samt att få syn på bakomliggande normativa föreställningar om ålder. Åtta personer deltog i intervjuer där en induktiv tematisk analys användes för att tolka resultaten. Resultatet visade att unga vuxna starkt påverkas av yttre förväntningar från samhälle och omgivning. Vidare visade resultatet att dessa förväntningar skapade en stark press och stress. Studien gav en ökad förståelse för den subjektiva uppfattningen av hur normer om ålder, livshändelser och sociala roller upplevs i övergången till vuxenlivet. 

  • Hedbom, Nicole Amanda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Livsmedelsbutiksanställdas upplevelse av känsloarbete, stress och omgivningens förväntningar i arbetssituationen2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna intervjustudie undersöker anställda inom livsmedelsbutik och hur de upplever det känsloarbete som krävs i mötet med kunderna, samt om kundsituationen betraktas stressande av dem. Utöver detta undersöks även de anställdas erfarenheter av ledningens och kundernas förväntningar på servicebemötandet, samt möjlighet till stöd. Tolv personer som var anställda inom olika livsmedelsbutiker samt olika butikskedjor deltog. En kombinerad deduktiv och induktiv tematisk analys resulterade i fem teman. Känsloarbetet upplevs som extra påfrestande när kunderna är otrevliga och arga. Särskilt av de deltagare som är anställda inom större butiker och som har en högre mängd kunder. Deltagare som upplever en större press utifrån ledningen eller kunderna på att leverera en bra service, upplever också känsloarbetet i högre grad ansträngande. Slutligen diskuteras olika betydande aspekter huruvida känsloarbete kan upplevas olika av olika individer, samt vilken betydelse socialt stöd har för att minska upplevelsen av stress och negativa effekter av känsloarbetet.

  • Public defence: 2017-04-27 10:00 sal G, Arrheniuslaboratorierna, Stockholm
    Petersson, Jöran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Mathematics achievement of early and newly immigrated students in different topics of mathematics2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to explore the mathematics achievement of second language immigrants in compulsory school as they continue their schooling in Sweden. Specifically, the thesis aims to generate more knowledge about different sub-categories of second language students, namely newly arrived immigrants, early arrived immigrants and other second language students in compulsory school. The data in this thesis consists of students’ responses to test items and thus mainly contains mathematical symbols, essentially numbers in different representations, written by the students.

    Doing so, this thesis problematizes the concept of second language students in mathematics in two aspects. One aspect is to assess the first and second language students’ achievement in different mathematical content domains, instead of only assessing the total achievement. Another aspect is to see the second language students as different sub-categories of second language students.

    Papers I and II of this thesis found that the achievement difference between first and second language students is not homogeneous. Instead the achievement difference between first and second language students is larger for concepts that are rare in mathematics textbooks. Moreover, the achievement difference between first and second language students varies with the content domain. Another way to say this is that first and second language students have different achievement profiles.

    Papers III and IV of this thesis explored how sub-categories of second language students achieved on mathematics test items. Mathematics achievement studies on second language students often classify the second language students into a single category of students. Methodologically this imposes a concept of viewing second language students as homogeneous in proficiency in the language of instruction. This view is challenged in this thesis by dividing the second language students into newly arrived immigrants, early arrived immigrants and other second language students. These three sub-categories have different proficiency in Swedish language due to how long they have lived in Sweden. Papers III and IV found that these student categories both had different test achievement and, related to this, also used mathematical concept representations differently. In particular, the newly and early arrived immigrants seemed to experience on average different challenges during mathematics testing. The newly arrived students seemed more challenged with terminology but less with the mathematical content while the opposite seemed to hold for the early arrived students. An implication for teaching is that particularly early arrived second language children seem to be in urgent need of support in mathematical concept building from first day of schooling in the new country.

  • Grenmyr, Bernt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Kommunerna och demosproblemet: En analys av principerna bakom sophämtningsavgifterna2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    English Title: Municipalities and the problem of Demos - An analysis of the principles behind the refuse collection fees.

    This is a bachelor’s thesis with the aim to study how different input variables e.g. the number of collections and the municipality´s costs may form the refuse collection fee. But also other input variables may affect some parts of the refuse collection fee like the democratic influence or the value of the real estate.

