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  • Morrow, Samantha
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Phosphorus Load Control in the Prevention of Harmful Algal Blooms: The Case of Lake Erie, located between the United States of America and Canada2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For over ten years the Western Basin of Lake Erie has been plagued by significant harmful algal blooms (HABs). Lake Erie is a body of water situated between the United States of America (USA) and Canada. The lake provides water to approximately 40 million people and is a considerable source of economic value. The Western Basin of Lake Erie is highly prone to HABs due to the shallow depth and large phosphorus (P) loads received from the large area of agricultural land surrounding the lake and its tributaries. HABs cause extensive ecosystem degradation, have multiple negative health impacts, and cause significant economic losses for the tourism and fishery industries. Five products with P load reducing properties from the three nutrient control categories (biological, physical, and chemical) were chosen to determine how effective their P load reduction pathways were. Additionally, these products were analyzed to determine if they could generate positive remediation effects on the Lake Erie HAB. Of these five products, the technologies Water 3.0 and PO4 Sponge were applied to a Western Basin HAB model generated using the Stella Professional software from ISEE Systems. The two products were modeled individually and collectively to compare the application effects on the HAB model. The model results illustrate the significant reduction in P load and HAB extent that the application of these products at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and within waterways could have. The application of both products at multiple locations within the model showed the greatest P load reduction and nearly eliminated the HAB extent. Unfortunately, the residual P from extensive historical P loading into the lake would prevent such a significant reduction from occurring for over a decade. Current practices and regulations in the Lake Erie Basin are not stimulating P load reductions significant enough to remediate the HAB. As the Western Basin HAB continues to occur annually, the waste stream produced by the HAB remains unutilized. Implementing new and innovative technologies in the basin can generate high quality commodity streams out of the wasted biological algal matter. Meanwhile the implementation of new technologies and practices can help reduce the HAB to a smaller size that would have smaller negative impacts to the economy, health, and ecology.

  • Stefan, Landberg
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Skolors användning av grönområden: En studie om hur skolor använder utomhuspedagogik i grönområden2018Student paper other, 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates how schools use green areas and what obstacles the schools meet in using green areas. In two different schools in the suburbs of Stockholm students from year 9, teachers and the school management have been interviewed. With the key concepts ofenvironmental justice, sense of place and outdoor education this study has been trying to get a deeper understanding of the schools use of green areas. According to the regulatory document LGR 11 schools must strive to make students aware of the environment close to them, something outside education have been shown to achieve. Teachers did not agree in what obstacles there was for having outdoor education in green areas and far from all the students were interested of being educated in green areas. The two schools had different approaches to outdoor education and usage of green areas. Why that is can is hard to answer but accordingto the school management from one of the schools it could have to do with lack of school traditions regarding outdoor education.

  • Simonis, Rita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    The effects of multilingualism on executive processing.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the first decades of the 20th century, research on bilingualism was just beginning. The first studies on bilingual children proposed a substantial disadvantage with respect to intelligence and learning abilities. This first proposition was later discarded when Peal and Lambert (1962) suggested that, on the contrary, speaking two languages was providing children with significant advantages in their cognition. At the present time, it is assessed that, while knowing more than one language is not negative, the supposition that bilingualism might have positive effects on executive processing is subject to controversy. The Bilingual Executive Advantage (BEA) hypothesis has been tested many times and in several ways. Nevertheless, it appears more like an overstated theory rather than a real and proven fact.

    The purpose of this study is to contribute to this scholarly debate not only by conducting one more experiment but also by investigating a possible extension to the original hypothesis, more specifically, the possibility that additional languages might confer an even greater cognitive advantage than the one that has been claimed to exist for bilingual individuals. In the study, 23 young adults were tested on a version of the Attentional Network Task and a Colour-Shape switching task, both used in a previous study on professional interpreters (Babcock and Vallesi, 2017). The subjects were divided in two groups, bilinguals and multilinguals. The comparison of their performances in the two task revealed no significant difference in any of the examined measures.

  • Pumchawsaun, Phat
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Integrated hydrodynamic and socio-economic damage modelling for assessment of flood risk in large-scale basin: The case study of Lower Chao Phraya River Basin in Thailand2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Thailand has been often affected by severe flood events over the past century. The 2011’s Thailand Flood Catastrophe was the costliest in country’s history, and it was ranked to be the second most damaging natural hazard in the world in terms of economic losses. The Chao Phraya River Basin was noted to be the most vulnerable area prone to flooding in Thailand. The dynamics of flood risk in the river basin have changed drastically over the past fifty years. In particular, flood exposure increased due to rapid urbanization and population growth. Since 2012, integrated flood risk management has been addressed to be the major framework of water-related disasters with the goal of losses and damage reductions. However, there is currently little research in Thailand on how to quantify flood risks and mitigate flood inundation damage on the relation between the occurrence of flood events and their consequential socio-economic implications. In this study, a tradition method in flood risk assessment is implemented by integrating 2D hydrodynamic modelling and the assessment of socio-economic impact of floods into the Chao Phraya River Basin. More specifically, the fully 2D version of the LISFLOOD-FP model code was used to model flood inundation processes. The output of the model was then used to map inundation depth and assess the levels of physical/environmental risk associated to flood hazards on multiple receptors/elements at risk. The European Flood Directive and the KULTURisk methodology were applied to quantify flood risks in monetary terms for residential, industrial, and agricultural sectors. The 2011 flood event was used for model calibration, while a hypothetical flood event with a return period of 100 years was simulated to identify the potential flood losses. Depth-damage functions comprising of JRC-ASIA, the Flemish, and JICA models were used to estimate potential damage for residential and industrial structures.

    The results showed that LISFLOOD-FP could satisfactorily reproduce the flood inundation extent obtained from satellite imagery in 2011. The model performance (Critical Success Index or F1) was of 56%, with a Bias of 112%. The latter meant the total inundated area was 12% larger than flood extent’s observation. Moreover, the model could simulate flood levels with overall Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and Mean Absolute Error (MAE) of 2.03 m a.s.l. and 1.78 m a.s.l., respectively. For the estimation of flood damage and losses, the Flemish model showed the strongest agreement with the reported flood damage in the residential sector, while JICA-ASIA model underestimated flood damage for industrial sector by just 1%. The KULTURisk methodology also well-estimated crop losses in the 2011 event which an overestimation about 21% from the reported value. Apart from that, fully 2D numerical method could not perfectly represent 1-in-100 year flood inundation due to non-consideration of important features such as the precise river channel topography, hydraulic infrastructures, and flood protection schemes in the river basin. Lack of such features results in an overestimation of flood damage and losses for 1-in-100 year flood comparing to the national flood hazard map and damage assessment which are simulated and estimated by JICA’s study. Such features can be better handled by using a coupled 1D/2D numerical method in order to simulate flood inundation extent more realistically and estimate flood losses. This could help the Thai government to better prepare a budget for flood risk prevention. In addition, even if the Flemish model indicates a good representation of relative flood damage to housing structures, the government should establish depth-damage curves specific for Thailand.

  • Gullberg, Rebecka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Carbon - Past, Present and Future: Effects of 20th century land use on soil organic carbon in Nynäs nature reserve, Sweden2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The land use sector has the potential not only to lower its greenhouse gas emissions, but also to sequester CO2 in soils through land use change and management practices. This represents an important mitigation opportunity, but there is a lack of knowledge in the potential of carbon sequestration between different land use types. This study examines soil organic carbon content and soil organic matter in a nature reserve in eastern middle Sweden. Methods include a change analysis of land use, values for soil organic carbon content from a literature review and soil samples for concentrations of soil organic matter. The study area has in terms of soil carbon been a source of atmospheric CO2 between 1945 and 1997, mainly due to a change from semi-natural grasslands to coniferous forest, resulting in a loss of 2209 tonnes of soil organic carbon. Results also show that wet grasslands and deciduous forests are the land use types with the highest potential to sequester carbon in shorter time spans. Older coniferous forests can store large amount of soil organic carbon, but younger coniferous forests and plantations, and cultivated lands were the land use types with the lowest values of soil organic carbon. Semi-natural grasslands have potential to store soil organic carbon but rates varied between samples and literature.

