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  • Dizdarevic, Ajla
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Olofsson, Therese
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Självstyrt lärande på arbetsplatsen: En fallstudie om nyckelpersoners lärande i ett studieförbund2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Samhällets förväntningar på anställdas ständiga utveckling och behov att stå ut på arbetsmarknaden har ökat betydelsen av individers självstyrda lärande. Syftet med studien är att skapa större förståelse för självstyrt lärande och dess villkor för nyckelpersoner, det vill säga anställda som är ensamma om att utföra sitt arbete inom sin arbetsplats. Studiens resultat har analyserats och diskuterats utifrån en teori om individuella villkor för lärande och organisatoriska villkor för lärande. Den kvalitativa fallstudien har utförts inom ett studieförbund genom analys av dokument, intervjuer med nyckelpersonerna själva och avdelningschefer. Studien bygger främst på nio semistrukturerade intervjuer, fem med nyckelpersoner och fyra med chefer. Resultatet visar att nyckelpersonerna lär sig självstyrt genom tre tillvägagångssätt; att söka information, prioritera och styra sitt arbete samt genom samspel med andra. De viktigaste villkoren för lärande visade sig vara de sociala och digitala villkoren, arbetsuppgifternas lärandepotential, vidareutbildning samt kulturella villkor. Studiens slutsats är att informationssökande, prioritering och styrning av arbetet samt lärande genom samspel med andra är ett självstyrt lärande. De olika villkoren kan delas upp i villkor på en arbetsplats- samt organisatorisk nivå. Villkoren har olika effekt på tillvägagångsätten för självstyrt lärande. Slutligen pekar studien på att organisationens fokus bör skifta från ett lärande genom utbildning till lärande som sker inom det vardagliga arbetet eftersom det är så nyckelpersonerna anser att de lär sig mest.

  • Laakkonen, Viivi
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för mediestudier, Modevetenskap.
    Finland's Biggest Dress Party: A Study of the Role of Women's Appearances at the Independence Day Reception2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Finland’s Biggest Dress Party – A Study of the Role of Women’s Appearances at the Independence Day Reception, aims to understand the role of dresses at Finland’s Independence Day Reception by focusing on how the reception has earned a title “Finland’s biggest dress party”, and meanings behind the dresses. The aims are studied combining fashion and media studies in three analytical chapters focusing on the media’s development and influence, how the dresses work as a communication tool and what kind of messages are sent through dresses, and Finnishness and national identity in the dresses. The chapters are linked to each other by the importance of the communication between the dresses, the media and the audience during the hype around the Independence Day Reception. The study is based on interviews, which were conducted with seven reception guests and three dress designers, archival studies, visual culture studies and (fashion) media discourse. The study draws on theories by Roland Barthes, Malcolm Barnard and Erving Goffman.

  • Disputas: 2018-10-24 10:00 Magnélisalen, Stockholm
    Lin, Junzhong
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    Synthesis, characterization and applications of hierarchical porous inorganic materials: a multi-dimensional approach2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Zeolites are a type of microporous crystalline materials that have been widely used in industrial applications including separation, adsorption, and catalysis. However, great limitations on diffusion through these materials can arise due to the small pores present in mircoporous frameworks, and this can impact catalytic reactions in particular. The synthesis of hierarchical zeolites has solved the diffusion problem. In this thesis, various hierarchically porous materials have been synthesized and tested as catalysts.

    In the first part of this thesis, a titanium-containing hierarchically porous silicate material has been constructed from double-four-ring (D4R) units as building blocks.

    In the second part of this thesis, hierarchical MWW zeolites were synthesized by swelling and pillaring of a lamellar MWW zeolitic precursor (MCM-22) using D4R building units. The synthesis procedure has been carefully studied by various characterization methods, such as PXRD, TEM, N2 adsorption–desorption etc.

    In the last part of this thesis, MFI zeolites with controllable hierarchical pore systems have been prepared. Firstly, hierarchical ZSM-5 and TS-1 with open pores were generated using a temperature programmed dissolution–recrystallization post-synthesis treatment and tested as catalysts for benzyl alcohol self-etherification and cyclohexanone ammoximation. Secondly, single-crystalline hierarchical shell-like ZSM-5 has been synthesized via a dissolution–recrystallization post-treatment of mesoporous ZSM-5. The post-treatment increased the catalytic activity of the ZSM-5 zeolite for the aldol condensation of bulky substrates.

  • Lidåkra, Fabian
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska fakulteten, Juridiska institutionen.
    Mutbrottens civilrättsliga sanktioner: om möjligheten att utfå skadestånd vid ren förmögenhetsskada på utomobligatorisk grund2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • Blomgren, Mattias
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen. 1995.
    Sverigedemokraterna, radikala högerpopulister? : En studie av åsiktsförändringar hos Sverigedemokraterna.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to understand whether the Sweden Democrats has been and is a radical right-wing populist party. Both quantitative content analysis and ideal type analysis is used as methods to fulfil the study’s purpose. A second objective with this study is also to investigate if the Sweden Democrats have changed their policy positions over time. The material that will be used is party programs, election manifestos and speeches from the party leader.

    The results of the study research were that the Sweden Democrats can, and all through its history, be defined as a radical right-wing populist party. This is because of the party’s timeless focus on nativism, populism and authoritarianism. However, there has been a clear switch in the radicalness of the policy positions from the 1990ies to the new millennium. For example, in 1996 the Sweden Democrats wanted to send out all immigrants from Sweden who came outside of Europe after 1970 while today they are talking about “responsible and limited immigration”. The result of the study is that the Sweden Democrats has not gone although with a mainstreaming process, hence they have started becoming more mainstream than before. Although they cannot be classified as a mainstream party considering there resistant against immigration and other radical positions.

    Nyckelord

    Sverigedemokraterna, radikal högerpopulism, mainstreaming, exkluderande nationalism, populism, auktoritära värderingar 

  • Nechvátalová, Gabriela
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Tolk- och översättarinstitutet.
    Barack Obamas retorik i tolkning till tjeckiska: Fallstudie om överföringar av retoriska figurer i medietolkning2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie analyserar hur president Obamas retoriska figurer överförs till tjeckiska samt i vilken utsträckning parallellismer återges, baserat på analyser av två valda medietolkningar. Analysen visar bl.a. att de bildliga uttrycken överförs i form av omskrivningar eller utelämnas. Några retoriska figurer, såsom anaforer, anadiploser och parallellismer, skapas genom upprepningar. Eftersom tolkar inte kan förutse vart talaren leder talet är det svårt att hinna analysera om en upprepning är en retorisk figur med en funktion som bör behållas eller en onödig upprepning som bör undvikas. De undersökta tolkningarna fick en P-poäng på 70% resp. 63% vilket stämmer överens med Pöchhackers resultat om överföringar av parallellismer vid medietolkning utan manus (2012).

  • Jarder, Oskar
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Barn- och ungdomsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Enarsson, Viola
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Barn- och ungdomsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    ”Likvärdighet … Finns det verkligen?”: Åtta förskollärares tankar och reflektioner om en likvärdig förskola för alla barn2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • Augustsson, Frida
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Seriemördares verkliga offer2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Seriemördare är rovdjur som fascinerar samhället på grund av deras farlighet. Forskning fokuserar främst på seriemördaren och offret blir obemärkt. Studier om mordoffrets karakteristika är få och befintlig forskning har fokuserat på få variabler om offret. Syftet med studien var att ta reda på om seriemördare begår mord på offer som uppvisar liknande egenskaper och visa hur variationen ser ut hos olika typer av seriemördare. Utifrån seriemördare från kända listor genomfördes en deskriptiv analys av offrens egenskaper. Resultatet visade att det typiska offret för män var en obekant, vit, vuxen kvinna som befann sig inom hans bekvämlighetszon. För kvinnor var det typiska offret en bekant, vit, vuxen man som befann sig inom hennes bekvämlighetszon. Majoriteten av seriemördare dödar inte utifrån bestämda offerkategorier utan varierar istället, vilket korresponderar med vad tidigare studier på området har kommit fram till kring offrets egenskaper. Att förstå hur mordoffret väljs ut ökar förståelsen om seriemördaren.

  • Johansson, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Upplevelser av marknadsföring vid IT-rekryteringsprocesser och dess inflytande på förväntningar och attityder2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Den svenska arbetsmarknaden lider av en strukturell brist av IT- kompetens. Situationen börjar väcka oro bland myndigheter och privata aktörer samtidigt som att attrahera och behålla kompetenta IT- kandidater är en nödvändighet för många av dagens IT-organisationer. Denna kvalitativa studie hade 8 respondenter och syften var att erbjuda rekryterare och andra intresserade aktörer en större förståelse för kandidaternas upplevelser under rekryteringsprocesserna. Studien gav stöd till att en stark och realistisk arbetsgivarvarumärke kan leda till högre förväntningar och attityder av engagemang och inlevelse som kan löna sig långsiktigt. Trots att tidigare forskning belyser att RJP har en bättre effekt efter anställning, uppmärksammar denna studie att kandidaternas intresse för organisationens grad av ärlighet och stabilitet innan anställning ger stöd till att fortsatt forskning inom RJP kan vara vinstgivande för både organisationen och kandidaten. 

  • Fresk, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Övelius, Martin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Folkhälsa i förändring: En komparativ studie av hälsoutvecklingen i de postkommunistiska staterna Tjeckien, Polen, Estland och Ryssland2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats avser att utreda om och i så fall varför folkhälsan i de postkommunistiska staterna Ryssland, Polen, Tjeckien och Estland har utvecklats olika sedan Sovjetunionens sammanbrott. Huvudsyftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka och förklara skillnaden i hälsoläget efter den så kallade rubelkrisen 1998. Skillnader i hälsoutveckling ställs mot å ena sidan ekonomiska - och å andra sidan sociala faktorer. Tänkbara samband mellan bland annat förväntad livslängd och bruttonationalprodukten (BNP) per capita samt inkomstfördelning prövas. Dödlighet och förväntad livslängd undersöks i respektive land för perioden 1989-2002. Mortalitetens eventuella samband med sjukdomen levercirros samt alkoholkonsumtion över samma tidsperiod analyseras. Datamaterialet är sekundärdata och en kvantitativ komparativ metod används för analysen. Data är konstruerad främst som medelvärden för ett specifikt årtal för respektive land. Materialet består således av ett populationsurval.

