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  • Boschini, Anne
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Dreber, Anna
    von Essen, Emma
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Muren, Astri
    Ranehill, Eva
    Gender, risk preferences and willingness to compete in a random sample of the Swedish population2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Swärd, Elias
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Semantiska aspekter av lexikal pluralitet: En typologisk studie av kushitiska språk2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Lexikal pluralitet är en term för vissa substantiv som har en inneboende pluralbetydelse. Lexikal pluralitet är ett relativt outforskat område, särskilt ur ett typologiskt perspektiv. Några studier som gjorts inom lexikal pluralitet har visat att de lexikalt plurala substantiven tenderar att finnas inom vissa tvärspråkligt återkommande semantiska kategorier. Föreliggande studie bygger på dessa tidigare studiers kategorier, och syftet är att utveckla kategorierna för att bättre fånga in den semantiska variationen hos de kushitiska språken. Detta görs genom att samla lexikalt plurala substantiv ur grammatikor och sedan klassificera substantiven utifrån deras semantik. Resultatet visar, förutom att de semantiska kategorierna i stor utsträckning överlappar med tidigare studier, att de semantiska kategorierna grupper, granulära ämnen, duala enheter och vätskor & fasta ämnen tenderar att vara mer frekventa än kategorierna tidsuttryck, sjukdomar, platser och koncept/aktiviteter som involverar flera deltagare.

  • Disputation: 2018-11-09 09:00 CCK Lecture Hall, Stockholm
    Henry, Thomas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum.
    Interlaced proton grid therapy: development of an innovative radiation treatment technique2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Spatially fractionated radiotherapy, also known as grid therapy (GRID), has been used for more than a century to try to treat several kinds of lesions. Yet, the grid technique remains a relatively unknown and uncommon treatment modality nowadays. Spatially fractionated beams, instead of conventional homogeneous fields, have been used to exploit the experimental finding that normal tissue can tolerate higher doses when smaller tissue volumes are irradiated. This increase in tolerance with reducing beam size is known as the dose-volume effect. Despite the fact that targets were given inhomogeneous dose distribution, sometimes with some volumes receiving close to no dose, good results in the form of shrinking of bulky tumors have been observed in palliative treatments. The biological processes responsible for this effect are still under discussion, with several possible causes. However, numerous experiments on mice, rats and pigs have confirmed the existence of such effect, which in turn motivates the present development of grid therapy.While mainly photons have been used in grid therapy, proton and ion grid therapies are also emerging as potential alternatives. In this work, an innovative form of grid therapy was proposed. Grids of proton beamlets were interlaced over a target volume with the intention of achieving two main objectives: (1) to keep the grid pattern (made of adjacent high and low doses) from the skin up to the vicinity of the target while (2) delivering nearly homogeneous dose to the target volume. This interlaced proton grid therapy was explored with the use of different beam sizes, from conventional sizes deliverable at modern proton facilities, down to millimeter sized beams. Other considerations that would prevent its clinical use, such as the variable relative biological effectiveness of protons or the use of cone beam computed tomography, were also evaluated. The overall aim was to assess if, and how, such treatment modality could be applied clinically, from a physics and dosimetry point of view. While it presented several theoretical advantages, its potential issues of concern and limitations were also evaluated.

  • Disputation: 2018-11-09 10:00 De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Thiessen, Fiona Karen
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    The evolution of lunar breccias: U-Pb geochronology of Ca-phosphates and zircon using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Planetary bodies in our Solar System, including the Moon, were exposed to an intense asteroid bombardment between ~4.5-3.8 Ga, shaping their surfaces and leaving visible “footprints” in the form of large impact basins. The end of this period (~4.0-3.85 Ga), might have been marked by a cataclysmic increase in impacts, the so-called Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB), although this remains highly contentious. Since destructive processes, such as tectonics or erosion, have destroyed ancient (> 3.0 Ga) impact structures on Earth, studies of the early Solar System are mainly restricted to lunar samples, because impact structures are much better preserved on the Moon.

    In this thesis, we have therefore analysed impact breccias from three Apollo landing sites (Apollo 12, 14, and 17) with the overall aim to gain a better understanding of the lunar impact history. This endeavour included comprehensive textural and petrological analyses of the breccias and grains of interest (i.e. Ca-phosphates and zircon), as well as obtaining precise U-Pb Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) ages. The U-Pb ages of Ca-phosphates obtained are consistent with the age of the Imbrium impact at ~3925 Ma, whereas an older age of ~3930 Ma yielded by Ca-phosphates in an Apollo 17 breccia might be linked to the formation of the Serenitatis basin. Furthermore, an impact event at ~3940 Ma was identified in zircon grains in Apollo 14 breccias, which is in agreement with older Ca-phosphate ages yielded in a previous study. The identification of three possible impact events within ~15 myr has important implications for the lunar bombardment history.

    However, there is a possibility that partial Pb loss from older grains during a relatively late event (e.g. Imbrium) might result in apparently older ages in Ca-phosphates. Incomplete resetting of the U-Pb system was recorded in zircon grains in an Apollo 12 breccia, leading to meaningless U-Pb ages which cannot be interpreted unambiguously as either magmatic or as impact events. Nevertheless, the U-Pb ages of several zircon grains occurring in lithic clasts in Apollo 14 breccias can plausibly be linked to magmatic activity, exhibiting several magmatic events between ~4286 Ma and ~4146 Ma. The data obtained in this thesis, together with previously published zircon and Ca-phosphate data, indicate several spikes in the magmatic and impact history during the first ~600 myr of lunar history. This study highlights the importance of combining high-precision age determination with thorough petrological and textural analyses in order to exclude meaningless ages and to interpret the impact and magmatic history of the Moon. 

     

  • Holmström, Ingela
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Teckenspråkskommunikation och nyttjande av teckenrummet i dialog mellan personer med dövblindhet: Forskning om teckenspråk XXVII2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns i Sverige runt 2000 personer under 65 år med dövblindhet. En andel av dem är döva sedan barndomen och har förvärvat sin synnedsättning senare i livet. De har då vanligen svenskt teckenspråk som sitt förstaspråk och har i takt med att synen blivit sämre övergått till att använda sig av taktilt teckenspråk som är en del av det svenska teckenspråket, men som inte i samma utsträckning grundar sig i vad som kan uppfattas visuellt. I den här forskningsrapporten studeras taktil teckenspråkskommunikation och hur de personer med dövblindhet som först lärt sig det visuella svenska teckenspråket innan de övergår till att använda taktilt svenskt teckenspråk använder sig av teckenrummet i dialoger med varandra. Till grund för analysen ligger en korpus som består av åtta informanter i varierande åldrar från olika delar av Sverige. Denna korpus har kunnat skapas tack vare medel från Mo Gårds forskningsfond och arbetet med att annotera dialogerna har pågått allt sedan inspelningarna genomfördes år 2013. Idag har strax under hälften av korpusen annoterats och det är den annoterade delen som ligger till grund för analysen som redovisas i denna rapport. Bland annat beskrivs hur informanterna skapar gemensam mening och förståelse när de inte ser varandra och hur de ger återkopplingar på ett sätt som skiljer sig från hur man gör i det visuella svenska teckenspråket. Dessutom visas skillnader mellan det visuella och taktila svenska teckenspråket avseende andelen bokstaveringar, som är högre i det taktila, liksom förekomsten av pekningar som istället är mindre vanliga där.

  • Ekdahl, Björn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Socialantropologiska institutionen.
    Up and Run: Ett antropologiskt perspektiv på löpning2012Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    People sign up for various races in Sweden and internationally. I have participated in the practice of running and I have done twenty-five interviews with runners in Belfast and Stockholm. I have also taken part in a training trip to Portugal. This master's thesis answers the question of individuals' experiences of running and the focus has been the physical and emotional experience runners get from running. From a wider perspective I discuss how running create meaning and identity through emotional and physical experience gained trans- locally. With runners, I mean people who run for their own benefit and not professional runners. What kind of bodily experiences and what emotions raise the run?

    From an anthropological perspective I discuss emotions, which encompass both feelings and meanings of running shared by runners in what I call, with help of Appadurai (1996) a runningscape. The emotions are culturally created in this runningscape, and still perceived as unique to the individual.

    My study is theoretically infused by Gidden’s perspective on lifestyle and Merleau-Ponty’s phenomenological focus on the body. Merleau-Ponty thoughts on”embodied consciousness”are linked to the anthropological perspective of emotions. The runner and the run with the bodily and emotional experiences clarify the meaning of "embodied consciousness". That creates meaning and identity and affects the choices we make in everyday life.

    In this study, I have been able to identify three types of runners. The first one is ”thinking runners” who put more emphasis on learning everything about technicalities of running. For them the feeling of accomplishment is important. The second is ”feeling-runners” in which the bodily experience of rhythm, body, and a meditative sense is important. The third one is”health-runners” where the responsibilities for their own health are in focus.

    This study has shown that running gives a strong sense of enthusiasm and energy combined with a sense of peace and tranquillity, which combine to create a sense of purpose. I argue that an anthropological perspective based on emotions can in further studies help to discuss the individual's lifestyle choices in everyday life.

    Key words: Emotions, body, runners, running, embodiment, meaning, identity

  • Gustavsson, Janna
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska fakulteten, Juridiska institutionen.
    Rättssäkerhet vid påföljderna ungdomsvård och sluten ungdomsvård2008Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • Ekman, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för datorlingvistik.
    Automatisk extraktion av nyckelord ur ett kundforum2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Konversationerna i ett kundforum rör sig över olika ämnen och språket är inkonsekvent. Texterna uppfyller inte de krav som brukar ställas på material inför automatisk nyckelordsextraktion. Uppsatsens undersöker hur nyckelord automatiskt kan extraheras ur ett kundforum trots dessa svårigheter. Fokus i undersökningen ligger på tre aspekter av nyckelordsextraktion. Den första faktorn rör hur den etablerade nyckelordsextraktionsmetoden TF*IDF presterar jämfört med fyra metoder som skapas med hänsyn till materialets ovanliga struktur. Nästa faktor som testas är om olika sätt att räkna ordfrekvens påverkar resultatet. Den tredje faktorn är hur metoderna presterar om de endast använder inläggen, rubrikerna eller båda texttyperna i sina extraktioner. Icke-parametriska test användes för utvärdering av extraktionerna. Ett antal Friedmans test visar att metoderna i några fall skiljer sig åt gällande förmåga att identifiera relevanta nyckelord. I post-hoc-test mellan de högst presterande metoderna ses en av de nya metoderna i ett fall prestera signifikant bättre än de andra nya metoderna men inte bättre än TF*IDF. Ingen skillnad hittades mellan användning av olika texttyper eller sätt att räkna ordfrekvens. För framtida forskning rekommenderas reliabilitetstest av manuellt annoterade nyckelord. Ett större stickprov bör användas än det i aktuell studie och olika förslag ges för att förbättra rättning av extraherade nyckelord.