  • Aggesund, Pamela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    "The sustainable development way of implementing circular economy": A system thinking approach2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to develop an understanding of how circular economy should be implemented to result in sustainable development and to analyze the potential of one particular implementation to result in sustainable development. “The sustainable development way of implementing circular economy” is presented by understanding circular economy with system thinking and considering the factors affecting the implementation of circular economy. Interviews and text-analysis are conducted to analyze the character and potential of ReTuna, a reused items mall in Eskilstuna, to result in sustainable development. Results show circular economy should be implemented as a way of reasoning that can result in a systemic transformation of the economic system to result in eco-centric sustainability. Implementations that do not explicitly derive from a an understanding of circular economy as a new way of reasoning are despite this valuable due to a system’s character of interconnectedness. ReTuna is implemented as a set of practices and an organizational structure but it also demonstrates an honorable effort to change people’s perception of the human-nature relationship. It is concluded that way of implementation has to reflect and be synchronized with the aspiration behind implementing circular economy. ReTuna has potential to result in sustainability but does not yet.

  • Love, Chantella
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ett nytt screeninginstrument för Postpartum depression hos fäder och mödrar med Borg centiMax® skalan (CR100)2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande studie var att med hjälp av Borg centiMax® skalans (CR100) unika egenskaper utveckla ett screeninginstrument som innehåller uppgifter som anpassats till både mödrar och fäder för att upptäcka postpartum depression (PPD). Totalt deltog 190 testdeltagare varav 50 män och 140 kvinnor. En konfirmatorisk faktoranalys visade signifikanta samband mellan dimensionerna nedsatt stämningsläge, aggressivitet, ambivalens, ångest, copingstrategier och huvudkonstruktet depression. Detta indikerar att nämnda dimensioner är minst lika viktiga att föra in i ett nytt screeninginstrument som frågor som mäter nedsatt stämningsläge, och att screeninginstrumentet mäter huvudkonstruktet depression. Vidare visade studien att både fäder och mödrar uppvisade andra symtom än de som framkommer vid Egentlig depression i DSM – 5. Screeninginstrumentet visade god reliabilitet för hela skalan. Vilket tyder på att CR 100 skalan är ett användbart redskap för denna typ av ändamål

  • Paulsson, Niklas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Examining convergence of emotional abilities using objective measures2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Recent developments in emotion and EI research have introduced new ways of measuring emotional abilities, including performance based tests. The current study aimed to examine the associations of three emotional abilities, using three objective measures. The study consisted of a survey and an experiment, where 89 participants completed performance based multimodal emotion recognition and emotion understanding tests, and a conditioning task using social aversive and appetitive stimuli. The results showed that individuals who are more proficient in emotion understanding were more accurate in emotion recognition and more effective in extinguishing fear-evoking responses. In addition, individuals proficient in emotion recognition were shown to have stronger general responding during fear acquisition. Furthermore, various findings related to emotion understanding and emotion recognition modalities, including item difficulty and specific emotions. Implications of current findings support the notion of separate but related emotional abilities while also highlighting a potentially underlying mechanism or core emotional competence.

  • Lindmark, Tomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Span of Control’s Significance for Public Sector Employees’ Working Conditions and Well-Being2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The reforms in the public sector, as consequence of New Public Management, have led to flattened organizational structure, increasing the span of control(SOC) width for managers. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between SOC width, working conditions (job demands, job resources and engaged leadership), employee health and engagement. SOC was measured as predictor for employee health and engagement, where mediation of working conditions effect on the relation was examined. Self-administrated surveys were collected from 1551 employees working under 109 managers in four public sector municipal operations in Sweden. The result displayed that it was unfavorable to have managers with a wide SOC for the employees working conditions, engagement and health. SOC was a significant predictor for health, while mediation of working conditions could not account for the relationship. These results indicate that a narrow SOC may improve working conditions and health outcomes for employees.

  • Gerdfeldter, Billy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Exploring the Neural Correlates of Auditory Awareness2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Neural correlates of consciousness (NCCs) represent the physiological processes related to consciousness and awareness. Consciousness is theorized as a recurrent process of integration between separate but specialized brain areas. Previous research has used electroencephalography (EEG) to locate NCCs of sensory awareness in vision through event-related potentials (ERPs). Two ERP components thought to represent visual awareness are the visual awareness negativity (VAN) and late positivity (LP). VAN and LP have been extensively studied, yet little research has been conducted in other sensory modalities. In this study, the presence of an auditory awareness negativity (AAN) and associated LP is investigated in 23 subjects using EEG. To avoid false positives in data analysis, two research hypotheses were preregistered. The results indicate that auditory LP does occur, but that AAN does not, in hypothesized intervals. However, the data suggest that AAN may occur at a later interval. Possible attributes of the later interval are discussed. In sum, the data provide results consistent with recurrent theories of sensory awareness.

  • Lithner, Ellinor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Association between work-time control and sickness absence: A longitudinal study among the Swedish working population2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, sickness absence due to mental disorder is increasing for both men and women, although more among women. The psychosocial work environment is acknowledged as an important predictor for sickness absence. Employee based work-time control is beneficial for the balance between job stress and recovery and could therefore be of interest when aiming to prevent sickness absence. The aim is to investigate the association between control over daily hours (CoDH) and control over time off (CoT), respectively, and sickness absence. The study also examine whether the association differ by gender and if burnout or depression mediates the associations. Data was derived from two waves of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) which is an approximate representation of the Swedish working population (n=8418, of which 4936 were females). Binary logistic regression was used as method of analysis. After adjustment for possible confounders, no association between CoDH and sickness absence was found. Low CoT was significantly associated with sickness absence among men (OR=0.90 [0.84, 0.96]), but not among women. Neither burnout nor depression mediates the associations. CoT is stronger associated with sickness absence than CoDH. CoT with regard to sickness absence is of greater importance for men than women.

  • Mosesson, Marcus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Asian, Middle Eastern and Turkish Studies.
    Korean Bodybuilding: Cultural Hybrid or Instance of Cultural Homogenization?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study deals with the trend of male bodybuilding in Korea and investigates the motivations and aesthetic ideals of Korean male bodybuilders. The author of the study uses the few hitherto academic research works on the subject and tries to give an overview of the history of Korean bodybuilding. Besides, the author has conducted a digital survey in order to collect answers from Korean male bodybuilders about their motivations, aesthetic ideals, etc. The aesthetic ideals of the bodybuilders are then compared to the male aesthetic ideals of modern Korean society and also discussed in relation to the somatic beliefs of NeoConfucianism. The findings are thereafter analyzed in context of two theses of the cultural consequences of globalization, namely homogenization and hybridization. The study concludes that Korean bodybuilders are more concerned with the arduous process of sculpting their physiques rather than the look of them themselves. Although the research material on Korean bodybuilding is scarce and the responses to the conducted survey are small in terms of both numbers and scale, it may be suggested that Korean bodybuilding appears to be an instance of the hybridization thesis. Lastly, the study emphasizes the need for more extensive research on the subject in question. 

  • Appelgren, Jakob
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Lärares bedömning av laborativa inslag i fysik: En studie i gymnasieskolan2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie undersöker hur bedömning av laborativa inslag sker i gymnasieskolans fysikämne. Den undersöker också vad som bedöms av elevens kunskaper om fysikens karaktär och arbetssätt i samband med laborativa inslag. Liknande studier finns i grundskolan men saknas i gymnasiet. Hur bedömning sker har stor inverkan på elevers lärande. Fysikens karaktär och undersökande arbetssätt är viktiga inslag att få med i undervisningen för att elevernas vetenskapliga förmågor ska utvecklas. Kvalitativa intervjuer har gjorts med fem fysiklärare kring detta tema. Bedömningen av laborativa inslag visade sig mest vara baserad på laborationsrapporter. Fysikens karaktär och undersökande arbetssätt visade sig knappt vara ett innehåll i de laborativa inslagen. Detta betyder att fysikens karaktär och arbetssätt bör få en större och mer genomtänkt bild i undervisningen och speciellt i laborativa inslag. Vidare didaktisk forskning i gymnasiet bör fortsätta att ta avstamp i naturvetenskapens karaktär och arbetssätt för att kartlägga lärares tolkning av innehållet och hur detta förmedlas till elever.

