12 51 - 91 of 91
rss atomLink til resultatlisten
Permanent link
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annet format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annet språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
  • Kostiainen, Elin
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Wetterborg, Jennie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    ‘‘Allt har en negativ baksida också’’: En kvalitativ intervjustudie om unga kvinnors upplevelser av sociala medier och deras psykiska välmående2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie avser att, genom semistrukturerade intervjuer med unga kvinnor, studera kvinnornas egna upplevelser av de sociala medierna Facebook och Instagram, samt hur deras användning av dessa sociala medier eventuellt påverkar deras psykiska välmående. Detta förväntas bidra till en ökad förståelse om sociala mediers inverkan på människors hälsa. De teoretiska utgångspunkter som är centrala i denna studie är socialkonstruktivism, identitetsteori samt social jämförelseteori. Studien utgår från en fenomenologisk ansats vilket innebär att vi genom intervjuer ämnar studera kvinnornas subjektiva livsvärld utifrån deras egna erfarenheter och upplevelser kring ämnet sociala medier. Vi har genomfört semistrukturerade intervjuer med åtta kvinnor i åldern 18-25 år, där en form av snöbollsurval har använts. Vidare har en tematisk analys genomförts, där teman identifierades utifrån vad som framkom i intervjumaterialet, som i sin tur analyserades i relation till de teoretiska utgångspunkterna samt tidigare forskning. Studiens resultat visar att det bland informanterna finns en stor variation i upplevelser av sociala medier som innefattar både positiva och negativa aspekter. Vidare framkom det att samtliga informanter upplevt att deras psykiska välmående påverkats av de sociala medierna Facebook och Instagram. Men hur och i vilken utsträckning de upplever sig ha blivit påverkade anger de främst berott på det dagliga humöret. Utifrån kvinnornas upplevelser gällande hur deras psykiska välmående påverkas av de sociala medierna, framträder känslor såsom avundsjuka och otillräcklighet kopplat till att de jämför sig med andra. Ur detta framträder känslor kring att vara missnöjd med sig själv och sin tillvaro, vilket i sin tur påverkar kvinnornas syn på sig själva. Kvinnornas upplevelser tolkades utifrån Giddens identitetsteori, då kvinnorna berättade om att de framställer och granskar sig själva och sina identiteter i förhållande till andra personer i dessa sociala medier. Att kvinnorna jämförde sig med andra och hur detta inverkade på psykiskt välmående tolkades utifrån Festingers sociala jämförelseteori. Vidare kunde den medvetenhet kring normer och beteenden som kvinnorna upplever konstrueras genom sociala medier tolkas i relation till socialkonstruktivismen. Detta har lett fram till en ny kunskap och ökad förståelse om sociala mediers påverkan på unga kvinnors psykiska välmående. Däribland att det finns en medvetenhet gällande sociala mediers påverkan samt hur denna påverkan visade sig vara högst individuell och föränderlig utifrån dess subjektiva kontext. 

  • Johansson, Tove
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Lundquist, Josefin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Vem litar på domstol och polis? En kvantitativ studie om sambandet mellan tillit och etniskt ursprung2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Tillit har en fundamental betydelse i ett samhälle. Förtroende för förvaltningsinstitutioner såsom domstol och polis är en viktig del för att samhället ska fungera väl. Denna studie ämnar att undersöka förtroendet för domstol och polis i Sverige och hur detta eventuellt skiljer sig mellan grupper med olika etniska ursprung. Detta med utgångspunkt från Robert Putnams teori om socialt kapital. Putnam benämner begreppet socialt kapital som en viktig beståndsdel för tillit i ett samhälle, och detta sociala kapital skiljer sig mellan samhällen världen över. På så vis så har den komparativa delen uppkommit för att se skillnader i tillit mellan olika etniska ursprung. Etniska ursprung är i det här arbetet uppdelat i grupperna Sverige, Norden, Europa och utanför Europa. Analyserna kontrollerar för första och andra generationens invandrare inom dessa etniska gruppindelningar. Förtroendet för domstol och polis undersöks utifrån tre aspekter: generellt förtroende, förtroende om opartiskt och rättvist agerande inom domstol och polis samt förtroende gällande domstol och polis ställer alla lika inför lagen. Dessa tre aspekter har valts utifrån Bo Rothsteins teori om vad som grundar förtroende för institutioner. Detta är en kvantitativ studie som baseras på ett datamaterial från European Social Survey 2010. För att analysera materialet användes linjär regressionsanalys och korstabeller. Resultatet visar att andra generationens invandrare från Europa och utanför Europa har lägre generellt förtroende för polisen jämfört med etniskt svenska. Första och andra generationens invandrare har lägre förtroende för att polisen agerar opartiskt och rättvist jämfört med etniskt svenska, medan första generationens invandrare har lägre förtroende för det samma när det gäller domstol. Resultatet visar också att etniskt svenska har lägre förtroende för att polisen ställer alla lika inför lagen jämfört med första och andra generationens invandrare med ursprung Europa och utanför Europa. Studiens slutsats är att etniskt ursprung har en inverkan på förtroendet inom alla etiska aspekter för polis och inom en aspekt inom domstol. På så vis tycks polisväsendet leva upp till de etiska normerna i lägre grad jämfört med domstolsväsendet.  

  • Hammarberg, Theresa
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Ledarskapet i förskolan: Förskolechefer med ansvar för flera förskolor2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 poäng / 60 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Då samhället har förändrats och även påverkat förskolans värld kan det idag vara så att en förskolechef ansvarar för flera förskolor. Det kan betyda att förskolechefen får svårt att hinna med att besöka förskolorna och pedagogerna som är verksamma där. Syftet är att studera ledarskapet på några av förskolorna. Min frågeställning handlar om hur förskolechefen beskriver ledarskapet och hur pedagogerna beskriver ledarskapet i förskolan där förskolechefen inte sitter placerad. Vad har de anställda och deras chef för uppfattningar om ledarskapet i förskolan? Studien har gjorts utifrån en kvalitativ metod med tio intervjuer med förskolechefer, ledningsgrupp med arbetslagsledare, utvecklare och pedagoger på fältet. Metodansatsen görs med fältforskning med intervjuer och deltagande observationer och fältanteckningar. Ett resultat som visar att förskolecheferna fortfarande är belastade med administration och har som mål att bli mer pedagogiska ledare på fältet. En pedagogisk utvecklare behöver bli flera för att hinna möta upp pedagogerna på fältet. Arbetslagsledarna har antingen valt bort uppdraget och de som är kvar har fått mer administration och fler förskolor att besöka. Analysen synliggör ett förändringsarbete som förskolecheferna står inför och med ett transformativt och samproducerat ledarskap leder förskolecheferna organisationen framåt. Diskussionen synliggör en brist på förutsättningar, frågor som inte ställs leder heller inte till effektiva förändringar och långa avstånd skapar fortfarande ett fysiskt distanserat ledarskap. Praktiken ska fortgå och utvecklingen ska drivas framåt vilket görs med ett meningsskapande och en vision om delaktighet för alla verksamma inom förskolan.