    Två olika teoretiska utgångspunkter gör anspråk på att försöka förklara problematiken med transformationen från kommunism till demokrati. Det är den nyliberala - samt den mer socialorienterade ekonomiska teorin. Dessa ställs mot varandra i början av denna uppsats. Tidigare forskningsresultat tyder på en kraftig försämring av folkhälsan efter 1989 i främst Ryssland och Estland medan Tjeckien och Polen uppvisat en positiv hälsoutveckling. Våra resultat visar att det troligtvis är sociala och psykosociala faktorer, såsom hur en familje- och arbetssituation exempelvis kan påverka en persons hälsotillstånd, som verkar vara avgörande för förståelsen av ökad ohälsa. Analysen visar vidare att en ojämn ekonomisk fördelningspolitik tillsammans med en svag institutionell infrastruktur har en stark inverkan på ovannämnda faktorer. Ryssland presenterar ett avvikande resultat i jämförelse med de tre övriga länderna för flertalet av undersökta variabler. Vi har funnit att Tjeckien och Polen står för den mest hoppingivande förändringen beträffande dödlighet och förväntad livslängd. Estland har dragits med svårigheter att komma tillrätta med landets hälsoproblematik, men har under senare år uppvisat mer positiva siffror. Ryssland representerar däremot fortsatt negativ hälsoutveckling trots en liknande ekonomisk tillväxt. Att landet så sent som år 2002 redovisar en mycket hög dödlighetsfrekvens och låg förväntad livslängd ser vi som anmärkningsvärt. Skillnader i dödlighet och förväntad livslängd mellan könen och mellan de olika länderna visade sig vara mycket stora. Det bör noteras att denna uppsats endast är inriktad på att belysa den skillnad i förväntad livslängd och dödlighet som uppkommit sedan sammanbrottet 1989 fram till 2002.

  • Bohlin, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för etnologi, religionshistoria och genusvetenskap, Genusvetenskap.
    Female Citizenship in Scandinavian Literature in the 1840s2018Inngår i: Rethinking Scandinavia: CSS Publications Web Quarterly, E-ISSN 2002-9039, Vol. 2, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • Bohlin, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för etnologi, religionshistoria och genusvetenskap, Genusvetenskap.
    Nils and the Social Mother as a Migrating Goose2018Inngår i: TijdSchrift voor Skandinavistiek, ISSN 0168-2148, E-ISSN 1875-9505, Vol. 36, nr 2, s. 117-124Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This contribution explores the ideals of citizenship in Selma Lagerlöf’s Nils Holgersson’s Wonderful Journey through Sweden (1906-1907).1 The social morals taught by Akka the goose – possibly one of the world’s most famous female leaders – influenced Swedish school children and children around the world for decades. The analysis shows that Akka is an example of Ellen Key’s concept of the ‘Social Mother’, promoting early ‘folk ideology’. Taking the cue from Sara Ahmed’s theory of ‘affective economies’, I investigate the function of fear in building a nation. A comparison with Rudyard Kipling’s The Jungle Book (1894-1895) makes clear that although power struggle is a common theme in these two children’s books, fear has an equally important but opposing role in each book in the founding of society. In The Jungle Book, fear installs a constitutional order and guarantees Man’s supremacy over the animals, while fear in Nils Holgersson fosters community across different species; in Lagerlöf’s affective economy, fear does indeed establish boundaries, but also functions as a means to transgression and as a source of social virtues. Contrary to Berggren and Trägårdh’s claim that independence is at the core of ‘the Swedish ideology’, the experience of dependence and fear is necessary to achieve a responsible form of independence. Nils’s progress reflects a psychologically informed process of development of moral virtues in several steps, initially motivated by self-preservation, then self-assertion, habit, and finally by an ethics of love. The story also portrays different forms of government, opting for democratic rule that is intent on creating a home for the people. The nation-building function of fear is to balance the power struggle for a citizen’s right to recognition with an insight into the vulnerability of life and the need for transgressive love. 

  • Disputas: 2018-10-22 13:00 sal 14, hus 5, Kräftriket, Stockholm
    Balletti, Gabriele
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Matematiska institutionen.
    Classifications, volume bounds and universal Ehrhart inequalities of lattice polytopes2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this PhD thesis we study relations among invariants of lattice polytopes. Particular emphasis is placed on bounds for the volume of lattice polytopes with interior points, and inequalities for the coefficients of their Ehrhart delta polynomials. The major tools used for this investigation are explicit classifications and computer-assisted proofs.

    In the first paper we give an upper bound on the volume of a polytope which is dual to a d-dimensional lattice polytope with exactly one interior lattice point, in each dimension d. This bound, expressed in terms of the Sylvester sequence, is sharp, and is achieved by the dual to a particular reflexive simplex. Our result implies a sharp upper bound on the volume of a d-dimensional reflexive polytope.

    In the second paper we classify the three-dimensional lattice polytopes with two lattice points in their strict interior. Up to unimodular equivalence there are 22 673 449 such polytopes. This classification allows us to verify, for this case only, the sharp conjectural upper bound for the volume of a lattice polytope with interior points, and provides strong evidence for more general new inequalities on the coefficients of the Ehrhart delta polynomial in dimension three.

    In the third paper we prove the existence of inequalities for the coefficients of the Ehrhart delta polynomial of a lattice polytope P which do not depend on the degree or dimension of P. This proves that the space of all Ehrhart delta polynomials of lattice polytopes have coordinate-projections whose images do not fully cover the codomain. This is done by extending Scott's inequality to lattice polytopes whose Ehrhart delta polynomial has vanishing cubic coefficient.

    In the fourth paper we associate to any digraph D a simplex P whose vertices are given as the rows of the Laplacian of D, generalizing a work of Braun and Meyer. We show how basic properties of P can be read from D, for example the normalized volume of P equals the complexity of D, and P contains the origin in its relative interior if and only if D is strongly connected. We extend Braun and Meyer's study of cycles, by characterizing properties such as being Gorenstein and IDP. This is used to produce interesting examples of reflexive polytopes with non-unimodal Ehrhart delta vectors.

    In the fifth paper we describe an algorithm for an explicit enumeration of all equivalence classes of lattice polytopes, once dimension and volume are fixed. The algorithm is then implemented to create a database of small lattice polytopes up to dimension six. The resulting database is then compared with existing ones, used to understand the combinatorics of small smooth polytopes, and to give conjectural inequalities for coefficients of Ehrhart delta polynomials in dimension three. The frequency of some of the most important properties of lattice polytopes can be explicitly studied, and interesting minimal examples are extracted and discussed.

  • Disputas: 2018-10-22 09:00 L70, Kista
    Saqr, Mohammed
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Using Learning Analytics to Understand and Support Collaborative Learning2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning analytics (LA) is a rapidly evolving research discipline that uses insights generated from data analysis to support learners and optimize both the learning process and learning environment. LA is driven by the availability of massive data records regarding learners, the revolutionary development of big data methods, cheaper and faster hardware, and the successful implementation of analytics in other domains. The prime objective of this thesis is to investigate the potential of learning analytics in understanding learning patterns and learners’ behavior in collaborative learning environments with the premise of improving teaching and learning. More specifically, the research questions comprise: How can learning analytics and social network analysis (SNA) reliably predict students’ performance using contextual, theory-based indicators, and how can social network analysis be used to analyze online collaborative learning, guide a data-driven intervention, and evaluate it. The research methods followed a structured process of data collection, preparation, exploration, and analysis. Students’ data were collected from the online learning management system using custom plugins and database queries. Data from different sources were assembled and verified, and corrupted records were eliminated. Descriptive statistics and visualizations were performed to summarize the data, plot variables’ distributions, and detect interesting patterns. Exploratory statistical analysis was conducted to explore trends and potential predictors, and to guide the selection of analysis methods. Using insights from these steps, different statistical and machine learning methods were applied to analyze the data. The results indicate that a reasonable number of underachieving students could be predicted early using self-regulation, engagement, and collaborative learning indicators. Visualizing collaborative learning interactions using SNA offered an easy-to-interpret overview of the status of collaboration, and mapped the roles played by teachers and students. SNA-based monitoring helped improve collaborative learning through a data-driven intervention. The combination of SNA visualization and mathematical analysis of students’ position, connectedness, and role in collaboration was found to help predict students’ performance with reasonable accuracy. The early prediction of performance offers a clear opportunity for the implementation of effective remedial strategies and facilitates improvements in learning. Furthermore, using SNA to monitor and improve collaborative learning could contribute to better learning and teaching.

  • Vedin Forsberg, Jonas
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska fakulteten, Juridiska institutionen.
    FÖRETAGSREKONSTRUKTION OCH PERSONLIGT ANSVAR: om rekonstruktionsmål och borgenärsskydd2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett företag med ekonomiska problem kan, enligt lagen om företagsrekonstruktion (LFR), ges möjlighet att rekonstruera verksamheten genom ett särskilt förfarande, en företagsrekonstruktion. Syftet med institutet är att livskraftiga bolag som har tillfälliga ekonomiska problem ska kunna komma på fötter igen och därmed undvika att bolaget försätts i konkurs med den värdeförstöring det typiskt sett innebär, både företags- och samhällsekonomiskt. En lyckad företagsrekonstruktion är ofta till fördel för flera olika intressenter: bolaget som sådant, de anställda, borgenärerna och samhället i stort. Det finns därför ett uttryckligt mål om att företag ska rekonstrueras om förutsättningar för en lyckad företagsrekonstruktion finns.