  • Persson, Peter
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för datorlingvistik.
    Starved neural learning: Morpheme segmentation using low amounts of data2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Automatic morpheme segmentation as a field has been dominated by unsupervised methods since its inception. Partly due to theoretical motivations, but also due to resource constraints. Given the success neural network methods have shown on a wide variety of field in later years, it would seem compelling to apply these methods to the morpheme segmentation field. This study explores the efficacy of modern neural networks, specifically convolutional neural networks and Bi-directional LSTM networks, on the morpheme segmentation task in a resource low setting to determine their viability as contenders with previous unsupervised, minimally supervised, and semi-supervised systems in the field. One architecture of each type is implemented and trained on a new gold standard data set and the results are compared to previously established methods. A qualitative error analysis of the architectures’ segmentations is also performed. The study demonstrates that a BLSTM system can be trained with minimal effort to produce a proof of concept solution at low levels of training data and suggests that BLSTM methods may be a fruitful direction for further research in this field.

  • Sterby, Pia
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Tolk- och översättarinstitutet.
    Fotombyte i teckenspråkstolkning: Erfarna tolkars koordineringsarbete på diskursnivå2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Tolkens uppgift är att överföra budskapet från ett språk till ett annat på ett ekvivalent sätt. För att göra det måste tolken koordinera samtalet. Tolkens koordineringsarbete och tolkens förmåga att navigera mellan de olika modaliteterna där talad svenska och teckenspråk förekommer är avgörande för en funktionell tolkning. Den här uppsatsen har fokuserat på sekvenser där tolken i sitt koordineringsarbete ägnar sig åt att förflytta sig mellan olika samtalsramar. Detta kallas för change of footing (sv. tolkens fotombyte). I det filminspelade materialet har fyra kategorier av change of footing påträffats. Den första handlar om den förändrade deltagarstatusen som uppstår när tolken från väntläge går in i rollspelet. Den andra kategorin handlar om tolkens självpresentation som för teckenspråkstolkar innebär att hantera en oväntad direkt fråga. Den tredje kategorin handlar om när tolken själv tar initiativ till omfrågning för att försäkra sig om innehållet och/eller innebörden av det som yttrats. Den fjärde och sista kategorin handlar om den förändrade deltagarstatusen som tolken förflyttar sig till när rollspelet avslutas. Just avrundning av pågående samtal är ofta en process som kan pågå i flera minuter där både de primära parterna och tolken signalerar detta på en rad olika sätt. 

  • Pettersson, Jenny
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomiska institutionen.
    Hansson, Lisa
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomiska institutionen.
    “Det finns inte en silver bullet”: En kvalitativ fallstudie om ett statligt bolags deltagande i sociala medier när förtroendet har raserats2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    I det ständigt förändrade medielandskapet ökar möjligheterna för organisationer att hitta nya vägar att nå ut med sin marknadskommunikation. Detta ställer höga krav på att organisationer ska delta i medieplattformar och ha en fungerande strategi för hur plattformen ska användas. Sociala medier är en relativt ny plattform för organisationer att delta i och bidrar med en möjlighet att föra en interaktion med kunder, till skillnad från traditionella media som är en envägskommunikation. Tidigare studier har adresserat strategier för att organisationer på ett framgångsrikt sätt ska generera förtroende och lojalitet via sina sociala medier. Den kunskapslucka som återfinns är att undersöka om dessa strategier är relevanta och applicerbara även i ett fall där ett utvalt företag befinner sig i en djup förtroendekris.

    Studiens syfte är att utifrån ett företagsperspektiv kartlägga en pågående förtroendekris och undersöka hur ett deltagande i sociala medier kan bidra till att återfå ett raserat förtroende. Studien är en fallstudie om PostNord som i skrivande stund genomgår en förtroendekris samt använder sig utav en social plattform, Facebook, för att kommunicera med sina kunder. Det teoretiska ramverket som används för studien är Kellers (2001) kundbaserade varumärkeskapital som innefattar nivåer för att generera förtroende. Empirin samlades in genom en kvalitativ ansats och semistrukturerade intervjuer genomfördes med anställda på PostNord. Studien visar att det råder olika uppfattningar gällande vilken roll sociala medier har haft i förtroendekrisen och även hur ett deltagande i sociala medier kan bidra till att öka förtroendet. Författarna av denna studie har sammanställt en modell med en potentiell strategi för att bidra till att öka förtroendet via ett deltagande i sociala medier.

  • Disputation: 2018-11-02 13:00 David Magnussonsalen (U31), Stockholm
    Gonzalez, Nichel
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Interest to Reinvest: Individuals’ use of numerical information for investment decisions2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The general aim of this thesis is to contribute to the understanding of how numerical information, such as asset values and interest rates, influences inexperienced investors in their investment decisions. In relation to this, I have investigated the participants’ own understanding of what information they rely on for their own decisions. I have also investigated how their willingness to wait for greater rewards is related to their investment decisions. Importantly, I have distinguished between average behavior (group behavior) and individual behavior in an attempt to better describe how different information is important for different individual investors.

    On the group level the only reliable predictor of investment size was whether there was a gain or a loss during the period before the investment. However, how large the gain or loss was had no, or very limited, influence on investment size. When looking at each investor’s individual decisions, it was revealed that a substantial number of participants actually did rely on information other than only the gain/loss information, for example, the interest rates of forecasted developments of the different investment prospects. Furthermore, a substantial number of participants relied heavily on one of the cues; at least 50% of their investments were explained by the cue relied upon.

    Interestingly, very few participants’ investments were influenced by their own judgments of future asset outcomes. Furthermore, the participants’ willingness to invest in funds with guaranteed gains was used as a proxy for time preference (willingness to wait for greater rewards instead of accepting lesser rewards in the present). Time preference was relevant for investments but it did not relate to judged asset outcomes. This indicates that people may be more influenced by their future-oriented preferences rather than by their future-oriented beliefs (judgments).

    To conclude, these findings suggest that people use a preference-driven simplified strategy for investments and that these strategies differ substantially between individuals. This corroborates the idea about heuristic thinking, meaning that people simplify their decisions in a way that can deviate from normative value-maximizing behavior. For practical application, it is important to note the variety of strategies among individuals. This variety suggests that there is no “one size fits all” solution regarding instructions that can be given to inexperienced investors. The participants’ very limited insight into what information they relied upon is reason for researchers and advisors to understand the individuality in strategies in greater depth.

  • Disputation: 2018-11-02 10:00 Magnélisalen Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Stockholm
    Lehto, Tõnis
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik. Stockholm University.
    Characterization of nucleic acid delivery with fatty acid modified cell-penetrating peptide nanoparticle formulations2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advances with techniques used for manipulating gene expression have brought us to an era where various gene therapeutic approaches are becoming common therapeutic tools for many previously incurable diseases. The main factor impeding the wider translation of gene therapy is that the active pharmaceutical ingredients used for interfering with gene expression are based on nucleic acids and synthetic oligonucleotides and such molecules do not readily reach their intracellular targets due to their physicochemical properties and therefore they require delivery vectors to cross the cell membrane. 

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) is one such class of delivery vectors that comprise excellent potential for transporting bioactive cargo molecules across cellular membranes, both in vitro and in vivo conditions. CPPs have shown to be very versatile carriers for various types of bioactive cargo, including different nucleic acids such as plasmids (pDNA), splice-correcting oligonucleotides (SCOs), small interfering RNAs (siRNA) and mRNA, or peptides and proteins or even small molecules.

    This thesis focuses on characterizing the delivery of various nucleic acids-based molecules with a variety of novel fatty acid modified CPPs. In order to achieve this we utilize the ability of a family of CPPs called PepFects to non-covalently formulate nucleic acids into nanoparticles. More particularly the aim of the thesis is to find and characterize the key parameters of these peptide/nucleic nanoparticles that would improve their potential applicability as a drug formulation and delivery system for future gene therapies.

    By simultaneously characterizing the role of N-terminal fatty acid modification and the peptide/nucleic acid ratio in the nanoparticles we were able to show in Papers I and II that increasing the hydrophobicity and reducing unbound free fraction of the peptide improves delivery efficiency and decreases toxicity of these nanoparticles both in vitro and in vivo.

    Based on the findings from Paper I regarding the ability of these amphiphilic peptides to self-associate into supramolecular structures we went deeper in Paper III to study the formation, composition and live cell association of these peptide/nucleic acid complexes at single molecule sensitivity.

    And finally in Paper IV we enhanced the specificity of these nanoparticles towards in vivo xenograft tumors by incorporating the capacity to be specifically activated in the tumor microenvironment.

    Conclusively, these findings contribute to the field with identifying and characterizing some of the key factors in developing efficient and safe peptide-based delivery vectors for gene modulating therapeutics.