  • Piscator, Regina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Kvinnors karriärväg till chef i Svenska kyrkan2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this work has been to illustrate the career of executive women working in the organization Church of Sweden. Nine female directors where interviewed by using qualitative method. Seven were vicars working as head director or managing director. Two worked as administrative directors. The issue was about possibilities in the work and obstacles along the journey to the position. How did the women view their career to executive?The theoretical perspective in this work was leadership and gender theory.Some themes appeared: to trust your own competence, empowerment, developing the organizational work, to review and responsibility, challenge and learning and to have dared the career step may continue the career. The result showed that a person who is encouraged by others gets a stronger desire to apply for an executive position. Also, the female executives saw possibilities in working ‘as a we’, together with the coworkers. They had experienced that self confidence is necessary for a woman working as a director in an organization where the norm has been male. This work may contribute to the aim in organizations to get a diversity and a parity in executive positions. The scientific and pedagogical aim of the studie is to develop and deliver knowledge about obstacles and possibilities in career advancement to executive.

  • Disputas: 2018-02-02 13:00 Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Josefson, Mie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Barn- och ungdomsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Det ansvarsfulla mötet: En närhetsetisk analys av omsorgens innebörder i förskolan2018Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This doctoral thesis embraces Care in the discipline of Early Childhood Education. In this thesis, the concept of responsibility is used to analyze the meaning of care in preschool. The scientific problem can be expressed as follows: How is it possible to grasp the aspects of responsibility in relation to the preschool and preschool teachers’ and staff’s mission in general, and as an expression of meaning of care and practices in particular?

    In order to construct new knowledge on this particular care responsibility in preschool, a theory of ethics is required. Such a theory of ethics cannot be derived solely from general ethical principles or rules, but need to put the emphasis on how people's relationships and mutual dependencies develop and can be maintained in a manner as to uphold that what is good and works in the relationship (Henriksen & Vetlesen, 2013). Against this background, the proximity ethical theory is particularly suitable as an analytical tool box for this thesis. It is represented in my work by Arne Johan Vetlesen, Zygmunt Bauman and Per Nortvedt. The proximity ethics is referred to as an experience-based ethics based on interpersonal practice. It is in this interpersonal practice that we meet the notions of duty and responsibility, respect and care.

    The thesis reflects a specific socio-historical era in preschool history: two breaking points, one in the 1990s and the other in the early 2000s. The thesis’ empirical material consists of analyses, partly from individual interviews that were collected during the period 1993-1995, and partly from focus group interviews gathered in the period 2004-2006.

    The purpose of this study is, by using a proximity ethical approach, to generate knowledge about meaning of care and practices by studying preschool teacher’s speech concerning responsibility during two different time periods: the period just before and just after the introduction of the Curriculum for the Preschool in Sweden (Lpfö98). The following research questions have been formulated for the work: How do preschool staff speak about the expressions of responsibility and the boundaries of responsibility in the preschool’s everyday life? In what way does a theory of care and the proximity ethical perspective contribute to a broader understanding of the meaning of care in preschool and the teaching profession’s ethical dimension, during the current periods of time and in a contemporary perspective?

    The interviews 1993-1995 reveals the following themes as examples of expressions of responsibility and boundaries of responsibility: Control and safety, Flexibility respectively Division of responsibility between preschool and parents, Family support: Information, solidarity and relief. Focus group interview 2004-2006 reveals the following themes as examples of expressions of responsibility and boundaries of responsibility: Peace and quiet, To pay attention to the children respectively The tension between service and educational activity, Family support: To maintain good relationships.

    In conclusion, the challenges that emerge when making the concept of care more visible in pre-school practice are discussed. These challenges are reflected on the basis of an analytical idea of responsibility in the encounter with the other. Furthermore, it is examined how the proximity ethical perspective can be used as a springboard for a contemporary and forward-looking discussion of the meaning of care in preschool and the pedagogical profession’s ethical dimensions.

  • Disputas: 2018-02-02 10:00 Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Stockholm
    Koistinen, Niina
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för neurokemi.
    The amyloid-β precursor protein (APP)-binding protein Fe65 and APP processing2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by abnormal deposition of neurotoxic amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide. Aβ is generated by sequential cleavage of the amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) by β- and then γ-secretase. However, APP can also be processed by α- and γ-secretase, instead resulting in generation of neuroprotective sAPPα. Increased APP phosphorylation and altered expression levels of the brain enriched Fe65 protein have been observed in the brains of AD patients. Fe65 can not only interact with membrane tethered APP, but can also localized into the nucleus and act as a transcriptional regulator together with the APP intracellular domain (AICD), generated after γ-secretase processing. How APP processing, APP/Fe65 interaction, and the nuclear AICD/Fe65 complex is regulated has not yet been fully understood. The aim of this thesis was therefore to further elucidate how Fe65 is regulated and how APP Ser675 phosphorylation affects APP processing.

    We could identify several factors regulating Fe65. First, we identified that neuronal differentiation induces Fe65 phosphorylation (paper I), and that phosphorylated forms of Fe65 were preferentially localized outside the nucleus (paper II). Second, we found that the APP binding PTB2 domain of Fe65, rather than the previously proposed N-terminal WW domain, is important for the nuclear localization of Fe65 (paper II). In addition, we surprisingly found that mutation of S228 in the Fe65 N-terminus could increase the APP/Fe65 interaction (paper III). Third, both α- and γ-secretase inhibitors decreased Fe65 nuclear localization similarly, indicating an important role of α-secretase in regulating Fe65 nuclear localization (papers II and III). Lastly, we could in paper IV for the first time show that phosphorylation of APP at Ser675 regulates APP processing at the plasma membrane, resulting in reduced levels of sAPPα. These results, together with the observation that APP Ser675 phosphorylation occur in AD brains, suggest that Ser675 phosphorylation could contribute to AD pathology by decreasing α-secretase processing and instead increasing the levels of Aβ.

    In summary these studies have contributed to understanding of APP processing and the interplay between Fe65 and APP, two suggested key players in AD. 

  • Sundelin, Åsa
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    The Swedish report on intellectual output (IO) 02. Collation of Qualitative Questionnaires/Interviews from Experts.: Report, Erasmus+-project CMinaR, “Teaching career counsellors of refugees”2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the Swedish report on intellectual output (IO) 02 in the Erasmus+-project CMinaR. The project CMinaR aims to develop higher education courses for career counsellors working with refugee and migrant integration into the labour market. Part O2 of the project involves carrying out a needs analysis that aims at identifying needs, requirements, wishes and preferences of the projects target groups; career counsellors and refugee clients. The needs analysis is based on interviews with experts in the field of career guidance and counselling (CGC) for refugees.