    Inom ramen för det bolags- och skatterättsliga regelverken finns vissa handlingsdirigerande ansvarsregler för bolagets företrädare, som en motvikt till den aktiebolagsrättsliga principen om frihet från personligt ansvar. I 25 kap. aktiebolagslagen (ABL) finns de s.k. kapitalbristreglerna som föreskriver att styrelsen, för att undvika personligt ansvar för bolagets förpliktelser, måste handla på ett visst sätt när bolagets aktiekapital understiger hälften av det registrerade aktiekapitalet. Tillika finns det s.k. företrädaransvaret i 59 kap. skatteförfarandelagen (SFL) som innebär att en företrädare för ett bolag kan bli solidariskt ansvarig för bolagets skatteskulder som inte betalats på förfallodagen, om inte företrädaren vidtagit verksamma åtgärder för avveckling av bolaget.

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka och analysera ansvarsreglerna i förhållande till målet med att rekonstruera livskraftiga verksamheter enligt lagen om företagsrekonstruktion. Detta görs bl.a. genom att anlägga ett gäldenärs- och ett borgenärsperspektiv på respektive regelverk för att utreda hur väl olika intressen tillgodoses. I uppsatsen används rättsdogmatisk metod.

    Slutsatsen är att en företrädare måste ta hänsyn till samtliga regelverk samt att ansvarsregleringen påverkar möjligheterna till en lyckad företagsrekonstruktion på ett negativt sätt. Vidare konstateras med grund i analysen att det torde vara möjligt att i dagsläget inom ramen för domstolarnas verksamhet undanta kapitalbristreglerna i 25 kap. ABL och företrädaransvaret i 59 kap. SFL under en pågående företagsrekonstruktion eftersom LFR tillgodoser gäldenärsoch borgenärsintresset på ett likvärdigt eller bättre sätt. Det föreslås även att samtliga regelverk borde ses över inom ramen för en gemensam utredning.

  • Lindegren, Frida
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Förändring av dysfunktionella övertygelser om sömn under insomnibehandling: en jämförelse mellan internetbehandlingar2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Insomni är utbrett i befolkningen och dysfunktionella övertygelser om

    sömn verkar ha en vidmakthållande effekt på insomni. Syftet med

    studien var att undersöka eventuella effektskillnader av

    internetbehandling av insomni med kognitiv terapi respektive

    beteendeterapi på dysfunktionella övertygelser om sömn, direkt efter

    behandling, samt om det fanns någon skillnad i förloppen. Deltagarna

    randomiserades till kognitiv terapi eller beteendeterapi under 10

    veckor och besvarade enkäter under förmätning, vecka 2, 4, 6 och 8

    samt vid eftermätning. Båda gruppernas resultat på DBAS-16, både på

    hel- och delskalenivå, sänktes generellt sett för varje mätning (η2 =

    .62). Mellan vecka 4 och 6 uppvisades en signifikant skillnad mellan

    grupperna, där gruppen som erhållit kognitiv terapi visade en större

    sänkning av resultatet (η2 = .038–.06). Skillnaderna mellan grupperna

    kan bero på den kognitiva terapins modulinnehåll.

  • Österberg, Hanna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Brännmark, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    "We all go a little mad sometimes": En kvalitativ studie om framställningen av psykopati i film2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande studie har undersökt psykopati som begrepp i populärkulturen och i relation till film. Psykopaten i film framställs som alltifrån en sadistisk våldtäktsman, en charmig gentleman till en våldsam seriemördare. Syftet med studien var att undersöka hur väl bilden av filmpsykopaten stämmer överens med den kliniska definitionen och Hares Psykopatichecklista, PCL-R.

    Nitton filmer valdes ut som underlag där minst en karaktär beskrevs som psykopat. Vid analys noterades huruvida en specifik bedömningspunkt på PCL-R förekom hos en filmkaraktär eller inte. Således jämfördes karaktärerna med den kliniska psykologins bedömning av psykopati. Resultatet antydde att endast 6 av 20 filmkaraktärer kunde klassas som psykopater. Detta på grund av att filmskapare eftertraktar en intressant karaktär, och kan då överdriva vissa drag samt utnyttja de rådande stereotyperna av psykopati för att skapa spänning. Konsekvensen av detta kan bli att allmänheten får en förvrängd bild av psykopati på grund av hur det porträtteras i populärkulturen.

  • Berglund, Jenny
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för de humanistiska och samhällsvetenskapliga ämnenas didaktik.
    Gent, Bill
    Centre for Education Studies, University of Warwick, UK.
    Memorization and focus: important transferables between supplementary Islamic education and mainstream schooling2018Inngår i: Journal of Religious Education, ISSN 1442-018X, s. 1-14Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the results of a participative study, involving a group of 27 British Muslim students aged 15–18, who were given the opportunity to reflect on the implica-tions of having participated in two different ‘traditions’ of education: that is, Muslim sup-plementary education (in its various forms) and state mainstream schooling. The project was participative in that school senior managers had invited the researchers to carry out the research as part of their constant striving to identify the conditions under which stu-dents learn best. Both the design and outcomes of this research programme are presented and discussed in this article. One of the main findings is that the students experience the skills of memorization and focus as positive transferables. The findings will be discussed in terms of the concept of liturgical literacy.

  • Disputas: 2018-10-20 10:00 Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Skjoldager-Nielsen, Kim
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kultur och estetik.
    Over the Threshold, Into the World: Experiences of Transcendence in the Context of Staged Events2018Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the thesis is to develop an apparatus of theory and method for performance analysis, the purpose of which is to analyse potentials for experiences of transcendence. These experiences are contextualised in terms of the metaphysical, the religious, and the spiritual. The theoretical basis is a combination of Erika Fischer-Lichte’s the aesthetics of the performative and Dorthe Jørgensen’s metaphysics of experience. In the development of the theoretical discussion, a variety of experiences is explored in the context of contemporary theatre, ritual, and installation art in Sweden, Denmark, and Aotearoa New Zealand. The dissertation contributes to the methodology of performance analysis as it emphasises experience as research, and to the interdisciplinary research field of performance, religion, and spirituality, as it draws on theatre and performance studies, philosophical aesthetics, philosophy of religion, theology, sociology, and anthropology.

    The result is a practical model that allows the analysis of experiences of transcendence as created in the staged event through the complex interplay of material properties of staging and cognitive capacities for experience in the spectator’s or congregant’s process of reception – all of which are conditioned by the event’s contexts.

  • Disputas: 2018-10-19 10:00 Magnélisalen, Stockholm
    Lim, Hwanmi
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Automation, hyphenation and multidimensional chromatography for PAH analysis: Analytical techniques to simplify sample complexity2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    One group of organic environmental pollutants which are potentially hazardous to human health is polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). These compounds consist of two or more benzene rings in their structure among which benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is classified as a human carcinogen. In order to generate accurate data for PAHs, reliable analytical methods are a prerequisite for PAH monitoring in the environment and cancer risk assessments. However, there are several analytical challenges in PAH analysis because they are a large number of compounds with different physical and chemical properties and occur at varying concentration levels, often in complex matrices. Thus, this thesis aimed at tackling these difficulties in PAH analysis using various analytical techniques such as automation, hyphenation and multidimensional chromatography, particularly to increase the detectability and separation efficiency of PAHs in complex matrices. Furthermore, analytical methods were also presented as a tool for toxicological studies.

    A fully automated two-dimensional (2D)-liquid chromatography (LC)/2D-gas chromatography system was developed to enable the online sample clean-up, separation and detection, initially with two flame ionization detectors (FIDs) (Paper I). The introduction of mass selective detectors (MSDs) instead of two FIDs further advanced the original 2D system, improving the detectability and selectivity in PAH analysis (Paper II). The PAH levels were determined in two standard reference materials (SRMs) from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), i.e. urban dust (SRM 1649a) and diesel particulate extract (SRM 1975). The measured PAH levels were in good agreement with those obtained from FID- and MSD-based systems and reported by NIST (Paper I and II). Additionally, the PAH determination was done in particulates from wood burning, which also showed comparable results between FID and MSD systems (Paper II). The FID-based system showed slightly better separation efficiency owing to the use of hydrogen as carrier gas instead of helium and similar detectability to that of MSD (Paper I). However, the MSD-based system was advantageous to detecting late-eluting PAHs and separating interfering peaks in complex matrices (Paper II).

    Paper III presented an online LC system for B[a]P-selective fractionation as a tool for studying biological interactions. Fractions could be obtained from Stockholm air particulate matter (PM) extract with or without B[a]P. The selective fractionation was achieved using serial LC columns of two pyrenyl phases, resulting in more than 90% of B[a]P in the B[a]P-containing fraction. An analytical method for identification and quantification of benz[j]aceanthrylene (B[j]A) in air PM was developed and described in paper IV. B[j]A is rarely measured due to its low abundance but is known to have high carcinogenic potential. The determination of B[j]A in air PM from Stockholm (Sweden) and Limeira (Brazil), was done together with a series of toxicological studies. The measurement and toxicological data showed an increased number of estimated cancer cases from air PM exposure when levels of B[j]A were taken into account.

    In conclusion, this thesis presents various analytical approaches to obtain more accurate PAH data as well as the possibilities of using them in toxicological research.

