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  • Kilander, Mikaela
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Barn- och ungdomsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Ledarskap i förskolan: Pedagogens ledarroll i förhållande till barngruppen2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta arbete har varit att undersöka hur pedagoger i förskolan ser på ledarskap i förhållande till barngruppen. Hur de definierar ledarskap i förskolan och hur de upplever och hanterar sin ledarroll. Detta har skett genom en intervjustudie och i förhållande till fenomenologisk teori. Ett av de mest centrala resultaten som framkom utgjordes av vikten av att barnen känner sig trygga i förskolan. Det framkom att det är viktigt att pedagogen är lyhörd och utvecklar en trygg och tillitsfull relation till barnen samt finns där för att hjälpa dem. Även betydelsen av att pedagogerna känner trygghet i sin ledarroll togs upp, vilken visat sig utvecklas med åren och påverkas av samarbetet i arbetslaget. Denna trygghet visade sig vara en förutsättning för att barnen ska känna sig trygga. Två andra viktiga aspekter av ledarskapet var dels att ge barnen inflytande och dels att de samtidigt behöver gränser och struktur. Min slutsats är att trygghet inom arbetslaget, hos de enskilda pedagogerna och genom detta även hos barnen, är det centrala för att ledarskapet och verksamheten ska fungera på ett bra sätt.

  • Ericsson, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Rizk, Danielle
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Ju mer kärlek i klassrummet, desto mer kunskap.: Andraspråkselever berättar om sina erfarenheter av lärmiljön på gymnasieskolan2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • Björk, Cajsa
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Olsson, Åsa
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    "Ja men, jag hör ju bra - det är bara några ord som försvinner": Elevers upplevelser av hörseltekniska hjälpmedel och dess användning i hörselklasser2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • Björnfot Sundström, Elisabet
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Nygren, Marie-Louise
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Lärares möte med verbalt särskilt begåvade elever2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • Disputas: 2018-12-05 10:00 Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Stockholm
    Shatskiy, Andrey
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för organisk kemi.
    Ru-Based Water Oxidation Catalysts: Development and Mechanistic Studies2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Oxidation of water constitutes one of the most challenging processes in artificial photosynthesis, which aims at storing solar energy in the form of chemical bonds of high-energy fuels. To facilitate this process, efficient and durable water oxidation catalysts have to be developed and integrated into the complete photosynthetic cells. Importantly, the intricate complexity of such devices requires the catalyst not only to be highly efficient and robust, but also operate through a well-defined mechanism.

    This thesis describes the development and mechanistic studies of new water oxidation catalysts based on ruthenium. The first part of the thesis describes the synthesis of a dinuclear ruthenium-based catalyst active for both chemical and light-driven water oxidation. This catalyst displayed a pronounced influence of the acetonitrile co-solvent on the redox properties, which was studied in detail by electrochemical methods. In the second part, a new benzimidazole-based mononuclear catalyst was evaluated. The activity of the catalyst was studied for chemical and light-driven water oxidation, and insight into the operating mechanism was provided with the help of density functional theory calculations. In the third part of the thesis, a new mononuclear ruthenium-based catalyst was prepared and evaluated for electrochemically-driven water oxidation. This catalyst displayed activity similar to that of the current state-of-the-art water oxidation catalyst, while eliminating its main drawback, that is incomplete activation. The redox properties of the new catalyst were studied in detail by electrochemical and spectroscopic techniques, providing insight into the origins of its improved performance. Finally, in the fourth part of the thesis, a heterogeneous nanoparticulate catalyst immobilized on a solid support is described. The catalyst displayed high activity and stability during chemical and light-driven water oxidation, which was attributed to the small average particle size and efficient anchoring of the catalyst to the heterogeneous support via an oxidatively-stable linker.

  • Disputas: 2018-12-05 13:00 Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Zurita, Javier
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Amino acids with relevance to health, climate and the environment: Development of mass spectrometric methods2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Amino acids play vital roles in health, either in their native form or chemically modified. Some studies have linked certain non-proteinogenic amino acids to neurodegenerative diseases, such as in the case of β-methylaminoalanine (BMAA). Various environmental pollutants, including carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic compounds, are able to react forming adducts with blood proteins. Amino acids may also be essential in chemical ecology as constituents of flower nectar, potentially used by common feeders as butterflies to synthesize pheromones. Additionally, proteinaceous materials have been detected in aerosols with an apparent potential to influence climate, possibly having a role in cloud formation.

    The determination of amino acids presents many challenges, due to the fact that they are most often constituents of complex sample matrices that contain a high level of chemical interferences. In this respect, mass spectrometry (MS) is a selective and sensitive analytical tool that can be used to measure amino acids in biological samples.

    In this work, several analytical methods based on MS were developed. (i) First, derivatization with a permanently charged N-hydroxysuccinimide ester of N-butylnicotinic acid (C4-NA-NHS) was used to increase the sensitivity and selectivity for amino acids. This strategy was applied to localize BMAA in both visceral and non-visceral parts of blue mussels. (ii) Moreover, a method was developed to separate and determine L- and D- BMAA in cycad seeds by derivatization with a chiral reagent, (+)-1-(9-fluorenyl) ethyl chloroformate (FLEC). Together with L-BMAA, appreciable amounts of D-BMAA (50.13 ± 0.05 and 4.08 ± 0.04 µg BMAA/g Cycas micronesica, wet weight, respectively) were detected for the first time after enzymatic digestion, suggesting D-BMAA may be bound to proteins or may be a conjugate and released only after hydrolysis. (iii) Derivatization with C4-NA-NHS was applied as well for the determination of amino acids in nectar of Bunias orientalis. The presence of tryptophan and phenylalanine, purportedly used to synthesize anti-aphrodisiac pheromones by nectar feeders (adult male butterflies), could then be observed. (iv) Furthermore, the profiling of amino acids in Arctic aerosols was carried out and was used to measure the contribution of free and polyamino acids in aerosol formation. Levels detected were in the range of 0.02-2914 pmol/m3 sampled air. For the first time the measurement of polyamino acids in the Arctic atmosphere was reported. Additionally, possible anthropogenic and marine sources were suggested. The results support the hypothesis that proteinaceous materials act as cloud condensation nuclei over the Arctic. (v) Finally, a method was developed employing selective chromatography/high-resolution MS to identify histidine and lysine adducts in serum albumin of mice exposed to the carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene, as well as in human samples in vivo. Adduct isomers from diol epoxide metabolites could be detected in serum albumin from human samples at attomole/mg levels. This work shows the possibility of future exposure measurements from these compounds in different groups of the population.

    This thesis presents the development of improved analytical methodologies for detecting and identifying trace levels of amino acids, to investigate their relevance in health, climate and the environment.

  • Ayele, Workneh Y.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Juell-Skielse, Gustaf
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    Johannesson, Paul
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Unveiling DRD: A Method for Designing Digital Innovation Contest Measurement Models2018Inngår i: Systems, Signs & Actions, ISSN 1652-8719, E-ISSN 1652-8719, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 25-53Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing open data market opens possibilities for the development of viable digital artifacts that facilitate the creation of social and business values. Contests are becoming popular means to facilitate the development of digital artifacts utilizing open data. The increasing popularity of contests gives rise to a need for measuring contest performance. However, the available measurement model for digital innovation contests, the DICM-model, was designed based on a single case study and there is a need for a methodological approach that can accommodate for contests’ variations in scope. Therefore, we use design science to construct a nine-step method, the DRD method, to design and refine DICM-models. The DRD-method is designed using goal- and quality oriented approaches. It extends innovation measurement to the application domain of digital innovation contests and provides an improvement of innovation measurement as it offers a new solution for a known problem. The DRD-method provides comprehensive support to practice for designing and refining DICM-models and supports reflection and organizational learning across several contests. For future study, we suggest an ex-post evaluation of the method inconjunction with real contests and systematic efforts to generalize the method within as well as beyond the context of the contest. Finally, we propose to further investigate the potential of topdown and goal oriented approaches to measure open and iterative forms of innovation.

  • Edmark, Karin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Location choices of Swedish independent schools – how does allowing for private provision affect the geography of the education market?2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Tenhovaara, Taru
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska fakulteten, Juridiska institutionen.
    Transferring Big Data to the United States in the Post Snowden Era: Can the Fundamental Rights of EU citizens laid down in Articles 7,8 and 47 of the Charter be guaranteed?2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • Eklund, Marcus
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska fakulteten, Juridiska institutionen.
    Verkställighet avsäkerhetsåtgärder i skiljeförfaranden: Reflektioner kring Sverige som attraktivt skiljeförfarandeland i en internationell kontext2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    During an arbitration, a party may need to request the arbitral tribunal to order interim measuresto secure a meaningful award. However, the parties may face issues relating to enforceabilityand hence the effectiveness of the arbitral tribunal’s interim decision. If the arbitral tribunal isseated in Sweden, under the current Swedish Arbitration Act (SAA), a decision on interimmeasures is not enforceable in the form of an order. This raises the issue whether such a decisioncould be made enforceable if issued in the form of an arbitral award.