    Especially the relationship between permanent residents and the non-permanent residents fee are studied.

    The democratic view is considered, as a property owner in a Swedish municipality not automatically is allowed to vote, unless the person is a permanent resident of that particular municipality. If the citizen owns property in many municipalities, it will become impossible to have a full democratic influence in any municipalities but one -The municipality where he or she lives the majority if his time.

    The analysis shows that the relative value of the real estate surprisingly has some impact on the refuse collection fee which is proven to be statistically significant.

  • Helin, Elsa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    "Som en eldkraft inne i mig": svenska romers berättelser om sitt politiska arbete2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Roma minority in Sweden are discriminated against at the labor market, housing, education, civil society and in political representation. Despite this discrimination several Roma activists have created an arena for themselves where they have played an important role in the struggle for human rights for Romas in Sweden. This thesis aims to explore the conditions under which Roma politicians and activists participate in the political dialogue in Sweden. Iris Marion Young's theories on inclusive democracy with the three nodes of greeting, rhetoric and narrative are used as theoretical framework. The method of the thesis may be described as a micro-ethnography, where five Roma politicians or activists are interviewed and participatory observation is conducted. The material was collected during the Swedish election 2014. The result of the study concludes that it appears as if the political arena is rather open to persons outside the majority normative. Many of the Romas are greeted and welcomed into the political sphere. The lack of a Roma narrative and the lack of tolerance for a rhetoric outside the normative, as well as difficulties due to lack of schooling, makes it difficult for Romas to fully participate and be includes in the political and democratic arena.

  • Färnlöf, Hans
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Projektet ALTAN  (ALternativ Till Aktiv Närvaro): observationer och reflektioner kring examination på grundnivån i Romanska språk vid Stockholms universitet2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten redovisar inledningsvis en inventering från vårterminen 2016 av alla större kursplaner (15 & 30 hp) och kursbeskrivningar på grundutbildningen inom romanska språk (franska, italienska, portugisiska & spanska). Framgår att aktiv närvaro inte förekommer i kursplanerna, men däremot i ett antal kursbeskrivningar. Noteras även skillnader i dessa senare både vad gäller kurskrav och examinationsformer jämfört med kursplanerna.

    Den uppkomna diskrepansen sätts därefter in i ett juridiskt och pedagogiskt sammanhang. Myndighetsperspektivet stöds av förordningar och lokala styrdokument vid SU; modern teoribildning kring pedagogik och formativ bedömning underbygger den pedagogiska diskussionen, och då i synnerhet de sociologiska perspektiven. Rapporten visar att mer kan och bör göras inom examinationsområdet, och föreslår också ett antal lösningar kring formativ och summativ bedömning. Vid Romanska och klassiska institutionen måste kursbeskrivningar korrigeras, kunskapen om kurskrav och närvaro öka samt fortsatt utvecklingsarbete kring examinationsformer bedrivas. På fakultets- och universitetsnivå behöver man ta ett helhetsgrepp för att se över regelverk och examinationsformer för att kunna framställa tydliga styrdokument. Dessa bör utformas i dialog med CeUL och institutionerna för att fastställa regler som både är relevanta för och kan appliceras på verksamheten i praktiken.

  • Lindh, Thomas
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Åldersbaserad BNP-prognos för Sverige 1999-2050, [Age-based GDP forecast for Sweden 1999-2050]: Dataunderlag, modell och skattningar för prognos publicerad i "Ds 2000:13 40-talisternas uttåg – en ESO-rapport om 2000-talets demografiska utmaningar", [Data, model and estimates for the forecast published in the "Ds 2000:13, Baby boomer exodus - an ESO report on the demographic challenges of the 2000s"2017Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2000 the report “The baby boomer exodus - an ESO report on demographic challenges of the 2000s” was published by the Expert Group on Public Finance. The authors were Thomas Lindh and Bo Malmberg. The report presented a forecast for GDP growth in Sweden 1999-2030 based on an age model estimated on data from 1946 to 1998. The same model has been used for growth forecasts based on alternative demographic scenarios in the book "Population and Welfare: perspectives on the future of welfare policy”by Bo Malmberg and Lena Sommestad (2002) and an Delmi report “Immigration effects on Sweden's economic development” by Bo Malmberg, Thomas Wimark, Jani Turunen and Linn Axelsson (2016). Here the data base of the estimated model, more information about the estimated model and detailed parameter estimates are published. The material consists of two Excel files: RFVdata.xls and rfvfcstTL.xls. The first file, RFVdata.xls, shows how the GDP series have been developed and the base data used, as well as the age structure data used for estimation and forecast. The second file, rfvfcstTL.xls, contains a description of how the GDP series has been handled, estimation results, and prognosis. Both files are produced by Thomas Lindh.  The two files that are published are a part of a file collection documenting the underlying data and the estimates for the various research projects that Thomas Lindh worked with from 1993 to 2012. The file collection was established for enabling interested researchers to access these results of Thomas Lindh's work, and for this purpose a copy of file collection was handed over to Bo Malmberg.