  • Disputas: 2018-10-19 13:00 Magnélisalen Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Stockholm
    Vargas Möller-Hergt, Braulio
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    The interactome of the yeast mitochondrial ribosome: Organization of mitochondrial post-transcriptional regulation, membrane protein insertion and quality control2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The proteins found in mitochondria originate from two different genetic systems. Most mitochondrial proteins are synthesized in the cytosol and post-translationally imported into the organelle. However, a small subset of mitochondrial proteins is encoded in an organelle-resident genome. Mitochondria contain factors responsible for replication, transcription and, most important for this thesis, synthesis of the mitochondrially encoded proteins. In the course of evolution the mitochondria specific ribosomes were extensively remodeled. The reasons for many of these adaptations are currently not well understood. For example, the mitoribosome is less stable and abundant than its bacterial counterpart. Therefore, I contributed in the development of robust biochemical tools in order to isolate and analyze the intact yeast mitoribosome and interaction partners by mass spectrometry. The results revealed a higher order organization of mitochondrial gene expression in complexes that we termed MIOREX (mitochondrial organization of gene expression). Besides the mitoribosome, MIOREX complexes contain factors involved in all steps of gene expression. This study also established many new ribosomal interaction partners, among them some proteins that were previously completely uncharacterized. In order to study these proteins, I refined the mass spectrometry approach, allowing a subunit-specific assignment of ribosomal interaction partners. The Mrx15 protein was determined by this approach as an interactor of the large subunit. I established that Mrx15 has overlapping functions with the ribosome receptor Mba1. Both proteins are necessary for mitoribosome membrane attachment and co-translational Cox2 membrane insertion. In a subsequent study I found a functional interaction of MRX15 and MBA1 with the regulators of the membrane-bound AAA proteases of the mitochondrial quality control system. Furthermore, the absence of Mrx15 leads to increased, the absence of Mba1 to decreased proteotoxic stress resistance of yeast cells. These results demonstrate an interesting connection between the mitochondrial quality control and membrane insertion machineries, suggesting an early quality control step during the biogenesis of mitochondrially encoded proteins. In addition, we could reveal a subunit-specific interaction of translational activators and client mRNAs with the mitochondrial ribosome. This organization demonstrated how cytochrome b synthesis is pre-organized by specific translational activators independently of the COB mRNA. In summary, the work in this thesis showed how the vast and diverse interactome of the yeast mitoribosome organizes and regulates mitochondrial translation. These regulation mechanisms highlighted many organelle specific features. The work presented here will serve as starting point to design future studies aimed at a better understanding on how mitochondria adapted to organize gene expression inside the organelle.

  • Disputas: 2018-10-20 13:00 Auditoriet, Humanistvillan, Stockholm
    Nehrfors Hultén, Mårten
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kultur och estetik.
    Shaping the nation with song: Johann Friedrich Reichardt and the German cultural identity2018Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary aim of this dissertation is to study the nationalistic worldview as it emerged in the German lands in the second half of the eighteenth century . The research focuses on how this influenced the artistic practices of Prussian composer, writer and court Kapellmeister Johann Friedrich Reichardt (1752–1814), and likewise how Reichardt’s activities influenced and formed this field. Reichardt was one of the musicians most actively involved in the development of this field at the time, both as a composer and as a writer. The nationalistic view that a society ought to have as its foundation a common cultural identity, and that this identity should be the guiding principle for organization and government, was groundbreaking at the time. In line with this Reichardt’s ambition involved a transformation of the composer’s/musician’s role in society, turning music into a means to influence and alter the state. As the dissertation shows, this was done in a variety of ways. Above all Reichardt was advocating, and helped shape, a German national cultural identity. This identity he sought to induce in the people, for instance through songs composed specifically for children.

    The study focuses on a variety of sources, above all a selection of Reichardt’s writings, songs and song collections. These are subjected to a substantial discourse analysis. Following the conviction that a discourse is formed and expressed not just in writing, but also in musical compositions, musical practices, institutions et cetera, the analytical approach vary throughout the study, depending on the researched material. Identified in the analyses are things and signs that point towards a new nationalistic system of meaning.

    Following a chapter on the historical background, including an analysis of Herderian nationalism, an exposition of the idea of expressive communities, and an account of Reichardt’s biography, the analytical part of the study is divided into two parts, dealing with two different kinds of music and fields of musical application. The first is devoted to music for the community, used in private and semi-private company. Here it is shown how Reichardt contributed to the formulation of a German national musical style founded on folksong ideals and the concept of Volkston. The second is devoted to music for school and education and study the strong interest and belief in education that characterized the eighteenth century, and which Reichardt fully embraced. Here Reichardt’s views on education, and their importance for his activities, are examined.

    A secondary aim of the study is the theoretical development of the concept expressive communities. This is founded on a central view of Johann Gottfried Herder’s (1744–1803) that acknowledges a natural expressive desire in man. On a community-level this leads to the cultural identity (national or other) being characterized by a particular expressiveness, and being acquired through an active cultural practice. This view is particularly applicable when regarding the late eighteenth century German lands.

    One result of the study is a better understanding of Reichardt’s activities and works. At the same time, as Reichardt was not the only one involved with the emerging nationalistic ideas, the study serves also as an example and its results are valid on a wider scale, providing a more nuanced understanding of the period on the whole.

  • Disputas: 2018-10-19 13:00 De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Jakobsson, Elin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia och internationella relationer.
    Norm Acceptance in the International Community: A study of disaster risk reduction and climate-induced migration2018Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Different kinds of normative claims and statements of “oughtness” infuse the international political environment. But why do some proposed norms become accepted by the international community while others do not? This thesis investigates this central question using two normatively charged international issues as vehicles for explanation.

    One issue reflects the norm to reduce disaster risk. The other issue concerns the normative question of asylum rights for climate-induced migrants. While climate-induced migration attracted much attention in the years 2007-2008, the norm acceptance process was stymied and stalled before it had a chance to gain broad acceptance in the international community. Disaster Risk Reduction reached a different outcome. After norm entrepreneurs had a difficult time in gaining traction for the issue, the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami had an immense impact on the norm’s development, which led to the international community agreeing to the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction in 2015. The norm proposition to reduce disaster risk has thus reached a broad and high level of acceptance. This thesis uses a norm theoretical lens to understand these contrasting outcomes. In doing so, it shows that there are key components missing from conventional explanations of norm success and failure. Most importantly, the lack of attention to contingencies and to windows of opportunity that contingencies may open up.

    An analytical framework is developed to account for contingent factors in norm evolution, and the relevance of these components is evaluated by using the two cases in question as plausibility probes. The framework takes the key variables from traditional approaches (agency, the norm itself and framing), adds two more recent suggestions (venue and resistance) and, most importantly, adds the component of contingencies (including windows of opportunity). The detailed empirical investigations draw on a rich, and in some parts unique, material of official texts, practitioner interviews and secondary literature. This thesis thus contributes to existing research on norms and provides future researchers with an enhanced tool for explaining norm emergence.

    The case study on disaster risk reduction provided an example of how a natural catastrophe which coincided with an already planned and prepared international summit on the subject interacted to propel disaster risk reduction to the top of the political agenda and toward norm acceptance. The case concerning international protection for climate-induced migrants showed how three particular moments in time had promising potential to advance the norm toward greater acceptance but largely failed because there were no solutions to act on, because no viable window opened to drive further attention and acceptance or because there was a “negative window”. The analysis conducted according to the framework shows how events must be actively connected to a specific norm proposition and how they must be aligned with other factors that determine the success of a norm, defined in this study as norm acceptance.

    Against this background, this study argues that contingencies, and a theorization of windows of opportunity, should always be included in explanatory tools on norm acceptance. Important explanatory aspects might otherwise be missed.

  • Lundmark, Josefin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Svenska/Nordiska språk.
    Konstruktionen av psykisk ohälsa hos barn och unga: En diskursiv text- och legitimeringsanalys utifrån tre olika samhällsperspektiv2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka hur psykisk ohälsa hos barn och unga konstrueras i tre olika sammanhang: i informationen från ungdomsmottagningen online, ett musikalmanus på ämnet psykisk ohälsa och ungdomars egna berättelser om att må dåligt. Undersökningen är diskursanalytisk och bygger på ett sociosemiotiskt synsätt. Baserat på en systemisk-funktionell textanalys undersöks hur psykisk ohälsa förklaras och hur den unga människan och dess omgivning positioneras i texterna ur ett ideationellt perspektiv. Vidare visar en legitimeringsanalys vilka diskurser som framkommer i texterna. Resultatet visar att utifrån ett vuxenperspektiv är den unga människan en aktiv, ansvarig och handlingskraftig individ som genom olika val är den som påverkar sin situation. Detta synsätt legitimeras genom hänvisningar till en individualiseringsdiskurs och en pedagogiskt tillrättavisande diskurs. Utifrån ett ungdomsperspektiv står även där individen i fokus; det dåliga måendet förklaras som ett misslyckande över att inte vara en ”lyckad” och lycklig människa. Till skillnad från vuxenperspektivet ger ungdomarna en bild av att individen står utan förutsättningar att påverka sin situation då omgivningen beskrivs som distanserad och ointresserad. De ungas synsätt legitimeras genom hänvisningar till en kravställande perfektionistisk diskurs, där normen är att prestera på alla plan.

  • Rogne, Adrian F.
    et al.
    University of Oslo.
    Andersson, Eva K
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Lyngstad, Torkild H.
    University of Oslo.
    Neighbourhood Concentration and Representation of Non-European migrants: New results from Norway2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In a previous study, Andersson et al. (2018) compared the patterns of residential segregation between non-European immigrants and the rest of the population in four European countries, using the k-nearest neighbours approach to compute comparable measures of segregation. This approach relies on detailed geo-coded data and can be used to assess segregation levels at different neighbourhood scales. This paper updates these findings with results from Norway. Using similar data and methods, we document both similarities and striking differences between the segregation patterns in Norway and Belgium, Denmark, the Netherlands and Sweden. While the segregation patterns in Norway at larger scales are roughly comparable to those found in Denmark, but with higher concentrations of non-European immigrants in the most immigrant- dense large-scale neighbourhoods, the micro-level segregation is much lower in Norway than in the other countries. While an important finding by Andersson et al. (2018) was that segregation levels at the micro scale of 200 nearest neighbours fell within a narrow band, with a dissimilarity index between 0.475 and 0.512 in the four countries under study, segregation levels at this scale are clearly lower in Norway, with a dissimilarity index of 0.429. We speculate that this may in part be driven by Norwegian settlement policies for refugees and asylum seekers, but other explanations are possible.