  • Hedström, Anna Karin
    et al.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Klareskog, Lars
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Relationship between shift work and the onset of rheumatoid arthritis.2017Inngår i: RMD open, ISSN 2056-5933, Vol. 3, nr 2, e000475Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Environmental factors play a prominent role in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) aetiology. Shift work has previously been associated with increased RA risk in females. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential association, including a dose-response association, between permanent night shift work, rotating shift work and day-oriented shift work and risk of developing anticitrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPA)-positive and ACPA-negative RA.

    Methods: The present report is based on a population-based, case-control study with incident cases of RA (1951 cases and 2225 controls matched by age, gender and residential area). Using logistic regression, occurrence of RA among subjects who have been exposed to different kinds of shift work was compared with that among those who have never been exposed by calculating the OR with a 95% CI.

    Results: Rotating shift work and day-oriented shift work increased the risk of developing ACPA-positive RA (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0 to 1.7 and OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0 to 1.6), but not ACPA-negative RA. Permanent night shift work appeared to be a protective factor both against ACPA-positive RA (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.6 to 0.9) and ACPA-negative RA (OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.6 to 1.0). For both subsets of RA, significant trends showed a lower risk of developing RA with increasing duration of permanent night shift work (p value for trend 0.002 vs 0.04).

    Conclusions: Sleep restriction as a consequence of shift work is associated with several biological effects among which changes in melatonin production may be involved. The present epidemiological findings of a complex relationship between sleep patterns and different forms of RA may be of importance for increasing the understanding of the pathophysiology of RA.

  • Schiller, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Rajaleid, Kristiina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Hellgren, Carina
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Barck-Holst, Peter
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Total workload and recovery in relation to worktime reduction: a randomised controlled intervention study with time-use data.2017Inngår i: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, oemed-2017-104592Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: A 25% reduction of weekly work hours for full-time employees has been shown to improve sleep and alertness and reduce stress during both workdays and days off. The aim of the present study was to investigate how employees use their time during such an intervention: does total workload (paid and non-paid work) decrease, and recovery time increase, when work hours are reduced?

    METHODS: Full-time employees within the public sector (n=636; 75% women) were randomised into intervention group and control group. The intervention group (n=370) reduced worktime to 75% with preserved salary during 18 months. Data were collected at baseline, after 9 months and 18 months. Time-use was reported every half-hour daily between 06:00 and 01:00 during 1 week at each data collection. Data were analysed with multilevel mixed modelling.

    RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the intervention group increased the time spent on domestic work and relaxing hobby activities during workdays when worktime was reduced (P≤0.001). On days off, more time was spent in free-time activities (P=0.003). Total workload decreased (-65 min) and time spent in recovery activities increased on workdays (+53 min). The pattern of findings was similar in subgroups defined by gender, family status and job situation.

    CONCLUSIONS: A worktime reduction of 25% for full-time workers resulted in decreased total workload and an increase of time spent in recovery activities, which is in line with the suggestion that worktime reduction may be beneficial for long-term health and stress.

  • Brusi, Frédéric
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för etnologi, religionshistoria och genusvetenskap, Religionshistoria.
    "De äro allesammans muhammedaner, men jag gör allt hvad jag kan för att följa deras seder!": Tankar kring ett fotografiskt porträtt av Ivan Aguéli2017Inngår i: Aura. Tidskrift för akademiska studier av nyreligiositet, ISSN 2000-4419, Vol. 9, 61-80 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det Egyptiska sekelskiftet var minst lika omvälvande som det Franska, och Aghili lyckas även i Egypten gravitera mot händelsernas centrum. Trots att Aghili befinner sig i Kairo under vad som kommit att kallas den islamiska renässansen, och att han själv kan sägas vara engagerad i en av tidens reformrörelser, gapar forskningen om denna tid i hans liv av stora hål. Religionshistorikern Frédéric Brusi kontextualiserar i sitt bidrag Aghilis religiopolitiska verksamhet i Egypten, men pekar också på en rad oklarheter i Aghilis biografi, oklarheter som öppnar mot nya forskningsfält.

  • Alexander, Widerberg
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Den Andre i svenska valmanifest: En kvalitativ studie av svenska valmanifest och andrafiering inom politisk diskurs2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats är en studie i hur andrafiering används inom Socialdemokraternas och Moderaternas valmanifest, med syfte att se hur det har använts i diskurser inom politisk kommunikation gentemot potentiella väljare, utifrån frågeställningar om vilken funktion det fyller och hur användningen har utvecklats över tid. Vidare lyfts också frågor om hur andrafiering som process går till och vilka som har kommit att konstrueras som Den Andre. För att kunna studera den politiska diskursen har jag utöver teorier om andrafiering och Den Andre, främst använt mig av Laclau & Mouffes diskursteori, som har ett socialkonstruvistiskt perspektiv på språk och diskurs, för att förstå vilka effekter den politiska diskursen kan ha för samhället. Datamaterialet bestod av Socialdemokraternas och Moderaternas valmanifest inför svenska riksdagsval under en 50-års period, från 1964–2014, med totalt 32 valmanifest. Texterna har kodats och analyserats med en kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Resultatet visar på hur det skett en förändring över tid i vilka som andrafieras i valmanifesten, och att även användningen har ändrat karaktär och kommit att få ett allt större utrymme i den politiska diskursen i valmanifesten.

  • Olsson Sandberg, Kajsa
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Boudassou Báez, Nicole
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Fund Our Future & Fees Must Fall: En komparativ fallstudie om två studentprotester2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte är att se hur sociala rörelser och stater interagerar, samt hur dialogen ser ut inom respektive part. Frågeställningarna som syftar till att fånga det är således; Hur ser relationen mellan sociala rörelser och stater ut, och hur påverkar var sidas val av strategier motpartens handlingsmönster? Samt; Vilka interna strategier inom kampanj respektive stat är mest framträdande? För att undersöka det har två kampanjer valts ut, Fees Must Fall i Sydafrika och Fund Our Future i Storbritannien. Vidare har nyhetsartiklar valts från sammanlagt nio av ländernas mest lästa nyhetstidningar. Fyra teoretiska ingångar fått vägleda analysarbetet; radical flank effect, symbolic damage, protest policing och eventful protest. Dessa är alla analytiska verktyg som hjälper oss förstå de mångfacetterade dimensionerna som existerar parallellt inom sociala rörelser och statens arbete. Den samlade tidigare forskningen har utforskat specifika delar av de nämnda begreppen, men däremot har aspekternas samverkande förmåga inte tidigare studerats.