  • Halldén, Tom Halldén
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Measuring coastal erosion along the coast of Ystad municipality using PSInSAR and SBAS2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the use of two radar interferometry methods, PSInSAR and SBAS, were tested as tools for measuring coastal erosion. If successful it would have allowed for measuring coastal erosion as a function of material lost. The study area used was Ystad municipality, in southern Sweden.

    Radar data for the study was provided by the ESA, the European space agency, from their ERS-2 and ENVISAT satellites, spanning the period 1998-2005.

    Unfortunately, even after many different configurations of settings were tested, the results indicated that both methods are very unsuited for use in rural areas such as Ystad, whether for measuring coastal erosion or otherwise. Both methods had severe problems achieving significant coverage after low coherence areas were masked out, and PSInSAR suffered from several anomalies. This is likely due to the highly vegetated nature of the landscape, which results in low coherence through temporal decorrelation.

    Of the two methods SBAS showed the most promise, but not nearly enough to be considereduseful.

    It is, based on the scientific literature, possible that simpler interferometry methods might have been more useful. This, and other possible ways to improve the results is something that this study discusses at length.

  • Folkesson, Pontus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Att skola en Stormakt: Svensk skolpolitik och statsbildning under 1600-talets första hälft (1611-1649)2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, the educational politics in Sweden during the years 1611-1649 are examined to identify the power relationship between the church and the state. Although education was traditionally considered an activity of the church, the state laid claim to the founding of schools. However, the development of the Swedish school system during this period has been largely ignored by previous research. Through an analysis of correspondence between local administrators and the crown and different curriculums, this thesis seeks to answer the question: ‘who was actually involved in this reform and how did they conduct the process?’.

    The argument of this thesis is based on two theories which explain the early modern Swedish state formation; the historian Jan Glete's bottom-up process of state formation and the sociologist Philip Gorski's top-down process. This study shows that the reformation of the Swedish school system was initiated by the state. The church, represented by the local bishops, was however the other leading agent of crucial importance. It was not just offering legitimization of the power and taxation of the state, but also ideological access to educational institutions. This strengthened the political position of the clergy. By bargaining the Crown accomplished that schools were integrated and adopted to the infrastructure of the state.

  • Widgren, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Bysamfällighet och tegskifte i Bohuslän 1300-17501997Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a study in the historical geography of a medieval Norwegian province, based on field evidence, Danish and Norwegian, medieval and early modern sources, and 17th-to-18th century, Swedish cadastral maps. In previous literature, eastern Norway, including Bohuslän, is described as having been characterised by single farms with fields held in severalty. This study shows, however, that concentrated settlements, as well as subdivided fields existed in Bohuslän already in medieval times. The settlement development in Bohuslän, and possibly also in the rest of eastern Norway, must thus be seen as part of general European process, rather than a specifically Norwegian development, isolated from the rest of northern Europe. The specific forms that open fields took can, however be explained by some region-specific factors, among which the rules of inheritance were the most important.