  • Disputation: 2018-11-02 13:00 Vivi Täckholmssalen (Q-salen), NPQ-huset, Stockholm
    Liao, Sifang
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    The role of insulin signaling during development, reproductive diapause and aging in Drosophila Melanogaster2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway exists from invertebrates to vertebrates and it can regulate various biological processes, including development, metabolism, stress resistance and lifespan. In Drosophila, eight insulin-like peptides (DILP1-8) have been found. The specific function of each DILP is not fully known, especially for DILP1. In paper I, we found that dilp1 is specifically expressed in the brain insulin producing cells (IPCs), and it is mainly expressed from early pupa until few days of adult life, which correspond to non-feeding stages. The expression of dilp1 can last for at least 9 weeks of adult life when newborn virgin flies are induced to enter reproductive diapause. In addition, we found that the expression of dilp1 is under regulation by other dilps. Also larva-derived fat body, short neuropeptide F (sNPF) and juvenile hormone can affect dilp1 expression. We found that mutation of dilp1 affects female reproduction and starvation resistance. In paper II, we found that reproductive diapause can extend Drosophila life span, and at the same time ameliorate behavioral senescence, including negative geotaxis, activity rhythms and exploratory walking. Age-related changes in neuromuscular junction (NMJ) in abdominal muscle cannot be found in diapause-induced aging flies. The levels of several neuromodulators in the brain, including pigment dispersion factor (PDF), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and short neuropeptide F (sNPF), decreased significantly in normally aging flies, but less so in diapausing flies. In paper III, we show that mutation of dilp1 leads to a reduced organismal bodyweight, whereas overexpression increases it during the nonfeeding pupal stage. Overexpression of dilp1 additionally increases body size of flies, but reduces stores of larval-derived energy. This results in decreased starvation tolerance and increased feeding in newborn flies. In paper IV, we found that dilp1 expression is needed to extend lifespan in dilp2 mutant flies. Single dilp1 mutation has no effect on female lifespan, whereas transgene expression of dilp1 in flies with dilp1-dilp2 double mutant genetic background increased the lifespan. Furthermore, dilp1 and dilp2 interact to control circulating sugar, starvation resistance in a redundant or synergistic way.

  • Efimov, Grigory
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Karolinska Institutet.
    Modelling the cell survival using the RCR model: Bachelor Thesis in Medical Physics2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Current studies in radiotherapy aim to develop better methods for curing patients fromcancer. Since different types of radiation interact with biological matter in various ways, the resultsof their interaction and their effectiveness with respect to the biological damage to cells have ageneral investigation interest.

    Aim: The work in this project aims to use a mathematical model to fit a pre-existing data onclonogenic survival of cells irradiated by different types of radiation and report the fittingparameters. Various radiobiological concepts were investigated and compared between differentradiation qualities used in this work.

    Materials and Methods: The repairable-conditionally repairable (RCR) damage model parametrisedwith respect to the linear energy transfer (LET) of the cell oxygenation was used for fittingexperimental cell survival data for human salivary gland cells irradiated in oxic and hypoxicconditions with protons, 12C-, 20Ne- and 3He-ions.

    Results: Good consistency with the entire cell survival data was achieved. RCR-model was robustenough to achieve agreement with cell survival data for LET values excluded from fitting procedure.Slope of cell survival curves for the three ions increased up to optimal LET value reaching maximumthere and it decreased at higher LETs. RBE of 3He-ions showed the most rapid increase in low-LETregion and reached a higher maximum as compared with other ions. RBE of the three ions increasedapproximately in the same LET region as a and c parameters of RCR-model, but no underlyingradiobiological mechanism could explain any of curve shape similarities. The RBE of 12C-ions reachedmaximum approximately at 126 keV/μm, which is the optimal LET that could possibly correspond tothe steepest cell survival curve. It was observed how the cell oxygenation became less important forcell irradiation with very high LET values.

    Conclusion: The results showed that it is feasible to use the RCR model to fit the broad range of cellsurvival curves corresponding to different radiation qualities and the assessment of their relativebiological effectiveness in oxic and hypoxic irradiation conditions. RCR-model may have a possible application in cell irradiation with other ion beams than those used in this work.

  • Elgström, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Linköping University Hospital, Sweden.
    Assessment of image quality in x-ray fluoroscopy based on Model observers as an objective measure for quality control and image optimization2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Although the Image Quality (IQ) indices calculated by objective Model observers contains more favourable characteristics compared to Figure Of Merits (FOM) derived from the more common subjective evaluations of modern digital diagnostic fluoroscopy units, like CDRAD or the Leeds test-objects, practical issues in form of limited access to unprocessed raw data and intricate laboratory measurements have made the conventional computational methods too inefficient and laborious. One approach of the Statistical Decision Variables (CDV) analysis, made available in the FluoroQuality software, overcome these limitations by calculating the SNR2rate from information entirely based on image frames directly obtained from the imaging system, operating in its usual clinical mode.     

    AIM: The overall aim of the project has been to make the proposed Model observer methodology readily available and verified for use in common IQ tests that takes place in a hospital based on simple measuring procedures with the default image enhancement techniques turned on. This includes conversion of FluoroQuality to MATLAB, assessment of its applicability on a modern digital unit by means of comparisons of measured SNR2rate with the expected linear response predicted by the classical Rose model, assessment of the methods limiting and optimized imaging conditions (with regard to both equipment and software parameters) and dose-efficiency measurements of the SNR2rate/Doserate Dose-to-information (DI) index including both routine quality control of the detector and equipment parameter analyses.     

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A Siemens Axiom Artis Zee MP diagnostic fluoroscopy unit, a Diamentor transmission ionisation chamber and a small T20 solid state detector have been used for acquisition of image data and measurements of Air Kerma-area product rate (KAP-rate) and Entrance Surface Air Kerma rate (ESAK-rate without backscatter). Two sets of separate non-attached test-details, of aluminium and tissue equivalent materials respectively, and a Leeds test object were used as contrasting signals. Dose-efficiency measurements consisted of variation of 4 different parameters: Source-Object-Distance, Phantom PMMA thickness, Field size and Dose rate setting. In addition to these, dimensions of the test details as well as computational parameters of the software, like ROI size and number of frames, were included in the theoretical analyses.     

    RESULTS: FluoroQuality has successfully been converted to MATLAB and the method has been verified with SNR2rate in accordance with the Rose model with only small deviations observed in contrast analyses, most likely reflecting the methods sensitivity in observing non-linear effects. Useful guidelines for measurement procedures with regard to accuracy and precision have been derived from the studies. Results from measurements of the (squared) DI-indices indicates comparable precision (≤ 8%) with the highest performing visual evaluations but with higher accuracy and reproducibility. What still remains for the method to compete with subjective routine QC tests is to integrate the SNR2rate measurements in an efficient enough QA program.

  • Johansson, Viktor
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematikämnets och naturvetenskapsämnenas didaktik.
    Vad betyder pilarna?: Hur gymnasielever resonerar när de lär sig om vektorer.2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Både i Sverige och internationellt anses vektorer vara ett svårt område inom matematik- och fysikundervisning. Denna studie kommer därför analysera gymnasieelevers meningsskapande, alltså hur de resonerar och lär sig, om vektorer när de stöter på begreppet för första gången i en matematikkurs. För att får ett underlag att analysera spelades elevernas kommunikation in när de arbetade med problemlösning av vektor-relaterade uppgifter. Därefter transkriberades kommunikationen och elevernas diskussioner analyserades i detalj med metoden analys av praktiska epistemologier (PEA). Resultaten av analysen visar några mönster. Båda elevgrupperna kom ganska snabbt fram till hur man genomför addition, skalärmultiplikation samt bestämmer längden av vektorer. Däremot hade eleverna problem med vektorsubtraktion. Resultaten pekar även på att en undervisningsform som fokuserar på vektorbegreppets geometriska aspekter är ett bra sätt att ge eleverna en bekväm ingång till begreppet eftersom att det knyter an till elevernas geometriska intuition. Genom att eleverna kopplade vektor-begreppet till sin geometriska förståelse samt hittade några generella likheter mellan algebra och vektoralgebra kunde de framgångsrikt genomföra sådana uppgifter som har en, i situationen, uppenbar geometrisk tolkning. Eleverna hade svårt att finna en geometrisk tolkning som var relevant för vektorsubtraktion och fick därför svårt att hitta en väg framåt utan lärarens hjälp. Studien visar därför att det är viktigt att eleverna utvecklar sin förståelse för vektor-begreppet ur två komplementerande aspekter, vektorer som geometriska objekt, ”pilar” och vektorer som uttryck av ett matematiskt språk i form av symboler.

  • Premat, Christophe
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    Students´attitudes concerning Wikipedia: quick facts or collaborative writing?2018Ingår i: NU 2018 (Det akademiska lärarskapet)- Västerås, 2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Source criticism is a strong challenge in higher education as many students do not pay sufficient attention to the diversity of sources, they want quick facts that they can reuse. By not being able to distinguish the quality of texts on the net, they clip and paste sentences that they collect in different documents. It is not possible to substitute academic learning with patch-writing strategies (Pecorari, 2015). Many students perceive themselves as illegitimate writers as they have to learn the content of the field as well as a more general academic practice on how to write an essay or formulate adequate answers to academic assignments (Eklund, Sköldvall, 2015).

    The case of Wikipedia is interesting as many students use this immediate information that they find on Internet (Tkacz, 2015). Wikipedia is a collaborative platform (O ́Sullivan, 2009) with many facts that students find it difficult to quote. Consequently, it is important to collect information on their attitudes to be able to see if there are any common strategies that students have. In order to define these strategies, it can be appropriate to ask students to work with Wikipedia articles and evaluate the information that they find. An experiment has been made in 2018 in a class of French as a foreign language at Stockholm University where students were asked to work with some articles of Wikipedia. Students had to learn basic facts by using the information contained in those pages. The inclusion of questions on sources was interesting to analyse students ́ attitudes. Some of them reacted vis-à-vis the content of the articles whereas other students commented the format of Wikipedia as a generic source for facts. In this perspective, the analysis of sources is the first step to acquire a mode of critical thinking in the Academy (Davies, 2013).

    The article aims at studying these reactions to see how the students in a foreign language might use and reflect about a source that they immediately meet when they look for empirical facts, figures or references on the Net. The results of this empirical investigation conducted during Spring 2018 will be presented. The second purpose would be to see whether students could possibly use collaborative strategies as learning tools (Kalin, 2012) in order to avoid plagiarism (Chankova, 2017). Should the Academy pay more attention to Wikipedia sources or consider them as a form of poor and quick knowledge? Are there any recommendations that can be delivered so that a better understanding of sources can help to avoid plagiarism? Last but not least, can this study based on quick facts be applied to formal knowledge?

    References

    Chankova, M. (July 2017). “Dealing with Students ́ Plagiarism Pre-Emptively Through Teaching Proper Information Exploitation”, International Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, vol. 11, n. 2: article 4, https://doi.org/10.20429/ijsotl.2017.110204

    Davies, M. (2013). “Critical thinking and the disciplines reconsidered”, Higher Education Research & Development, 32:4: 529-544.

    Eklund Heinonen, M., Sköldvall, K. (2015). ”Nu har vi ett gemensamt språk – om ämnesintegrerad undervisning i akademiskt skrivande”, Högre utbildning, vol. 5, nr. 2: 133-138.