  • Kleberg, Lars
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Sverige.
    Semenenko, AlekseiStockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för slaviska och baltiska språk, finska, nederländska och tyska, Slaviska språk.
    SERGEJ PETROV: Poet och översättare2018Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Angelov, Krasimir
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Liefke, KristinaGoethe University, Germany.Loukanova, RoussankaStockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Matematiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Filosofiska institutionen.Moortgat, MichaelUtrecht University, The Netherlands.Tojo, SatoshiSchool of Information Science, JAIST, Japan.
    Proceedings of the Symposium on Logic and Algorithms in Computational Linguistics 2018 (LACompLing2018)2018Konferanseproceedings (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Computational linguistics studies natural language in its various manifestations from a computational point of view, both on the theoretical level (modeling grammar modules dealing with natural language form and meaning, and the relation between these two) and on the practical level (developing applications for language and speech technology). Right from the start in the 1950ties, there have been strong links with computer science, logic, and many areas of mathematics - one can think of Chomsky's contributions to the theory of formal languages and automata, or Lambek's logical modeling of natural language syntax. The symposium on Logic and Algorithms in Computational Linguistics 2018 (LACompLing2018) assesses the place of logic, mathematics, and computer science in present day computational linguistics. It intends to be a forum for presenting new results as well as work in progress.

  • Ironside, Joseph
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Renewed Shall Be Blade That Was Broken: Tolkien, Modernity and Fascist Utopia2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of a close reading and meta-analysis of themes and patterns in the works that comprise the fictional world of “Middle-Earth” created by J. R. R. Tolkien, in specific relation to the culturally prevalent views of the decadence of modernity and the ideological dynamics of fascism. This thesis explores the ideological dynamics of the fictional world constructed by Tolkien’s texts, and argues that his work contains demonstrable similarities to the ideological dynamics of fascism in its response to the existential challenges of modernity. To clarify, this thesis does not argue that Tolkien’s fiction can be read as “fascist,” tout court, but rather to give a comprehensive outline of how the fictional world created within his texts relate to discourses critical of modernisation and to what extent the aesthetic and ideological dynamics of this world present what I will call a fascist utopia. Tolkien’s work will be approached using the arguments and theories from canonical texts and authors regarding discourses on modernity, including works from the fields of philosophy (Nietzsche), political economy (Marx and Engels), literary studies, sociology (Durkheim, Weber and Simmel) and psychology (Freud). Alongside this I will use relevant studies of fascism to analyse how Tolkien fits within and relates to the aforementioned discourses. I assert the findings that Tolkien creates a world which, in its attempts to renew the values of the past through the presentation of mythology, rootedness, community, agrarianism and hierarchy, demonstrates a semi-fascistic utopia. This is not to cast aspersions or make claims about Tolkien’s creative intentions or personal ideology, rather an observation as to the content and themes of his fictional world. I will argue this fictional world aligns with fascist concepts of identity, nationhood, heritage, mythology and renewal; however, at the same time finding it non-aligned with the central thrust of fascism, in its overt condemnation of industrialism and technology. This contradictory combination produces a fictional world which presents the renewal of what Roger Griffin terms the “shields against ontological terror” (75) now lost or delegitimised in the modern age.

  • Disputas: 2018-10-26 10:00 David Magnussonsalen (U31), Stockholm
    Cornell Kärnekull, Stina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Auditory and Olfactory Abilities in Blind and Sighted Individuals: More Similarities than Differences2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Blind individuals face various challenges in everyday life because of the lack of visual input. However, since they need to rely on the non-visual senses for everyday tasks, for instance, when navigating the environment, the question has been raised as to whether perceptual and cognitive abilities in these senses may be enhanced. This question has mainly been addressed for auditory and tactile abilities, whereas there is considerably less research into the chemical senses, such as olfaction. However, to determine whether blindness has general effects, different senses and types of tasks should be studied, preferably in one and the same study. Therefore, throughout this thesis, analogous auditory and olfactory tasks that varied in cognitive complexity were studied. In Study I, absolute thresholds, discrimination, identification, episodic recognition (i.e., after a short retention interval), metacognition, and self-reported imagery ability were assessed in early blind, late blind, and sighted participants. The only objective measure on which the blind and sighted clearly differed was the auditory episodic recognition task. The fact that early blind but not late blind participants displayed better memory than the sighted suggested that the onset age of blindness may be important for whether this ability becomes enhanced following blindness. Furthermore, the early blind participants rated their auditory imagery ability higher than the sighted, whereas both early and late blind participants rated their olfactory imagery ability higher than the sighted. In Study II, the participants from Study I were followed up after more than a year and retested on auditory and olfactory episodic recognition and identification. This time, the early blind displayed no advantage over the sighted, suggesting that the influence of blindness on auditory memory may be modulated by the length of the retention interval. Moreover, in line with Study I, identification of sounds and odors was similar in the three groups. In Study III, early blind and sighted participants were examined for potential differences in autobiographical memory as evoked by sounds and odors, respectively. Blindness did not influence the reminiscence bumps (i.e., memory peaks in certain age intervals) or have any clear impact on the number of retrieved sound- or odor-evoked memories. Taken together, the present findings indicate that blindness has no general influence across tasks or sensory modalities. Rather, specific auditory abilities, such as episodic memory, may be enhanced in blind individuals, although such effects may depend on both the onset age of blindness and the length of the retention interval. In conclusion, for most perceptual and cognitive abilities examined, performance seemed unaffected by blindness.

     

  • Disputas: 2018-10-16 10:00 sal FB54, AlbaNova universitetscentrum, Stockholm
    Rebrov, Oleksii
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum.
    Interactions of chiral ions and molecules in gas phase: Towards an understanding of chiral recognition mechanism2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis comprises the research related to interactions of enantiopure amino acids with chiral and achiral molecules in gas phase. The investigation of the mechanism responsible for chiral discrimination is of the special interest in this work. An electrospray ion source platform (Stockholm University), quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (University of Oslo) and Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer in combination with OPO laser (Centre Laser Infrarouge d'Orsay (CLIO), France)  have been used in our studies. Results of experiments on collisions of enantiopure amino acids, namely phenylalanine (Phe), tryptophan (Trp), and methionine (Met) with chiral and achiral targets in high and low energy regimes are presented. The fragmentation process is discussed in detail and compared with generally accepted models of amino acid fragmentation. Formation of proton bound diastereomeric adducts of amino acid and chiral alcohols (2-butanol and 1-phenylethanol) in single collisions is reported. The emphasis was given to reveal stereochemical effects in above mentioned reactions. The structure and vibrational properties of diastereomeric dimers of tryptophan studied using infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) spectrometry are presented. Structures and energies of most stable conformers obtained with quantum chemical calculations are described and compared to the experimental data. The stereo-dependent features are underlined and the chiral discrimination using IRMPD is addressed.

  • von Braun, Therese
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan. Högskolan i Gävle, Sverige.
    Theorizing the therapeutic process in substance use-related dependency treatment2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the thesis was to increase knowledge on how to understand the therapeutic process highlighting the importance of the therapeutic relationship as described by therapists and clients in substance use-related dependency treatment. The research questions were related to how the therapeutic process can contribute to a positive outcome considering the therapists’, the clients’ and close co-dependent relatives’ perspectives.

     

    The thesis followed a qualitative and narrative research design and consists of six studies (I-VI). Study I contributed a description of a multidimensional interactional model for the analysis of substance use-related dependency. The study revealed how a multidimensional interactional model can provide holistic and detailed knowledge about the complex processes involved in the use or misuse of alcohol and drugs. The interactional model was illustrated by a narrative analysis of qualitative empirical data. This model seemed to support a person-by-situation interactional analysis of substance use-related dependency. Study II revealed the possibilities and limitations of using a self-theoretical perspective in the analysis of the use or misuse of alcohol and drugs. The self-theoretical perspective was related to empirical case illustrations based on qualitative or narrative data. The implications of studies I and II were that a self-theoretical perspective can be integrated within a multidimensional model and can be a fruitful theoretical framework for the analysis of treatment processes of dependency. Study III presented conceptual contributions for understanding treatment of substance use-related dependency, focusing on the importance of the therapeutic process and the therapeutic relationship and the use of narrative methods. Study IV presented a structural perspective on clients’ narrative descriptions of different phases of the use or misuse of alcohol and drugs including phases of treatment. Study V contributed an in-depth analysis of three therapists’ narratives of therapeutic relationships in the treatment of drug-dependent clients. The analysis pointed out the multidimensional aspects of the treatment and focused on three phases of therapy; starting the therapeutic process and building a therapeutic relationship, the ongoing therapeutic process, and the closing phase of therapy. The study also presented an in-depth analysis of two narrative case histories on dependency treatment. Study VI focused on a qualitative in-depth analysis based on narrative data from a group of 10 clients that had undergone treatment for alcohol and drug use or misuse. The study also included qualitative and narrative data from four co-dependent clients and six therapists about their views on the treatment process and the therapeutic relationship. The results of the study described how to understand the experiential world of the clients and their cognitive, emotional and behavioral changes associated with the treatment process.

     

    The thesis’ contributions relate to an outline of a self-theoretical perspective integrated within a multidimensional interactional model for the analysis of the therapeutic process and the therapeutic relationship in substance use-related dependency treatment. The theoretical analysis sheds new light on the complexity of the treatment process and the clients’ struggle with their personal identity and sense of self, especially their drug self.

  • Heegård, Jan
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen .
    Liljegren, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Geomorphic coding in Palula and Kalasha2018Inngår i: Acta Linguistica Hafniensia. International Journal of Structural Linguistics, ISSN 0374-0364, E-ISSN 1949-0763, Vol. 50, nr 2, s. 129-160Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The article describes the geomorphic systems of spatial reference in the two Indo-Aryan languages Palula and Kalasha, spoken in adjacent areas of an alpine region in Northwestern Pakistan. Palula and Kalasha encode the inclination of the mountain slope as well as the flow of the river, in systematic and similar ways, and by use of distinct sets of nominal lexemes that may function adverbially. In their verbal systems, only Palula encodes landscape features in a systematic way, but both languages make use of a number of verbal sets that in different ways emphasise boundary-crossing. The article relates the analysis to Palmer's Topographic Correspondence Hypothesis that predicts that the linguistic system of spatial reference will reflect the topography of the surrounding landscape. The analysis of the geomorphic systems in Palula and Kalasha supports this hypothesis. However, data from a survey of spatial strategies in neighbouring languages, i.e., languages spoken in a similar alpine landscape, reveal another system that does not to the same extent or in a similar way encode typical landscape features such as the mountain slope and the flow of the river. This calls for a revision of Palmer's hypothesis that also takes language contact into consideration.