  • Alrup, Malin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Scandinavian Languages.
    ”Välj vego”: En argumentations- och legitimeringsanalytisk studie av Djurens Rätts webbtexter.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna uppsats undersöks språkliga strategier i tre webbtexter från den ideella organisationen Djurens Rätt. Djurens Rätt måste i sina texter möta kommunikativa utmaningar i form av en diversifierad målgrupp och att fylla olika syften, eller funktioner, i texterna. Dessa funktioner innebär dels att försöka väcka intresse hos mottagaren för innehållet i texterna och dels att försöka påverka mottagarens attityder till en djurvänlig livsstil. För att undersöka olika strategier använder jag mig av argumentationsanalys och legitimeringsanalys.


    Undersökningen visar på olika fynd, bland annat att Djurens Rätt i sina webbtexter arbetar mycket med auktoriteter, konsekvenser och exempel, men att de däremot inte arbetar med berättelser, explicita teser eller analogier. Dessa strategier verkar för att beroende av ämnet i den aktuella texten väcka mottagarens intresse eller påverka dennes attityder. Användningen av argument och legitimeringar beror på flera faktorer: ämnet, den tänkta målgruppen och den tänkta funktionen i den specifika texten. Djurens Rätt verkar även arbeta mycket med kunskap och förmedlingen av denna. Genom språket legitimeras denna kunskap, och att följa en vegansk kost.

  • Guseinova, Fatima
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Kartläggning av KVINNA och MAN i August Strindbergs verk: En korpusstudie av sammansatta substantiv och kollokationer med ett diakront perspektiv2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Discourse prosody and semantic preference are inherent aspects of language. As soon as a word becomes part of text, it seizes to exist as an isolated unit. The aim of this thesis was to study quantitatively the use of the lemmas woman and man, and the compound nouns containing them, in the works of August Strindberg. The material used consists of his novels The Red Room, Gothic Rooms and Black Banners. The occurrence of the two lemmas was observed with respect to frequency, the degree of emotional weight in compounds and the distribution of lexicalized compounds between women and men. Additionally, the context of lemmas was observed diachronically, through an analysis of discourse prosody and semantic preference of the collocations for woman and man. The results showed that the lemma man is mentioned more often than woman. Most compounds for man are lexicalized, while the opposite pertains to women. Compounds containing woman are more often negatively charged. Meanwhile, compounds containing man are predominantly neutral. The analysis of collocations for the lemmas was not able to map the author’s attitude accurately and more data and deeper methods of analysis are needed.

  • Norén, Ulrika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Svensk behörighet vid omedelbara omhändertaganden enligt LVU i gränsöverskridande situationer inom EU2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    According to article 8 in the Brussels II regulation a Member State has jurisdiction in matters of parental responsibility over a child who is habitually resident in that State at the time the court is seised. This includes compulsory care of children by the State. Furthermore, article 20 in the Brussels II regulation states that the regulation should not prevent the courts in Member States to make provisional measures in urgent cases in respect of persons or assets in that State, even if a court in another Member State has jurisdiction as to the substance of the matter. This thesis examines the jurisdiction of the Swedish social services and courts in cases regarding compulsory care of foreign children in Sweden.

    An immediate taking into care under the Care of Young Persons Act constitutes a provisional measure under article 20 in the Brussels II regulation. The provision does not require that the child is habitually resident in the Member State that is taking the measures. Some Swedish courts have despite this concluded that the child must be habitually resident in Sweden for social services and courts to have jurisdiction when it comes to immediate taking into care. This is due to a problematic wording in the provision.

    Sweden has extensive responsibilities for children according to both the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union. The purpose of this thesis is to examine if the Swedish social services and courts, in making decisions of immediate taking into care of foreign children in Sweden, are meeting those obligations. The methods used in the thesis are the legal dogmatic method, the empirical method and the European legal method.

    The findings in this thesis demonstrate that it is possible to interpret the provision regarding the immediate taking into care of children in two different ways. In as far as the Swedish social services and the courts make the most favourable interpretation for the child Sweden meets its obligations under the convention and the charter. However, compulsory care is a huge interference in a child’s life and it is of great importance that legislation of that kind charter the power of the authorities in a clear and unambiguous way. This is particularly important in cases regarding compulsory care due to the risk of what a negative decision could mean for a child’s health and safety. Therefore, the conclusion of this thesis is that it is necessary and urgent that the problem is addressed at a legislative level both from a children’s safety perspective and a legal security perspective.

  • Ramsay, Sebastian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Swedish Law and Informatics Research Institute.
    The General Data ProtectionRegulation vs. The Blockchain: A legal study on the compatibility between blockchain technology and the GDPR2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines open distributed blockchain technology from a legal perspective. The blockchain is a technology used to secure and ensure the integrity of data in an unsafe digital environment. Traditionally, peer-to-peer networks (P2P-networks), synonymous with distributed networks, have faced the issue of ensuring the integrity of data and deterring scams such as double spending, which refers to someone using the same assets twice, and has discouraged people from using P2P-networks. Scams like double spending have been possible in the absence of a governing party ensuring the integrity of the data, that is until the introduction of Bitcoin in 2008, which introduced a cryptographic solution to ensuring the data’s integrity in a P2P electronic cash system. By relying on cryptography, instead of trusting institutions for the integrity of transactions, the introduction of Bitcoin facilitated a move towards decentralization where classical middleman services, like banking, are becoming obsolete.The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), which is to be implemented in all European Union (EU) member countries on May 25th, 2018, is a regulation that aims to harmonize data privacy laws across Europe. The GDPR introduces several fundamental rights and freedoms for natural persons regarding the protection of their personal data. This means that certain responsibilities are imposed on the responsible parties that process personal data.This thesis examines to which extent the GDPR is applicable to an open distributed blockchain and if the fundamental principles under the regulation can be upheld, respectively if the responsible parties can fulfill their responsibilities imposed by the regulation.

  • Holmin von Saenger, Isabelle
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Perceived teacher support and student psychosomatic health complaints: Exploring the role of schools' student composition and gender2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Mental health problems have increased among adolescents in Sweden and research suggests that contextual matters could be of importance over and beyond individual socio-demographic characteristics. One such social context is school, where both the student composition of the school and its support can influence student health. This study explored the distribution of psychosomatic health complaints (PHC) and perceived teacher support (PTS) as well as the association between PTS and PHC, across school segregated profiles. It also examined gender differences in these distributions and associations. The study design was cross-sectional, and data came from classroom-surveys within Stockholm municipality of ninth grade students in 2014 (n=4904). Linear regression analyse was applied. Results showed that average levels of PHC varied across school segregation profiles for girls, while PTS varied for both gender. PTS was negatively associated with PHC for all students, while the strength of association varied across school profiles to the benefit of students in the most privileged schools. Gender differences in these associations was also observed. Conclusions were that school context, based on the student composition of the school, and its provided support was linked to psychosomatic health complaints among students in Stockholm and that gender played a role in understanding pathways in these associations.