    The SAA is currently undergoing a revision with the aim to increase the attractiveness ofSwedish arbitration, for both Swedish and foreign parties. The Government Commission(Commission) proposed in its report in 2015 that an express legislative provision be introducedspecifically empowering an arbitral tribunal to order an interim measure in the form of an orderor an award. This would be consistent with relevant Arbitral Rules. A decision in form of anaward would potentially be enforceable. The Government decided not to follow theCommission’s proposal in the proposed legislation referred to the Law Council on Legislation.The Commission implied that interim measures may be enforceable in Sweden, if made in theform of an award.

    Through the use of a legal dogmatic and legal analytical method this thesis concludes that thereis an uncertainty as to whether interim measures, in the form of an award, can be enforced inSweden. Parties can probably give the arbitral tribunal such authority to grant interim measuresthat are final and binding in character, if this is provided for in their arbitration agreement. Forexample, parties could vest the arbitral tribunal with such power by referring to arbitration rulesthat provide for such interim relief, as is provided in SCC and ICC Arbitral Rules. It is alsoconcluded that the enforceability depends on whether the award was rendered by a tribunalsitting in/outside of Sweden. The Swedish Supreme Court has stated that “award” within themeaning of the New York Convention (NYC) should, as a rule, be construed according to thelaw of the seat of the arbitration. This may allow for enforcement of interim measures in theform of an award. However, due to the general, but not conclusive, view that the NYC does notapply to interim measures, no certain conclusions can be made.

    Furthermore, it is argued, because of this ambiguity, that Sweden fails to offer parties andarbitrators a modern and effective arbitral regime, which may hamper Sweden’s ambitions inattracting foreign parties to arbitrate in Sweden. Therefore, Sweden should introduce apossibility for the arbitral tribunal to grant enforceable interim measures.

  • Svendsen, Jens Martin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Marknadsföring.
    Därför var Sverigedemokraternas valaffischer skicklig propaganda2018Inngår i: ResuméArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • Lundström, Tommy
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Sallnäs, Marie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Shanks, Emelie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Stability and change in the field of residential care for children.: On ownership structure, treatment ideas and institutional logics.2018Inngår i: Nordic Social Work Research, ISSN 2156-857X, E-ISSN 2156-8588, ISSN 2156-857x, artikkel-id 10.1080/2156857X.2018.1541016Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The field of residential care for children and youth in Sweden is often termed unstable and turbulent. During recent decades the field has been subject to many changes. In this study, the development and changes in the field of residential care for children and youth in terms of ownership structure and treatment ideas will be analysed. The study is particularly focused on the changes in ownership structure that have taken place during the 2010s. It also analyses changes in treatment ideas, and discusses how these may relate to transformations of ownership structures as well as to dimensions of institutional logics, such as legislation and other types of normative pressure from the environment. The result reveals that of the approximately 450 treatment oriented residential care units (excluding homes for refugee children), close to 80 % are today run by private companies and to a growing extent by large for-profit corporations. Parallel – and possibly related – to the changes in ownership structure, the dominant treatment ideas have changed over time. The changes in the field can be summarised as a transformation from small-scale establishments with a family logic, to large-scale establishments with a professional logic, or more specifically from a domination of small family run units with milieu therapy to big business and a focus on evidence based interventions.

  • Disputas: 2018-11-30 10:00 Vivi Täckholmsalen (Q-salen), NPQ-huset, Stockholm
    Rasmussen, Pil Uthaug
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Plant-associated soil communities: Patterns, drivers and aboveground consequences2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil contains a wealth of diversity – bacteria, fungi, nematodes, arthropods and earthworms are just some of the many organisms found belowground. These organisms play an important role in shaping the soil environment and they strongly influence plant fitness, diversity and community composition. Their impact even cascades up to affect aboveground species interactions. Ultimately, belowground organisms are a vital part of ecosystem functioning. Nevertheless, most of the diversity and ecology of belowground organisms are to this day unknown, and increasing our insights into the role and ecology of soil organisms is of importance for natural and agricultural systems.

    The main goal of this thesis was to investigate spatial patterns of plant-associated soil communities (I, II), to identify the drivers of such spatial patterns (I, II, III), and to study some of the consequences of belowground spatial patterns for aboveground species interactions (IV). To answer these questions, I used both observational studies and multifactorial experiments in combination with microscopy and metabarcoding. I focused on the plant Plantago lanceolata (ribwort plantain) and its root-associated soil microbes, with a strong emphasis on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, an important group of root symbionts.

    I found that in natural environments arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities frequently show high small-scale variation (I). In the following work I showed that the pattern of high small-scale heterogeneity may be due to dispersal limitation (II), abiotic conditions such as pH, soil nutrients and climate (I, III), and biotic conditions, such as interspecific community composition and genetic variation (I, II). The high variation at small spatial scales (I) in combination with genetic variation of plants and insects (IV) may help maintain high local heterogeneity in aboveground plant-associated communities, thereby influencing aboveground diversity and dynamics.

    The insight gained here has increased our general knowledge on the distribution of soil microbes and the interactions taking place above and belowground. It has furthermore laid a foundation for future work on the world of soil microbes and their implications aboveground.

  • Disputas: 2018-11-30 09:00 Rehabsalen, Stockholm
    Ardenfors, Oscar
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum.
    Out-of-field doses from proton therapy and doses from CBCT imaging: Risk of radiation-induced second cancer from modern radiotherapy2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of ionizing radiation for treatment of cancer diseases is continuously increasing as patient survival is improving and new treatment techniques are emerging. While this development is beneficial for curing primary tumors, concerns have been raised regarding the unwanted dose contribution to healthy tissues of patients and the associated risk of radiation-induced second cancer (RISC). This is especially important for younger patients receiving radiotherapy more often than before and for whom the risk of developing RISC is elevated in comparison to the typical adult radiotherapy patient. In order to estimate the risk of RISC associated with modern radiotherapy and imaging, the associated radiation doses must be determined.

    Patients undergoing radiotherapy receive in-field doses from the primary beam but also out-of-field doses originating from secondary radiation produced in the beamline and within the patient. Over the last years, the use of proton pencil beam scanning (PBS) therapy has rapidly increased due to its potential to reduce the in-field doses to healthy tissues in comparison to photon therapy. One of the drawbacks with proton therapy is the production of neutrons capable of travelling large distances and depositing out-of-field doses to organs located far from the primary treatment field. The dose reduction associated with proton PBS therapy could consequently be affected by the out-of-field doses originating from secondary radiation.

    The sharp dose gradients associated with modern treatment techniques, such as photon intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and proton PBS therapy require more frequent and accurate patient imaging in comparison to conventional treatment techniques such as three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (CRT). Setup verification images could be acquired with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) producing three-dimensional patient images at the cost of an increased patient dose in comparison to planar x-ray imaging. Concerns have been raised regarding the cumulative patient doses from repeated CBCT imaging versus the dose-saving benefits associated with modern radiotherapy techniques like IMRT and proton PBS.

    In this thesis, a study on the in-field and out-of-field doses to healthy tissues from photon IMRT and CRT treatments of head and neck tumors showed that the risk of RISC was unaffected by the employed treatment technique and indicated that the lifetime risk of cancer induction was of the order of 1-2%.

    Results from measurements and Monte Carlo simulations showed that the out-of-field absorbed doses and equivalent doses associated with proton PBS treatments of brain tumors were up to 60 µGy/Gy and 150 µSv/Gy, respectively. The risk of RISC associated with these out-of-field doses was in the range of approximately one induced cancer in ten thousand treated patients. A simulation study on the doses from a proton gantry-mounted CBCT system showed that repeated CBCT imaging could result in cumulative organ doses of almost 2 Gy. The conclusion from these studies is that the dose-sparing effects of proton PBS therapy are not overshadowed by the out-of-field doses originating from secondary radiation for brain tumor treatments, but that the cumulative doses from repeated CBCT imaging could have a relevant impact on the overall dose reduction.

  • Disputas: 2018-11-30 13:00 Auditorium 215, Humanistvillan, Stockholm
    Solheim, Randi C.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kultur och estetik.
    Kunst og nasjon: Brytninger i kunstsynet i Norge 1750–19052018Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis examines the art theoretical discourse, in Norway, from the mid eighteenth century up to 1905. The objective of the study has been to identify and analyse the most important art theoretical positions in treatises and other programmatic texts and works of art. The source material has been analysed through close reading of the texts, and through detailed examination of the chosen artworks. The focus is on discourse that is understood, in the traditional sense, as an exchange of ideas or communication between individuals where there exists a difference of opinion. This model is inspired by Jürgen Habermas’ theory of communicative action and represents a kind of analytical pluralism that differs from the discourse model associated with Michel Foucault.

    The period examined has been chosen both from a political and from a discursive point of view. Norway in the examined period transformed from a pre-modern society into a modern nation state. It was also in this period art became a national concern. Prior to 1814, Norway was part of a larger Danish-Norwegian conglomerate state with the capital Copenhagen. From 1814 up to 1905 Norway had a semi-autonomous status with its own capital, Christiania, within a personal union under a common monarch with Sweden.