    Kalin, J. (2012). “Doing What Comes Naturally? Student Perceptions and Use of Collaborative Technologies”. International Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, vol. 6, n. 1: https://doi.org/10.20429/ijsotl.2012.060110

    O ́Sullivan, D. (2009). Wikipedia: a new community of practice? Farnham: AshgateTkacz, N. (2015). Wikipedia and the politics of openness. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    Pecorari, D. (2015). ”Plagiarism in second language writing: Is it time to close the case?”, Journal of Second Language Writing, 30: 94-99.

  • Ek, Adam
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för datorlingvistik.
    Blending Words or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Blendguage: A computational study of lexical blending in Swedish2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates Swedish lexical blends. A lexical blend is defined as the concatenation of two words, where at least one word has been reduced. Lexical blends are approached from two perspectives. First, the thesis investigates lexical blends as they appear in the Swedish language. It is found that there is a significant statistical relationship between the two source words in terms of orthographic, phonemic and syllabic length and frequency in a reference corpus. Furthermore, some uncommon lexical blends created from pronouns and interjections are described. A description of lexical blends through semantic construction and similarity to other word formation processes are also described. Secondly, the thesis develops a model which predicts source words of lexical blends. To predict the source words a logistic regression model is used. The evaluation shows that using a ranking approach, the correct source words are the highest ranking word pair in 32.2% of the cases. In the top 10 ranking word pairs, the correct word pair is found in 60.6% of the cases. The results are lower than in previous studies, but the number of blends used is also smaller. It is shown that lexical blends which overlap are easier to predict than lexical blends which do not overlap. Using feature ablation, it is shown that semantic and frequency related features have the most important for the prediction of source words.

  • Norrby, Catrin
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Svenska/Nordiska språk.
    Lindström, Jan
    Wide, Camilla
    Nilsson, Jenny
    Kivasvenska och kanonsvenska: Sekvensavslutande värderingar i servicesamtal2018Ingår i: Svenskan i Finland / [ed] Silén, B., Huhtala, A., Lehti-Eklund, H., Stenberg-Sirén, J. & Syrjälä, V, Helsingfors: Helsingfors universitet , 2018, 1, s. 107-117Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med  studien  är att undersöka förekomst och vilka funktioner sekvensavslutande värderande responser fyller i servicesamtal mellan kund och personal vid teaterkassor, bokningscentraler och likande runtom i Svenskfinland och i Sverige. Vi ställer oss följande frågor:

    1. Enligt vilka interaktionella mönster förekommer positiva värderande responser i

    servicesamtalen?

    2. Vad bidrar de med i interaktionens sekventiella flöde?

    3. Vilka slags värderande uttryck förekommer?

    4. Finns det skillnader i bruket mellan svenskan i Finland och svenskan i Sverige på någon av

    punkterna ovan, och vad kan eventuella skillnader tänkas bero på?

    Undersökningen är en delstudie inom forskningsprogrammet Interaktion och variation i pluricentriska

    språk: kommunikativa mönster i sverigesvenska och finlandssvenska (IVIP) som undersöker språk och

    social interaktion inom tre domäner: service, lärande och vård i Sverige och Finland.

  • Premat, Christophe
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    Les littératures des Premières Nations à l´épreuve de la survivance2018Ingår i: CANADA: A WORLD OF TRANSFORMATIONS, 2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [fr]

    Notre présentation s ́attachera à évaluer les stratégies éditoriales des écrivain-e-s des Premières Nations au Québec en analysant la manière dont ceux-ci s ́adressent à un lectorat plus large grâce à l ́usage d ́une langue de communication, en l ́occurrence le français pour le cas des communautés innues au Québec. L ́hypothèse proposée est celle de l ́usage de la fiction pour faire passer un message proprement politique liée à la survivance d ́une culture minoritaire dominée historiquement et socialement. En nous appuyant sur les analyses de Jacques Derrida sur l ́éthos de la survivance et sur la réflexion de Homi K. Bhabha sur la pensée de la décolonisation, nous souhaiterions montrer en quoi cette littérature rend visible et sensible une forme d ́ethnopoétique originale.

  • Fleischer, Rasmus
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia och internationella relationer.
    Kullenberg, Christopher
    The Political Significance of Spotify in Sweden – Analysing the #backaspotify Campaign using Twitter Data2018Ingår i: Culture Unbound. Journal of Current Cultural Research, ISSN 2000-1525, E-ISSN 2000-1525Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the political significance of the streaming music company Spotify in Sweden, taking as a case a coordinated campaign in late spring 2016, known by the hashtag #backaspotify (translated as “support Spotify!”), which was mainly played out on the social media platform Twitter. The campaign is analysed using a set of data retrieved from Twitter, examining both the content and the interactions in 1,791 messages. Results show that the main political issue concerned the lack of access to rented apartments in central Stockholm, and that the main actors in the campaign were predominantly associated with public affairs consultants and the youth wings of political parties belonging to the centre-right. The campaign, however, was very short-lived and had diminished significantly already after two days. We conclude that Spotify transcends its role as a streaming music company, and additionally can be used as a point of reference in political campaigns to promote issues that are of wider scope than the music industry alone.

  • Verdizade, Allahverdi
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Selected topics in the grammar and lexicon of Matal2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats beskriver grundläggande grammatiska drag och ordförråd i Matal, ett tchadspråk som talas av omkring 18 000 personer i norra Kamerun. En översättning av Nya Testamentet används som parallelltext i denna studie. Identifierade språkliga strukturer jämförs med andra tchadspråk. Resultaten visar att Matal är på det stora hela typiskt för språkfamiljen, med undantag för det pronominella systemet, som inte uppvisar någon skillnad i klusivitet. Substantiv och adjektiv har en begränsad morfologi som endast uttrycker numerus som grammatisk kategori, medan verb har ett stort antal kategorier som uttrycks morfologiskt. Dessa har formen av affix som fogas både före och efterstammen. I finita verbformer är subjektprefix obligatoriska. Tempus kan uttryckas antingen genom ändrad ton i stamvokalen eller morfologiskt. Ett antal verbsuffix med varianter för numerus och person har identifierats, dock har deras funktion inte klarlagts helt. Ett system med komplexa adpositioner som i stor utsträckning använder sig av grammatikaliserade kroppsdelstermer har också undersökts, inom vilket fenomenet av prepositionskongruens i vissa komplexa adpositioner har påvisats. Grundläggande syntaktiska drag som ordföljd, negation och topikalisering tas också upp. Analysen av Matals lexikon visar att det grundläggande ordförrådet är företrädesvis nedärvt från tidigare språkstadier, men också att ett stort antal lånord i olika semantiska domäner har kommit in i språket.

  • Karimi, Najmeh
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Injury and migration in Sweden: Risk of death and hospitalization due to car accidents among foreign-born compared to Swedish-born individuals2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To compare risk of death and hospitalization due to car accidents among foreign-born individuals to Swedish-born.Method: The study cohort (2,404,710 individuals; 11% foreign-born) established by linkage between Swedish national registers. The main exposure was migration status, and duration of residence and age at migration considered as secondary exposures. The cohort was 18-39 years old and followed from 2005-2012. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for birth year, gender, family income, area of residence, and country of birth were calculated by Cox proportional hazard model.Results: 588 death (8% among foreign-born) and 17,969 hospitalization (11% among foreign-born) due to car accidents recorded. While, adjusted risk of hospitalization was higher among foreign-born than that among Swedish-born individuals, we found lower risk (HR: 0.92; CI: 0.85-0.996) among females and higher risk (HR: 1.17; CI: 1.10-1.24) among males. Risk of hospitalization was higher among foreign-born individuals who immigrated to Sweden at ages younger than 18 years or lived in Sweden 5 years or longer.Conclusions: Gender is acting as an effect modifier for the risk of hospitalization due to car accidents. We recommend further research to examine factors underlying excess risk impact of duration of residence in host country.

  • Pauthenet, Etienne
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Meteorologiska institutionen (MISU).
    Roquet, Fabien
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Meteorologiska institutionen (MISU). University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Madec, G.
    Guinet, C.
    Hindell, M.
    McMahon, C. R.
    Harcourt, R.
    Nerini, D.
    Seasonal Meandering of the Polar Front Upstream of the Kerguelen Plateau2018Ingår i: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The location of the Antarctic Polar Front (PF) is mapped in the Southern Indian Ocean bydecomposing the shape of temperature and salinity profiles into vertical modes using a functional PrincipalComponent Analysis. We define the PF as the northernmost minimum of temperature at the subsurface andrepresent it as a linear combination of the first three modes. This method is applied on an ocean reanalysisdata set and on in situ observations, revealing a seasonal variability of the PF latitudinal position that ismost pronounced between the Conrad Rise and the Kerguelen Plateau. This shift coincides with variationsin the transport across the Northern Kerguelen Plateau. We suggest that seasonal changes of the upperstratification may drive the observed variability of the PF, with potentially large implications for thepathways and residence time of water masses over the plateau and the phytoplankton bloom extendingsoutheast of the Kerguelen Islands.

  • Hedlund, Lisa
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematikämnets och naturvetenskapsämnenas didaktik.
    Programmering och matematikundervisning i grundskolans lägre åldrar: Lågstadielärares uppfattningar om vilka möjligheter och utmaningar programmering kan medföra i matematikämnet2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det övergripande syftet med denna studie var att synliggöra möjligheter och utmaningar med programmering i matematikämnet i grundskolans lägre åldrar. Studien motiveras av den nyligen reviderade läroplanen som kommer bli obligatoriskt till hösten 2018. Studien bygger på lågstadielärares uppfattningar och erfarenheter kring programmering i matematikämnet. Datainsamlingsmetoden för denna studie har varit kvalitativa intervjuer med fyra behöriga och legitimerade lärare i matematikämnet. Studiens centrala fråga har varit Vilka möjligheter och utmaningar ser lärarna med programmering som verktyg för elevers matematikinlärning? Resultatet visade att lärarna ser programmering som ett sätt att utveckla elevernas matematiska förmågor som problemlösning, metod, kommunikation, analys och resonemangsförmåga, men även generella förmågor som samarbete, kreativitet och logiskt tänkande. Utöver det ser även lärarna programmering som ett sätt att motivera till vidare studier inom matematiken. Eftersom vi lever i ett digitaliserat samhället idag ansåg lärarna att det är ett sätt att förbereda eleverna inför framtiden. Lärarna kunde även se ett antal utmaningar som skulle kunna stå i vägen för elevernas lärande. Det första handlade om lärarens kompetens, att avsaknad av kompetenta lärare inom området skulle kunna hämma elevernas kunskaper de har rätt att få. Andra utmaningar som diskuterades var de ekonomiska förutsättningarna som skolorna har och även tidsbristen lärarna ofta känner av. Att man har intresse för det man ska undervisa i var också en aspekt som togs upp.