  • Vergari, Marianna
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska fakulteten, Juridiska institutionen.
    Den som sover syndar inte?: Om straffansvar och somnambulism2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    De senaste åren har en ny invändning framförts allt oftare i brottmål, nämligen invändningen

    från den tilltalades sida att gärningen företagits i sömnen, i somnambult tillstånd. Den fortsättningsvis

    kallade sömninvändningen ger ett antal intressanta frågeställningar inom straffrätten,

    men också i gränslandet där juridik och sömnforskning möts. Sömn och medvetande som neurologiska

    begrepp inrymmer gråskalor; sömn har fyra stadier NREM-sömn följt av REM-sömn

    och en persons medvetande utreds inom neurologin med hjälp av en åtta-stegsprövning. Ändå

    tycks juridiken ha en svart-vit föreställning av både sömn och medvetande som ett vara eller

    icke-vara. När straffansvar prövas förutsätts att personen är vid medvetande, utan att saken

    egentligen utreds.

    För att en person ska hållas straffrättsligt ansvarig krävs att både de objektiva och subjektiva

    brottsförutsättningarna är uppfyllda. Personen ska för att uppfylla de objektiva brottsförutsättningarna

    ha, 1) utfört en handling som är brottsbeskrivningsenlig, och 2) som inte varit

    rättfärdigad. I enlighet med den subjektiva brottsförutsättningen måste personen även kunna

    tillskrivas personligt ansvar för handlingen. Personer som anses ha agerat i somnambult tillstånd

    går fria från ansvar. Men på vilken grund inträder ansvarsfriheten? Tidigare ansågs rörelser

    företagna i sömnen inte utgöra handlingar i och med att de saknat bakomliggande vilja, och

    uteslöts således redan i den objektiva prövningen. I det studerade rättsfallsmaterialet och doktrin

    verkar det som att domstolarna hanterar sömn såsom brist på med medvetenhet i uppsåtsprövningen,

    vilket utesluter ansvar inom ramen för den subjektiva prövningen. Troligtvis uppkommer

    denna förvirring till följd av dels den starka presumtionen för att kroppsrörelser är

    samma sak som handlingar, dels att tillstånden ”vid medvetande” och ”medveten” ses som

    samma sak. En kroppsrörelse som företagits i sömnen bör enligt min mening anses ha företagits

    utan att personen var vid medvetande och således prövas som en objektiv brottsförutsättning.

    Måltypen ger även en del processuella överväganden. Den tilltalade måste göra sömninvändningen

    så pass sannolik att den inte kan lämnas utan avseende, varvid åklagaren har att

    göra invändningen obefogad. Bevisningen förs framför allt med hjälp av sakkunnigutlåtanden

    av olika sömnforskare. Ett antal sömnforskare är framstående inom måltypen och har etablerat

    en stark praxis kring hur sannolikheten för somnambulism ska prövas. Risken med de sakkunnigas

    utlåtanden är att de innebär en stolpig checklista som inte alltid ger utrymme för olika

    upplevelser av sömngång. Det riskerar att få till följd att den prövning som till sin natur måste

    förbli en gråskala riskerar att präglas av juridikens svart-vita förhållningssätt.

  • Spetz, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    L’anxiété langagière et la production orale: Une étude sur les étudiants suédois de français langue étrangère à l’université2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to investigate foreign language anxiety at the university level. The

    concept of language anxiety is well-established within the second language

    research community, and is considered a distinct, measurable phenomenon. The

    pioneering research by Horwitz et al (1986), upon which much of the previous

    research on language anxiety is based, proposes that three categories make up

    language anxiety: communication apprehension, test anxiety, and fear of negative

    evaluation. Their framework and questionnaire for measuring students’ levels of

    language anxiety (1986) have been used in this study to investigate to what extent

    students of French, in three different courses, suffer from language anxiety, and

    what the nature of their anxiety is in relation to these three categories. The results

    show that a sizable proportion of the students of French at the university level feel

    a moderate level of language anxiety, with the highest levels of anxiety being

    recorded for communication apprehension in the beginners’ course. Another

    significant finding is that anxiety does not seem to decrease when fluency levels

    increase. Furthermore, this paper investigates anxious students’ own ideas of what

    might be done to relieve their speaking anxiety. Students were found to believe in

    a correlation between having speaking anxiety and a lack of language proficiency,

    too little speaking practice, not being well-prepared, and anxiety-inducing teaching

    practices.

  • Borg, Ida
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Housing, poverty and the welfare state: Spatial distribution of tenure types and its effects on housing deprivation, unemployment and residualisation2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    An important question that has caused much academic debate is how to best organise the welfare state system to combat poverty and social exclusion. Much such research is focused on how to combat income poverty through core areas in the welfare state. This dissertation widens the perspective to include housing as a part of the welfare state and it represents an attempt to study poverty outcomes beyond income measures. In doing this, the dissertation uses power resource theory to understand welfare state change and the design of institutions in terms of housing tenures, and shows how this design might affect individual outcomes. Thus, the overall aim of this dissertation is to gain knowledge of the principles that underpin the design and organisation of the housing market in terms of tenure types and to understand the ways in which this design might affect the well-being of individuals and the society as a whole. The dissertation consists of an introductory essay and four papers. The introductory essay presents my theoretical approach and methodology. It also summarises the papers and discusses my main findings.

    Paper I analyses the extent to which the organisation of the rental sector may explain cross-national differences in the prevalence of housing deprivation. Using a multilevel framework on survey data covering 26 European countries, I find that a large and integrated rental sector significantly reduces the prevalence of housing deprivation across EU countries. The organisation of the rental sector appears to be crucial when it comes to reducing poverty and social exclusion in terms of housing insufficiencies.

    Paper II continues the quest to find explanations of the variations in the prevalence of housing deprivation in Europe. Our results develop the findings of Paper I. We find that a high proportion of outright owners is positively associated with housing deprivation. This is suggested to reflect the historical and political processes that affect the housing markets in eastern and southern European housing regimes.

    Paper III investigates a puzzle regarding the relationship between the extent of home-ownership and unemployment. At the macro level, more home-owners indicate higher unemployment rates, while home-owners in general are less unemployed. What can explain this? In this paper, we show that regions with high home-ownership also tend to be regions with small labour markets, which affects the efficiency of matching on the labour market.

    Paper IV turns to the process of residualisation, a process which can be described as when the public or social rental sectors become dominated by low-income households. For Sweden, this process is of key interest since the public housing sector aims to be universal and is not directed towards any specific income group. The results indicate a clear trend towards increasing residualisation. The trend is most pronounced in sparsely populated municipalities, while the public rental sector is quite mixed in larger cities and municipalities near larger cities.

    This dissertation offers a contribution to the field of housing by showing that power resource theory may be used to understand institutional design in terms of tenure types, and that this design also affects individual outcomes. Moreover, power resource theory is presented as a viable theory to understand geographical variation in institutional design across and within countries.

     

  • Nedevska Törnqvist, Jasmina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Why Care About Future People's Environment?: Approaches to Non-Identity in Contractualism and Natural Law2018Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The dissertation analyses the capacity of contractualism and natural law to justify environmental intergenerational duties.

    For three decades, climate change has been a major political concern. As a fundamental threat to environmental sustainability, climate change is believed to threaten the long-term welfare of humankind. It thus seems imperative to affirm long-term duties regarding future people’s environment. Furthermore, contractualism and natural law are two important moral theories in contemporary political life. While the former seems influential among political liberals, natural law seems more appealing to political conservatives. It is thus of interest how both of these theories can be used to argue for environmental intergenerational duties. Yet, natural law has been particularly understudied in this regard.

    The point of departure of the study is the so-called non-identity problem, formulated by Derek Parfit. As concerns future generations, what we do not only affects the quality of people’s lives, but also who will come to exist. If future people come to exist as a consequence of how we live our lives, including the choice of living unsustainably, a degraded environment will be worse for no one. For so-called person-affecting theory, such as contractualism, non-identity seems to imply that there is nothing morally objectionable about leaving future people with an unsustainable environment.

    First, the dissertation demonstrates recent attempts in contractualism, in the vein of John Rawls and Thomas Scanlon, to solve the non-identity problem on person-affecting terms. It is shown that these attempts either fail to affirm environmental intergenerational duties or implicitly abandon a person-affecting view.

    Second, the dissertation explores a natural law approach to the non-identity problem, employing a recent account of natural law suggested by John Finnis. While natural law can be considered of import in contemporary political decision-making, it has hardly ever been used to ground environmental intergenerational duties. This dissertation shows how an impersonal application of natural law could be used in attempts to circumvent the non-identity problem, i.e. to affirm environmental intergenerational duties, and treats possible objections to such an account. It is argued that the requirement to consider so-called basic values, also in cases when no individual would be worse off by one’s act, should render it at least morally objectionable to leave future generations with an unsustainable environment.

    Third, a new kind of objection to environmental intergenerational duties is discussed in depth. The objection applies to theories that, although they may accept an impersonal view in morals, subscribe to a person-affecting restriction in politics. On some interpretations, this limited restriction can be ascribed to both contractualism and natural law. This may imply a specifically institutional non-identity problem. It conveys the possibly paralysing conclusion that, even if there are environmental intergenerational duties in a moral sense, we are not permitted to use political institutions to enforce them.