    The hypothesis of the thesis is that the art theoretical conflicts are expressions of hegemonic rivalries between elites with differing national strategies. This perspective, which implies a struggle over ideas and positions, transgresses Habermas’ consensus model. The power perspective takes into consideration that some positions might be marginalised or supressed in art historical writing. By acknowledging these positions, the thesis also has a critical art historiographic ambition.

    The analysis is organised in four chapters that correspond to distinct socio-cultural periods. The first chapter, Kierlighed til Fædrenelandet, deals with the period from the mid-eighteenth century up to 1814. The focal point of this period is on the art theoretical discourse connected to the development of the Royal Academy of Art in Copenhagen. In the second chapter, Patriotismens borgerkrig, the prime focus is on the effort of building art institutions in the new Norwegian capital Christiania, and the controversies regarding the nation’ s artistic culture. The third chapter, Den store harmonien, highlights the identity politics after 1850 and the resulting disputes over the national art. The fourth chapter, Harmoni gjennom differensiering, targets the diversity of art theoretical standpoints competing for hegemony from the mid-1870s to 1905.  

    The results of the study show that the dividing line in the art theoretical conflicts in Norway, during the period of examination, primarily goes between a humanistic orientated secular elite and an ecclesiastically trained elite. The issues of dispute can be grouped around two different themes. These themes often appear as dichotomies, where two fundamental differences of opinion emerge. The first is the conflict between a utilitarian view on art versus the view of art as luxury. The second dichotomy can be traced to the discord between an individualising and an archaic stylistic idiom. These divides are in turn indicative of the conflict between two divergent educational ideals. One reflecting humanist scientific ideals, the other based on scholastic theological values.

  • Disputas: 2018-11-30 14:00 De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Pauthenet, Etienne
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Meteorologiska institutionen (MISU).
    Unraveling the thermohaline structure of the Southern Ocean using functional data analysis2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The Southern Ocean connects the Indian, Pacific and Atlantic Oceans and provides a direct pathway to exchange mass, heat and salt across the Global Ocean, therefore playing an important role in the global climate system. Due to the complexity of its structure and the general inadequacy of its sampling, both in time and space, it remains a challenge to describe and visualize the three dimensional pattern of its circulation and the associated tracer distribution (temperature, salinity, oxygen or nutrients). This thesis contributes to the understanding of the thermohaline structure of the ocean and especially of the remote Southern Ocean by introducing a novel decomposition method, the Functional Principal Component Analysis applied on vertical profiles of temperature and salinity. To this end, we first normalize hydrographic profiles by using a functional spline representation. Then the statistical method of dimension reduction and feature extraction reveals the main spatial patterns of the temperature and salinity variations. The first two vertical modes contribute to 90% of the combined variance and are related to very robust structures of the Global Ocean. The first mode is mainly controlled by temperature and the second by salinity. In the Southern Ocean, the vertical modes present circumpolar patterns that can be closely related to the stratification regimes that define the circumpolar fronts. Notably the Polar Front is located at the natural boundary between the region controlled by the first (thermal) mode to the north and the second (haline) mode to the south. A mapping of the fundamental zonation is provided with an estimate of the width of the water mass boundaries. As a validation of this method, the Antarctic Polar Front is investigated further in the Indian sector using the same statistical framework. We show that the Polar Front latitudinal position varies seasonally upstream of the Kerguelen Plateau. This meandering is confirmed by hydrographic data gathered by elephant seals equipped with miniaturized sensors. The proposed statistical method provides an objective way to define water mass boundaries and their spatial variability. It offers a useful framework for representing the density structure of the ocean in a reduced-dimension space while maximizing the variance explained. The functional approach also provides a robust way to validate model outputs against observations from any platforms.

  • Disputas: 2018-11-30 13:00 Gröjersalen, hus 3, Kräftriket, Stockholm
    Magalhães Lopes, Maíra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomiska institutionen.
    The Making of Us: How affects shape collective bodies resisting gentrification2018Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores how we can think of collective bodies as amalgamations of interplaying affects (i.e., multiplicities), rather than compositions of individuals. Using ethnography as my main method, I study urban activism collectives resisting gentrification in the city center of São Paulo, Brazil. Following affect-based theorizing, I focus on the collective body as a composition of affective intensities. I explore disgust, fear, (dis)comfort, and hope as affective intensities that travel with different orientations, directions, and potencies. I take the position that, through such travelings, bodily surfaces become felt and unfelt. That is, I explore the surfacing of the collective body as a continuous process through the circulation and accumulation of such affects. I also explore how collective bodies become organized as packs and crowds, whilst disputing spaces for consumption within a gentrification process. Whereas packs are seen as a condensed form of multiplicities, crowds are expanded forms of multiplicities. The findings of this thesis then contribute to the marketplace culture literature by exploring how the formation of the collective body is a continuous affective process that unfolds into different forms of multiplicities (i.e., packs and crowds). This study proposes viewing the collective body as a continuous process of affective amalgamation. This study also contributes to extant CCT studies regarding affect and emotions. The findings of this study interlink felt experiences with surfacing effects. That is, I focus the analysis on how affects work in delineating the relation between and of bodies and, thereby, marking what we understand as I, you, us, and them. Thirdly, this study also contributes to discussions regarding space and place in marketing. This study extends the discussion regarding spatial injustices and neoliberal cities, which are driven by wider consumption ideology.

  • Disputas: 2018-11-30 09:00 William-Olssonsalen, Stockholm
    Jansson, Joakim
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    We are (not) anonymous: Essays on anonymity, discrimination and online hate2018Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Haters gonna hate? - Anonymity, misogyny and hate against foreigners in online discussions on political topics. A crucial aspect of freedom of expression is anonymity, but anonymity is a contentious matter. It enables individuals to discuss without fear of repercussions, but anonymity can also lead to hateful writings threatening other's freedom. In this paper, we predict hateful content as well as estimate the causal link between anonymity and hateful content in civic discussions online. First, we make use of a supervised machine-learning model to predict hate in general, hate against foreigners and hate against females and feminists on a dominating Swedish Internet discussion forum. Second, using a difference-in-difference model we show that an exogenous decrease in anonymity leads to less hateful content in general hate and hate against foreigners, but an increase in hate against females and feminists. The mechanisms behind the changes is a combination of a decrease in writing hateful, as well as a decrease in writing in general and a substitution of hate against one group to another.

    Gender grading bias at Stockholm University: quasi-experimental evidence from an anonymous grading reform. In this paper, we first present novel evidence of grading bias against women at the university level. This is in contrast to previous results at the secondary education level. Contrary to the gender composition at lower levels of education in Sweden, the teachers and graders at the university level are predominantly male. Thus, an in-group bias mechanism could consistently explain the evidence from both the university and secondary education level. However, we find that in-group bias can only explain approximately 20 percent of the total grading bias effect at the university level.

    Anticipation Effects of a Board Room Gender Quota Law: Evidence from a Credible Threat in Sweden. Board room quota laws have recently received an increasing amount of attention. However, laws are typically anticipated and firms can react before the effective date. This paper provides new results on female board participation and firm performance in Sweden due to a credible threat of a quota law enacted by the Swedish deputy prime minister. The threat caused a substantial and rapid increase in the share of female board members in firms listed on the Stockholm stock exchange. This increase was accompanied by an increase in different measures of firm performance in the same years, which were related to higher sales and lower labor costs. The results highlight that anticipatory effects of a law could be detrimental to the analysis.

    Differences in prison sentencing between the genders and immigration background in Sweden: discrepancies and possible explanations. I use data on punished drunk drivers to document differences in sentencing for the same crime between immigrants and native born and males and females respectively. Differences in past criminal activity or other individual observables can not explain the difference in sentencing. Instead, the difference between immigrants and native born seem to be due to statistical discrimination, while differences in recidivism rates might explain the gender difference. However, the higher incarceration rate for immigrants does not reduce their future number of crimes.

  • Mörner, Vera
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Intersektionalitet i byråkratin: Intersektionell jämställdhetsintegrering på biståndsmyndigheten Sida2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Jämställdhetsintegrering är idag den främsta strategin för att uppnå det politiska målet om jämställdhet inom statlig verksamhet och politik. En vidareutveckling av strategin innehåller ambitionen att använda ett intersektionellt perspektiv på jämställdhet. Än är forskningen begränsad om hur dessa ambitioner faller ut i praktiken. I den här studien undersöks därför hur intersektionalitet används inom ramen för jämställdhetsintegrering och vilken transformativ potential som användningen medför.

    I fokus för studien står den svenska biståndsmyndigheten Sida. De grundläggande idéerna bakom jämställdhetsintegrering härstammar från det biståndspolitiska området och i internationella jämförelser framkommer det svenska arbetet med strategin ha påbörjats tidigt. Sidas användning av intersektionalitet undersöks utifrån en organisering av intersektionalitetsbegreppet i tre teman: heterogena genuskategorier, dynamiskt samspel och relationell makt. Dessa teman speglar större akademiska diskussionspunkter och hjälper till att undersöka intersektionalitetsbegreppets transformativa potential. 