     

  • af Edholm, Klas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Ethnology, History of Religions and Gender Studies, History of Religions.
    Människooffer i fornnordisk religion: En diskussion utifrån arkeologiskt material och källtexter2016In: Chaos. Dansk-norsk tidsskrift for religionhistoriske studier, ISSN 0108-4453, E-ISSN 1901-9106, Vol. 1, no 65, 125-148 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The discussion of ritual killing and sacrifice of humans in Old Norse religion has a long

    tradition. In the more text oriented discipline of history of religions, the opinion has

    sometimes been very critical to the theories that human sacrifices were performed, while

    the discipline of archaeology has been more inclined to interpret some finds as the traces

    of sacrifice, although sometimes due to a too wide definition of the word ‘sacrifice’. Since

    the two disciplines use different sources, the research needs an analysis of the religious

    phenomenon with a consideration of the archaeological material, and with respect to

    how the two disciplines may contribute to the analysis. The written sources mention and

    describe human sacrifices, but the question of their authenticity is problematic. Some new

    archaeological surveys have revealed finds that has raised the question of human sacrifices

    during Late Iron Age in the northern countries anew. The new archaeological material

    may provide an altered interpretation of the written texts. But then we need to discuss the

    definition of ‘human sacrifice’ from the perspectives of both disciplines.

  • Wiklund, Sofia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Olin, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Social interaktion i den minimala gruppsituationen leder inte till mer särbehandling2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Individer har en systematisk tendens att favorisera medlemmar i ens egen grupp och diskriminera de som tillhör en annan grupp, trots minimala grunder för gruppindelning. Denna studie syftar till att undersöka om social interaktion mellan individer i grupper påverkar denna särbehandlingstendens. I sådana fall, kan detta komma att yttra sig genom bland annat skillnader i kunskapsutbyte och spridning av information mellan de anställda på en arbetsplats. Grupper delades in slumpmässigt och särbehandlingen mättes via poängfördelning. Datainsamlingen skedde via både experiment (n = 41) och enkät (n = 135) samt med tre olika nivåer av social interaktion. Undersökningsdeltagarna fördelade mer poäng till sin egen grupp, än till den andra gruppen. Däremot påverkade varken grad av social interaktion eller typ av metod poängfördelningen. Vid samtliga tillfällen var det mellan en tredjedel till strax över hälften av undersökningsdeltagarna som särbehandlade. Slutsatsen är att även vid en slumpmässig gruppindelning så kommer en särbehandlingstendens att ske.

  • Rydstedt, Linn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies, JMK.
    ”No Blood Should Hold us Back”: en genusanalys av Libresses mensskyddsreklam i Sverige från år 2010 till 20162017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie har varit att undersöka hur menstruation framställs och hur det feminina genuset representeras i fem av Libresse reklamfilmer publicerade från år 2010 till år 2016 på deras svenska Youtubesida, samt se om det finns några skillnader och likheter. Då det förefaller som om det växt fram en större grad av öppenhet och publika diskussioner om menstruation i dagens samhället är det av intresse att se om menstruationsskyddsreklam har förändrats i samma takt. De teoretiska utgångspunkterna som studien har använt sig av är genus, reklam och representation. Metoden som har använts i studien för att analysera reklamfilmerna är en semiotisk analys och bild, ljud, verbal text och skriven text. Frågeställningarna som författaren har försökt besvara är om menstruation framställs som något problematiskt eller orent för kvinnan i reklamfilmerna och i så fall på vilket sätt, samt hur det feminina genuset representeras i respektive reklamfilm. Författaren har även försökt utröna ifall det funnits några skillnader respektive likheter mellan reklamfilmerna gällande hur menstruation framställs och hur det feminina genuset representeras.

    Resultat visar att likheter går att finna i de analyserade reklamfilmerna där menstruationen framställs som något problematisk och orent. Likheter finns även hur kvinnan representeras som osäker, det är endast med menstruationsskyddet kvinnan kan känna sig säker. Det feminina genuset är även i många av reklamfilmerna nära sammankopplat med fräschhet. Dock visar resultatet på en förändring, menstruation framställs inte vara lika problematiskt för kvinnan i de nyare reklamfilmerna. Menstruationsblod är fortfarande frånvarande i alla de studerande reklamfilmerna, dock visar studiens resultat på en förändring. Blod visas på kvinnans kropp och det feminina genuset kopplas inte på liknande sätt ihop med fräschhet i de nyare reklamfilmerna. Det feminina genuset representeras inte heller i lika stor grad som osäker i de nyare reklamfilmerna, kvinnan ska nu leva ”fearless” och inget blod ska hålla kvinnan tillbaka.