  • Paquette, Audrée
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Infartsparkeringen: En viktig bit i nutidsmänniskans livspussel2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att tillhandahålla parkeringsplatser för bilar i våra städer kräver mycket utrymme, och det finns ofta intresse för att använda marken för andra ändamål, i synnerhet i stationsnära lägen. Infartsparkeringar underlättar för många att använda kollektivtrafiken men det finns samtidigt en risk att parkeringen främjar anslutningsresor med bil på bekostnad av resor till fots, med cykel eller buss. Det finns behov av att öka kunskapsläget kring användarnas infartsanvändning för att utveckla planeringen av dessa. De fördelar som finns måste tas i relation med de eventuella nackdelarna så att välgrundade beslut kring infartsparkeringar kan tas.Studiens syfte är att analysera hur Trollbäckens infartsparkering i Tyresö kommun används samt att få en bättre förståelse av vem som är den typiska användaren. Studien visar att den övervägande användaren är framförallt en mamma på ca 40 år som arbetar i stan och väljer kollektivtrafiken av ekonomiska skäl, miljöhänsyn och för tidsaspekten. Parkeringsanvändaren bor inte längre bort än 3 kilometer från infartsparkeringen. De flesta ärenden som sker mellan infartsparkeringen och hemmet innefattar allt som oftast att handla mat samt att hämta barn från förskola och skola. Ett borttagande av infartsparkeringarna är för denna individ inte avgörande för valet att fortsätta utnyttja kollektivtrafiken även om fördröjningen av resekedjan skulle anses vara mycket försvårande.Rapporten kan användas som en del av ett beslutsunderlag till huruvida infartsparkeringen bör finnas kvar, byggas ut, eller tas bort. Allt detta kan då stå i relation till den alternativa markanvändningen. Rapporten bidrar till bättre förståelse för hur infartsparkeringen utnyttjas och om den uppfyller sitt syfte. Studien fyller en samhällelig och vetenskaplig funktion då den påverkar framtidens mark- och trafikplanering.

  • Granberg Olsson, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics.
    A Model-Theoretic Proof of Gödel's Theorem: Kripke's Notion of Fulfilment2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The notion of fulfilment of a formula by a sequence of numbers, an approximation of truth due to Kripke, is presented and subsequently formalised in the weak arithmetic theory IΣ1, in some detail. After a number of technical results connecting the formalised notion to the meta-theoretical one a version of Gödel’s Incompleteness Theorem, that no consistent, recursively axiomatisable, Σ2-sound extension T of Peano arithmetic is complete, is shown by construction of a true Π2-sentence and a model of T where it is false, yielding its independence from T. These results are then generalised to a more general notion of fulfilment, proving that IΣ1 has no complete, consistent, recursively axiomatisable, Σ2-sound extensions by a similar construction of an independent sentence. This generalisation comes at the cost of some naturality, however, and an explicit falsifying model will only be obtained under additional assumptions.

    The aim of the thesis is to reproduce in some detail the notions and results developed by Kripke and Quinsey and presented by Quinsey and Putnam. In particular no novel results are obtained.

  • Karlsson, Denise
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Samband mellan fonetiska aspekter och bedömningar av känslor i barnriktat tal2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the subjectively rated affects in infant directed speech and their correlations with acoustic parameters. Men and women rated affects in 25 second utterances of infant directed speech by mothers and fathers speaking to their infants aged 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. The mothers' utterances were in both Swedish and Australian English, while the fathers' utterances were only in Swedish. The affects that were rated were positive/negative affect, express affection, soothe/calm, encourage attention and direct behaviour. The acoustic parameters that were correlated with the ratings were mean fundamental frequency, range of fundamental frequency and means of the first and the second formant. How the utterances were rated on the positive/negative scale were compared with ratings of the same utterances but low-pass filtered (to 400 Hz), which were used in a different study. The ratings of positive/negative affect were also compared between the utterances of the two genders and the two languages. The result was that the ratings did not differ significantly between the filtered and unfiltered utterances. The correlation of rated affects and acoustic parameters indicate that most affects are rated higher when the fundamental frequency is higher, and the range of the fundamental frequency also appears to have some bearing on the ratings. The first formant did not correlate with any affects, but the second formant correlated with express affection. The ratings of the Australian English and the Swedish utterances did not differ significantly, nor did the ratings by mothers and fathers. Together the results indicate that mainly the height of the fundamental frequency and the width of the range are relevant regarding which affects are perceived.

  • Wikner, Christofer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Culture and Aesthetics.
    Att bygga ett luftslott: Tom retorik eller politik i Frihetstidens plafonder i Stockholms Slott2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsens ämne kretsar kring plafonderna i Drottningens sommarrum i Stockholms Slott, utförda av Domenico Francia och Guillaume Thomas Rafael Taraval. På grund av avsaknad av samtida arkivmaterial från dess tillkomst, utgörs studiens främsta empiriska material av plafonderna själva, i egenskap av visuella källor. Syftet är att genomföra en receptionsestetisk analys av målningarna där de allegoriska programmen ställs i relation till frihetstidens politiska situation – i synnerhet kungligheternas roll i den konstitutionella monarkin. Således bygger det teoretiska perspektivet på Wolfgang Kemps receptionsestetiska begrepp: externa och interna faktorer, samt implicit betraktare. Men då Kemps syn på de externa faktorerna är något begränsad, kommer främst Peter Gillgrens adaption av begreppen att användas. Dispositionsmässigt består analysen av tre delar, där den förstnämnda fungerar kontextualiserande och redogör i korthet för frihetstidens politiska situation och regenternas roll diskuteras. Därefter följer två enskilda bildanalyser.

    En huvudfråga i forskningen om plafondernas program har rört huruvida de är allmänt hållna eller återspeglar faktiska inrikes- eller utrikespolitiska förhållanden. Undersökningens resultat visar på att plafonderna inte bara knyter an till den samtida politiken, utan kan även härledas till stormaktstidens praktverk Suecia Antiqua et Hodierna, vilket sammankopplar programmen med stormaktstidens retorik och politiska kultur, och visar att stormaktsambitionerna ännu ej var glömda, utan manifesteras – om än subtilt – även i frihetstidens inredningar i Stockholms Slott. 

  • Höglund, Saga
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Svenska modalpartiklar: användningen av ju och väl i samtal2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the Swedish modal particles ju and väl in speech from a pragmatic and modal perspective. According to Kamio (1997:5) there are "territories of information" in speech which is relevant for the use of modal particles, since they indicate the speakers' attitudes and stances towards what is said. The aim of the study was to quantitavely investigate the use of modal particles with pronouns, tense and verb type. The method of investigation was a corpus study and the data consisted of a Swedish speech corpus "Samtal i Göteborg" (Löfström 1988) which was made up by recorded and transcribed speech. The results from the study indicates that first person subject highly correlateswith ju, while väl correlates with second person subject. The modal particles were more frequently used in present tense than in past tense. Moreover, the results indicate that there is a covariance with modal particles and "public verbs" and "private verbs" where the distribution of the modal particles is larger with "public verbs". These results indicate that the use of modal particles correlates with the territories of information between speakers and that the distribution of the modal particles is in accordance with pragmatic patterns.

  • Hellström, Carin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    The policy process of debates in the Swedish Parliament regarding cigarette smoking- 1971 and 2011:A policy analysis2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2003 a WHO treaty presented the use of cigarettes and tobacco as an international tobacco epidemic: a public health concern that needed to be diminished. Decreasing smoking prevalence can be an effect of individual choice, the social context or of governmental interventions. This master thesis originated in an interest in governmental measures aimed at decreasing the population´s smoking prevalence. The data used in this thesis include records of parliamentary and governmental bills as well as the parliamentary debates in the Swedish Parliament 1971 and 2011. Discourse analysis was used to analyse how the hazards of cigarette smoking in a public health perspective were of any interest to the national political arena of the Swedish Parliament. Fivethemes developed from the documents. The essence of the themes evolved to vision, society structure and tools for policy making. To conclude: forty years of policy making resulted in legislation; a smoking ban was put into place and shift of societal norms.The agenda of tobacco policy making expanded, what was politically acceptable and possible to add to the agenda during forty years varied. There were changes in discourse as well as development of new discourse.