    Undersökningen visar att Sidas jämställdhetsanalyser endast delvis utgår ifrån ett intersektionellt perspektiv på jämställdhet. Resultaten ligger i linje med tidigare kritisk jämställdhetsforskning om jämställdhetsintegrering som visar att implementeringen av strategin ofta är inkonsekvent. Studien visar att Sida vid flera tillfällen riskerar att befästa, istället för att utmana, ojämlika maktordningar. Ett fåtal gånger används emellertid intersektionalitet på sätt som riktar en kritisk udd mot ojämlika maktordningar. Resultaten indikerar således att användningen av ett intersektionellt perspektiv har möjlighet att förse jämställdhetensintegrering med en mer kritisk maktanalys.

  • Stirna, Janis
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Lessons from Facilitating Participatory Enterprise Modeling2018Inngår i: Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Enterprise Modeling and Information Systems Architectures / [ed] Michael Fellmann, Kurt Sandkuhl, CEUR-WS.org , 2018, s. 5-5Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Enterprise Modeling (EM) has become a widespread activity in enterprises. Strategy development, business process mapping, requirements engineering, product development, enterprise architecture management, information system design are just a few examples of organizational activities that benefit from a model-based way of working and knowledge representation in the form of models. EM helps addressing organizational development from a number of perspectives, such, strategy (goals, challenges, opportunities, capabilities), business operations (processes, actors, resources), information (business concepts, products), information technology (requirements, components), etc. However, to develop efficient solutions and to ensure their fit in the organization all of these perspectives need to be analyzed in an integrated way. Furthermore, EM activities often require involving groups of people, i.e. the models are created in a participatory way. To be efficient, such participatory EM sessions need the support of dedicated persons who know how to organize a modeling project and modeling sessions, how to manage discussions during a modeling session, and what aspects influence the success and efficiency of modeling in practice. This talk will address a number of lessons learned from managing modeling projects and facilitating participatory EM sessions. More specifically, we will focus on the critical success aspects of the EM process, stereotypes of actor behavior in modeling sessions and modeling projects, as well as, patterns and anti-patterns of EM project management.

  • Disputas: 2018-11-29 09:30 Vivi Täckholmsalen (Q-salen), NPQ-huset, Stockholm
    Sellberg, My M.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Advancing Resilience Practice: Bridging social-ecological resilience theory and sustainable development practice2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the application of resilience thinking in different real-world settings and research-practice interfaces, for example in the context of natural resource management, local government planning and food systems. The number of cases of resilience practice are growing, including resilience assessments, planning and action, but there are still few scientific studies and even less synthesis across cases. This thesis describes existing cases of resilience practice, in natural resource management in Australia (Paper I) and across different international cases (Paper II), and experiments with new methods and approaches for improving resilience practice, based on pilot projects of co-production in Sweden (Paper III and Paper IV). The results confirm that resilience practice can contribute to the understanding and adaptive governance of complex social-ecological systems, but is weak in addressing the need for transformations, particularly for the sake of the resilience of Earth systems and global sustainability. The results also highlight practical strategies for engaging with complexity and novel approaches to enhance the potential of local-regional resilience practice to align with global sustainability concerns. The thesis as a whole sheds light on the field of resilience practice, by outlining different approaches, contexts and purposes and contributes to building transdisciplinary networks and relationships in multiple arenas.

  • Disputas: 2018-11-29 13:00 Gröjersalen, hus 3, Kräftriket, Stockholm
    Chowdhury, Abu
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomiska institutionen.
    Essays on Insider Trading and Initial Public Offerings2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

       This thesis consists of four self-standing articles on insider trading, initial public offerings and delisting of corporate firms.

       The first paper in this thesis investigates whether insiders, in an asymmetric information environment, manipulate the earnings of a firm to influence investors’ perceptions of firm value in order to benefit from their trades. The main finding of this paper is a positive association between accrual-based earnings management and sell-dominated insider trading given the existence of asymmetric information. We find a leading role for information asymmetry and its interaction effect on the relationship between insider trading and discretionary accrual proxies.

       The second paper examines the opportunistic trading behavior of core insiders compared with non-core ones. We document that although both core and non-core insiders are equally motivated by contrarian beliefs, their motivational difference in opportunistic trading is primarily connected to preferential and favored access to superior private information.

       The third paper investigates the role underwriters play in initial public offerings on Mondays. Our evidence suggests that underwriters are reluctant to take firms public on Mondays, as they face uncertainty about pricing the IPOs due to the lack of information and a greater risk of not being able to sell stocks at the offer price, thus losing money. However, they bring IPOs on Mondays, as they are sufficiently underpriced to minimize their risks.

       The fourth paper investigates the roles of institutional investors and insiders in the delisting of firms – an important corporate event. Our analysis reveals that institutional holdings have a negative effect on a firm’s probability of being delisted within five years after the IPO. We also find that insider purchases have a negative effect and insider sales have a positive effect on the probability of delisting. Our result further shows that the probability of delisting decreases if firms’ insiders increase their holdings.

  • Illa, R. Losada
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Nordiska institutet för teoretisk fysik (Nordita).
    Warnecke, Jörn
    Max-Planck Insitute for Solar system Research.
    Glogowski, Kolja
    Kiepenheuer-Institu für Sonnenphysik.
    Roth, Markus
    Kiepenheuer-Institu für Sonnenphysik.
    Brandenburg, Axel
    Stockholms universitet, Nordiska institutet för teoretisk fysik (Nordita).
    Kleeorin, Nathan
    Stockholms universitet, Nordiska institutet för teoretisk fysik (Nordita). Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev.
    Rogachevskii, Igor
    Stockholms universitet, Nordiska institutet för teoretisk fysik (Nordita). Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev.
    A new look at sunspot formation using theory and observations2017Inngår i: Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union, 2017, Vol. 327, s. 46-59Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sunspots are of basic interest in the study of the Sun. Their relevance ranges from them being an activity indicator of magnetic fields to being the place where coronal mass ejections and flares erupt. They are therefore also an important ingredient of space weather. Their formation, however, is still an unresolved problem in solar physics. Observations utilize just 2D surface information near the spot, but it is debatable how to infer deep structures and properties from local helioseismology. For a long time, it was believed that flux tubes rising from the bottom of the convection zone are the origin of the bipolar sunspot structure seen on the solar surface. However, this theory has been challenged, in particular recently by new surface observation, helioseismic inversions, and numerical models of convective dynamos. In this article we discuss another theoretical approach to the formation of sunspots: the negative effective magnetic pressure instability. This is a large-scale instability, in which the total (kinetic plus magnetic) turbulent pressure can be suppressed in the presence of a weak large-scale magnetic field, leading to a converging downflow, which eventually concentrates the magnetic field within it. Numerical simulations of forced stratified turbulence have been able to produce strong super-equipartition flux concentrations, similar to sunspots at the solar surface. In this framework, sunspots would only form close to the surface due to the instability constraints on stratification and rotation. Additionally, we present some ideas from local helioseismology, where we plan to use the Hankel analysis to study the pre-emergence phase of a sunspot and to constrain its deep structure and formation mechanism.

  • Saleh, Bashar
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Matematiska institutionen.
    Formality and homotopy automorphisms in rational homotopy theory2018Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This licentiate thesis consists of two papers treating subjects in rational homotopy theory.

    In Paper I, we establish two formality conditions in characteristic zero. We prove that adg Lie algebra is formal if and only if its universal enveloping algebra is formal. Wealso prove that a commutative dg algebra is formal as a dg associative algebra if andonly if it is formal as a commutative dg algebra. We present some consequences ofthese theorems in rational homotopy theory.

    In Paper II, we construct a differential graded Lie model for the universal cover of the classifying space of the grouplike monoid of homotopy automorphisms of a space that fix a subspace.

  • Illa, R. Losada
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Nordiska institutet för teoretisk fysik (Nordita).
    Warnecke, Jörn
    Stockholms universitet, Nordiska institutet för teoretisk fysik (Nordita). Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung.
    Brandenburg, Axel
    Stockholms universitet, Nordiska institutet för teoretisk fysik (Nordita).
    Kleeorin, Nathan
    Stockholms universitet, Nordiska institutet för teoretisk fysik (Nordita). Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev.
    Rogachevskii, Igor
    Stockholms universitet, Nordiska institutet för teoretisk fysik (Nordita). Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev.
    Magnetic bipoles in rotating turbulence with coronal envelope2018Inngår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The formation of sunspots and starspots is not yet fully understood and is therefore one of the major open problems in solar and stellar physics. Magnetic flux concentrations can be produced by the negative effective magnetic pressure instability (NEMPI). This instability is strongly suppressed by rotation. However, the presence of an outer coronal envelope was previously found to strengthen the flux concentrations and make them more prominent. It also allows for the formation of bipolar regions (BRs). We want to know whether the presence of an outer coronal envelope also changes the excitation conditions and the rotational dependence of NEMPI. We use direct numerical simulations and mean-field simulations. We adopt a simple two-layer model of turbulence that mimics the jump between the convective turbulent and coronal layers below and above the surface of a star, respectively. The computational domain is Cartesian and located at a certain latitude of a rotating sphere. We investigate the effects of rotation on NEMPI by changing the Coriolis number, the latitude, and the box resolution. Rotation has a strong impact on the process of BR formation. Even rather slow rotation is found to suppress their formation. However, increasing the imposed magnetic field strength also makes the structures stronger and alleviates the rotational suppression somewhat. The presence of a coronal layer itself does not significantly alleviate the effects of rotational suppression.