  • Begum, Rabeya
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematikämnets och naturvetenskapsämnenas didaktik.
    The roles of teachers and types of questions in the science classroom: A study of communication patterns in high school level biology lessons2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Teacher-student communication in the classroom is crucial for effective student learning and a teacher can play different roles by asking related questions. Teachers use of the right questions at the right moment stimulates and invites the students to have a closer look, reinvestigate or revisit the problem. The teachers play various roles while asking the questions to continue the classroom discourse. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate various roles of a high school teacher in a science classroom discourse. The study also pursued how these roles are related to the types of questions asked by the teacher during classroom communication. A framework, constructed by Chen and his colleagues, has been used to categorize types of teachers’ roles to find the relationship between the roles of the teachers and the types of questions asked in a science class.  A case study has been presented in this report with observations from two high school level biology lessons.  Both audio and video recording were deployed to capture the lessons as well as a notebook was maintained. These recordings have been transcribed for a qualitative data analysis. In this study, five types of questions have been observed in two biology lessons: concept, confirmation, remembering, challenging and encouraging. Furthermore, based on Chen and his colleagues Framework, only three roles of the teacher was found: dispenser, coach, and participant. The findings revealed that the concept, confirmation and remembering types of questions are related to the teacher role as dispenser, the challenging types of questions are related to the role as coach and encouraging type of questions are related to the teacher’s participant role. The teacher acted mostly as a dispenser in the classroom discourses. There were some rooms where the teacher might exercise more as a coach and participant to improve the classroom interaction. No connection between the content of the questions and the role of the teachers was found from the observations. Therefore, this study suggests that further research should be continued with a broader scope to analyze the teachers’ questioning roles, its relationship with the content of the questions and its impact to promote student learning.

  • Disputation: 2018-10-29 13:00 Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Stockholm
    Björnerbäck, Fredrik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    Sustainable porous organic materials: Synthesis, sorption properties and characterization2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The resources available to us humans, including metals, minerals, biomass, air, water, and anything else on the planet, are being used at an increasing rate. This anthropogenic use of resources both depletes the resources and has negative impacts on other resources, e.g. the biosphere. Thus, developing (more) sustainable chemical and industrial processes are of the utmost importance for the well-being of the creatures of Earth and for the long-term sustainability of human society.

    This thesis focuses on organic porous materials, and more specifically their synthesis and characterization. Porous materials are, for example, used in detergents, water treatment, bio gas upgrading, carbon dioxide capture, as catalysts, in sensors, and in various biological applications. The application of porous materials can contribute to the drive towards a more sustainable society. However, porous materials are typically not sustainable themselves. Thus, there is a need to develop more sustainable porous materials. The synthesis and characterization of three different groups of porous organic materials are described in this thesis.

    In pulp- and paper manufacturing, lignin is separated from desirable products and is typically combusted for heat. In one section of this thesis, lignin was used to produce bio-oil for potential use in fuels and chemicals. However, the bio-oil process produced a solid by-product. The by-product was used to synthesize and study activated carbons with very high porosities and magnetic properties, a combination of properties that may prove to be useful in applications.

    Sugar is known to produce solid and unwanted compounds through reactions with acids. It is shown here that it is possible to produce highly microporous humins, i.e. organic porous materials with a large amount of small pores, using sulphuric acid and a range of saccharides and bio-based polymers. This work supports that solid by-products in a wide range of biomass conversion processes can be of high value, both economically and as replacements for less sustainable alternatives.

    The biosphere contains vast amounts of molecules with aromatic structures. The last section of this thesis shows how such aromatic molecules can be used to produce highly porous materials through Friedel-Crafts type chemistry using sulfolane as a solvent and iron chloride as a catalyst. This synthesis strategy produces high-performance materials, improves upon the sustainability of traditional Friedel-Crafts chemistry, and makes use of typically underutilized and abundant bio-based molecules.

  • Disputation: 2018-10-29 13:00 L30 Nodhuset, Kista
    Andrenucci, Andrea
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Using Language Technology to Mediate Medical Information on Health Portals: User Studies and Experiments2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The World Wide Web has revolutionized our lifestyle, our economies and services within health care. Health care services are no longer provided only at specialist centers and at scheduled hours, but also through online tools that give health care consumers access to medical information, health records, medical counselling and peer support. Such tools and applications are generally available on larger web sites or gateways called health portals. A large majority of online medical information consumers are laypeople (i.e. non experts) who appreciate the possibility to submit their information needs in their own native language. The information retrieval process where information requests from users and retrieved documents/answers are in different languages is called cross-language information retrieval (CLIR). 

    Mental health is one of the medical areas where some online applications have been successfully deployed in order to help people by providing in-depth medical information, counseling and advice. Despite the fact that online health portals are considered priority e-health tools for improving mental health, there are no formal knowledge instruments such as knowledge patterns that explicitly support the development of online health portals in the field of psychology/psychotherapy. 

    The goal of this research is to produce and evaluate a set of knowledge patterns, for the development and implementation of cross-lingual online health portals aimed at information seekers without medical expertise in the domain of psychology and psychotherapy. The knowledge patterns synthetize results of three research foundations: 1) User studies of portal interaction, based on interviews and observations about how users experience health information online and personalized search 2) Knowledge integration of existing language technology approaches, and 3) Experiments with language technology applications, in the field of cross-lingual information retrieval/question-answering. The target groups of this research are developers, researchers and health care providers, i.e. people who are responsible for mediating medical information on online health portals for users without medical expertise. 

    The chosen research framework is design science, i.e. the science that focuses on the study, development and evaluation of artefacts (objects that help people solve a practical problem). Typical examples of artefacts in IT are algorithms, software solutions and databases, but also objects such as processes or knowledge patterns. The developed and evaluated artefact in this research is a set of knowledge patterns for online health portal development. 

    The developed artefact contains fourteen knowledge patterns covering the three research foundations. Formative (structured workshops) and summative (online survey) evaluation of the artefact indicate that the knowledge patterns are useful, relevant and adoptable to a large extent, they also provide further directions for development of online mental health portals. Developing portals with multilingual support and tailored interfaces has the potential of helping larger groups of citizens to access relevant medical information.

  • Gustav, Alm
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Vegetationsutvecklingen och människans påverkan på vegetationen kring Sojdmyr på Östra Gotland från cal 4000 BP till nutid2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Sojdmyr is a small wetland located 3 km east of Lina mire in eastern Gotland, Sweden, in an area highly affected by shoreline displacement. Archaeologists believe Lina mire was once part of a major inland water system used for commerce, and signs from several cultures around the Baltic Sea have been found in the area. This study aims to investigate the vegetational changes in the Sojdmyr area from about 4000 cal BP to the present, as well as discussing the human impacts that have contributed to these changes. Methods used have been pollen analysis, charcoal fragment counting and interpretation of the stratigraphy. The core was dated by correlation the results with other studies from Gotland. From the start of the Bronze Age, ca 4000–3000 cal BP, Sojdmyr was a freshwater lake. The vegetation in the landscape was open, with high presence of thermophilous taxa such as oak and elm and indications of pastoral land use. From the late Bronze Age to the Roman Iron Age (ca 3000–2000 cal BP) the mire Sojdmyr was characterized by fen peat. The thermophilous taxadropped quickly in abundance, whilst taxa more tolerate to cold conditions increased and the area became less open. From the Roman Iron Age (2000–1550 cal BP) to the present, Sojdmyr has changed intermittently between shallow freshwater lake and wetland conditions. According to the pollen analysis the first sign of cultivation in the area appeared with the introduction of rye during the Roman Iron Age, soon followed by barley at approximately ca 1500 cal BP. From the Iron Age to modern times the vegetation in the area became more open with signs of both agriculture and pastoral lands. The pollen record from Sojdmyr suggests that the land use in the area has been affected by shifts in climate during the Migration and Vendel Periods and the Little Ice Age.

  • Undin, Jenny
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    Estudios de nivel superior en lenguas y estudiantes con síndrome de Asperger: Ventajas y desventajas2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [es]

    El siguiente estudio tiene como objetivo explorar la situación de los estudiantes con síndrome de Asperger en dos universidades suecas, concentrándonos en los estudios de lenguas extranjeras, específicamente de español. Por consiguiente, nos enfocamos solamente en las universidades que ofrecen programas de estudios vinculados a la enseñanza de lenguas. Los participantes fueron una coordinadora de apoyo pedagógico estudiantil, tres profesores universitarios de español como lengua extranjera y dos estudiantes con síndrome de Asperger. Las preguntas de la entrevista semiestructurada estuvieron dirigidas a conocer cómo afecta el SA a los estudiantes en el uso práctico de la lengua extranjera, estudios y vida social académica y en ver cómo funcionaba en la práctica el apoyo pedagógico estudiantil que se ofrece a estos estudiantes. Los resultados mostraron que el apoyo podría adaptarse más a este grupo de estudiantes, facilitándoles la interacción con los otros estudiantes con y sin SA con la ayuda de, por ejemplo, horarios más estructurados y metas explícitas en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje.