  • Ogawa, Jane
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Kinship terminology in the greater Hindu Kush2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a study of the kinship terminology used for one’s parents and their siblings in the languages in the greater Hindu Kush area (GHK). GHK stretches over the mountainous borderlands of Afghanistan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, China and India and homes a range of various languages from six different genera, Indo-Aryan, Iranian, Nuristani, Turkic, Tibeto-Burman, and the language isolate Burushaski. The study is based on questionnaires from native speakers of 55 language varieties collected in 2015-2017. The main distinction is one between descriptive and merging systems. The descriptive system have separate terms for all six relations and are found in the outer areas of GHK. The merging systems have terms that refer to two or more relations, and these are found in the center of the area. Within this center-area the languages are then further divided into six different terminologies depending on which relations are merged with one term. Semantic clusters can be observed, based on systematic and lexico-semantic parallels, both within and across family lines. The distribution is discussed from a historical, geographical and social point of view. 

  • Prasad, Nathalie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Culture and Aesthetics.
    ”En bra bok att ha läst någon gång i sitt liv liksom”: En studie om gymnasieelevers läsvanor, läsintresse och bokval2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här undersökningen har jag undersökt vilken inställning elever har till läsning, hur deras läsvanor ser ut samt vilka bokval eleverna gör på skolbiblioteket när de får välja böcker fritt. För att genomföra min undersökning använde jag mig av två metoder; enkäter med eleverna och en intervju med elevernas svensklärare. Undersökningen bygger teoretiskt på tidigare forskning om läsvanor, läsattityder, läsning och litteraturdidaktik.

    Resultatet visar att eleverna över lag har en positiv inställning till läsning samt att de läser relativt mycket både i skolan och på sin fritid. Därtill visar resultatet att eleverna föredrar fritidsläsning framför skolläsning, något som även de flesta tidigare undersökningar av läsning pekar på. En orsak tycks vara att eleverna föredrar att välja vad de ska läsa själva, samt att de vill läsa utan tidspress. Lärarens syn på elevernas inställning till läsning och hur deras läsvanor ser ut är relativt överensstämmande med vad eleverna själva säger.

    När eleverna själva väljer böcker på skolbiblioteket väljer de främst böcker som de har hört talas om tidigare, antingen från kompisar och/eller familjemedlemmar. Även bokomslaget och/eller texten på baksidan av boken är avgörande för elevernas bokval.

  • Pålsson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Ethnology, History of Religions and Gender Studies, Ethnology.
    Nudelsoppans dilemma: En etnologisk studie om upplevelserna av arbetslöshet under mitten av 1990-talet2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetslöshet påverkar många i samhället på olika sätt; du kanske känner någon som är arbetslös eller har varit det själv. Denna studie tar vara på hur arbetslösa kvinnor upplever sin arbetslöshet. Materialet består av svar i form av berättelser från en arbetslös vardagsliv, som människor skickat in på frågelistan Arbetslösa berättar vilken Nordiska museets arkiv gick ut med 1995 och som är lagrad i deras arkiv. Även om materialet är tjugofem år gammalt så kan det fortfarande säga mycket om hur arbetslösa upplever sin egen vardag. Uppsatsen har genus, klass och utanförskap som sin teoretiska utgångspunkt och visar på hur dessa tre perspektiv alltid samspelar och påverkar hur vardagslivet ser ut och vilka normer som genomsyrar berättelserna. Arbetslösheten påverkar vardagen för alla människor olika, men ändå finns ett par gemensamma teman och normer som en röd tråd igenom berättelserna. Mat, utseende, tid, familj och utanförskap är exempel på sådana uppsatsen tar upp.

  • Dahlgren, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    A sedimentological study of Cryogenian glacial-interglacial cycles recorded by the Port Askaig Tillite Formation on Islay, Scotland2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An interglacial mudstone sequence from the Port Askaig Tillite Formation on Islay was analysed using an Olympus XRF detector. The resulting geochemical log was compared with an XRF dataset acquired from a Quaternary sedimentary core from the Lomonosov Ridge in the Arctic Ocean. Chemical proxies representing climatic and environmental changes were analysed in an effort to specifically identify evidence of orbital forcing in the Cryogenian Period.

    The studied non-glacial rock-section from the Port Askaig Formation was interpreted as being deposited in a shallow marine setting at semitropical latitudes during an episode of global warming at some stage of the Sturtian glaciation (ca 717 – 660 Ma). The transport mechanism of glaciogenic material was by ice rafting. High hematite content was interpreted as an oxygenation event in a peritidal zone when isostatic rebound caused a sea level regression. Increasing amount of muscovite is interpreted to indicate increased weathering. Underlaying sequence of dolostone and overlaying sequence of sandstone were consistent with these interpretations. One interglacial phase is thus observed, which possibly could be attributed to Milankovitch orbital forcing.

    The interpretation of the paleoclimatic setting of the studied interglacial mudstone did not provide support for the Snowball Earth hypothesis in its “hard” version. Neither did other observations such as evidence of repeating glacial-interglacial cycles and banded iron formations (BIF) appearing also within the Sturtian glaciation.

  • Werner, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Mina ögon kan glittra, min mun kan le, men sorgen i mitt hjärta kan ingen se: - Metaforer för sorg i svenskan2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines metaphors used in Swedish for the emotion grief. The definition of metaphor applied is the one of the conceptual metaphor, as presented by Lakoff & Johnson (1980), where metaphors are considered to be linguistic evidence of cognitive mappings and consist of a target and source domain. The aim of the study is to describe and map the different source domains, as well as to relate them to three basic level metaphors, that earlier research has shown to be of importance to emotional language; THE BODY AS MIND METAPHOR (Sweetser 1990), THE EVENT STRUCTURE METAPHOR (Lakoff & Johnson 1999 and Kövecses 2000) and THE FORCE METAPHOR (Kövecses 2000). Previous studies by Kövecses (2000) have treated the latter one as a dominating metaphor for more specific level emotion metaphors. The adopted methods consist of a text analysis and a corpus study, where metaphors are extracted from grief themed books and webpages and analyzed manually to later be sought up in corpora. The results show diversity in source domain and a total of 21 superordinate metaphors and 14 subordinate ones are observed. All three basic level metaphors feature. THE FORCE METAPHOR does however not qualify as a dominating metaphor which can function as a superordinate metaphor for all others. This is believed to be due to the fact that most earlier research has focused on English, as well as that the definition of grief used throughout the study does not constitute a prototypical emotion.

  • Östergren, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Educational inequalities in mortality are larger at low levels of income: A register-based study on premature mortality among 2.3 million Swedes, 2006–20092018In: SSM - Population Health, ISSN 2352-8273, Vol. 5, p. 122-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Education develops skills that help individuals use available material resources more efficiently. When material resources are scarce, each decision becomes comparatively more important. Education may also protect from health-related income decline, since the highly educated tend to work in occupations with lower physical demands. Educational inequalities in health may, therefore, be more pronounced at lower levels of income. The aim of this study is to assess whether the shape of the income gradient in premature mortality depends on the level of education.

    Total population data on education, income and mortality was obtained by linking several Swedish registers. Income was defined as five-year average disposable household income for ages 35–64 and mortality follow-up covered the period 2006–2009. The final population comprised 2.3 million individuals, 6.2 million person-years and 14,362 deaths. Income was modeled using splines in order to allow variation in the functional form of the association across educational categories. Poisson regression with robust standard errors was used.

    The curvilinear shape of the association between income and mortality was more pronounced among those with a low education. Both absolute and relative educational inequalities in premature mortality tended to be larger at low levels of income. The greatest income differences in mortality were observed for those with a low education and the smallest for the highly educated.

    Education and income interact as predictors of mortality. Education is a more important factor for health when access to material resources is limited.