  • Stüdeli, Lena Meret
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    "Catchy Climate Science": A Comparative Analysis of Rhetorical and Discursive Strategies in Online Texts Written by Scientists versus Journalists2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Climate science and the effective public communication of it havebecome increasingly vital in a world that is changing atan unprecedentedrate. For many scientists and journalists, the Internet hasgrown to be the preferred medium of climate science communication. As the issues thattextsabout climate changedeal with are ratherpressing, it is crucial that thescientific knowledge is recontextualized for non-expert audiencesin the mosteffectiveand engaging way. Science communicatorshave rhetorical strategiesof recontextualization and discursive strategies of newsworthinessat their disposal to achieve the desired science communicationand ultimately createan inclusive and engaging discourse with theirreaders. This qualitative study is a comparative analysis of two different typesof writers:scientists and journalists. The analysis of onlinetexts about climate change, written by these two types of writers, showsthat scientists and journalists employ many of the same strategies.Nonetheless, the findings reveal distinct differences in how extensively certain strategies are/ are not used.Generally, the scientists recontextualized the scientific knowledge in a more personalizedand inclusivemanner. The journalists, in turn, made use of more discursive strategies of newsworthiness. This qualitative comparative studyalsoprovides a novel analytical framework for further studies of the same kind.

  • Wikström, Solveig
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomiska institutionen.
    Another Look at Consumer Dissatisfaction as a Measure of Market Performance1983Inngår i: Journal of Consumer Policy, ISSN 0168-7034, E-ISSN 1573-0700, Vol. 6, s. 19-35Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article consumer dissatisfaction (CD) is explored in some depth on thebasis of cross-national data. Two issues are focused upon. First, what is behind the figuresindicating quite a lot of dissatisfaction? To what extent is CD affected by the quality ofgoods and services bought and present marketing practice, and to what extent by othervariables such as social and cultural characteristics of the consumers? Second, what arethe basic differences in the perception of CD between consumers themselves and their"ombudsmen"?

  • Angenberg Norin, Therese
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för Asien-, Mellanöstern- och Turkietstudier, Avdelningen för koreanska.
    Media Conversion From Webtoon To Television: A Case Study Of: I Sneak A Look At His Room Every Day and Flower Boy Next Door2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Although webtoons have become one of the largest consumed media in South Korea, and many webtoons have been adapted to both film and television, there has been a lack of research on webtoon to television adaptations. This thesis will investigate the specific characteristics of the webtoon that make it suitable for television adaptation using the webtoon I Sneak A Look At His Room Everyday by Yu Hyŏn Suk and the television series Flower Boy Next Door directed by Chŏng Chŏng Hwa.By using narrative structure and character analysis the two works will be compared and contrasted to discover the similarities and differences that enable a smooth media conversion.The second part of the thesis looks into what a webtoon is and how it has evolved during the years. To explore the characteristics for media conversion the webtoon and the television series were analysed both separately and compared to find the commonalities and the differences.The results indicate that using similar storytelling methods such as story-arcs play a large role in the success of webtoon to television adaptation. Both media needs to keep their viewers on their toes to make them want to read/watch further.

  • Venaut, Héloïse
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Environmental impacts of sustainable diets in Sweden: a systematic review2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The production and consumption of food, throughout the whole supply chain, have negative and large impacts on the environment (Tukker et al., 2006). Environmental impacts could be reduced using sustainable diets, such as the vegetarian or the vegan diets (Baroni et al., 2006). In Sweden, in addition to these two diets, the New Nordic Diet and the Nordic Nutritional Recommendation are diets for Nordic countries that can be considered as sustainable (Saxe et al., 2012). Sustainable diets are seldom adopted by the Swedish population, even if they could considerably reduce negative impacts on the environment (Stehfest et al., 2009; Marlow et al., 2009). Depending on diets composition and type of products eaten, each diet might not reduce to the same degree environmental impacts compared to the others. The research will try to answer the question: How much environmental impacts can be reduced by different sustainable diets in Sweden?

  • Ljungberg, Stina
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Will substituting fossil fuels with biofuels lead to a net reduction in CO2 emissions?: The case of district heating in Norrköping municipality2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    With global warming and the international, national and local goals of reducing greenhouse gas net emissions, the phasing out of fossil fuels are of great importance. One energy source resulting in nearly no net emissions are biofuels. Residue from the forest industry, such as tops and branches, is already today in Sweden an important source of energy, especially in the district heating sector. The demand for forest residue is estimated to increase until 2050 and the potential harvest is a lot larger than what is utilized today. This master thesis tests the hypothesis of biofuels having a climate positive effect when replacing fossil fuels, despite the loss of carbon in the forest soil, which is a feedback of harvesting forest residue. The municipality of Norrköping here works as a case as they are standing in the forefront of turning towards a bio-based economy and a fossil free energy system. The biogeochemical model ForSAFE was used to study if Norrköping can replace all their fossil fuels and solid waste in the district heating for the municipality’s households and public facilities with forest residue from the forest within the municipality’s administrative boundaries. The result show that the productive forest area of the municipality does not yield enough forest residue to fulfil the energy demand from the fossil fuels and the waste. Meanwhile, the soil organic carbon was shown to be decreasing over the simulated years (2000-2300), although the loss did not exceed the emissions from the burning of the replaced fossil fuels. If the productive forest had been large enough to yield enough biomass to meet the demand, the loss of soil organic carbon would still not exceed the amount of carbon dioxide that the fossil fuels would have emitted. This indicates a positive climate effect when replacing fossil fuels with forest residue, reducing net emissions to the atmosphere. Despite the low yield of biomass compared to the energy demand from fossil fuels and waste in Norrköping, a study like this gives a projection of the biomass production and the feedbacks. These effects will be affected by different forest management scenarios and the change in climate. The silvicultural practices have however shown to have negative impacts on the Swedish Environmental Quality Objectives. Threatening the biodiversity and leaching of nutrients and chemicals, resulting in additional feedbacks downstream are examples of effects from disturbance in the forest and forest soil. It is therefore of great importance to consider the natural environment and neatly plan around forestry operations. In the end, the climatic benefit of switching to a fossil free energy system with the help of forest biofuels will have to weighted against the negative impacts. With a landscape view used and great knowledge about feedback effects when forestry planning, the input of biofuels can be a natural way to go for several municipalities in Sweden when wanting to create a bio-based economy with zero net emissions of greenhouse gases.

  • Deleu, Romain
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi. Université de Namur, Département de Géologie.
    Hydrology of the karstic basin of Sprimont, Belgium: On the use of spectrofluorimetry and pharmaceutical substances as a supporting tool for hydrochemistry analysis2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The strong variation in carbonate content of the geological formations in the basin of Sprimont, Belgium, implies different groundwater behaviours in the substratum. The existence of carbonated materials such as limestone is responsible for the existence of a well-developed karstic system restricted to the Carboniferous materials which has a strong impact on the local hydrology and hydrogeology. Surface streams lose through local sinkholes to resurface at the spring of Trou Bleu, the only outlet of the basin and the drainage point of local aquifers. The study focuses on the assessment of existing links between surface losing streams and the spring, and on the tracing of any anthropogenic contamination, by using hydrochemical parameters (major ions, nitrogen forms, organic carbon…), isotopic compositions (δ15N-NO3, δ18O-NO3 and δ11B), pharmaceutical substances (caffeine, paracetamol…) and natural fluorescence as tools. Results strongly support each other regarding evidences of sewage contamination and agriculture and livestock farming waste occurrence in the basin, while reflecting the strong heterogeneity of landuse as observed on-site. Previous knowledge on hydrological dynamics is supported by collected data and reinforced by stream-by-stream discussions and estimate of the relative contribution of each surface streams to the spring water composition.

  • Sandberg, Nina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur, Arkeologiska forskningslaboratoriet.
    Arsenik och offer: Analys av jordprover från Bokaren i Stavby socken2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: This paper is studying peat and soil from the former lake Bokaren in stavby parish. The peat comes from a darkening around a skeleton that was dug out in 2015. The purpose is to investigate whether the previously measured level of arsenic found in previous analyzes can say something about the individual/skeleton found in Bokaren. Is it possible to determine whether the individual has been exposed to arsenic during his life or is naturally present on the spot. The purpose is also to include this in a discussion about poison and poisonings in a prehistoric context, as a possible cause of death for bog bodies?