    Again, contractualism is used to demonstrate the possible difficulties in overcoming this kind of problem. With regard to natural law, the dissertation explores how the use of institutions could be justified impersonally by reference to the common good and the idea of intergenerational community. In this view, experiences that link us to previous generations justify institutional responsibility for the future.

  • Ibrahim, Osama
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Design and Investigation of a Decision Support System for Public Policy Formulation2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The ultimate aim of support for public policy decision making is to develop ways of facilitating policymaking that can create policies that are consistent with the preferences of policymakers and stakeholders (such as an increase in economic growth, the reduction of social inequalities, and improvements to the environment), and that are at the same time based on the available knowledge and evidential information.

    Using the design science research methodology, an iterative design process was followed to build and evaluate a research artefact in the form of an analytical method that is also operationalised as a decision support system (DSS) – in order to facilitate the problem analysis, the impact assessment and the decision evaluation activities carried out at the policy formulation stage of the policymaking process. The DSS provides a web-based, user-friendly interface for two main software modules: (i) a tool for modelling and simulation of policy scenarios; and (ii) a tool for multi-criteria evaluation of policy decisions. The target end-users of the DSS tools are policymakers, the support staff of politicians, policy analysts and researchers within governmental departments and parliaments at the various institutional levels of the European Union.

    The proposed model-based decision support approach integrates systems thinking, problem structuring methods and multi-criteria decision analysis, in what can be described as a ‘sense-making’ approach. A new policy-oriented quantitative problem structuring method is introduced in this research, the ‘labelled causal mapping’ method, which aims to reduce the cognitive overload involved in representing complex mental models using system dynamics simulation modelling in order to facilitate knowledge representation and system analysis. One contribution of this work is an object-oriented implementation of a prototype tool for systems modelling and simulation of policy decision situations based on the labelled causal mapping method. The method provides a basis for further computational decision analysis. We proposed criteria models and data formats for common (generic) policy appraisal, and a preference elicitation method for in-depth decision evaluation based on the results of scenario simulation and the preferences of decision makers and stakeholder groups.

    The artefact evaluation clarifies how well the proposed approach and the DSS tool prototype support a solution to the problem and the extent to which the outcomes in two policy analysis use cases are useful in terms of output analysis and knowledge synthesis.

    The contributions of this research to theory and practice were articulated based on the design knowledge obtained through an iterative design process, notably the emergence of the concepts of transparency and intelligibility in policymodelling, (i.e., the need for explicit and interpretable models that can provide justification of a specific decision).

  • Banér, Anne
    Barn- och ungdomsvetenskapliga institutionen, Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för barn- och ungdomsvetenskap, Centrum för barnkulturforskning.
    Konsten att berätta för barn: Barnboken1996Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Gren, Olga
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för Asien-, Mellanöstern- och Turkietstudier.
    Gender In Displacement: a phenomenological study of a Syrian refugee experience in Sweden from a gender perspective2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 poäng / 45 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Using a phenomenological approach, this thesis examines the experience of a Syrian refugee in Sweden from a gender perspective. The thesis examines how being a refugee as well as being labelled as one influences everyday lives of Syrian refugees in Sweden. It further describes how gender influences this experience and if the experience is different for male and female refugees. The research is based on qualitative methods of research and is supported with semi-structured interviews with three Syrian women and four Syrian men living in Sweden. Through the research participants’ narratives, I analyse the changes that appeared in their lives. This is done in order to allow deeper understanding of the phenomenon of a refugee experience of a Syrian refugee relocated to Sweden.

  • Villegas Martínez, Jorge
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Teaching speaking in the English classroom: Teacher practices in Swedish upper secondary schools2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This qualitative study aims to investigate how teachers of English as a foreign language (EFL) work to develop their students’ oral proficiency. The study analyses interviews and pedagogical materials to elucidate how the interviewed teachers regard their students’ oral proficiency, what kind of activities they use for teaching speaking and how they assess oral proficiency. The participants were two licensed English teachers of higher upper secondary education, and different materials that the teachers used were analysed, including a textbook. The teachers regarded their students’ oral proficiency as generally good or very good but noted that significant differences existed in most groups regarding proficiency and that certain students who were less proficient showed an unwillingness to use the target language, which indicates a need of better strategies to involve these students in the learning process. The findings of this study suggest that the interviewed EFL teachers teach speaking according to the communicative approach and that the activities they use more frequently for teaching speaking were discussions, followed by presentations, speeches, role-playing and debates. However, the interviews and the pedagogical materials reflected a lack of focus on the features of spoken language, the importance of which has been proven by findings in corpus linguistics and conversation analysis. These findings indicate a need to raise awareness among teachers about the benefits of focusing on the features of spoken language. Regarding assessment, informal formative assessment in the form of direct observation was the most common form, while formal assessment was used in presentations and examinations in the form of group discussions. The teachers acknowledged some confusion regarding assessment due to the lack of clear guidelines from Skolverket. Moreover, they regarded speaking as being more important than other skills, which indicates the possibility of redefining the value of speaking in the course evaluation.

  • Zhang, Zhiyin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    “I never thought about those rules in all my languages”: A comparative study of teaching the English articles in the multilingual classroom from a monolingual or a multilingual approach2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study is conducted to compare the effect of practicing a multilingual approach to a monolingual approach in teaching the English article system for students with multilingual backgrounds. Through a structured experiment in light of sociolinguistic and second language acquisition theories, two different discourses (complexes of signs and practices that organize social existence and social reproduction) structuring different legitimate languages are implemented in each respective approach. In the multilingual approach, all languages in the participants’ language repertoire are legitimized and encouraged, while only Standard English is legitimized in the monolingual approach. Three groups of informants participated in the experiment. Two groups of young informants with low English proficiency, and one group of adult informants with intermediate English proficiency participated in the experiment. The majority of the participants have more than two languages in their language repertoires. The multilingual approach was adopted in one of the young groups and the adult group. The study shows that all informants improved in their use of the English article system, regardless of the different approaches. The informants with lower English proficiency level and with a strongest [-ART] language (language with no articles) improved 40.9% in the multilingual approach, which is almost twice as much as the improvement in the monolingual approach. However, the young informants in both groups tend to be confused about the use of the indefinite article a/an after the exercise. The improvements tend to remain in a longer period of time with the multilingual approach in both the adult group and the young group. In addition, the participants tend to show higher rates of concentration, positive emotional feelings and engagement during and after the multilingual approach. The results suggest that it is beneficial to deploy the multilingual approach, through intentional structuring of the legitimized languages in classroom.

  • Kalev, Jaana
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    A Sociophonetic Analysis of the Role of Cultural Identification in L2 English Speech Production2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Research in the relationship between second language (L2) production and study abroad has largely focused on establishing a connection between exchange studies and the success rate of second language acquisition. This Bachelor's thesis investigates L2 production by studying L2 English speakers' attitudes regarding the target language culture in relation to their production of a regionally typical phoneme by formulating the research question “How does cultural identification with the target language environment influence L2 phonetic production in the L1 language community?” in hopes of contributing to sociophonetic studies. This is done by conducting a qualitative study based on the phonetic production of rhoticity and the experiences of nine Swedish former exchange students to the United States. The study draws on existing research that highlights the saliency of rhoticity, as well as provides insight into the importance of identity in language use and into the relevance of motivation and the establishing of social networks for L2 gains during study abroad. To provide a framework for understanding these issues, the Social Network Strength Scale is applied. The results and data analysis suggest that, opposite to expectation, there is no clear relationship between cultural identification and L2 phonetic production for speakers who are no longer immersed into the L2 environment. However, the results establish a possible connection between maintaining a dense social network with native speaker members of the L2 community, as well as of having an awareness and capacity to understand the L2 culture, and a higher percentage of phonetic production of sounds typical for the L2 environment.

  • Brott, Jonathan
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    The Point of Play: Resuscitating Romantic Irony in Metamodern Poetics2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This essay investigates the prospect of Romantic Irony’s potential resurgence in contemporary poetics and discusses its relevance and likeness with metamodernism.

    The internet has by now not only seeped into, but fully permeated, the process of literary production and distribution. The effect of this has been the birth of a new kind of poetic discourse which can broadly be called metamodernism, The New Sincerity or Alt-lit. This movement is characterized by its self-reflexive metacommentary, fragmentary nature and an oscillation between of irony and sincerity. Vermeulen and Akker, among others, have hinted at metamodernism’s relation to Romanticism, but research into the specifics of its tendency towards Romantic Irony is scarce. By viewing the writings of Steve Roggenbuck (a central figure in the new poetic movement), alongside the philosophy of Friedrich Schlegel, I propose a comparative framework for discussion of sincerity, irony and the instrumentalization of contemporary metamodernist writing.

    I demonstrate that Roggenbuck’s writing displays narratological, tropological and thematic tendencies commonly associated with both Romantic Irony and metamodernism. Apart from broader structural comparison, I attempt a comparative analysis between Roggenbuck’s poetry (2010-2015) and Thomas Carlyle’s novel “Sartor Resartus” (1833-1834) in order to provide a visualisation of the rhetorical and narratological strategies of Romantic Irony. I aim to frame Romantic Irony as a sensibility, or mode of discourse - rather than a strict system of thought - which may still be at work today. In extension, the sensibilities of Romantic Irony may shed further light into the philosophical potential of the seemingly incomprehensible and contradictory tendencies of metamodernism. By ironicizing its poetic form, literary ambition and desire for sincerity in a post-postmodern era, Roggenbuck’s poetry celebrates ambiguity and literary failure, ultimately framing irony as a constructive and potentially democratic operation.