  • Järnefelt, Pia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Examining transfer and prototypes in L1 Swedish learners of Spanish: The case of aspect: The simple present and the present progressive2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is focused on the transfer accounts and the prototype accounts, and examines aspect through looking at L1 Swedish learners of Spanish who are at early stages of acquisition. The prototype accounts postulate that adult learners will acquire the most prototypical forms of a grammatical feature first, and then, as proficiency increases, less prototypical features, called extended meanings, will be acquired incrementally (Shirai & Andersen, 1995, Geeslin & Fafulas, 2012). The transfer accounts claim that all grammatical features of the L1 will transfer at initial stages, and that this will either facilitate or impede acquisition, depending on if there are structures that are realized differently or similarly in the L1 and in the L2 (Kellerman, 1979, Gass & Ard, 1984, Schwartz & Sprouse, 1996, Gabriele et al., 2015). The study uses the stimuli and experiment used in Gabriele et al. (2015), a study that tested L1 English learners of Spanish and found evidence that support the transfer accounts. Results from the present study shows positive evidence of L1 transfer, which is taken as support for the transfer account. The results are not compatible with the prototype accounts. A finding of a marginal difference might be indicative of L2 transfer, which is also taken as evidence for the transfer accounts. 

  • Mollema, Anke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Typisch Frysk?: Stancetaking in the linguistic landscape of Fryslân2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Pallarés, Nadia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    El concepto del cronotopo en la novela de García Márquez El amor en los tiempos del cólera2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [es]

    El propósito del presente estudio es analizar la novela de Gabriel García Márquez El amor en los tiempos del cólera aplicando el concepto del cronotopo introducido por Mijaíl Bajtín en su artículo Las formas del tiempo y del cronotopo en la novela para as encontrar los rasgos semejantes y las discrepancias entre la obra de García Márquez y el primer tipo de novela según la clasificación de Bajtín, a saber la novela griega antigua. No se ha hecho un estudio similar sobre la novela de García Márquez y según mostraremos en el estudio actual es fundamental para una mejor comprensión del significado de la obra de García Márquez examinar las relaciones espaciotemporales en su novela.


    Tras investigar la novela de García Márquez y realizar la comparación con la novela griega antigua siguiendo la teoría del cronotopo de Bajtín, encontramos varias similitudes entre ambas: el motivo del encuentro, de la separación, de la búsqueda, del hallazgo, así como la imagen del héroe. Hemos descubierto además que existen ciertas divergencias entre el primer tipo de la novela griega y la novela de García Márquez que se pueden explicar desde una percepción contemporánea. 

  • Wermelin, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Ett hållbart lärande: Elevers kvalitativt skilda sätt att uppfatta lärande kring hållbar utveckling2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Hållbar utveckling är ett komplicerat begrepp som ofta ger upphov till en viss förvirring. I skolan ska elever lära sig att arbeta för och främja en hållbar utveckling, men hur ska det gå till? Det finns många tidigare studier som belyser hur lärare försöker anpassa sin undervisning till begreppet men i den här studien riktas istället fokus till eleverna. Vad har de för tankar om vad som är viktigt att lära sig och vad är de intresserade av?

    Min studie behandlar lärande för hållbar utveckling och har två huvudsyften. Det första är att studera och beskrivande kvalitativt skilda sätt elever beskriver sina uppfattningar, attityder, och intressen i samtal kring naturvetenskap och begreppet hållbar utveckling. Det andra syftar till att ta tillvara elevers egna uppfattningar och erfarenheter kring arbetet med hållbar utveckling för att försöka förstå drivkrafter där nyfikenhet och intresse skapas. Studien tar avstamp i den kvalitativa forskningstraditionen där fallstudier legat till grund för metodval och semistrukturerade forskningsintervjuer har använts för insamling av empiriskt material. Elevgrupper från en gymnasieskola i Stockholm intervjuades varpå materialet analyserades genom meningskoncentrering och kategorisering.

    De slutsatser som studien kommit fram till visar att de aspekter som lyfts upp i elevers samtal som drivkrafter eller grund till varför något blir intressant ofta saknas i de utsagor från eleverna som kommer fram i samtal om arbete med hållbar utveckling. De fyra nyckelord som framträder pekar på att elevers intresse fångas genom fördjupad kunskap, det häpnadsväckande, bra förebilder och det okända och att dessa bör inarbetas av lärare undervisning för ett lärande för hållbar utveckling. Men resultatet visar även på att förhållandet mellan elev och lärare bör belysas ytterligare och att lärare måste verka för att skapa mer aktiva medskapare till sin undervisning där framförallt det okända får vara en av drivkrafterna till att göra lärande för hållbar utveckling mer intresseväckande.

  • Caliolo, Susanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of French, Italian and Classical Languages, French and Italian.
    Non skrattare!: Tipologie di errori nella produzione orale di bambini italo-svedesi2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [it]

    This thesis examines the different typologies of morphosyntactic and lexical errors committed in speaking by bilingual Swedish-Italian children, 7-9 years old, having Swedish as first dominant mother tongue and Italian as first weak mother tongue. Furthermore, this work tries to assess if performance or competence errors are committed. Stated by Green, the bilinguals’ languages are organized in separate subsystems that can be activated to different extents. For the speakers analyzed here, the frequency of use of Swedish implies their predilection for this language, whose ease of access causes a predominance of the Swedish language system over the Italian one. According to the Competition Model, by improving the knowledge of Italian, the subjects adopt the linguistic structures that they gradually acquire and the transfers from the dominant to the weak L1 gradually decrease. The collection of data has been carried out taking into account the theories defining code-switching, code-mixing and slips of the tongue. As expected, the results show that performance errors are prevalent in children with a good knowledge of Italian, especially in the morpho-lexical field (terms not occurring automatically during the production and often drawn from Swedish). On the other hand, competence errors prevail in children with a poor knowledge of Italian: having a very weak ability of normative control and being subject to a very strong interference and mixture with Swedish at every level, they often borrow terms or sentences not occurring in Italian from the dominant language.

  • Heldner, Mattias
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Wagner, Petra
    Bielefeld University.
    Włodarczak, Marcin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Deep throat as a source of information2018In: Proceedings Fonetik 2018, Gothenburg, 2018, p. 33-38Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this pilot study we explore the signal from an accelerometer placed on the tracheal wall (below the glottis) for obtaining robust voice quality estimates. We investigate cepstral peak prominence smooth, H1-H2 and alpha ratio for distinguishing between breathy, modal and pressed phonation across six (sustained) vowel qualities produced by four speakers and including a systematic variation of pitch. We show that throat signal spectra are unaffected by vocal tract resonances, F0 and speaker variation while retaining sensitivity to voice quality dynamics. We conclude that the throat signal is a promising tool for studying communicative functions of voice prosody in speech communication.

  • Färnlöf, Hans
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Les traductions de Zola en Suède : première synthèse2018In: Traduire Zola du XIXe siècle à nos jours / [ed] Bruna Donatelli & Sophie Guermès, Rom, 2018, p. 75-89Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This survey of the editions of Zola’s works in swedish indicates that Zola was very present in the literary field from the first translation in 1879 (L’Assommoir) to the 1930’ approximately, a presence fortified by the Dreyfus affair. The statistics also seem to imply a possible influence of the debate on La Terre, as this novel wasn’t translated until 1917 and its publication in France was followed by a rupture of the translations of Zola in Sweden between 1886 and 1891. During the rest of the period up to the recent days, Zola has shown a comparable presence to other French realist writers as Balzac or Flaubert. The last decades increase of editions is largely explained by the use of digital formats, whereas the traditional paper edition diminish. Thérèse Raquin stands out as the most edited work, followed by classics as Germinal and L’Assommoir. The study ends with a methodological reflection on translation studies. Following some recent studies on questions regarding the translation of Zola’s fictional work, two main approaches are distinguished: focalisation on the possible loss of meaning arising from the erroneous choices of the translator, discussion of the questions arisen by the translation in order to better understand the specificity of the original text. The latter underlines the poetics of the author to a larger degree and might thus be preferable in literary studies.