  • Lundholm, Jenny
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur.
    Ridhästar, ryttare, hästar och hästskötare på attisk rödfigurig keramik (ca 530-320 f Kr)2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • Vajking, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur, Arkeologi.
    Vråkulturens framträdande på Södertörn: En undersökning av relationen mellan senmesolitiska och tidigneolitiska lokaler2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • Johansson, Pär
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur.
    Makt, nätverk och mumier: En studie av Victoriamuseets egyptiska samlings skapande, den svenska egyptologin och svenskt samlande under 1800-talet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on Swedish practices regarding the collecting and exhibiting of Egyptian cultural items at the Victoria Museum in Uppsala during the period between 1882 and 1904. It works to establish who the individuals responsible for this collection were, what their social standing were and how they were connected to each other and other foreign collecting practitioners using the actornetwork-theory and comparative studies.

  • Byström, Emelie
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur.
    Poseidonia-Paestum revisited: Tracing aspects of place attachment in an ancient context2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The city of Poseidonia-Paestum on the Italian peninsula has a long and manifold history throughout Antiquity. The city was founded by Greek settlers in the seventh century BC, put under Lucanian rule around 400 BC, and was finally colonized by the Romans in the year of 273 BC. This study aims to connect the tangible traces of history to the intangible feelings for a place and explore how these elements give rise to the psychological process of place attachment. The concept holds and interdisciplinary potential and thus is possible to apply to the ancient material from Poseidonia-Paestum. The Greek agora, the Roman forum and the extramural Sanctuary of Santa Venera is approached and analysed from this perspective. A close reading of previous research on place attachment in combination with the archaeological record from Poseidonia-Paestum has formed the basis for analysing the material. This study has shown that it is possible to contextualize the theoretical framework of place attachment in an ancient material by pointing out the semiotic potency of the material remains from Poseidonia-Paestum. Through this perspective new questions have been raised and interpreted. Ultimately, a deeper understanding of the attitudes and ideas that formed the basis of human actions and decisions in the ancient city of Poseidonia-Paestum has been reached.

  • Hasnat, Md. Abul
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning (BIG). Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Bangladesh.
    Reproductive Potential Difference of Artificially Inseminated and Naturally Mated Honey Bee Queens (Apis mellifera L.)2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 poäng / 60 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Apis mellifera L. is the only commercially cultivated bee species in Bangladesh nowadays and has been practicing for migratory beekeeping since 1990. Notably, without taking initiatives to improve the bee stocks, intensified beekeeping has been making the species vulnerable to different threats of diseases, pests and inbreeding depression. Reproductive potentiality of the queens has been declining severely. The investigation was carried out to diagnose present problems regarding reproductive potentiality of the queen bees and finding out the possible solutions. Firstly, 56 numbers of naturally mated queens (Apis mellifera L.) were collected from problematic and non-problematic hives from three districts of Bangladesh. Samples were weighed, body length and thorax width were measured, and dissected to study spermathecae appearance. Average queen body weight (160.75±3.65 mg) was found much lower than the earlier studies in different countries. Moreover, 32.33% spermathecae of the queens were found poor in appearance. Again, 3 different queen rearing and mating procedures were applied in 12 replications each: naturally mated queen (NM), grafted and naturally mated queen (GNM) and grafted and artificially inseminated queen (AIQ). NM and GNM queens were allowed to mate naturally where AIQ queens were inseminated artificially in the laboratory. Interestingly, GNM (196.65±3.13 mg) and AIQ(196.55±2.41 mg) queens were significantly heavier than the NM (159.07±6.94 mg) queens. Likewise, their spermathecae radius, respective workers, drones, brood occupation area showed much better strength than the NM queens, though, latency period of AIQ queens were higher. Since grafted queens were reared with good larvae and implemented in artificial queen cups with increased brood support, hence that could make the queens heavier and reproductively more potential, whereas NM queens were left to grow naturally and found less potential. The findings will encourage beekeepers for practicing grafting procedure as the better queen rearing procedure in field condition. However, the procedure of AIQ queens also could be used for stock improvement and bee research because of its control mating system.

  • Nebrin, Olof
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
    Cosmic Dawn in a Fuzzy Universe: Constraining the nature of Dark Matterwith 21 cm Cosmology2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The cold dark matter (CDM) paradigm underlying the standard CDM model of cosmology is successful on large scales but faces potential problems on small scales partly related to a seeming overproduction of dwarf galaxies. This could be alleviated in exotic dark matter models that suppresses small-scale structure formation. One such attractive model is known as fuzzy dark matter (FDM). FDM positsthat dark matter is composed of ultra-light bosons with masses  eV. With such light particle masses, quantum effects become important. More specifically, a pressure-like term appears in the equations of motion that counteracts gravitational collapse on small scales. Because small galaxies form first in CDM, it follows that the early history ot galaxy formation predicted by FDM should be markedly different. One novel way to probe this effect would be to use the 21 cm line of hydrogen which acts as a sensitive probe of the epoch of reionization (EoR) and Cosmic Dawn — when the first galactic sources of X-rays started to reheat theintergalactic medium (IGM). In this thesis, the evolution of the 21 cm signal have been simulated for both CDM and FDM. These simulations indicate that the fluctuationsin the 21 cm signal amenable to future observations are extremely weak ( 1 mK) — and probably unobservable — for FDM at high redshifts  compared to CDM (which tend to yield signals with amplitudes 1 mK). This is mainly due to the delayed galaxy formation in FDM resulting in delayed Lyman- coupling of the 21 cm spin temperature to the kinetic temperature of the IGM. A robust prediction from all FDM scenarios explored in this thesis is that any detection of a signal at  would rule out interesting particle masses for FDM, and would be evidence for CDM-like structure formation. Future work that properly models ionization fluctuations during the EoR could also yield strong predictions at lower redshifts.

  • Karamehmetoglu, Emir
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Looking for the high-mass progenitors of stripped-envelope supernovae2018Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Stripped-envelope supernovae were thought to be the explosions of very massive stars (& 20 M) that lost their outer layers of hydrogen and/or helium in strong stellar winds. However, recent studies have highlighted that most stripped-envelope supernovae seem to be arising from rela- tively lower-mass progenitor stars in the 12 20 M(sun) range, creating a mystery about the fate of the higher-mass stars. In this licentiate thesis, we review our knowledge of stripped-envelope supernovae, and present the astrophysical problem of their missing high-mass progenitors. The thesis focuses on observations of unique and rare stripped-envelope supernovae classified with modern optical surveys such as the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF) and the Public European Southern Observatory Spectroscopic Survey of Transient Objects (PESSTO). In these surveys we have discovered stripped-envelope supernovae with long-lasting broad lightcurves, which are thought to be a marker for highly massive (& 20 M[sun]) progenitor stars. Despite this exciting association, there are only a handful of existing examples of stripped- envelope supernovae with broad lightcurves published in the literature, not numerous enough to account for the missing high-mass stars.

    During our efforts, the first object we focused on was OGLE-2014-SN-131, a long-lasting supernova in the southern sky initially classified by PESSTO. We re-classified it as a supernova Type Ibn interacting with a helium-rich circumstellar environment. Unlike all other Type Ibn’s in the literature, OGLE-2014-SN-131 was found to have a long rise-time and large lightcurve broadness. By modeling its bolometric lightcurve, we concluded that OGLE-2014-SN-131 must have had an unusually massive progenitor star. Furthermore, since an ordinary radioactive- decay model could not reproduce the lightcurve, we investigated both a magnetar and circum- stellar interaction as potential powering scenarios and favored the latter due to the signatures of interaction present in the spectra. Next, we looked for similar objects in the supernova dataset of the iPTF, which contains over 200 stripped-envelope supernovae. Searching in a sub-sample of 100 well-observed supernovae, we identified 11 to have unusually broad lightcurves. We also constrained the distribution of lightcurve broadness for iPTF stripped-envelope supernovae. The 11 with broad lightcurves will be studied carefully in a forthcoming paper. The first part of this forthcoming paper, which describes the careful statistical identification of these super-novae, is included in this thesis. In it we identify that 10% of the iPTF stripped-envelope supernova sample have broad lightcurves, which a surprisingly high fraction given their rarity in the published literature. Finally, we evaluate whether our estimate of the fraction of broad stripped-envelope supernovae could help explain the missing high-mass progenitors, and con- clude that they can only be a small fraction of the missing high-mass progenitors.

  • Widgren, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Det omogna kulturlandskapet1988Inngår i: Ditt Värmland: Kulturmiljöprogram för Värmland och värmlänningar. Första delen. / [ed] Anders Hillgren, Karlstad: Länsstyrelsen i Värmlands län , 1988, s. 110-131Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Disputas: 2018-11-23 13:00 Högbomsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Hirst, Catherine
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Iron in the Lena River basin, NE Russia: Insights from microscopy, spectroscopy and isotope analysis2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Iron is an important mediator of biotic and abiotic processes on the Earth’s surface, being an electron acceptor in organic matter degradation, a surface for organic matter and trace element adsorption, and a required element for enzymatic processes during primary production. Yet, the role of iron as a mediator of carbon and trace element cycling in high latitude, permafrost-dominated regions remains poorly investigated. The aim of this study was to characterise the chemical reactivity (by size separation, microscopy and spectroscopy) and sources (by isotope composition) of Fe in the Lena River and major tributaries, spanning a wide range in lithology, topography and climate. The Fe transported in the Lena River and major tributaries carries an integrated signal of Fe weathering processes across the permafrost-dominated terrain.