  • Amdaouech, Leila
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    “It is not important whether one speaks British English or American English”: A Questionnaire-Based Study of English Teachers’ Attitudes in Sweden2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Although there have been some studies conducted in Sweden about the language attitudes

    towards different varieties of English, most of these studies have focused on the language

    attitudes found amongst students. There have not, however, been many studies conducted

    that examines teachers’ language attitudes. The focus of the present study is to investigate

    which attitudes are found towards two varieties of English, American English and British

    English, amongst English teachers in Sweden. The study also aims to explore whether the

    teachers’ age and language backgrounds have an impact on the teachers’ attitudes. The

    hypothesis was that older teachers would be more positively inclined towards British

    English while younger teachers would prefer American English. Furthermore, it was also

    hypothesized that teachers who grew up monolingual would prefer British English and

    those who grew up bilingual would favour American English. The data collection method

    that was used in the study was a questionnaire which was distributed online to English

    teachers in Sweden. 115 teachers participated in the study and answered the

    questionnaire, which provided both quantitative and qualitative data. The results of the

    study show that the teachers seem to display equally positive attitudes towards both

    varieties. For example, American English is favoured in terms of being most familiar,

    easiest to understand and easiest to teach. British English, on the other hand, is favoured

    in terms of pleasantness and is in many ways seen as more respected. The findings of the

    study did confirm the hypotheses to a certain degree. The results showed a tendency

    amongst younger teachers and teachers who have grown up bilingual to prefer American

    English. In contrast, the tendency amongst older teachers and teachers who have grown

    up monolingual was to prefer British English. Overall, the results of the study raise the

    question of how these attitudes affect the teachers’ teaching of English.

  • Röde, Silja
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    English as a lingua franca in political talk: The use of self-repair and repetition as clarification strategies in political interviews with Jean-Claude Juncker2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the use of two communicative strategies in particular, namely self- repair and repetition, in political interviews with Jean-Claude Juncker where English is used as a lingua franca (ELF). While ELF has received increasing attention throughout the past years, with a variety of researched genres ranging from higher education (e.g. Björkman 2011; Kaur 2011; Mauranen 2006) and business (Bjørge 2010; Firth 1996; Ehrenreich 2009; Pullin Stark 2009) to domestic settings (e.g. Klötzl 2014; Pietikäinen 2014), the genre of political interviews remains largely under-researched – despite it being such a highly international and high-stakes domain. Therefore, the aim of the present research is to include this domain to the list of researched genres, and thereby to gain a better understanding of how a politician uses ELF in his official role. The data comprises four interviews with the president of the EU-commission, Jean-Claude Juncker, with a total interview-time of 35 minutes. The interviews have been transcribed in their entirety for the purpose of the present study, and the data was analysed drawing on conversation analytic approaches. Both self-repair and repetition were frequently identified as clarification strategies in the data and their functions comply to a large extent with previous findings from ELF research (e.g. Kaur 2011; Lichtkoppler 2007; Mauranen 2006). Repetition was found to be used as a strategy to specify utterances and ensure understanding and self-repair to either right the wrongs or raise explicitness. In addition to that, the use of repetition showed some interview-genre related functions as well, such as the use of repetition to influence and interrupt the regular turn-taking structure of interviews. This study shows that the use of ELF is in fact to a certain extent different in political interviews than in other researched genres, and therefore suggests that further studies within this genre would significantly contribute to the field of research into ELF.

  • Xerri, Sabrina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    A piece of cake? High school students' retention of idioms: A comparative study of teaching idioms by means of illustrations and definitions respectively2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims at investigating teaching of idioms by means of illustrations and teaching of idioms by means of definitions. The informants of the experiment are learners of English in a Swedish high school. The 58 informants of this experiment were tested on a total of 19 idioms. These idioms were carefully chosen in order to make sure that they would not already be known by the informants. Another key factor while choosing the idioms was the possibility to find appropriate illustrations for these idioms. The chosen illustrations depict either the literal or the metaphorical meaning of the idioms. The informants were administered one pre-test and two post-tests (short- and long-term retention tests) to measure the retention rate. The pre-test was used to check if both groups had similar knowledge of the selected idioms and therefore could be comparable. The results of this experiment show that students taught by the use of illustrations had a better short- and long-term retention rate than students taught only by the use of definitions. In both the short- and long-term retention test, informants taught by the use of illustrations outperformed informants taught through definition by more than 10%. This study therefore indicates that the use of illustrations while teaching should not be neglected by teachers and can be a powerful tool to enhance students’ retention of chosen items such as vocabulary or idioms.

  • Landh, Therese
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    The Coming of Age of a Woman: Proto-feminism and Female Bildung in Jane Austen’s Northanger Abbey2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines the influence of the proto-feminist ideas of the Enlightenment on Jane Austen’s Northanger Abbey, specifically their presence in the coming-of-age journey of the novel’s heroine Catherine Morland. In this thesis, the proto-feminist ideas of the Enlightenment discussed are based on the ideas of Mary Wollstonecraft as presented in A Vindication of the Rights of Woman. I focus on Wollstonecraft’s emphasis on the importance of reason for the emancipation of women as well as the role of virtue and modesty, but also on the existence of an ambivalent relationship between sense and sentiment. The aim of the thesis is to show that Catherine Morland’s coming-of-age journey in Northanger Abbey can be understood as a representation of the emancipation of women that Wollstonecraft hopes for, and that the obstacles standing in the way of Catherine’s maturation are parallel to the obstacles which, during the Enlightenment, prevented women from claiming reason for themselves. First, I draw upon Wollstonecraft’s criticism of sentimental fiction and its hampering effect on women’s minds and show that the same idea is present in the narrative of Northanger Abbey, in the shape of gothic fiction. Then, I show how Catherine’s ability to discern between virtuous and immodest behaviour improves drastically as she starts to exercise her reason, in concurrence with Wollstonecraft’s claim that all virtuous thought must stem from reason. I analyse the importance of Catherine’s choice of partner and its relationship to the proto-feminist critique of women’s inability to express ideas contrary to those of a man. Finally, I dissect the proto-feminist ambivalent relationship between sense and sentiment and connect it to the finale of Northanger Abbey. These elements put together all point toward Wollstonecraft and Austen being coextensive, and demonstrate how Austen makes use of Wollstonecraft’s ideas to promote the emergence of female bildung.

  • Stålnacke, Klara
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Equality in the Classroom: A Norm Critical Approach to Teaching Democratic Values Using Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream, The Tempest and The Taming of the Shrew2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The curriculum for upper secondary school clearly states that every school is obliged to ensure that teaching centres on and implements democratic values in order to prevent discrimination (Skolverket, 2013). How to do this however, is up to the local school to decide. Norm-critical pedagogy shows that in order to inculcate democratic values in education, the individual teacher must design the teaching material so that it focuses on such values (Bromseth & Darj, 2010). The purpose of this study, and the aim of this essay, is to investigate how democratic values can be implemented in classroom practice using Shakespeare’s The Tempest, A Midsummer Night’s Dream and The Taming of The Shrew. English classes in the courses English 5 and English 6 were asked to read extracts from each of the plays, and then evaluate the play of choice in terms of the socio-political reality of the late Renaissance portrayed in the extracts, through the prism of today’s democratic values. The pupils were assisted in the task by having close-reading questions to answer, and later a smaller written assessment in form of a blog-entry, in order to help develop their thinking. The results of the study show that the pupils were perfectly able to evaluate and discuss values and practices such as equality, racism or sexism based on their reading. From a norm-pedagogical approach to teaching, it therefore seem that Shakespeare’s The Tempest, A Midsummer Night’s Dream and The Taming of The Shrew can be utilised as teaching material in order to help foster the development of democratic values, and discussions around the same, into the classroom. 

  • Holappa, Tim
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska fakulteten, Juridiska institutionen.
    Om socialnämndens olika roller som biståndsgivare och hyresvärd: En kommentar till JO:s beslut den 18 maj 2017, dnr 416-20162018Inngår i: Nordisk socialrättslig tidskrift, ISSN 2000-6500, Vol. 17-18, s. 201-206Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Dowaidar, Moataz
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    Chimeric gene delivery vectors: Design, synthesis, and mechanisms from transcriptomics analysis2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Delivery of nucleic acid is a promising approach for genetic diseases/disorders. However, gene therapy using oligonucleotides (ONs) suffers from low transfection efficacy due to negative charges, weak cellular permeability, and enzymatic degradation. Thus, cell-penetrating peptide (CPP), is a short cationic peptide, is used to improve the cell transfection. In this thesis, new strategies for gene transfection using the CPP vectors in complex with ONs without and with nanoparticles, such as magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs, Fe3O4), and graphene oxide (GO), are investigated. Furthermore, the possible CPP uptake signalling pathways are also discussed.

    A fragment quantitative structure-activity relationship (FQSAR) model is applied to predict new effective peptides for plasmid DNA transfection. The best-predicted peptides were able to transfect plasmids with significant enhancement compared to the other peptides. CPPs (PeptFect220 (denoted PF220), PF221, PF222, PF223, PF224) generated from the FQSAR, and standard PF14 were able to form self-assembled complexes with MNPs and GO. The formed new hybrid vectors improved the cell transfection for plasmid (pGL3), splicing correcting oligonucleotides (SCO), and small interfering RNA (siRNA). These vectors showed high cell biocompatibility and offered high transfection efficiency (> 4-fold for MNPs, 10–25-fold for GO) compared to PF14/SCO complex, which was before reported with a higher efficacy compared to the commercial lipid-based transfection vector Lipofectamine™2000. The high transfection efficiency of the novel complexes (CPP/ON/MNPs and CPP/ON/GO) may be due to their low cytotoxicity, and the synergistic effect of MNPs, GO, and CPPs. In vivo gene delivery using PF14/pDNA/MNPs was also reported. The assembly of CPPs/ON with MNPs or GO is promising and may open new venues for potent and selective gene therapy using external stimuli. The uptake signaling pathways using CPPs vectors, the RNA expression profile for PF14, with and without ON were investigated using RNA sequencing and qPCR analysis. Data showed that the signaling pathways are due to the regulation of autophagy-related genes. Our study revealed that the autophagy regulating proteins are concentration-dependent. Confocal microscopy and transmission electron microscopy have demonstrated the autophagy initiation and colocalization of ON with autophagosomes. Results showed that the cellular uptake of CPP-based transfection activates the autophagy signaling pathway. These findings may open new opportunities to use autophagy modifiers in gene therapy.