  • Moser, Elena Vera
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Answers to Polarity Questions: A Typological Study2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Polarity questions, i.e. questions that demand as an answer either an affirmation or a denial (e.g. yes or no), are considered to be an universal language feature. Different strategies to answer polarity questions have been observed across languages. Sadock & Zwicky (1985) identified three systems of answer strategies: yes/no systems, agree/disagree systems and echosystems. Other studies have attested languages exhibiting a mix of these types (i.a. Floydet al. 2016, Holmberg 2016). Sadock & Zwicky (1985) do not offer any statements about the frequency distribution of the language systems, nor do they explain what kind of sample was used for their analysis. The aim of this study is to fill this gap. Specifically, the goals are to investigate the validity of the typology offered in Sadock & Zwicky (1985) and to establish some estimates about the cross-linguistic frequency of the types identified during this investigation. The data are collected through consultation of reference grammars and elicitation by means of a questionnaire.

  • Andersson, Stina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Swedish toddlers’ use of turn-final gaze in dyadic child-parent interaction2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Turn-final gaze at the interlocutor has been suggested to fill different functions in conversation: being monitoring, regulatory or response-seeking. 16 Swedish toddlers use of turn-final gaze in dyadic interaction with their parents was investigated at the ages 1;0, 1;6, 2;0, 2;6 and 3;0. The turn-final gaze behaviour was investigated for correlations to child age and language level. Additionally, child turn-final gaze in turn-final questions, in turns longer than 5 seconds and in different interaction contexts was examined.Results showed that the use of active turn final gaze increased over ages 1;0-2;0. No correlations between child use of turn-final gaze and child language level could be found. In turn-final questions, 93% of the turn-final gaze was active, i.e. was not present at the start of the turn. Turn-final gaze was used both during conversation and object-oriented interaction at all ages.A monitoring-response-seeking function of turn-final gaze was proposed to be used by the toddlers as a means to get the parent’s encouragement and approval of the child’s interactive language use. Additionally, the importance of choosing a suitable measure type of turn-final gaze while investigating small children was stressed.

  • Balkstam, Eira
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Fonologisk utveckling i det svenska teckenspråket hos hörande andraspråksinlärare: Identifiering av aspekter, tecken och en- och tvåhandstecken2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the phonological development of hearing L2 learners has been investigated with regard to their ability to identify a sign's aspect structure, both partially and as a whole, and one- vs. two-handed signs. The results were compared to a control group of deaf first language speakers of Swedish sign language. There has previously been a limited number of studies focusing on the identification of signs. For this reason, a task that required no previous knowledge of Swedish Sign Language or linguistics was created for this study. The study is based on data from a quantitative and longitudinal investigation. In the identification of aspects, it is shown that place of articulation was the easiest to identify for both groups, followed by articulator, and lastly articulation, which was the most difficult to identify correctly. The L2 group performed better and could identify a higher number of correct lexical signs than the L1 group. However, both groups scored low results. A possible reason for this is that the test template is not explicit enough about articulation as a aspect. When identifying one- and two-handed signs, it is shown that one-handed signs are easier to identify than two-handed signs, across both groups. This corroborates previous research that shows that two-handed signs are phonologically and cognitively more complex than one-handed signs. Further research with a larger number of participants is encouraged in order to investigate other potentially influencing factors.

  • Fagerström, Kristofer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    The social experience of living with HIV as a gay man in Sweden2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The experience of living as HIV positive constitutes a mixture of social phenomenon which affects individuals in various ways diverging between countries and regions of the world. The purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate how gay men in Sweden’s larger urban cities experience living with the disease, focusing on social exclusion, disclosure decisions and social relations. Using phenomenology, textual data was analysed from in-depth interviews with 14 HIV positive gay men. This research proves that stigma associated with HIV is a major stressor for the individuals serving as a barrier affecting their quality of life. The prevalence of stigma manifests itself via personalised, disclosure decisions, fear, and environmental attitude. Social exclusion was experienced due to being HIV positive and various factors impact disclose decisions, such as second disclosure. Stigma was especially experienced via online communication on dating apps such as Grindr, making it more difficult for the participants to make new connections. A structural change in how gay men have sex has been noticed in line with advancement in medicines, resulting in an increased engagement in unprotected sex. Findings also suggest divided opinions about the obligation to inform while agreeing that the law needs to be modified.

  • Vitcheva, Tereza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Can Effort-reward Imbalance explain Differences in Burnout and Sickness Absence between Strata of Occupational Gender Composition?: A Prospective Cohort Study2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: This study examined the prospective association between male-female ratio in occupations and levels of effort-reward imbalance, burnout and sickness absence. Specifically, we examined whether levels of effort-reward imbalance, burnout and sickness absence differed by strata of occupational gender composition, and whether effort-reward imbalance explained these differences. Methods: Data from two waves of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) was used, forming a sample of 9051 participants. Chi-square test and one-way ANOVA were used to estimate differences in variables between strata of occupational gender composition, and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to analyse if effort-reward imbalance explained differences in outcomes between five strata of occupational gender composition. The analyses were stratified by gender and level of education. Results: Levels of effort-reward imbalance, burnout and sickness absence varied by strata of occupational gender composition. Effort-reward imbalance was the most consistent predictor, while few significant associations were found between occupational gender composition and the outcomes. Effort-reward imbalance mediated some, but not all of the significant associations between occupational gender composition and the outcomes. Conclusions: There was no strong support for an association between occupational male-female ratio and burnout or sickness absence. Effort-reward imbalance was prospectively associated with all outcomes.

  • Paquette, Elodie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Social determinants of contraceptive use among young women in Kenya2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Contraceptive use has far-reaching social and health benefits for women in low and middle-income countries. While socioeconomic factors are known to be associated with contraceptive use, few studies on this topic have focused specifically on young women, whose reproductive health is a target of the Sustainable Development Goals and the Family Planning 2020 agenda. This study used the Kenya Demographic and Health Survey to examine the association between three social determinants (wealth, education, and residence) and two contraceptive outcomes (modern method use and long-acting reversible contraceptive [LARC] use) in women ages 15-24 in 2008-09 (n=3,211 women) and 2014 (n=4,982 women). Results showed increases in the prevalence of modern method use and of LARC use. Low wealth was associated with non-use of LARC methods, and the same wealth pattern emerged for all modern method use between the two timepoints. An education gradient was observed for both outcomes. This study provides some evidence that the urban-rural gap is closing for contraception; however, rural residence continues to be a strong predictor of non-use of LARC methods. Results indicate that continued work is needed to ensure equitable progress in contraceptive use and method choice to contribute to improved reproductive health for young Kenyan women.

  • Rosén, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    La voluntad de comunicarse en la lengua meta en el aula de español como lengua extranjera: Un estudio cuantitativo basado en una encuesta con alumnos de un instituto sueco2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [es]

    El presente estudio investiga en qué grado los alumnos en el aula de español como lengua extranjera en la secundaria sueca se sienten influidos por cuatro factores psicosociales (la autoestima, el miedo a evaluación negativa, la ansiedad lingüística y el clima intergrupal). El estudio se realiza en dos pasos, primero, los 75 informantes contestan una encuesta con afirmaciones y preguntas relacionadas con los factores psicosociales y su nivel de dominio de la lengua. En el segundo paso del estudio se realizan calculaciones de correlación para investigar si hay unas relaciones entre los cuatro factores psicosociales y la voluntad de comunicarse del alumno. También se realizan calculaciones de correlación para investigar si hay una relación entre el nivel de dominio de la lengua autopercibido y la voluntad de comunicarse. 

    Los resultados muestran que los alumnos sí se ven influidos por los factores y que los efectos de ellos en su turno están relacionados con la voluntad de comunicarse. Asimismo, se encuentra una relación entre el nivel de dominio de la lengua autopercibido del alumno y la voluntad de comunicarse. Se argumenta que los resultados del estudio sugieren que los profesores de español como lengua extranjera deben considerar los cuatro factores psicosociales al diseñar y ejecutar la enseñanza de español para establecer un contexto psicosocial que anima a los alumnos a hablar la lengua meta y, como resultado, fomentar el aprendizaje y adquisición de español.