    A spatial sample set was collected during the post-spring flood period (July 2012, June 2013), from the main channel and tributaries draining contrasting topography and permafrost extent. Across the basin, Fe is mainly transported as chemically reactive ferrihydrite that spans the particulate (> 0.22 µm) and colloidal (0.22 µm – 1 kDa) fractions. The remaining Fe transported as poorly reactive detrital Fe in clays and crystalline oxides. Fe is transported in larger size fractions than the dissolved OM showing that Fe is not a major carrier of DOM. Nano-sized ferrihydrite was attached to OM in the particulate fraction, evidence of a Fe – OM particle association in the Lena River basin.

    Ferrihydrite shows distinct isotope values in particulate and colloidal fractions, showing that there is a difference in isotopic composition between different size fractions of the same mineral. A conceptual model was developed to understand ferrihydrite formation in the riparian zone of the Lena River and tributaries.  Particulate ferrihydrite has isotope values lower than crustal values resulting from redox and organic-ligand promoted mineral dissolution and precipitation of Fe(II)aq to form coatings of ferrihydrite on particles in the riparian zone.  Ferrihydrite colloids span a wider range of isotope values, higher than Fe particles, resulting from variations in the size and isotope composition of the Fe(II)aq pool transported in soil groundwaters, and the isotope fractionation factor for Fe oxidation and organic complexation.

    A temporal sample set was collected in the main channel between September 2012 – March 2013 and every three days during May 2015. The colloidal Fe shows distinct seasonal Fe isotope signatures and Fe fluxes, with isotope values lower than crustal during winter baseflow, overlying crustal values during spring flood and higher than crustal values during summer, attributed to changing sources and thus conditions for isotope fractionation. The combined understanding of Fe reactivity and isotope composition allows us to isolate the dominant sources of Fe entering the Lena River.

  • Disputas: 2018-11-23 13:00 Gröjersalenhus 3, Stockholm
    Klemcke, Liesel
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomiska institutionen.
    The Quirky Character Camouflaged in the Conceptual Framework: A study of the financial statement user2018Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Much of accounting research implies that someone uses financial statements in making investment decisions, and assumes that the ones using the statements are financial analysts, investment bankers, fund managers, or the rational economic decision maker. However, these assumptions do not consider all potential investors, particularly those who have traditionally lacked access to information and technical savvy. However, there is a financial statement user lacking information access, who makes a brief, nearly camouflaged appearance in the financial reporting conceptual framework.

    This dissertation explores the possibility of this other financial statement user, who is different from the usual taken for granted analyst or a rational economic decision maker. Conducting an historical study into the origins of regulated financial reporting in tandem with the development of the accounting profession, this dissertation locates the sites where financial reporting transforms and allows for different conceptualizations of the user.  This study of the financial statement user is a genealogy that utilizes a coproductionist approach, which considers the influence of the decision useful objective of financial reporting in tandem with the role of the accounting profession in the development of both regulated financial statements and the financial statement user. 

    In the process of investigating this other financial statement user, this dissertation reveals how important the user is to accounting. Thus, this dissertation contributes not only to studies concerning the user and user primacy, but also to studies concerning the accounting profession, the financial reporting conceptual framework, and accounting principles. This other user, or the quirky character camouflaged in the conceptual framework, has greatly impacted the accounting profession, accounting concepts, the capital market, and a controversial accounting principle still in use today.

  • Disputas: 2018-11-23 10:00 De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Fernlund, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska fakulteten.
    Franchising: Friktion mellan transnationella affärsmodeller och nationell särreglering2018Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Business models are created by business people in order to achieve a purpose. If a business model is successful, it will be widely used and might become transnational, i.e., not limited by national borders. However, most legislation is limited by national borders. This dissertation analyzes and describes how national legislation affects transnational business models. For purposes of clarity, the transnational business model of franchising has been used as a continuous, concrete example and object for examination.

    This dissertation describes, analyzes, compares and systematizes the business model franchising and its role in the legal system. The study describes the evolution of the business model from the 1850s to the present date. An important question is whether the phenomenon is the same all over the world, i.e., whether it is defined in the same way and bound by the same rules and norms. To find out, a full-range study was conducted of the national legislation directly aimed at franchising in the 36 countries that have introduced such legislation. To widen the focus, definitions and norms from different organizations and projects involved in franchising were also included in the analysis. Through use of a reduction model, a standard definition, like a lowest common denominator, was extracted.

    As only 18 percent of the world’s countries have introduced special legislation on franchising, a sub-study was conducted to analyze if franchise law should be considered a legal field unto its own and hence if it would be viable to legislate specifically about franchising. The study showed that franchising affects and is affected by so many fields of law that it would not be correct to speak about franchise law. Another study covered the 36 countries with specific franchise laws, to analyze the extent of equivalency between these laws, only to show a great variation in the rules. All rules that deviated from the standard definition of franchising were seen as friction rules. The frictions resulting from such rules were described and analyzed. An alternative to specific legislation could be global harmonization through international conventions, model laws or self-regulation. Various actions already taken in these directions were described, compared and analyzed. Another alternative would be not to legislate and instead rely on general legal principles. This was described and analyzed in the dissertation in the light of legislative studies, with both Grant Thornton’s “five stages of drafting” and Lon Fuller’s “desiderata” used to test this option.

  • Disputas: 2018-11-22 10:00 Vivi Täckholmsalen (Q-salen), NPQ-huset, Stockholm
    Drury O'Neill, Elizabeth
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Catching values of small-scale fisheries: A look at markets, trade relations and fisher behaviour2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores small-scale fisheries trade, markets and the accompanying relationships. It does so to understand how they contribute to human wellbeing and ecosystem health through fisher's behaviour in the marine environment. The capacity of small-scale fisheries to provide for fisherfolk and wider society is currently challenged by human induced ecological threats such as overexploitation and climate change. Small-scale fisheries are increasingly incorporated into the global trading system, which in part drive these ecological changes. At the same time these fisheries are important providers of food and livelihood security for millions of people worldwide. How to realise better fishery governance approaches and enactment is therefore paramount. This thesis attempts to address knowledge gaps in governance and research that centre around the market and actors within it- an area little included in governing fisheries. I draw on the value chain concept and use a mixed methods approach to address three gaps. First, the structure and functioning of small-scale fishery markets and relations. Second, how benefits are distributed in the market and affected by trade relations. Third, I examine how relations and benefit distributions influence fishing behaviour. Case studies are used throughout this thesis drawing on empirical work done in Zanzibar, Tanzania and Iloilo, Philippines. The role of global seafood markets is additionally recognised as a driver of change in all four papers of the thesis. Paper I shows that extending the value chain to combine economic and informal exchanges identifies a wider range of fishery-related sources for human wellbeing within seafood trade. It also highlights more marginal players. Paper II demonstrates how actor's abilities to access economic benefits are impacted by local gender roles and social relations. But these intersect with their value chain position and end-markets. In Paper III local norms appear to play a role in fishing behaviour, more so than market incentives. These dynamics are explored through behavioural economic experiments. Finally Paper IV examines how patronage can have contradictory influences for fisherfolk vulnerability and adaptability. It can also create tensions for overall system resilience when considered at different scales. Overall the thesis contributes to a better understanding of the local to global drivers and interactions in small-scale fisheries trade. The thesis also provides insights into some of the factors influencing the distribution of fishery-related benefits. These aspects have all been cited as vital for designing strategies for improving the wellbeing of people reliant on fisheries.

  • Gustavsson, Julia
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Nigit, Berfin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Ojämlikhet i utbildning: En kvantitativ studie om föräldrapåverkan under uppväxten2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Utbildning är en viktig del i många individers liv. Valet att studera vidare på högre nivå bör vara obundet från sådant som en individ inte kan påverka. Social snedrekrytering innebär en bristande jämlikhet där individers utbildning är beroende av deras sociala ursprung. Det är väl känt att barn från högre sociala grupper fortsätter i större utsträckning till högskolestudier jämfört med barn från lägre sociala grupper. Sambandet mellan föräldrars utbildningsnivå och strävan att utbilda sig har varit väletablerat under lång tid och finns även idag. I den här studien avser vi att undersöka om olika faktorer i barnens uppväxt kan mediera delar av sambandet mellan föräldrars utbildningsnivå och att utbilda sig på högskole- eller universitetsnivå. I det teoretiska ramverk som vi utgår från ingår teorier som används för att förklara hur individer socialiseras in i samhället och hur individer genom vissa sorters kapital får ett försprång till högre studier. Tidigare forskning har visat att vissa familjerelaterade faktorer i individers uppväxt kan ha en positiv inverkan på individers utbildning senare i livet. Dessa faktorer kan innefatta tid med föräldrar, utbildningsaspirationer för högskoleeller universitetsstudier och läsning. Denna studie utgår ifrån datamaterial från Levnadsnivåundersökningen med barn år 2000 som har återintervjuats år 2010. Resultaten visar, i likhet med tidigare forskning, ett positivt signifikant samband mellan föräldrars utbildningsnivå och individers val att studera på högskole- eller universitetsnivå. De visar även att sambandet mellan föräldrars utbildningsnivå och att utbilda sig på högskole- eller universitetsnivå delvis kan hänföras till barns läsintresse på fritiden och utbildningsaspirationer för högskole- eller universitetsstudier. Däremot visar resultaten att den upplevda tiden som barnet spenderar med en eller fler föräldrar inte har någon påverkan på det studerade huvudsambandet.