    Studiens resultat visar att våldsamma aktioner ofta leds av radikala demonstranter. Dessa leder ofta inte enbart till stor medial uppmärksamhet, utan kan beroende på kontext förändra sociala rörelser och statens interna strategiska struktur. Det innebär även att fredliga aktioner ofta hamnar i skymundan, vilket bidrar till att befästa uppfattningen om att våld krävs för att sociala rörelsers syfte ska synas. Även stater kan uppleva sig nödgade att använda våldsamma strategier i mötet med demonstranter. Vidare visar resultaten på att det finns en interaktiv dynamik mellan kampanjer och stater, som även visar på aktörskap inom respektive part. 

  • Jansson, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Anmälan av Sofie Gustafsson "Medborgarskapande på olika villkor. Självbilder, skolkoder och syn på kunskap i den svenska gymnasieskolan.2017Inngår i: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, nr 2, 341-345 s.Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Yabanci, Bilge
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för Asien-, Mellanöstern- och Turkietstudier, Institutet för Turkietstudier (SUITS).
    Co-opting Religion: How ruling populists in Turkey and Macedonia sacralise the majority2017Inngår i: Religion, State and Society, ISSN 0963-7494, E-ISSN 1465-3974, ISSN 0963-7494 (Print) 1465-3974 (Online)Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the remarkable scholarly attention to populism and popu- list parties, the relation between populism and religion remains understudied. Using evidence from two long-term ruling populist parties – Turkey’s Justice and Development Party and Macedonia’s Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organisation-Democratic Party for Macedonian National Unity – this study focuses on how and why religion can be an instrument for populist politics at three levels: (i) discursive, (ii) public policy and (iii) institutionalised alliances with religious authorities. The study highlights that reli- gion comes into play at these three levels once populists attain comfortable electoral margins but encounter mounting political and economic challenges that can potentially weaken their grip on power. Ruling populists co-opt and monopolise the majority religion in the name of ‘the people’s will’ as they increasingly undermine democratic legitimacy but they need to justify their systematic crackdown on dissent, the system of checks and bal- ances, the rule of law and minorities. The empirical findings of the study also demonstrate the dual function of religion for populists: its catch-all potential to create cross-class and cross-ethnicity pop- ular support, and its instrumentality to discredit dissent as ‘reli- giously unfit’ while constructing an antagonism of ‘the people’ versus ‘the elites’. 

  • Disputas: 2018-01-31 13:00 FB52, AlbaNova Universitetscentrum, Stockholm
    Wolf, Michael
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum.
    Energetic processing of complex molecules in the gas phase2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Collisions between molecules and gas phase targets often lead to various intriguing processes. Such collisions may induce fragmentation of molecules that can be divided into different subsets depending on the projectile, target, and collision energy. One major part of the present research is the exploration of astrophysical relevant collision mechanisms. In collisions between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules or fullerenes with, for example, helium, nuclear stopping can lead to the prompt knockout of a carbon atom from the molecule. Such a vacancy in the molecular carbon backbone can be highly reactive, and lead to the formation of larger molecules. The energy dependencies of such processes are important for the understanding of astrochemical molecular growth processes, which in turn may lead to the formation of larger and more complex molecules in space. In addition, hydrogenation of PAHs changes their structures and internal properties, including their resistance against fragmentation. To better understand the effects of hydrogenation on the fragmentation of PAHs, low energy photofragmentation experiments are presented along with the collision experiments, and a detailed comparison is made between the effects of these different types of energy transfer processes.

    Besides astrophysically relevant research, studies on the response of biomolecules to collisions with gas phase targets are presented. Here, the energy dependence for formation of the protonated n-butyl β-ionone Schiff base through electrocyclization of the protonated n-butylamine Schiff base of all-trans-retinal in collisions is presented. The latter is a model compound for all-trans-retinal, the chromophore of the light sensitive opsin proteins, and such studies are essential for the understanding of the operation of mammal vision.

    While our collision studies are very successful, they are sometimes also limited by the experimental timescale. Therefore, we have constructed an experimental setup for ion storage and fragmentation analysis. The goal of this new experiment is to store internally hot fragments to investigate their behavior on extended timescales and as functions of internal excitation energies.

  • Disputas: 2018-01-31 10:00 Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Stockholm
    Rabten, Wangchuk
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för organisk kemi.
    The Use of N,P-Iridium and N,P-Palladium Complexes in Asymmetric Synthesis2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The work presented in this thesis concerns asymmetric catalysis using chiral N,P-ligands and iridium or palladium transition metals. The first part  (Chapters 2 and 3) highlights the N,P-iridium catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation of 1,4-cyclohexadienes having functionalized or unfunctionalized substituents, including allylsilane side chains. A series of N,P-iridium catalysts were synthesized and screened on a number of cyclohexadienes. The developed N,P-iridium catalysts have provided excellent chemo-, regio- and enantioselectivity for most of the products obtained. For substrates having an allylsilane sidechain, the chiral cyclic allylsilane products were used to induce stereocontrol in a subsequent Hosomi-Sakurai reaction using TiCl4 as Lewis acid and aldehydes as electrophiles. The corresponding homoallylic alcohols were obtained in good to excellent diastereoselectivity. 

    The second part (Chapter 4) describes the N,P-iridium catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation of various vinyl fluorides. A number of tri- and tetrasubstituted vinyl fluorides were synthesized and evaluated for the asymmetric hydrogenation. The corresponding saturated chiral fluoro compounds were obtained in very high enantioselectivity (up to 99% ee). The defluorination, usually known to occur under the catalytic hydrogenation conditions, were not observed for the majority of the substrates. 

    Finally, Chapter 5 describes the application of N,P-ligands in the asymmetric cycloisomerization of 1,6-enynes using a palladium precatalyst. The enantioselectivities for the products were found to depend both on the substrate as well as the hydrogen source. These developed catalytic reactions provide attractive methods to create multiple stereogenic centers in a molecule in relatively few steps from readily available starting materials.

  • Tällö, Emma
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    The Vulnerability of the Great Lakes Region to Waterborne Diseases in the Wake of Climate Change: A Literature Review2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Clean drinking and recreational water is essential for human survival and contaminated water cause 1.4 million deaths worldwide every year. Both developing and developed countries suffer as a consequence of unsafe water that cause waterborne diseases. The Great Lakes region, located in the United States is no exception. Climate change is predicted to cause an increase in waterborne disease outbreaks, worldwide, in the future. To adapt to this public health threat, vulnerability assessments are necessary. This literature study includes a vulnerability assessment that describes the main factors that affect the spreading of waterborne diseases in the Great Lakes region. Future climate scenarios in the region, and previous outbreaks are also described. The study also includes a statistical analysis where mean temperature and precipitation is plotted against waterborne disease cases. The main conclusion drawn is that the Great Lakes region is at risk of becoming more vulnerable to waterborne diseases in the future, if it does not adapt to climate change.          

  • Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för fonetik.
    Botros, Noor
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lord, Alekzandra
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Marcusson, Amelie
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Tidelius, Henrik
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Marklund, Ellen
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för fonetik.
    The LENATM system applied to Swedish: Reliability of the Adult Word Count estimate2017Inngår i: Proceedings of the 18th Annual Conference of the International Speech Communication Association (INTERSPEECH 2017) / [ed] Marcin Wlodarczak, STockholm: The International Speech Communication Association (ISCA), 2017, 2088-2092 s., 1287Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Language Environment Analysis system LENATM is used to capture day-long recordings of children’s natural audio environment. The system performs automated segmentation of the recordings and provides estimates for various measures. One of those measures is Adult Word Count (AWC), an approximation of the number of words spoken by adults in close proximity to the child. The LENA system was developed for and trained on American English, but it has also been evaluated on its performance when applied to Spanish, Mandarin and French. The present study is the first evaluation of the LENA system applied to Swedish, and focuses on the AWC estimate. Twelve five-minute segments were selected at random from each of four day-long recordings of 30-month-old children. Each of these 48 segments was transcribed by two transcribers,and both number of words and number of vowels were calculated (inter-transcriber reliability for words: r = .95,vowels: r = .93). Both counts correlated with the LENA system’s AWC estimate for the same segments (words: r = .67, vowels: r = .66). The reliability of the AWC as estimated by the LENA system when applied to Swedish is therefore comparableto its reliability for Spanish, Mandarin and French.

  • Aslan, Asmahan
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska fakulteten, Juridiska institutionen.
    Varumärkesrätt och läkemedelsnamn: hur beskrivande kan ett läkemedelsnamn vara?2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • Karlsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Morley, Jenny
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    ”Men självklart är flickorna oerhört mer utsatta”: En vinjettstudie om gymnasielärares uppfattning om och agerande kring pojkar i en hederskontext2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to examine how boys, in the context of honour, are perceived by teachers and what kind of efforts are being taken in specific situations. The study is based on seven qualitative interviews with high school teachers, from four different schools in the Stockholm County, using five vignettes. The interviews were processed using a thematic analysis and the result was analysed with the help of Christie’s theory about ideal and non-ideal victims, the theory of street-level bureaucracy and to some extent pathological altruism. The results show that the teachers in general find it easier to define girls as victims rather than boys. The teachers themselves think the reason for that can be that boys are perceived to have more power over their own situation and a freedom that the girls lack. Loud and aggressive behavior complicates the boy’s victimhood further. Reports of concern to Social services are rarely mentioned and is to be taken care of by school counselors or principals. The teachers defined it as the process, but also expressed a feeling of lack of knowledge and in some cases an unwillingness to act due to a fear of prejudging.

  • Granmar, Claes
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska fakulteten, Juridiska institutionen.
    Economic Globalisation and the Rule of Law2017Inngår i: Europarättslig tidskrift, ISSN 1403-8722, nr 3, 489-523 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Mattsson, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kultur och estetik.
    Editor’s Introduction: Turning Points and Continuity. Reformulating questions to the archives2017Inngår i: Nordic Theatre Studies, ISSN 0904-6380, E-ISSN 2002-3898, Vol. 29, nr 1, 1-5 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Disputas: 2018-01-24 13:00 Lilla Hörsalen. Nod building, Kista
    Rahman, Hasibur
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Distributed Intelligence-Assisted Autonomic Context-Information Management: A context-based approach to handling vast amounts of heterogeneous IoT data2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    As an implication of rapid growth in Internet-of-Things (IoT) data, current focus has shifted towards utilizing and analysing the data in order to make sense of the data. The aim of which is to make instantaneous, automated, and informed decisions that will drive the future IoT. This corresponds to extracting and applying knowledge from IoT data which brings both a substantial challenge and high value. Context plays an important role in reaping value from data, and is capable of countering the IoT data challenges. The management of heterogeneous contextualized data is infeasible and insufficient with the existing solutions which mandates new solutions. Research until now has mostly concentrated on providing cloud-based IoT solutions; among other issues, this promotes real-time and faster decision-making issues. In view of this, this dissertation undertakes a study of a context-based approach entitled Distributed intelligence-assisted Autonomic Context Information Management (DACIM), the purpose of which is to efficiently (i) utilize and (ii) analyse IoT data.

    To address the challenges and solutions with respect to enabling DACIM, the dissertation starts with proposing a logical-clustering approach for proper IoT data utilization. The environment that the number of Things immerse changes rapidly and becomes dynamic. To this end, self-organization has been supported by proposing self-* algorithms that resulted in 10 organized Things per second and high accuracy rate for Things joining. IoT contextualized data further requires scalable dissemination which has been addressed by a Publish/Subscribe model, and it has been shown that high publication rate and faster subscription matching are realisable. The dissertation ends with the proposal of a new approach which assists distribution of intelligence with regard to analysing context information to alleviate intelligence of things. The approach allows to bring few of the application of knowledge from the cloud to the edge; where edge based solution has been facilitated with intelligence that enables faster responses and reduced dependency on the rules by leveraging artificial intelligence techniques. To infer knowledge for different IoT applications closer to the Things, a multi-modal reasoner has been proposed which demonstrates faster response. The evaluations of the designed and developed DACIM gives promising results, which are distributed over seven publications; from this, it can be concluded that it is feasible to realize a distributed intelligence-assisted context-based approach that contribute towards autonomic context information management in the ever-expanding IoT realm.

  • Sundberg, Rolf
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Matematiska institutionen.
    A note on “shaved dice” inferenceInngår i: American Statistician, ISSN 0003-1305, E-ISSN 1537-2731Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Two dice are rolled repeatedly, only their sum is registered. Have the two dice been “shaved”, so two of the six sides appear more frequently? Pavlides & Perlman (2010) discuss this somewhat complicated type of situation through curved exponen- tial families. Here we contrast their approach by regarding data as incomplete data from a simple exponential family. The latter, supplementary approach is in some respects simpler, it provides additional insight about the relationships among the likelihood equation, Fisher information, and the EM algorithm, and it illustrates the information content in ancillary statistics.

  • Disputas: 2018-01-19 13:00 Lilla Hörsalen, NOD-huset, Kista
    Wang, Jinyi
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Crafting Movement: Moving Image Collections for Interaction Design2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis conceptualises, investigates, and reflects on the moving image design space in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). Motivated by the increasing number of videos, films, and animations produced in the field, the thesis recognizes moving image making as a designerly way of inquiry across research and practice, and argues for the importance of moving image as a research topic in interaction design. 

    The first contribution of this thesis is the conceptualization of the moving image design space. The growing body of moving images, varying in forms and purposes, can be held together to establish a foundation of knowledge that informs and generates new research and practice. We identify four collections of existing works and their different roles, namely moving image as design technique, design element, design exhibit, and design promotion. The second contribution is the manifestation of moving image making through concrete design studies. These exemplars empirically demonstrate how they investigate, enrich, and challenge the four established collections, and ultimately expand the moving image design space. 