  • Kuisti, Elina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Deconstrucción de estructuras binarias en Volver a casa, de Juan José Millás2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [es]

    El objetivo de nuestro trabajo es investigar, desde la perspectiva de la deconstrucción, la relación del sistema binario del pensamiento tradicional occidental con la construcción de la identidad y con la cosmovisión configurada en la novela Volver a casa. Hemos encontrado material sobre algunos de los temas centrales en la obra de Millás, que también están relacionados con nuestro trabajo, tales como la identidad y la percepción de la realidad. Sin embargo, no hemos encontrado estudios previos sobre la relación entre la escritura de Millás y las propuestas de la deconstrucción, lo que nos motiva a investigar esta cuestión. Partimos del supuesto de que la trama en Volver a casa está configurada por subversión y deconstrucción de las dicotomías preestablecidas, y que existe una conexión entre esos procesos de deconstrucción con la identidad y la cosmovisión presentada en la novela. Investigamos, por lo tanto, el papel de las dualidades que nos parecen más importantes desde esa perspectiva; realidad/ficción, vida/muerte, copia/original, yo/otro, hombre/mujer, ausencia/presencia en la construcción de la identidad y, en fin, totalidad/fragmentación en el sentido metaliterario. Concluimos que, excepto la oposición hombre/mujer, las dicotomías mencionadas quedan subvertidas o las líneas divisorias entre ellas difuminadas debido al hecho de que las oposiciones siempre guardan una huella de su término opuesto de acuerdo con la propuesta de Derrida (en Belsey, 2002:75), lo cual condiciona la cosmovisión de la novela y da cabida a una existencia indeterminada y a una realidad ambigua. El hecho de que la realidad pierde su papel destacado como punto de referencia conduce a la construcción de una identidad arbitraria y volátil.

  • Garemark, Veronika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Mäklarprovision - en probleminventering2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Rådling, Emelie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Skälighetsbedömningen vid barns skadeståndsansvar2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In cases where minors cause property damage it should be considered that the liability to pay damages could be limited, or apportioned. The restriction is determined using a fairness assessment, the fact that the perpetrator is a child is taken into consideration since children are not deemed to bear responsibility for their actions to the extent that adults are. Even though the fairness test is performed in accordance with the law there’ll always be a certain measure of subjectivity and unpredictability. Legislature calls for a fairness assessment after fault has been determined to be the child’s in order to assess whether the damages should be apportioned. A potential reduction is done taking into consideration the age, and emotional maturity of the child as well as the nature of the act in matter, liability insurance and a few other circumstances. While considering motive and legislative history in the fairness test, insurance constitutes the most important factor. This means that the outcome of the test is massively influenced by the existence or non-existence of a liability insurance.

    The main purpose of the study is to problematise around, as well as illustrate and support enforcement of the law in the cases where the fairness test has been conducted without taking into consideration the factor of liability insurance. In addition, the study will investigate the effect on the outcome of the test in cases where liability insurance is not taken into consideration. Whether this decision primarily aids the defendant’s or prosecution’s case. The secondary purpose of the study investigates the reconsideration institute in relation to children and juveniles, motivated by the lack of a right to reconsideration of decisions regarding the child’s liability to pay damages. Such a rule could be coupled with the initial fairness test.

    The results of the study shows that the courts’ unwillingness to impose liability to pay damages on very small children. Therefore fairness assessments are fairly rare. Children between the ages of 5 and 14 are assessed less harsh. A trial is conducted in accordance with current law where the rule is apportioned damages. This means the victim does not receive full compensation. Juveniles between ages 15 through 17 apportion is done restrictively. In exceptional cases damages can be apportioned on account of economical circumstances or psychological immaturity. Grounds for apportion can also be relevant in cases where full liability to pay damages could have a very negative impact on the juveniles reintegration into society.

    The results in the secondary part of the study shows that the control of minors liability to pay damages and reconsidering the same liability are hard to unite. The provisions behind motive significantly differ, therefore one would assume it necessary to, in the event of a possible introduction of a reassessment, modify the requisites of the law. A possible solution would be for the legislature to introduce an option for the courts to ex officio reassess the matter of damages after a five or ten year period, in the cases where liability damages have been apportioned.

  • Svensson Glaser, Matilda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Ideology or psychology?: A comparison of the news media framing of the crimes of Anton Lundin Pettersson and Rakhmat Akilov2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In October 2015 and April 2017, Sweden was hit by two of the most notorious deadly attacks in modern history. The first was directed towards people of immigrant backgrounds at a school in Trollhättan, the second took place in Stockholm, where a truck drove straight through the crowded pedestrian street of Drottninggatan.

    In this thesis, frame analysis is used to study how four major Swedish newspapers (Aftonbladet, Expressen, Dagens Nyheter and Göteborgs-Posten) portray the acts of the assailants Anton Lundin Pettersson (N = 89) and Rakhmat Akilov (N = 173), respectively and comparatively. Previous research suggests a disparity in the framing of “international” (i.e. Islamist) and “domestic” (e.g. right-wing) extremists, where the former are typically politicized and treated as part of a larger terrorist threat while the latter are described as mentally ill lunatics with individual motives.

    This thesis partly enforces this, by showing how Lundin Pettersson’s actions are psychologized to a larger extent than Akilov’s, which are rather put in a standard terrorism frame, as a symbol of “the terrorists’” war on “the West”. The results also show several similarities in framing, like how counterimages are used to strengthen the norms and values of the ingroup after both attacks. 

  • Löfman, Jimi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Straining work and psychological well-being: A quantitative study examining the effects of straining work on psychological well-being over a lifetime of work2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that work-related stress is associated with various types of negative health outcomes. With work being a large part of individuals’ lives, looking at the effects of straining work over a lifetime of work is therefore relevant in order to understand how the work environment affects health. This study will investigate the work environment by the demands and control individuals have at their workplace. Life course theory combined with the theory of cumulative advantage/disadvantage will help to create a framework for studying long-term and cumulative effects of the work environment on psychological well-being. Thus, the aim of the study is a) to understand how job strain affects psychological well-being and b) to provide knowledge on long-term effects of job strain on psychological well-being. The findings are based on panel data from the Swedish Level-of-Living Survey from the years 1981-2010, with 9-10 years between the measurement periods. High strain jobs (high demands and low control) are shown to have the most damaging effects on psychological well-being, whereas low strain jobs (low demands and high control) are shown to be the least damaging work environment. No significant long-term effects are found.

  • Nystedt, Jennie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Are older individuals who live alone in Sweden at increased risk of vulnerability? An investigation of personal and community factors2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: In Sweden today a third of all those 60+ live alone and the absolute number will continue to increase because of the aging population. The aim of this thesis was to identify if the subgroup, older individuals living alone, might be more disadvantaged in regard to the four key sources to vulnerability suggested by Mechanic and Tanner (2007): Poverty and low socioeconomic status, personal functions, low social network and lack of support, and physical location. Gender differences were also investigated.


    Method: Data was from the Swedish Panel Study of Living Conditions of the Oldest Old (SWEOLD) collected in 2014. The total sample in this thesis includes 987 individuals with an age between 70-105. To estimate the current living conditions in regard to vulnerability among the subgroup, five dimensions of vulnerability were analyzed with multiple logistic and linear regressions.


    Results: More disadvantages are found for those men and women living alone in all domains, except in social activity for women where living arrangement made no difference. Significant gender differences can be seen in depressive symptoms and social activity, but not for financial insecurity, mobility problems or living in a disorganized local community.


    Conclusion: Men and women living alone are more disadvantaged compared to those living with a partner, according to the four key sources to vulnerability. With this deeper insight it is possible to obtain a greater understanding in where policies to support and strengthen this subgroup should be placed.