  • Disputas: 2018-11-23 13:00 Vivi Täckholmsalen (Q-salen), NPQ-huset, Stockholm
    Pansell, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematikämnets och naturvetenskapsämnenas didaktik.
    The Ecology of Mary’s Mathematics Teaching: Tracing Co-determination within School Mathematics Practices2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Teachers’ mathematics teaching has been studied in many different ways. Such studies not often include more contexts than the teacher’s teaching practice. An assumption in this thesis is that in order to create a deeper understanding of mathematics teachers’ teaching we also need to study the contexts around mathematics teachers, and in relation to each other. Together such contexts create an environment for teachers’ teaching. The determination of how mathematics is taught is not decided in any of the contexts alone. Rather, all contexts participate in the determination of how mathematics is taught and teachers need to negotiate how different contexts privilege both mathematics and mathematics education. In this study, I have studied one teacher’s, Mary’s, teaching practice as well as three contexts from her close environment, the teacher group she participated in, the textbooks she used, and the national curriculum she was bound to follow. To study how mathematics and mathematics teaching was privileged in the four studied contexts became a way to trace how the contexts participate in the determination, in short, their co-determination of how mathematics is taught.

    With an aim to deepen the understanding of how the environment of a teacher’s teaching enables and constrains mathematics teaching, the four contexts were studied in relation to each other in different ways, in four studies. First, the context of Mary’s mathematics teaching was studied in relation to the teacher group in how the justifications of Mary’s mathematics teaching was constituted in relation to a teacher group discussion. Second, Mary’s teaching of problem-solving was studied in relation to how problem-solving was privileged in both mathematics textbook and national curriculum. Third, praxeology was explored as an analytical tool to understand how mathematics was privileged in teaching practice in relation to the privileging of mathematics in textbooks. Fourth, all four contexts were studied to trace arguments and principles for teaching rational numbers and how these enable and constrain the teaching of rational numbers.

    To address these different contexts, ATD as described by Chevallard was adopted. In ATD, the environment of contexts with influence of teachers’ practices, is described as an ecology with levels that co-determine each other. The studied contexts represented some of these levels of co-determination. The privileging of mathematics and mathematics teaching was studied from a varied data material. Data from Mary’s teaching practice was transcripts of classroom observations and interviews. Data from the teacher group was transcripts of teacher meetings. Data from the textbook context was the textbooks and teacher guides Mary used. Data from the context of the national curriculum was the mathematics syllabus accompanied with clarifying and explanatory comments.

    The analyses revealed a strong resemblance of the mathematical communication between the different contexts. They all emphasised similar approaches to problem-solving, aspects of rational numbers, mathematical values, or explanations of angles. Mary, however, anchored her arguments for mathematics teaching in partially different theoretical principles than those privileged in the ecology. Theoretical principles were not explicitly communicated in any context. They were inferred from the communication. An implication generated by these findings is the importance for teachers to engage in the principles behind the privileging expressed in contexts they need to negotiate. These principles need to be discussed and challenged. Another implication is the relevance of allowing for teachers to engage in research literature, and to have influences from other sources than their immediate contexts. The thesis also point to the need to study textbooks and national curriculum, not in terms of how they are enacted by teachers, but what they privilege. By doing so teachers practices may be understood in the sense of what teachers have to negotiate, where the consequence is a deeper understanding of constraints and affordances for teachers’ teaching practices.

  • Ruvolo, Claudia
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för Asien-, Mellanöstern- och Turkietstudier, Avdelningen för kinesiska.
    The Influence of Chinese Culture in the Italian Business in China2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In the author’s view culture plays an important role in the international business. Cultural issues represent the key factors for a successful cooperation and partnership among companies from different countries. Most of the time the adaptation to a new culture and new governmental policies influence the foreign companies in the direction of changing their business strategy. This thesis is a cross-cultural research study that aims to examine the cultural struggles of some Italian companies established in China. In particular, based on the collection of qualitative data obtained by the conduction of four interviews the study identifies three main influencing elements of the Chinese culture and the way they induce the Italian companies to adapt their business strategy. The study’s most important findings are: guanxi and mianzi influence the Italian business strategy in networking building in China and affect the Italian psychological attitude in the business management and organization. In revealing more short-term thinking in Chinese business circles the findings of the study contrast Hofstede’s theory of a long-term orientation in China.

  • Björn, Hanna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för slaviska och baltiska språk, finska, nederländska och tyska, Slaviska språk.
    Nikolaj Evreinovs Teater för en själv: Aspekter av Teatralisering2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • Tuvelid, Anton
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Det var bara något som hände: En kvalitativ studie om mäns upplevelser av oinbjudna sexuella närmanden och antydningar från kvinnor2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka hur män kan uppleva oinbjudna sexuella närmanden och/eller anspelningar från kvinnor. Detta kommer att göras med fokus på hur upplevelsen kring detta kan skilja sig åt mellan olika situationer och vad som bidrar till dessa skillnader i upplevelser.

    För att förklara detta används symbolisk interaktionism, genusteori, intersektionalitet och Focaults maktanalys. För att samla in material till denna analys har kvalitativ metod i form av semistrukturerade intervjuer använts där intervjuobjekten fått förklara vad de tolkar som ”oinbjudna sexuella närmanden och/eller anspelningar”, om hur de ser på situationer där de blivit utsatta samt vad de tänker påverkar denna upplevelse.

    De berättelser som framkommer i de genomförda intervjuerna visar på en ambivalens hos intervjuobjekten kring offerskap i relation till de oinbjudna sexuella närmandena och/eller anspelningarna, där två parallella spår av offerskap åskådliggörs. Det ena spåret handlar om att individen subjektivt tycker sig ha blivit utsatt för en handling som kvalar in under deras definition av det undersökta ämnet i objektiv mening. Det andra spåret handlar om att till följd av denna typ av handling känna sig kränkt eller i en offerroll, vilket intervjuobjekten själva uttrycker en svårighet i att känna igen sig i. Enligt intervjuobjektens berättelser räcker det inte med att de utsätts för sexuella närmanden och/eller antydningar av kvinnor för att de ska känna sig utsatta. Situationen behöver även kompletteras av särskilda omständigheter som riskerar att leda till ytterligare negativa konsekvenser för dem, eller som kraftigt begränsar deras upplevda handlingsutrymme.

    Detta vittnar om en makthierarki där männen inte upplever sig vara särskilt hotade av kvinnor förens relationen kompliceras utifrån bland annat en beroendeställning.

  • Kröjs, Cecilia
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    "Jag hade nog inget val, jag är en kreativ människa": Yrkesidentitet, samarbete och kompetens i kreativa yrken2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte är att undersöka hur personer med ett kreativt yrke talar om sig själva och sitt yrke och därmed konstruerar sin yrkesidentitet. I semistrukturerade intervjuer har jag velat besvara de övergripande frågeställningarna; Vilka viktiga komponenter består deras kompetens av? Hur fungerar samarbetet i projekten och deras nätverk? Min teoretiska utgångspunkt är att en yrkesidentitet är ett socialt konstruerat fenomen. Viktiga begrepp att reda ut i detta sammanhang är social konstruktion, roll, identitet, profession och yrkesdiskurs. Efter den inledande grundteorin ringar jag in det som varit fokus för studien genom det som jag valt att kalla för ”riktad teori”. Här behandlar jag begreppet kompetens då just kompetens är centralt i skapandet av en yrkesidentitet. Jag utgår från att kreatörerna besitter en tyst kunskap och att denna bör belysas utifrån en yrkesgemenskap och hur den kunskapen utvecklas och delas inom nätverk och tillfälliga projekt. Centralt för denna uppsats har kommit att bli en samtida studie av Taylor & Littleton som jag avslutar teoridelen med. De ställer sig frågande till begreppet kreativitet och liksom många andra refererar de till Howard S. Becker och hans teori om att ”art worlds” framförallt formas av sociala konventioner.

     

    Jag konstaterar att kreatörernas kompetens består av en tyst kunskap av subjektiva insikter, associationsförmåga och känslor som de använder sig av för att lösa problem. Minst lika viktigt för framgång i yrket är att behärska hantverket bestående av olika tekniker, arbetsmetoder och principer. Det visade sig att begreppet kreativitet är något som är problematiskt för dem i sin yrkeskonstruktion då de dels hävdar att det är en slags medfödd begåvning men samtidigt något som man kan lära sig. Lättare har de att konstruera sin yrkesidentitet när de beskriver sitt yrke i relation till andra. Jag uppfattar att de har utvecklat tydliga strategier för att skapa sig ett handlingsutrymme i projekten och att de därigenom har goda samarbeten. Nätverken visade sig också vara en viktig resurs när de skapar sin yrkesidentitet.