    These contributions not only provide new knowledge on moving images for better understanding their various roles in interaction design and making works that respond to emerging design opportunities, but also foreground the discussion on the mediation aspect of moving image in HCI.

  • Bodin, Per-Arne
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Slaviska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för slaviska och baltiska språk, finska, nederländska och tyska, Slaviska språk.
    Ikoner, ikonoklasm och rysk konst i dag2017Inngår i: Religionen tur och retur: RJ:s årsbok 2017/2018 / [ed] Jenny, Björkman, Arne Jarrick, Göteborg: Makadam Förlag, 2017, 63-78 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Bodin, Per-Arne
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Slaviska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för slaviska och baltiska språk, finska, nederländska och tyska, Slaviska språk.
    From Biography to Hymnography: On the Canonization of Patriarch Tikhon2017Inngår i: Spiritual and Ecclesiastical Biographies: Research, results, and Reading / [ed] Anders Jarlert, Stockholm: Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademien, 2017, 148-165 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • De Geer, Lars-Erik
    et al.
    Persson, Christer
    Rodhe, Henning
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Meteorologiska institutionen (MISU).
    A nuclear jet at Chernobyl around 21:23:45 UTC on April 25, 19862017Inngår i: Nuclear Technology, ISSN 0029-5450, E-ISSN 1943-7471Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The nature of two explosions that were witnessed within 3 s at the Chernobyl-4 reactor less than a minute after 21:23:00 UTC on April 25, 1986, have since then been the subject of sprawling interpretations. This paper renders the following hypothesis. The first explosion consisted of thermal neutron mediated nuclear explosions in one or rather a few fuel channels, which caused a jet of debris that reached an altitude of some 2500 to 3000 m. The second explosion would then have been the steam explosion most experts believe was the first one. The solid support for this new scenario rests on two pillars and three pieces of corroborating evidence. The first pillar is that a group at the V. G. Khlopin Radium Institute in then Leningrad on April 29, 1986, detected newly produced, or fresh, xenon fission products at Cherepovets, 370 km north of Moscow and far away from the major track of Chernobyl debris ejected by the steam explosion and subsequent fires. The second pillar is built on state-of-the-art meteorological dispersion calculations, which show that the fresh xenon signature observed at Cherepovets was only possible if the injection altitude of the fresh debris was considerably higher than that of the bulk reactor core releases that turned toward Scandinavia and central Europe. These two strong pieces of evidence are corroborated by what were manifest physical effects of a downward jet in the southeastern part of the reactor, by seismic measurements some 100 km west of the reactor, and by observations of a blue flash above the reactor a few seconds after the first explosion.

  • Sundh, Lydia
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    The function of teacher questions in EFL classroom activities in Cambodia: A conversation analytic study2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The present study aims to examine teacher questions in an English as a foreign language (EFL) classroom with a conversation analytic (CA) approach. Specifically, the study focuses on the sequential position of the teacher questions, and on their function in the management of classroom activities. Two activities in an intermediate leveled English classroom in Cambodia with students aged 20-24 were recorded and subsequently transcribed according to CA conventions. Thereafter, the teacher questions were identified and categorized. The findings showed that there were five categories of questions used by the teacher; that is, understanding checks, activity managing questions, repair regarding understanding and repair regarding accomplishment of task and lastly topic elaboration questions. Each category of question was used in a specific time in order to manage classroom activities, however, the findings also reveal that questions can interfere with the pedagogical focus when they appear out of context and can limit students’ participation in class.

  • Disputas: 2018-01-19 10:00 Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Stockholm
    Fyrestam, Jonas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Porphyrins and heme in microorganisms: Porphyrin content and its relation to phototherapy and antimicrobial treatments in vivo and in vitro2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the greatest threats to human health is increasing antimicrobial resistance among pathogens, and finding alternatives for treatment of bacterial infections is of highest importance together with a more controlled use of antibiotics. Porphyrins and heme have both been shown to be a promising class of compounds for inactivation of bacteria; porphyrins by their excellent properties to act as a photosensitizer, and heme by its importance as an iron source during a bacterial infection in vertebrates.

    This thesis describes the development of analytical methods for the identification and determination of porphyrins and heme using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Subsequently, these developed methods were applied to bacterial samples to investigate different culture conditions and additives effect to the intracellular porphyrin and heme composition. Singlet oxygen production of three naturally occurring porphyrins have been determined together with the photosensitivity for blue light and the porphyrin content in E. coli. Toothbrushes equipped with a LED, emitting light with a wavelength of 450 nm, were used in an eight week randomized clinical trial to investigate any positive periodontal effect of blue light.

    Porphyrin and heme content in Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis were highly affected by the different cultivation conditions. The culture age of A. actinomycetemcomitans affected the porphyrin profile, while only small changes were observed for P. gingivalis during growth. A large change of the porphyrin profile could be observed when the bacteria were passaged onto a new growth medium. Additional porphyrins were detected and the total porphyrin content increased up to 28 times. These findings highlight the need for more standardized cultivation procedures when performing in vitro experiments.

    Heme content in Escherichia coli was affected when different additives related to biosynthesis of heme were added to the growth medium. The uptake of heme could be reduced with 52% when a compound that chemically looks similar to heme was added to the growth medium. Since heme acquisition is important for many pathogens, this could be a promising target for antimicrobial drugs.

    E. coli showed no sensitivity for 405 nm light using light doses up to 172.8 J/cm2 and only low concentrations of porphyrins could be quantified. By adding a porphyrin precursor to E. coli the intracellular concentration of porphyrins increased remarkably and a light dose of 57.6 J/cm2 reduced the bacterial number with > 5 log10 steps. This shows that E. coli can be killed due to their endogenous porphyrins.

    In the clinical study we could see a weak trend that the 450 nm LED toothbrush possessed a phototherapeutic effect for three clinical indices. All indices were decreased in the intervention group, but there were no statistically significant difference compared to the control group. However, four inflammation markers were significantly decreased in the intervention group while only one decreased significantly in the control group.

    In conclusion, this thesis has shown that porphyrins and heme are produced endogenously in microorganisms and that the porphyrin profiles vary depending on culture conditions and different additives. Furthermore, porphyrins may be used as endogenous photosensitizers to inactivate bacteria, but more research is necessary to determine if there is a specific porphyrin that contributes more to the photosensitivity.