  • Lagares Carretero, Maria del Carmen
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    El lenguaje inclusivo en el discurso político español: Un análisis del lenguaje de los políticos españoles antes y después de una campaña electoral2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [es]

    El presente estudio analiza el lenguaje de Mariano Rajoy del Partido Popular, Pedro Sánchez del PSOE, Albert Rivera de Ciudadanos, Pablo Iglesias de Podemos y Alberto Garzón de Izquierda Unida, antes y después de las elecciones del veinte de diciembre de 2015, según seis guías feministas sobre el uso correcto del lenguaje inclusivo. Las categorías lingüísticas que se han analizado son los recursos léxicos, los recursos gramaticales y las formas de tratamiento. El objetivo de este estudio es comprobar si los representantes políticos adecúan su discurso según el lenguaje inclusivo y si éstos varían su lenguaje dependiendo de si sucede en un contexto formal o un contexto informal o si tuvieron lugar antes o después de las elecciones. El corpus está formado por discursos preelectorales que se obtienen de dos programas televisivos y por discursos postelectorales que se obtienen de sesiones plenarias en el Congreso de los Diputados. Una vez analizados, todos los discursos se comparan entre ellos para comprobar en qué momento se usa un lenguaje inclusivo y qué político hace uso de éste. En los resultados se puede observar que Mariano Rajoy y Pedro Sánchez hacen uso o no del lenguaje inclusivo dependiendo del contexto y del momento de las elecciones mientras que Albert Rivera y Pablo Iglesias no usan el lenguaje inclusivo en ningún contexto ni tampoco antes y después de las elecciones. En cambio, Alberto Garzón usa el leguaje inclusivo tanto en el contexto formal como el informal y antes y después de las elecciones. Por tanto, se concluye que Alberto Garzón es el candidato que usa el lenguaje inclusivo.

  • Vargas Carreno, Daniel Fabian
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    El poder del ejército peruano y las clases sociales en la novelaLa ciudad y los perros: Un estudio desde el nuevo historicismo2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [es]

    El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo realizar un análisis aplicando la crítica literaria del Nuevo Historicismo,utilizando la novela La ciudad y los perros de Mario Vargas Llosa Para lograr nuestro objetivo, en primer lugar, indagaremos en el contexto político y social de Latinoamérica y de Perú. En segundo lugar, indagaremos en el contexto político y social del autor de dicha obra de manera que podamos comparar el texto de la novela Laciudad y los Perroscon el contexto social y político que rodearon al texto y al escritor de dicha novela. Entre los aspectos que analizaremos están:   el desprecio, el desamor, la inmigración, la corrupción y las injusticias que existieron en el Perú del siglo XX. 

  • Wikström, Joakim
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    El uso de adjetivos pre- y posnominales en  el discurso coloquial de hablantes no nativos2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [es]

    El propósito de la presente monografía es investigar si un grupo de hablantes no nativos de español, todos de nivel muy avanzado, usan los adjetivos modificadores en su discurso espontáneo de una manera parecida a la nativa, y más particularmente en qué medida los colocan de manera idiomática delante o detrás del substantivo. El material usado consiste, por un lado, de entrevistas, en las cuales los participantes cuentan de sus propias vidas, y por el otro lado, de una tarea en la que comentan la acción en un videoclip de la película Tiempos Modernos (de Charlie Chaplin). Los participantes del estudio son diez suecos que residen en Chile desde hace por lo menos 5 años. La hipótesis es que, dada una constatada tendencia conservadora general en los hablantes de una segunda lengua que los llevaría a “ir por lo seguro“, los sujetos sobreusarían la opción no marcada, o sea, la posposición, en la colocación de los adjetivos. Los adjetivos están categorizados en dos grupos: uno de adjetivos cotidianos que tienden a anteponerse al sustantivo (bueno, malo, pequeño, grande, pobre, puro, nuevo, viejo, alto), y los restantes adjetivos, que por defecto aparecen en posición posnominal (p.ej. laboral, sueco, libre, desnudo, rápido, cultural, blanco, redondo, privado etc.). Los resultados no apoyan la hipótesis, en el sentido de que los participantes no nativos tienden a sobreusar la posposición. Estos participantes son comparados con un grupo de control que consiste de diez hablantes de español L1 que residen en Chile. Un aspecto que discrepa en el grupo de hablantes no nativos es el uso del adjetivo grande, para el cual los no nativos prefieren la posposición. También destaca el hecho que los participantes nativos son más propensos a usar adjetivos en general en comparación con el grupo no nativo. 

  • Varricchio, Isabella
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    Lacrime di frantumaglia: Verità letteraria nell'opera di Elena Ferrante2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis presents a study of the authorship of the Italian writer Elena Ferrante, focusing on hermain concepts “la frantumaglia” and “la smarginatura” in relation to the question of literary truth. Thepurpose is to examine the fascinating interaction between meta reflection and narration through anintratextual reading of her poetics elaborated in La frantumaglia (2013, 2016) and all novels publishedso far. With references to the theories of Sigmund Freud and Jacques Lacan, la frantumaglia and lasmarginatura are interpreted as the unconscious and different mental disorders that characterize the crisisof the female protagonists. The analysis examines literary truth on three literary levels: the verbal,considering the Neapolitan dialect related to the city of Naples as a representation of both maternalorigin and patriarchal oppression, the stylistic, viewing la smarginatura as literary style, and finally, thesymbolic, connected to what Ferrante calls the “symbolic sphere of the authentic”. Furthermore, anintellectual approach to truth is discussed as a contraposition to the others. In applying the methodologyof Michael Riffaterre, the analysis of the stylistic and symbolic truth dimensions shows how theiridiosyncratic traits are extended and transformed throughout the Ferrantian work. The thesis alsosuggests a different interpretation of the intimate relationship between mother and daughter, one of theauthorship’s central themes. Unlike previous studies with a psychoanalytical approach that affirms theexistence of a pre-oedipal phase free from patriarchal intrusion, this analysis demonstrates how Ferranterepeatedly reveals this idea as an infantile fantasy. Instead, the thesis argues that the only real synthesisis found at the level of writing itself, in the merging of the perspectives of the two protagonists in thecycle of L’amica geniale (The Neapolitan novels). This synthesis is further conceived as the authenticidentity of the anonymous author herself.

  • Gültekin, Raver
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Testifying through another tongue:Examining the effects of language barriers on accuracy and suggestibility in eyewitness testimonies.2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Language barriers in eyewitness testimonies may pose threats toward witnesses’ accuracy, and consequently on the outcome of judicial procedures. The present study aims to investigate the credibility and the extent of reported detail information of eyewitnesses’ testimony of a crime event, when the testimony is given in witnesses’ first language, second language, or second language through interpreter. Moreover, the study examines whether eyewitness suggestibility is affected by the language to which the testimony is provided. Participants (N=60) were exposed to a mock crime event and subsequently performed memory tests about that event. Results showed no differences in accuracy of suggestibility between experimental conditions. The personality trait social desirability showed no relation to suggestibility or the extent of inaccurate detail information provided in the present study. The findings are discussed in the context of implications, limitations and future directions.

  • Hermannsdottir, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Using consumer story scripting software to evoke emotions and empathy: A pilot within-group experiment2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    New technology provides the possibility of delivering exposure therapy for socially anxious individuals through virtual environments. This study investigated whether emotional responses and empathy can be experienced for virtual characters (avatars) and whether the evaluations differ depending on level of social anxiety. Six scenes depicting avatars interacting were created through the consumer story scripting software Plotagon and then replicated with real humans. 102 participants viewed the scenes and appraised their emotional response and level of empathy. Results revealed the avatars varied in ability to elicit positive emotions, yet were equally successful in the negative conditions. An association was found between high social anxiety and a more negative emotional response of the scenes with humans but not with avatars. In conclusion it was found possible to feel emotions and empathy for virtual characters in a manner somewhat similarly to that for humans.

  • Disputation: 2018-10-26 10:00 hörsal 11 hus F, Stockholm
    Lundquist, Elin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för etnologi, religionshistoria och genusvetenskap.
    Flyktiga möten: Fågelskådning, epistemisk gemenskap och icke-mänsklig karisma2018Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates birdwatching and focuses on the knowledges, skills and ideas that are obtained and acknowledged among birdwatchers. The aim is to explore how these ways of relating to birds are constituted. Birdwatching is considered as an epistemic practice, which produce and maintain knowledge. Thus, the human participants of these practices are regarded as members of an epistemic community. The overall theoretical framework is based on a material-semiotic perspective: the epistemic community, is viewed as not only made up of human beings, but of a variety of human and nonhuman actors – birds, technologies and landscapes – which altogether co-produce the practices. To investigate how habitual ways of relating to birds are established, the geographer Jamie Lorimer’s theoretical model of non-human charisma is applied to the analysis. The joint ways of relating to and engaging with birds are interpreted in terms of “affective logics” that characterize the epistemic community.

    The study is based on a multi-sited ethnographic fieldwork which took place at different birdwatching spots in Sweden; at birdwatching fairs and on websites where birdwatchers discuss and share information about birds. Furthermore the study is based on interviews with birdwatchers. The methodological approach during the fieldwork as well as in analyzing the research material, is to “follow the object”, or more precisely to follow how birds are acknowledged in these different settings. 

    The ways of relating to birds are interpreted as embodied skills and “knowledge by familiarity” with different species and landscapes. One central affective logic is the “joy of recognition” which motivates birdwatchers to learn how to identify birds in the field.The main method for gathering information in order to make claims about the objects of knowledge, i.e. the birds, within the epistemic community is through these embodied skills.The analysis shows that claims, based on these observations, are undergoing a number of validation processes. This creates a certain type of observer that must be prepared to get their claims reviewed. The methods for establishing claims are however challenged when new technologies, such as DNA-techniques and digital tools, are put to use in the identification processes.

    The analysis also shows that while all wild birds are potentially interesting as objects of knowledge within the community, not every bird is attended to with the same kind of interest and enthusiasm. Birdwatchers are more devoted to some species of birds, than others, in relation to the spatial and temporal circumstances of the encounters, and in relation to the birdwatcher’s previous experiences of similar encounters. A central theme that characterizes the practices is a negotiation of approximating the birds without disturbing them. This is made possible by the use of various technological extensions, such as binoculars and hides. However the analysis also shows that some of the, rather new, digital tools are acknowledged as potentially causing intrusive behavior.

  • Disputation: 2018-10-26 13:00 B25, Giessen
    Vuletic, Snezana
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    From Colonial Disruption to Diasporic Entanglements: Narrations of Igbo Identities in the Novels of Chinua Achebe, Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie and Chris Abani2018Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    With a general interest in Igbo identities, this study critically explores a set of questions which relate to the production, evolution and potential of ‘Igboness’ in literary fiction. The study approaches these questions while relying on two premises. First, it understands ‘Igbo identity’ as a highly transformative and heterogeneous category that exists in the plural. Secondly, it defines narratives as significant elements in (re)shaping and illuminating the meaning of Igbo identities. Therefore, the author of this study approaches Igbo identity as a construct created in narrative discourse and contends that to consider the question of what Igbo identity means is almost inevitably to consider what it means to write Igbo identity. While narrative construction of Igbo identities can be investigated in a wide range of texts, the present study limits its focus to Nigerian Anglophone novelistic writing and the select novels by Chinua Achebe, Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie and Chris Abani.

    The overarching goal in the study is to bring narratologically informed readings to postcolonial literary studies, in a way which illuminates the dynamic between narrative form, socio-historical context and ideological content. Reading literary representations of Igbo identities from a postcolonial narratological perspective has a two-fold potential. First, it helps to understand how notions of Igbo identity result from the ways in which narrative forms reflect and refract the influences from the embedding contexts, on the one hand, and how they actively shape ideologies of the text, on the other. Secondly, the exploration of the relation between postcolonial poetics and the sociocultural, and thus the ideological in the text helps to bridge the gap between narratology and postcolonial literary criticism, in a way which provides evidence for narrative forms as variables sensitive to cultural and historical difference. While meeting these two aims, the study defines a notion of postcolonial poetics as poetics that brings together structures of narrative and an acute historical sensibility, and thus seeks to overcome the schism between reading African novels either as sociological accounts with little use of fictionalisation or as purely decorative and apolitical forms.

    To achieve the above stated goals, the study focuses on Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart (1958), No Longer at Ease (1960) and Arrow of God (1964); Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s Half of a Yellow Sun (2006) and Americanah (2013); and Chris Abani’s GraceLand (2004) and The Virgin of Flames (2007). The literary analyses in this study thus range from the explorations of early postcolonial literary responses to colonial Orientalist discourses in the form of positive nativism; contemporary representations of Igbo identities as responses to a sense of ambiguity about the nation and an increasing imperative to question totalising discourses on tradition in post-independence Nigeria; to contemporary novels that examine Igbo identities from a transnational angle, in a way that destabilises colonial discourses of exotic and knowable African as well as early postcolonial discourses of reliable African identity. The analyses of these novels ultimately show how formal presentation of Igbo identities in fiction has never been far removed from wider questions of inequality in representation, social inclusion and exclusion, and domination and resistance.

  • Disputation: 2018-10-27 10:00 Auditoriet, Stockholm
    Brinch, Rebecca
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kultur och estetik.
    Att växa sidledes: Tematik, barnsyn och konstnärlig gestaltning i Suzanne Ostens scenkonst för unga2018Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to highlight and discuss the artistic force, potential and significance of performing arts for children and young audiences through the example of the work by Suzanne Osten. The focus of this research is on themes, notions of the child and artistic expressions and strategies. The dissertation discusses both the aesthetic and the political aspects of Osten’s theatre for young audiences and takes an interdisciplinary approach, combining theatre and performance studies and childhood studies. A fundamental assumption is that childhood is not a fixed or stable phase that manifests itself in one particular way for all children during all times. Another assumption is that theatre is more than what is visually apparent on stage. What is staged does not take place inside a vacuum, but is closely connected to the surrounding society and culture. To study theatre for young audiences as a cultural expression is therefore, to a great extent, also about analysing notions of the child.

    Five performances have been selected, all for young audiences: Paddakvariet (The Toad Aquarium, 1988, for ages 10 and over), Delfinen (The Dolphin, 1992, for ages 3 and over), Irinias nya liv (Irina’s New Life, 1996, for ages 9 and over), Flickan, mamman och soporna (The Girl, the Mother and the rubbish, 1998, for ages 7 and over), and Lammungarnas fest (The Baa-lambs Holiday, 2014, for ages 13 and over). A model for performance analysis has been constructed, based on hermeneutics and semiotics, complemented by three key theoretical concepts. Firstly focalization, as used by theatre scholar Maaike Bleeker, in order to understand the interaction between the spectator and the visions produced by the apparatus of performance. The reasoning of theatre scholar Gay McAuley about space in performance is used to examine how space is utilized and retained in the performances, while the notion of utopian performative by theatre scholar Jill Dolan provides tools to discuss how moments of ‘feeling utopia’ are a significant part of the selected works which raises questions of the transformative and affective power of theatre. In order to contextualize and historicise the analyses, the response of the performances is also taken into account drawing mainly on theatre reviews.

    As a whole the analyses show Osten’s theatre for young audiences as an ongoing research project problematizing the situation and position of children in society, as well as the view of art for children. Ostens performances for young audiences exhibit and make possible notions of a child outside of the norm in late 20th and early 21st century childhood discourses both within research and society as a whole. Osten’s theatre and artistry are identified as growing sideways, developing in unexpected directions while disrupting ideas about childhood and adulthood, and also what can be viewed as theatre for children and theatre for adults. The dissertation states that Osten’s theatre for young audiences can be seen as pioneering, not only in the field of children’s theatre, but also for the development and renewal of Swedish theatre in general.

  • Disputation: 2018-10-26 13:00 Hörsal 7 hus D, Stockholm
    Sivertsson, Fredrik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Criminal Careers in the Long Run: Patterns and Predictions of Criminal Convictions across Age, Time, and Gender2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Why is it that a small proportion of the population accounts for the majority of crime? This question has stimulated a great deal of theoretical and methodological controversy in criminology. In essence, the debate is rooted in different theoretical underpinnings of continuity and change in crime, and the extent to which it is possible to foresee a life of crime by zeroing in on at-risk juvenile offenders. The current thesis explores four contentious empirical issues that may move this debate forward: the long-term predictability of persistent offending in adulthood on the basis of childhood risk factors (Study I); the magnitude of adult-onset offending (Study II); the predictive value of gender for criminal recidivism (Study III); and the association between birth cohort membership and criminal career parameters (Study IV). All four studies employ longitudinal Swedish administrative data, based on cohorts of individuals born between the early 1940s and the mid-1980s, and followed on the basis of detailed conviction data. The thesis also utilizes qualitative life-history narratives with former at-risk juvenile delinquents. The results suggest that theories aiming to explain crime beyond the transition to adulthood should incorporate factors presumed to cause within-individual change, even among high-risk juvenile offenders. Although childhood cumulative risk, including a wide range of individual, family, school, and peer measures, were clearly associated with adult crime, they had limited value for predicting those persistent offenders who eventually ended up in the tail of the crime distribution. Furthermore, although gender is generally one of the main demographic predictors of criminal convictions, the results indicate that it is important to include females for the purpose of understanding continuity and change in adulthood. This is in part because adult-onset offending is more prevalent within the female offending population than within the male offending population and in part because the risk for criminal recidivism among female offenders becomes increasingly similar to that found among male offenders as convictions accumulate over the life span. Finally, the results suggest that the typical criminal career has undergone significant changes both within and across gender groups during the period since the mid-1970s, a period which has witnessed a historical decline in the aggregate conviction rate in Sweden. Taking this into consideration, the employment and extensive analysis of longitudinal multiple cohort data ought to provide a basis for furthering our knowledge on the inherent complexity of crime trends, while at the same time also locating the study of criminal careers in its historical context.

  • Disputation: 2018-10-25 13:00 Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Stockholm
    Gordeyeva, Korneliya
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för materialkemi.
    Design, processing and properties of lightweight foams from cellulose nanofibers2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Foams are applied in many areas including thermal insulation of buildings, flotation devices, packaging, filters for water purification, CO2 sorbents and for biomedical devices. Today, the market is dominated by foams produced from synthetic, non-renewable polymers, which raises serious concerns for the sustainable and ecological development of our society. This thesis will demonstrate how lightweight foams based on nanocellulose can be processed and how the properties in both the wet and dry state can be optimized.

    Lightweight and highly porous foams were successfully prepared using a commercially available surface-active polyoxamer, Pluronic P123TM, cellulose nanofibers (CNFs), and soluble CaCO3 nanoparticles. The stability of wet and dry composite foams was significantly improved by delayed aggregation of the CNF matrix by gluconic acid-triggered dissolution of the CaCO3 nanoparticles, which generated a strong and dense CNF network in the foam walls. Drying the Ca2+-reinforced foam at 60 °C resulted in moderate shrinkage but the overall microstructure and pore/foam bubble size distribution were preserved after drying. The elastic modulus of Ca2+-reinforced composite foams with a density of 9 – 15 kg/m3 was significantly higher than fossil-based polyurethane foams.

    Lightweight hybrid foams have been prepared from aqueous dispersions of a surface-active aminosilane (AS) and CNF for a pH range of 10.4 – 10.8. Evaporative drying at a mild temperature (60 °C) resulted in dry foams with low densities (25 – 50 kg/m3) and high porosities (96 – 99%). The evaporation of water catalyzed the condensation of the AS to form low-molecular linear polymers, which contributed to the increase in the stiffness and strength of the CNF-containing foam lamella.

    Strong wet foams suitable for 3D printing were produced using methylcellulose (MC), CNFs and montmorillonite clay (MMT) as a filler and tannic acid and glyoxal as cross-linkers. The air-water interface of the foams was stabilized by the co-adsorption of MC, CNF and MMT. Complexation of the polysaccharides with tannic acid improved the foam stability and the viscoelastic properties of the wet foam for direct ink writing of robust cellular architectures. Glyoxal improved the water resistance and stiffened the lightweight material that had been dried at ambient pressure and elevated temperatures with minimum shrinkage. The highly porous foams displayed a specific Young’s modulus and yield strength that outperformed other bio-based foams and commercially available expanded polystyrene.

    Unidirectional freezing, freeze-casting, of nanocellulose dispersions produced cellular foams with high alignment of the rod-like nanoparticles in the freezing direction. Quantification of the alignment with X-ray diffraction showed high orientation of CNF and short and stiff cellulose nanocrystals (CNC).

  • Wikman, Carina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Lärares etiska förhållningssätt: En pedagogisk omsorg om och ett ansvar för människans unika och särskilda karaktär i förhållande till skolans värdegrund2011Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här uppsatsen bygger på litteraturstudier. Eftersom pluralism och skillnad är demokratins förutsättningar använder jag pluralism som en utgångspunkt för att tolka skolans värdegrund. Detta gör jag genom att lägga Fjellströms ansvarsdiskurs som ett raster över först ansvar, sedan omsorg och till sist pluralism i värdegrunden. Uppsatsen är upplagd så att ansvar, omsorg och pluralism presenteras enligt omsorgsetikens syn och därefter ges Levinas perspektiv på det samma. Genom att omdefiniera Noddings omsorgsaspekt och Levinas ansvarsaspekt försöker jag utveckla en förståelse för ett etiskt förhållningssätt. Därefter följer ett avsnitt med en jämförelse mellan omsorgsetiken och Levinas etik, där motsättningar och överensstämmelser diskuteras. I slutkapitlet diskuteras vad det etiska förhållningssättet innefattar och vilken betydelse det har för lärare och för värdegrunden.

    Omsorgsetiken bidrar till ett etiskt förhållningssätt genom att sätta fokus på relationer och omsorg som indirekt leder till en kommunikativ öppenhet inför den Andre vilket är positivt för pluralism och skillnad. Omsorgsetiken belyser även den etiska aspekten på läroplansfrågor. Levinas etik fokuserar på relationen och det oändliga ansvaret inför den Andres alteritet vilket är positivt för pluralism och skillnad.

    Istället för att producera den demokratiska personen kan den demokratiska subjektiviteten genom etiskt förhållningssätt framträda uppfattad som ”handlande – i pluralitet”. Fokus finns då på skillnad istället för på likhet och enighet.

  • Gonzalez, Rebecca Ysamar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Choosing the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme: Transnational Students creating Social Differentiation through School Choice in the Swedish Education Market2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det beräknas att år 2025 kommer cirka 8,26 miljoner elever att gå i över 15 000 internationella skolor globalt. Denna ökade expansion av internationell skolgång kan inte separeras från en globaliseringsprocess där neoliberal politik har påverkat tillväxten på skolmarknaden. Internationell skolgång framstår som ett möjlighet för studenter och familjer som söker alternativ till nationella program, som uppfattas vara oföränderliga i en ny globaliserad ekonomi. När antalet inskrivna ökar med över tjugo procent i Amerika, Asien och Stillahavs-området, Afrika, Europa och Mellanöstern, är Internationella Baccalaureatorganisationen kanske den snabbast växande utbildningsgruppen som erbjuder internationell skolgång runt om i världen. 

    I denna kvalitativa jämförande fallstudie utfrågades fjorton elever i IB-programmet (Internationella Baccalaureat, IBDP) vid fyra skolor om sina erfarenheter av skolvalet på den svenska gymnasieskolmarknaden. Semi-strukturerade intervjuer användes för att undersöka studenternas strategier och motivation för att välja IBDP framför nationella program. Med hjälp av metod byggd på grundad teori (grounded theory), kopplad till Bourdieus begrepp symboliskt kapital försöker studien förstå elevernas strategier vid gymnasievalet. Resultaten visade att oavsett social eller pedagogisk bakgrund delar eleverna likartad motivation och likartade strategier vid skolvalet. Ytterligare analys visade att en kollektiv föreställning om IB tillsammans med liknande ideal beträffande självidentitet och klass påverkar och legitimerar deras val. Implikationen av dessa resultat visar att valbeteenden på den svenska skolmarknaden bidrar till viss del till en social reproduktion.

  • Hölscher, Robin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Teachers’ Perceptions of Early Tracking: A Comparative Study between Teachers from the Netherlands and Sweden2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Early tracking is an educational practice where students are divided into separate groups of ability. Despite many studies linking early tracking with increased inequality in education, it is a prevalent feature of education systems. This research uses a qualitative approach to study the perceptions of teachers regarding early tracking and the effects that it has on equality of education. Furthermore, it compares these perceptions between teachers from the Netherlands and Sweden. By means of thematic analysis a number of themes were identified from the interview data: the teaching-learning process; self-confidence and image forming; selection process and flexibility between tracks; labour-market transitions; opportunities for self-development; socio-economicstatus; and immigrant students. Comparative analysis showed that generally, the Swedish teachers had stronger negative perceptions of early tracking. They were more worried about the possible negative side-effects of dividing students at such a young age. Moreover, they felt that by adapting their teaching methods they were able to cope with the range of abilities in their classroom. The Dutch teachers did agree that the negative sides of tracking existed, but mostly they thought that these did not outweigh the benefits that they felt early tracking has for the quality of education. A number of the Dutch teachers worried especially that if some of the low-performing students would not be able to keep up with the rest of the class, they would lose their motivation and become disruptive to the lesson. Class size was found to be an important factor here: teachers from both countries strongly expected that smaller classes might make teaching in a mixed-ability group more manageable. Increasing the flexibility between the tracks was also seen as an important factor by the teachers from the Netherlands.

  • Willson, Ellen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Modern Day Slavery: An Analysis of Knowledge production within Awareness Curricula2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Slavery is a concept which is usually related to historically, however this issue continues today through a number of different forms of exploitation and can be referred to as modern day slavery. Within earlier research education is discussed as a method to alleviate modern day slavery, through access to education and through awareness. However, within earlier research the problem of modern day slavery is referenced in relation to globalization, yet not considered in relation to the continuation of colonialism. Using the globalization theory and the postcolonial theory this thesis explores the content of two curricula. The curricula have been chosen due to their focus on increasing awareness on the issue of modern day slavery. Through a colonial discourse analysis this thesis problematizes the production of knowledge on the issue of modern day slavery within the curricula. Through a colonial discourse analysis, it was discovered both of the curricula reinforce ideas of modern day slavery in relation to globalization, as seen in earlier research. Furthermore, there was a lack of consideration of the concept of colonialism historically or its continuation. The pedagogical implications of the curricula are discussed following the analysis which are informed by a postcolonial lens. Whereby it is discovered there are differences within the intentions of the curricula and the possible outcomes, furthermore issues arose in relation to overlooking historical trajectories and ignoring power relations on the topic of modern day slavery.

  • Haandrikman, Karen
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Webster, Natasha
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Nederlandse vrouwelijke ondernemers in Zweden: Kansen en belemmeringen2018Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [nl]

    De economische integratie van migranten kan veel beter; een onderwerp dat hoog op de Zweedse politieke agenda staat. Vergeleken met andere westerse landen hebben migranten in Zweden een veel lagere arbeidsparticipatie. Ondernemerschap is een belangrijke manier voor economische integratie, maar het is ook een belangrijke aanjager voor de economie en voor regionale ontwikkeling. Uit onderzoek blijkt dat vrouwelijke ondernemers wat andere paden bewandelen vergeleken met mannen. Dit is het onderwerp van een onderzoeksproject dat ik samen met collega Natasha Webster heb aan Stockholms Universiteit, bij de afdeling Sociale Geografie. Wie zijn deze vrouwelijke ondernemers, wat zijn problemen die zij in Zweden tegenkomen, en hoe staat het eigenlijk met Nederlandse ondernemers?

  • Wennström, Sofie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Scholarly communication as a situated learning process for PhD students: an exploratory study about publishing as a community of practice2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här masteruppsatsen avser att utforska hur doktorander lär sig sitt framtida yrke, och hur de socialiseras till att bli forskare via de kommunikativa praktiker som de ägnar sig åt, dvs. akademisk publicering. Dessa kommunikativa praktiker torde vara kopplade till hur en forskare relaterar till sitt forskningsfält, men också sin omvärld, och företeelsen är därför intressant att ytterligare belysa. Studien är genomförd i två delar. Den första delen består av intervjumaterial från samtal med 11 doktorander vid Stockholms universitet. Den andra delen består av en analys av statistik om elektroniska publikationer av doktorander vid Stockholms universitet under perioden 2013–2016. Publikationerna sätts sedan i relation till data om hur läsekretsen har interagerat med publikationerna via olika media och citeringar. De två dataseten analyseras med hjälp av teorier om personlig epistemologi, sociokulturellt lärande och handlingsrationalitet. Slutsatserna är att de flesta doktorander vid Stockholms universitet väljer att publicera sig i vetenskapliga tidskrifter på engelska, och att dessa kommunikativa praktiker kan förstås som ett pedagogiskt verktyg när det gäller lärande om och förståelse för doktorandernas kontext eller gemenskap. Resultatet av studien indikerar att det kan vara meningsfullt att fokusera på publicering, eller liknande kommunikativa praktiker, som en användbar lärandeprocess när det gäller att förstå mer om forskarens roll i samhället.

  • Taherzadeh, Alice Lida
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    An Alternative Currency for Education: A Comparative Case Study of Learning Practices within Time Banks2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to investigate learning practices within Time Banks in Spain. Time Banking is a community currency concerned with the exchange of services between members using time as the currency. Parallels can be drawn with Ivan Illich’s ‘Skills Exchange’ model in Deschooling Society (1971b) and this provides the initial motivation for the study of Time Banks from an educational perspective, which is identified as a gap in the literature. Moving on from Illich, the investigation of Time Banks is considered in relation to the wider context of Lifelong Learning and the Learning Society. The heterogeneity of Time Bank models in Spain motivates a comparative research design based on differing organisational logics, whilst the exploratory nature of investigating Time Banks as spaces of learning motivates a case study methodology in order to gain a contextualised understanding of the problem. The study finds that the Time Banks are built on principles of Mutual Aid (Kropotkin, 1902) and, whilst practices and values resonate somewhat with Illich’s critiques of modernism, a skills exchange model does not best represent the learning that takes place in Time Banks. Furthermore, this research finds that in all three Time Banks, the exchange of services forms only a small part of overall activities. Additional activities provide opportunities for the exchange of skills and knowledge between participants. However, the learning highlighted as more important by TB users is learning to participate. That is, learning solidarity and personal and social skills through active participation in the Time Bank. These findings are then positioned within the context of radical adult education and future lines of inquiry are identified.

  • Farazouli, Alexandra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    School Choice and Private Schooling: A comparative case-study between Greece and Sweden2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past three decades, privatization and school choice have been introduced and embodied in the vocabulary of several national education policies. Although free education has been constituted, private schooling has been steadily growing its presence over the last years in Greece and Sweden. Parents are asked to choose among different school alternatives in an attempt to find the school that ‘fits them the best’.

    This study aiming to examine the phenomenon of private schooling and the factors that affect parental school choice, outlined a comprehensive framework of the national policies about private schools and school choice in both countries. Furthermore, the Human Capital, Human Rights and Capability approaches consisted the theoretical background of the study and framed the analysis of its research findings. The case study design of the research provided an in-depth exploration of the two national contexts, enriching the study with empirical data. Twenty semi-structured interviews with education professionals and parents from both countries shed light on the reasons behind the school choice towards private schools. Regarding the findings of the research, several kinds of educational inequalities and social segregation were identified because of the fact that not all parents have access to school choice under equal terms.