  • Disputas: 2018-01-19 10:00 Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Kjellsson, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Sick of Work?: Questions of Class, Gender and Self-Rated Health2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines two aspects of social inequalities in health with three empirical studies that are based on the Swedish Level of Living survey (LNU): The relationship between accumulated occupational class positions during adulthood and health and the class-specific nature of gender differences in health. Previous research continuously finds that there are health differences by class and gender, but less is known about the extent to which accumulated class experiences in adulthood are related to health or how gender differences vary by class. The overall conclusion in this thesis is that occupational class experiences matters for health, both as historical and current experiences. Furthermore, the results highlight the importance of taking class into consideration when examining health differences between men and women, as the mechanisms that underlie the gender gaps in health are not necessarily the same for all classes. The studies can be outlined as:

    Study I: Class differences in working conditions is a mechanism that underlies class inequalities in health. The working class is generally more exposed to adverse working environments than non-manual employees, and when the wear and tear of these conditions accumulate over time, the length of this exposure may contribute to class inequalities in health. Thereby, accumulated time in the working class is studied as a partial explanation for class differences in health. The results suggest that the duration of time in the working class is related to a higher probability of less than good self-rated general health (SRH), given current class position. This association was also found among individuals who were no longer in working class positions and thus show that duration of experience matters, both as current and past experience.

    Study II: The study addresses the research gap of class-specificity in gender health inequality and seeks to further disentangle class and gender by studying gender gaps separately by class. The results show that there are class-specific gender gaps for both SRH and musculoskeletal pain, while the gender gap in psychiatric distress appears to be more general across class. Working conditions do not explain the between-class differences in gender gaps but contribute to specific gender differences in health within classes.

    Study III: The labour market has changed over time and has “upgraded” the class structure while at the same time the share of women in paid employment has increased. Therefore, female health may be increasingly influenced by occupational factors, such as working conditions. This study explores the class-specific nature of gender differences and investigates musculoskeletal pain and working conditions among employed men and women within classes during a time-period that spanned more than 30 years. There were class-specific gender gaps in health throughout the period. The gender gap has increased more, and is wider, among non-manual employees compared to the working classes. This development could not be explained by changes in working conditions.

  • Gustafsson Reinius, Lotten
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för etnologi, religionshistoria och genusstudier, Etnologiska avdelningen. Nordiska museet .
    Peers, Laura
    Pitt-Rivers Museum, Oxford University .
    Shannon, Jennifer
    University of Boulder, Colorado .
    Introduction: Repatriation and Ritual, Repatriation as Ritual2017Inngår i: Museum Worlds: Advances in Research, ISSN 2049-6729, E-ISSN 2049-6737, nr 5, 1-8 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This special section of Museum Worlds explores the entire process of repatriation as a set of rituals enacted by claimants and museum staff: a set of highlighted performances enacting multiple sets of cosmological beliefs, symbolic systems, and political structures. Some of the rituals of repatriation occur within the space of Indigenous ceremonies; others happen within the museum spaces of collections storage and the boardroom; others, such as handover ceremonies, are coproduced and culturally hybrid. From the often obsessive bureaucracy associated with repatriation claims to the affective moment of handover, repatriation articulates a moral landscape where memory, responsibility, guilt, identity, sanctity, place, and ownership are given a ritual form. Theory about ritual is used here to situate the articles in this section, which together form a cross-

  • Mustajärvi, Lukas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Contaminated sediments: Methods to assess release and toxicity of organic chemical mixtures2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Bottom sediments around the world store large amounts of legacy hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs), forming mixtures of unknown chemical composition. Primary emissions to the environment of many HOCs have been reduced as a consequence of regulation. However, HOCs may be released from the sediments to water and biota, and there is therefore a risk of negative effects on local ecosystems. The activity of benthic organisms can enhance the sediment-to-water flux of HOCs, a process called bioturbation. Few in situ assessments of the sediment-to-water flux are available in the scientific literature, and the effect of bioturbation on the sediment-to-water flux of HOCs has not been studied in the field. Thus, there is a need to improve in situ methods for direct determination of sediments as a source of HOCs to water, and thereby include the effect of bioturbation. In Paper I, a benthic flow-through chamber was developed for environmentally realistic in situ assessments of the sediment-to-water flux. In Paper II, the sediment-to-water flux of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was assessed using the flow-through chamber at four sites on the Swedish Baltic Sea coast. The sediments at all four sites acted as sources of PAHs to water. In the same study, potential effects of bioturbation, with an increase of the sediment-to-water flux by up to one order of magnitude, were observed at sites with bioturbating organisms. In the past, assessing the toxicity of HOCs has been challenging due to difficulties in maintaining stable exposure concentrations of the test chemical. In Paper III, a passive dosing method, where the test chemical partitions from a polymer (silicone) to the aquatic exposure medium, was developed and tested for chronic exposure. A stable exposure concentration could be maintained, and the chronic toxicity to the sediment-dwelling harpacticoid Nitocra spinipes of chronic exposure to triclosan was assessed in a 6-week population development test. In Paper IV, a passive sampling and dosing method was developed and used to assess the toxicity of an environmental chemical mixture of bioavailable sediment-associated HOCs transferred from a contaminated sediment to the laboratory-based bioassay. The passive sampling and dosing method can be used to assess the toxicity of environmental mixtures of chemicals at environmentally realistic concentrations to which ecosystems are constantly exposed.

  • Basile, Walter
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    Orphan Genes Bioinformatics: Identification and properties of de novo created genes2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Even today, many genes are without any known homolog. These "orphans" are found in all species, from Viruses to Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes. For a portion of these genes, we might simply not have enough data to find homologs yet. Some of them are imported from taxonomically distant organisms via lateral transfer; others have homologs, but mutated beyond the point of recognition.

    However, a sizeable fraction of orphan genes is unambiguously created via "de novo" mechanisms. The study of such novel genes can contribute to our understanding of the emergence of functional novelty and the adaptation of species to new ecological niches.

    In this work, we first survey the field of orphan studies, and illustrate some of the common issues. Next, we analyze some of the intrinsic properties of orphans proteins, including secondary structure elements and Intrinsic Structural Disorder; specifically, we observe that in young proteins the relationship between these properties and the G+C content of their coding sequence is stronger than in older proteins.

    We then tackle some of the methodological problems often found in orphan studies. We find that using evolutionarily close species, and sensitive, state-of-the art homology recognition methods is instrumental to the identification of a set of orphans enriched in de novo created ones.

    Finally, we compare how intrinsic disorder is distributed in bacteria versus eukaryota. Eukaryotic proteins are longer and more disordered; the difference is to be attributed primarily to eukaryotic-specific domains and linker regions. In these sections of the proteins, a higher frequency of the disorder-promoting amino acid Serine can be observed in Eukaryotes.

  • Brannigan, Liam
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Meteorologiska institutionen (MISU).
    Johnson, Helen
    Ligue, Camille
    Nycander, Jonas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Meteorologiska institutionen (MISU).
    Nilsson, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Meteorologiska institutionen (MISU).
    Generation of Subsurface Anticyclones at Arctic Surface Fronts due to a Surface Stress2017Inngår i: Journal of Physical Oceanography, ISSN 0022-3670, E-ISSN 1520-0485, Vol. 47, nr 11, 2653-2671 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Isolated anticyclones are frequently observed below the mixed layer in the Arctic Ocean. Some of these subsurface anticyclones are thought to originate at surface fronts. However, previous idealized simulations with no surface stress show that only cyclone–anticyclone dipoles can propagate away from baroclinically unstable surface fronts. Numerical simulations of fronts subject to a surface stress presented here show that a surface stress in the same direction as the geostrophic flow inhibits dipole propagation away from the front. On the other hand, a surface stress in the opposite direction to the geostrophic flow helps dipoles to propagate away from the front. Regardless of the surface stress at the point of dipole formation, these dipoles can be broken up on a time scale of days when a surface stress is applied in the right direction. The dipole breakup leads to the deeper anticyclonic component becoming an isolated subsurface eddy. The breakup of the dipole occurs because the cyclonic component of the dipole in the mixed layer is subject to an additional advection because of the Ekman flow. When the Ekman transport has a component oriented from the anticyclonic part of the dipole toward the cyclonic part then the cyclone is advected away from the anticyclone and the dipole is broken up. When the Ekman transport is in other directions relative to the dipole axis, it also leads to deviations in the trajectory of the dipole. A scaling is presented for the rate at which the surface cyclone is advected that holds across a range of mixed layer depths and surface stress magnitudes in these simulations. The results may be relevant to other regions of the ocean with similar near-surface stratification profiles.

  • Powell, Stina
    et al.
    Ah-King, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för etnologi, religionshistoria och genusvetenskap, Genusvetenskap.
    Hussénius, Anita
    'Are we to become a gender university?' Facets of resistance to a gender equality project2017Inngår i: Gender, Work and Organization, ISSN 0968-6673, E-ISSN 1468-0432Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Gender equality (GE) is something ‘we cannot not want’. Indeed, the pursuit of equal rights, responsibilities and opportunities for all women and men throughout a society freed from gendered oppression is widely visible in recent organizational GE initiatives. In practice, however, GE initiatives often fail in challenging gendered norms and at effecting deep-seated change. In fact, GE measures tend to encounter resistance, with a gap between saying and doing. Using a GE project at a Swedish university, we examined the changing nature of reactions to GE objectives seeking to understand why gender inequality persists in academia. We used ‘resistance’ to identify multiple, complex reactions to the project, focusing on the discursive practices of GE. Focusing our contextual analysis on change and changes in reactions enabled a process-oriented analysis that revealed gaps where change is possible. Thus, we argue that studying change makes it possible to identify points in time where gendered discriminatory norms are more likely to occur. However, analysing discursive practices does not itself lead to change nor to action. Rather, demands for change must start with answering, in a collaborative way, what problem we are trying to solve when we start a new GE project, in order to be relevant to the specific context. Otherwise, GE risks being the captive of consensus politics and gender inequality will persist.

  • White, Jenny
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för Asien-, Mellanöstern- och Turkietstudier, Institutet för Turkietstudier (SUITS).
    Spindle Autocracy in the New Turkey2017Inngår i: Brown Journal of World Affairs, ISSN 1080-0786, E-ISSN 2014-7910, Vol. 24, nr 1, 23-37 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This article applies insights from cultural anthropology to the study of politics, nationalism and Islam in Turkey, with particular focus on group formation and competitive networks. It develops a model for understanding political fragmentation and inter-group hostility.

  • Aspenberg, Annika
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Dialog och Samarbete i arbetet med ramdirektivet för vatten: Perspektiv från kommun, länsstyrelse och vattenmyndighet i Norra Östersjöns Vattendistrikt, Sverige2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The EU Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EG) entered into force in the year 2000, with the purpose to enhance water quality in the EU and to guarantee a sustainable water provision for the future. This study focuses on the implementation of the Water Framework Directive in the Northern Baltic Sea drainage basin, Sweden. Sweden is divided into five river basin districts, of which five water authorities are responsible for water management and planning. Every sixth year an action program is written for each of the five river basin districts by the responsible water authority. In this study the development and implementation of the action program for the Northern Baltic Sea drainage basin are examined, with special focus on the communication between municipalities, the county administrative boards and the responsible water authority. Five officials from Uppsala, Stockholm, Heby and Knivsta municipalities, two officials from the Uppsala and Stockholm county administrative boards and one official from the water authority were interviewed about their work to implement the Water Framework Directive and the cooperation and communication around it. The study shows that shortcomings in cooperation and communication between the responsible authorities may hamper the successful implementation of the Water Framework Directive. On the one hand, the county boards and the water authority work closely together and have a continuous dialogue around the development of the action program. On the other hand, the officials from the municipalities are not a part of this tight cooperation and are largely excluded from the development of the action program. There is tendency of the officials from the municipality to doubt the action program and to criticize the suggested strategy for water management, whereas the officials from the county boards and the water authority strongly believe in the usefulness of the action program, which they have developed. The participants from the municipalities express that no clear plan is presented for the funding of the work. They find the time schedule unrealistic and point out that the action program lacks discussions on goal conflicts (in particular, the need to improve the economic situation of farmers is perceived to be in conflict with their planned tasks in the action program). In addition, the officials from the municipalities express that the information flows in the water management system are characterized by one way communication and that their local knowledge is not accounted for properly. In addition, the officials from the municipalities request that the action programme contain more detailed information on the local water bodiesand account for all available local data. In this commentary the participants express a believe that the demands in the action plan could be explained in more exact detail and backed up with evidence and data, i.e. of the consequences of actions in the area (such as emissions from industries or actions taken by the official). The participants from the municipalities also request enhanced contacts with national authorities. They complain that important information from national authorities (such as information on new regulations and guidelines)do not always reach the municipalities, which hampers their ability to act as guiding authorities in water management(as required by the action program).

  • Hedlin, Pontus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Redovisning.
    And yet they thrive!—Regaining the relevance of a transparency system2017Inngår i: Development Policy Review, ISSN 0950-6764, E-ISSN 1467-7679Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past decade, a host of donor organizations implemented transparency systems to make international development aid more transparent to the public. These initiatives have met with little public interest, but their proliferation and development show no sign of diminishing. This article shows how internal importance to the political system, fueled by formal rankings and the exhibition of transparency systems as a flagship initiative, can replace relevance to the public as a driving force for sustainable development. The article concludes by discussing the possibility of a future development where transparency systems finally do connect with user groups, such as citizens of both donor and recipient countries, and gain a relevance even beyond original intentions.

  • Danckwardt, Petter
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska fakulteten, Juridiska institutionen.
    Conceptualizing ISIS in international legal terms: implications, crises and failure of Westphalian notions of authority2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • Koriya, Babylona
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska fakulteten, Juridiska institutionen.
    Vad innebär den särskilda kontexten i BrB 4:4a?2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave