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  • Slokenberga, Santa
    et al.
    Reichel, Jane
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska fakulteten, Juridiska institutionen. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Niringiye, Rachel
    Croxton, Talishiea
    Swanepoel, Carmen
    Okal, June
    EU data transfer rules and African legal realities: is data exchange for biobank research realistic?2018Inngår i: International data privacy law, ISSN 2044-3994Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Key Points

    • To effectively collaborate in biobanking and build capacity in low and middle-income countries, data transfer from European Union (EU) Member States to states in Africa is crucial.

    • Although under the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) avenues for data transfer exist, the ones feasible for transcontinental data exchange for biobank research rely on EU enforcement which in essence means limited oversight possibilities and, consequently, considerable risks to the EU data subject’s privacy.

    • To ensure effective data protection for data subjects in biobanking, raising the data protection bar in data recipient countries is crucial. Although Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa, and Uganda have taken considerable steps towards developing data protection frameworks, only that of South Africa and Nigeria’s Protection of Personal Information Bill seem to be such to meet the protection level set out by the GDPR. The legislative initiatives in Kenya and Uganda require revisions to ensure that protection of privacy is not undermined when data are being sent to these countries.

    • Currently, considerable responsibility is placed in the hands of the legislatures in the countries of concern—and notably in Kenya, and Uganda—to set foundations for ending research and research integrity-harming practices. In Nigeria, these foundations are defined in the Protection of Personal Information Bill, but not adopted yet. South Africa, however, has taken a big step towards building routes for genuine biobank capacity-building in the country and collaboration in that regard.

  • Menacho, Veronica
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    The violent ISM in Haro 112018Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis introduces briefly physical processes operating in the ISM around massive starsand focuses on the impact strong stellar feedback has in creating large-scale structures in a galaxy.Stellar feedback is ubiquitous in star forming galaxies and its effect on the ISM depends strongly on the energy output from the most massive stars (M$\geq$7 \Mo ) and the properties of the surrounding gas. Starburst galaxies are among the most active in producing %galaxies are among the most active galaxies and produce a large amount of massive star clusters %or even super star clusters (SSC; M$_{cl} \geq 10^5$ \Mo ), with stellar populations up to thousands of massive stars. %The most massive stars (M$\geq$30 \Mo ) are lives short, but they In the first 4 Myr of the star clusters evolution, radiative feedback of the most massive stars (M$\geq$30 \Mo ) are at work. Large amount of ionizing photons are released to the ambient medium while radiative pressure compress the surrounding gas. At the same time their stellar winds inject continuously mechanical energy and momentum in their surrounding. This mechanical feedback is then at later ages, until $\sim$ 40 Myrs, maintained by supernova explosions from the less massive stars.

    Strong stellar feedback tends to develop large-scale structures such as bubbles, loops, filaments and outflows. These are transient structures and can be seen as imprints of how the released energy is clearing or has cleared paths in the ISM. Strong stellar feedback can have devastating consequences in dwarf galaxies due to their shallow gravitational potential. It can accelerate outflows with velocities larger than their escape velocities. In this way, dwarf galaxies can lose a large fraction of their gas mass, which will be crucial in their subsequent evolution.On the other hand, galactic winds might be responsible to create holes in the ISM, allowing the easily-absorbed ionizing photons (Lyman continuum photons, LyC) to escape the galaxy. Studies on a few LyC leaking galaxies have shown that this mechanisms might have preference from a density-bound scenario, which takes place in galaxies with a highly ionized halo.

    In my paper I used deep MUSE observations to analyse the impact strong stellar feedback has in the starburst and Lyman continuum emitting galaxy: Haro 11. The paper presents three emission line diagnostics aiming to analyse the condition of the warm ionized gas in this galaxy, which are the \Ha\ emission, the level of ionization in gas and the presence of fast shocks. These diagnostics are presented in maps of 50 \kms\ bins in a velocity range from -400 to 350 \kms . Haro 11 shows a violent ISM whose warm ionized gas is almost completely shaped by effect of stellar feedback from the most massive star forming regions in the centre. Arcs, shells, outflows paths and galactic scale ionizing cones are imprinted in ISM of Haro 11. Our analysis suggests the presence of a kpc-scale superbubble which might have created galactic holes in the ISM. Beside of that, Haro 11 shows a highly ionized halo. Both mechanisms appear to facilitate the escape of LyC in this galaxy. %Finally, we observe emission at velocities up to thousand \kms\ which could hints to gas escaping the galaxy. Finally the paper presents estimates of the gas mass fraction that could escape the gravitational potential of the galaxy.

  • Törrönen, Jukka
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Roumeliotis, Filip
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Samuelsson, Eva
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Kraus, Ludwig
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap. IFT, Institut für Therapieforschung, Germany.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap. La Trobe University, Australia.
    Why are young people drinking less than earlier? Identifying and specifying social mechanisms with a pragmatist approach2019Inngår i: International Journal of Drug Policy, ISSN 0955-3959, Vol. 64, s. 13-20Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent surveys have found a strong decrease in alcohol consumption among young people and this trend has been identified in European countries, Australia and North America. Previous research suggests that the decline in alcohol consumption may be explained by changes in parenting style, increased use of social media, changes in gender identities or a health and fitness trend. We use qualitative interviews with drinking and non-drinking young people from Sweden (N = 49) to explore in what way and in what kinds of contexts these explanations may hold true and how they alone or together may explain declining alcohol consumption among young people. By using the pragmatist approach, we pay attention to what kinds of concerns, habits, practices, situations and meanings our interviewees relate to adolescents' low alcohol consumption or decline in drinking. By analyzing these matters, we aim to specify the social mechanisms that have reduced adolescents' drinking. Our paper discovers social mechanisms similar to previous studies but also a few that have previously been overlooked. We propose that the cultural position of drinking may have changed among young people so that drinking has lost its unquestioned symbolic power as a rite of passage into adulthood. There is less peer pressure to drink and more room for competing activities. This opening of a homogeneous drinking culture to the acceptance of differences may function as a social mechanism that increases the success of other social mechanisms to reduce adolescents' drinking. Furthermore, the results of the paper suggest a hypothesis of the early maturation of young people as more individualized, responsible, reflective, and adult-like actors than in earlier generations. Overall, the paper provides hypotheses for future quantitative studies to examine the prevalence and distribution of the identified social mechanisms, as well as recommends directions for developing effective interventions to support young people's healthy lifestyle choices.

  • Vendel, Agnes
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    Discontinuous Noun Phrases in Classical Latin Prose: A Case Study of Cicero's Pro Milone2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Studies on the phenomenon of hyperbaton (or discontinuous noun phrases) in Latin have traditionally suffered from over-generalizing descriptions and categorizations drawing on examples from a variety of sources. This thesis attempts a different approach, closely examining the totality of instances in a single text, Cicero’s Pro Milone, in view of establishing a preliminary typology and to investigate the motivations behind it. It also consistently compares the discontinuous data with continuous examples, in order to rule out as many alternative motivations as possible. The results suggest that the discursive value of the components is crucial for whether hyperbaton occurs or not: in particular a combination of a pragmatic function (Topic or Focus) and Contrast, and connects this to some recent theoretical proposals.

  • Disputas: 2019-01-25 10:00 Vivi Täckholmsalen (Q-salen), NPQ-huset, Stockholm
    Erlandsson, Rasmus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Spatial and temporal population dynamics in the mountain tundra – mesopredator and prey2019Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that competition, predation and fluctuating food resources can have strong effect on individual fitness and population dynamics. The complexity of natural systems can make it complicate to disentangle those processes, but environments with relatively simple food webs, and strong cyclic population dynamics offer contrasting conditions resembling experimental treatments. This thesis concerns the spatial and temporal implications of fluctuations in small rodent abundance on two trophic levels in a highly cyclic ecosystem, the Scandinavian mountain tundra. The first two chapters focus on plant biomass and spatiotemporal distribution in the Norwegian lemming (Lemmus lemmus), while the three last papers focus on the direct and indirect effects of small rodent fluctuations and territory quality on reproductive success, juvenile survival and group living in a lemming specialist mesopredator, the arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus). By developing, validating and applying a novel application of aerial photos for remote sensing of plant biomass (Chapter I), we found that food availability predicted lemming distribution during population peaks, but that they were more habitat specific during increase years when intraspecific competition was lower (Chapter II). Arctic fox reproduction is tightly connected to small rodent abundance but the effects of geographical variation in food availability is less well known. We used 17 years of population surveys of an arctic fox subpopulation in mid Sweden (Helagsfjällen) to investigate potential effects. During small rodent increase years, we found that arctic fox litter sizes were smaller in territories of intermediate plant productivity, compared to both more and less productive territories (Chapter III). This could be an effect of limited food availability together with increased presence of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), a stronger and potentially lethal competitor. However, when small rodents peaked, and competition would be expected to decrease, we saw no effect of territory productivity. Based on a smaller data set concerning juvenile summer survival, we found that the mortality rate among juveniles born by first time breeding arctic fox females were more sensitive to low small rodent prey abundance (Chapter IV). We explain it with an increased predation pressure from top-predators that switch from small rodents to alternative prey when small rodents decline, as suggested by an observed positive effect on juvenile survival by adult presence on den sites. Arctic foxes are socially flexible, and several adults can share a den with the resident pair, potentially increasing juvenile survival and help in territorial defence. Returning to the 17-year data set, we tested the Resource Dispersion Hypothesis predicting that increased resource availability should increase group size (Chapter V). We found support for this prediction as group living increased during the small rodent peak phase. However, it remained unexpectedly high during the decrease phase, when resources are scarce. This could however be related to increased predation pressure, and an increasing benefit of group living.

  • Disputas: 2019-01-25 10:00 De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Dunker, Rickard
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska fakulteten, Juridiska institutionen.
    Lokala ordningsföreskrifter2019Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden there are more than 280,000 known ancient and historical remains and monuments (fornminnen), almost 17,500 protected natural areas, 48 certified airports, hundreds of ports and marinas and a very large number of geographical areas which constitutes so-called public place (offentlig plats) or are subject to shoreland protection (strandskydd). For each and every of these places, municipalities and/or some state administrative authorities may issue local ordinances on public order (lokala ordningsföreskrifter), i.e. additional local rules about what persons in the area have to observe concerning “the order” therein. This regulatory power has been used to regulate a wide range of different issues, e.g. consumption of alcohol, diving, gambling, skiing, Christmas decorations, fishing, running, collection of money, parking, supervision over cats, dogs and horses, placarding, demonstrations, photographing, camping, riding, golfing, marketing, barbecuing, boating, begging, moviemaking, goldpanning, climbing, leafleting, taxi services, cycling, smoking and hunting. It also happens that municipal servants or police officers are given extra powers through the local ordinances, e.g. a right to take certain measures against those who do not comply with the rules or to confiscate or forfeit property used in violation with the local decrees.

    The described arrangement and the examples raises many questions, e.g. whether all of these matters actually, with respect to the rest of the legal system, may be handled in local ordinances? If not, what can be regulated? Is there any supervision over the regulatory powers in question, for example whether the provisions are given a legal and appropriate content? How are the ordinances brought to the public's attention? Can the rules be subject to appeal and, if so, by whom and in what order? How do different ordinances regarding public order relate to each other in such geographic areas where they overlap? In this dissertation, this – the Swedish system with local ordinances on public order – is subject to a broad scientific examination.

  • Disputas: 2019-01-18 10:00 Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Stockholm
    Riboni, Nicolò
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi. University of Parma, Italy.
    New Materials and Improved Ambient Techniques in Mass Spectrometry2019Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Mass spectrometry (MS) is used in several fields, e.g. biology, environmental monitoring, medicine and forensics due to excellent qualitative and quantitative capabilities. The development of new instrumental setups and ionization sources is crucial to analyze a variety of compounds at trace levels. The synergy between material science and analytical chemistry allowed the development of new materials characterized by specific features of polarity, porosity and functionalization, able to interact with targeted analytes in complex matrices, resulting in high extraction efficiency even in presence of overwhelming amounts of interfering compounds. New methods based on the use of new materials and MS techniques for analytes extraction and detection have been proposed, providing fast analysis times, enhanced selectivity and increased sensitivity.

    In this thesis, the development of new materials and setups for mass spectrometric applications is discussed.

    In Paper I-III the design, synthesis, characterization and evaluation of the analytical performances of four new supramolecular receptors for targeted extraction of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) are reported. The synthesized materials were used as solid-phase microextraction coatings (SPME) for the GC-MS determination of BTEX at trace levels in urban air. In addition, a portable device for in-situ and real-time monitoring of BTEX using these receptors in the preconcentration unit is presented.

    In Paper IV the development of coated ion sources able to improve the performances of an interface coupling liquid chromatography (LC) and electron ionization (EI), called Direct-EI LC-MS, is discussed. The coatings, obtained by sol-gel technique, were deposited onto commercial stainless steel EI sources to increase the inertness of its vaporization surface.

    In Paper V, a rapid screening method for the detection of new psychoactive substances (NPS) in oral fluids is presented. New slides based on polylactide (PLLA), carbon particles and silica were tested as probe materials to promote the ionization of the analytes in desorption electrospray ionization – high resolution mass spectrometry (DESI-HRMS). Microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) of the analytes from the saliva samples was required due to the high signal suppression. The developed MEPS-DESI-HRMS method was validated and applied for the determination of NPS in road-collected samples.

    In Paper VI the development of a new setup called solvent assisted paper spray ionization (SAPSI) is reported. This integrated solution allowed the increased data acquisition time and a close control over the ionization conditions. It was applied for the analysis of biomolecules, namely proteins, lipids, glycans, and amyloid peptides/aggregates, in aqueous solution as well as in human serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Different oligomeric species of amyloid aggregates were detected and it was possible to perform real-time monitoring of disaggregation processes. Modified protein species of physiological relevance such as oxidation, cysteinylation, glycosylation and glycation, and adduct formation were identified.

    In conclusion, the new materials and setups discussed in this thesis allowed the development of selective and sensitive MS methods for the determination of different target compounds in complex matrices at trace levels with reduced sample pretreatment.

  • Disputas: 2019-01-25 10:00 sal 14, hus 5, Kräftriket, Stockholm
    Nedic, Mitja
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Matematiska institutionen.
    On Herglotz-Nevanlinna functions in several variables2019Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, we investigate different aspects of the class of Herglotz-Nevanlinna functions in several variables. These are holomorphic functions on the poly-upper half-plane having non-negative imaginary part. Our results are presented in the four research articles A1 - A4, which are included in this thesis.

    Articles A1 and A2 establish a characterization of Herglotz-Nevanlinna functions in terms of an integral representation formula. The case of functions of two complex variables is presented in article A1, while the general case is treated in article A2, where different symmetry properties of Herglotz-Nevanlinna functions are also discussed.

    Article A3 discusses, in detail, the convex combination problem for Herglotz-Nevanlinna functions. This problem asks us to relate the representing parameters of different Herglotz-Nevanlinna functions under the assumption that these functions are related in a very particular way involving the convex combination of several independent variables. A related class of boundary measures is also discussed.

    Article A4 investigates the properties of Nevanlinna measures with respect to restrictions to coordinate orthogonal hyperplanes and the geometry of the support. A related class of measures on the unit poly-torus is also considered.

    Furthermore, this thesis is supplemented by three additional publications concerning Herglotz-Nevanlinna functions in one variable, related topics and applications.

    Article B1 concerns a particular class of convolution operators on the space of distributions that generalizes the well-studied class of passive operators. Article B2 introduces the class of quasi-Herglotz functions and discusses their integral representations, boundary values and sum-rules, as well as their applications in connection with convex optimization. Finally, the summary book-chapter C1 provides a general overview of the applications of Herglotz-Nevanlinna functions in electromagnetics.

  • Disputas: 2019-01-18 13:00 sal 14, hus 5, Kräftriket, Stockholm
    Emmenegger, Jacopo
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Matematiska institutionen.
    Exact completion and type-theoretic structures2019Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of four papers and is a contribution to the study of representations of extensional properties in intensional type theories using, mainly, the language and tools from category theory. Our main focus is on exact completions of categories with weak finite limits as a category-theoretic description of the setoid construction in Martin-Löf's intensional type theory.

    Paper I, which is joint work with Erik Palmgren, provides sufficient conditions for such an exact completion to produce a model of the system CETCS (Constructive Elementary Theory of the Category of Sets), a finite axiomatisation of the theory of well-pointed locally cartesian closed pretoposes with a natural numbers object and enough projectives. In particular, we use a condition inspired by Aczel's set-theoretic Fullness Axiom to obtain the local cartesian closure of an exact completion. As an application, we obtain a simple  uniform proof that the category of setoids is a model of CETCS.

    Paper II was prompted by the discovery of an overlooked issue in the characterisationof local cartesian closure for exact completions due to Carboni and Rosolini. In this paper we clarify the problem, show that their characterisation is still valid when the base category has finite limits, and provide a complete solution in the general case of a category with weak finite limits.

    In paper III we generalise the approach used in paper I to obtain the local cartesian closure of an exact completion to arbitrary categories with finite limits. We then show how this condition inspired by the Fullness Axiom naturally arises in several homotopy categories and apply this result to obtain the local cartesian closure of the exact completion of the homotopy category of spaces, thus answering a question left open by Marino Gran and Enrico Vitale.

    Finally, in paper IV we abandon the pure category-theoretic approach and instead present a type-theoretic construction, formalised in Coq, of W-types in the category of setoids from dependent W-types in the underlying intensional theory. In particular, contrary to previous approaches, this construction does not require the assumption of Uniqueness of Identity Proofs nor recursion into a type universe.

  • Disputas: 2019-01-25 10:00 William-Olssonsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Fredriksson, Daniel
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Enabling employment?: Drivers and outcomes of active labour market policies in comparative perspective2019Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis includes three empirical studies that analyse driving forces and outcomes of active labour market policies (ALMP) in comparative perspective. Whereas previous comparative research has largely relied on broad conceptualisations of ALMP, often considering policies such as public employment services and training programs as one single type of intervention, the studies in this thesis instead analyse more fine-grained categories and classifications of ALMP. By doing so, the studies contribute with nuance to the discussion of what has shaped labour market policies, and how these influence labour market outcomes.

    Study I: This study focuses on determinants of spending on public employment services (PES). Contrary to common assumptions, which state that PES is largely determined by structural factors, the main hypothesis is that partisan politics is a relevant predictor of PES spending. The analysis includes 17 welfare states between 1985 and 2011. The results indicate that partisan politics and electoral competition are related to the development of PES spending, but that the turn to activation in many welfare states in the late 1990s reduced the salience of partisan politics.

    Study II: This study analyses whether different types of active labour market policies are related to reduced unemployment, and especially if there is evidence for interdependencies between policies. The study distinguishes between public employment services (PES), training, and job creation programs. PES is singled out as a crucial factor that mediates the effects of other labour market policies, both active and passive. The study examines 19 welfare states between 1985 and 2012 and the results indicate that training programs reduce unemployment in the short run, whereas long-term effects are less apparent for all policy types. Increased investment in PES is found to strengthen the impact of training and job creation programs.

    Study III: This study examines the link between active labour market policies and transitions to employment from unemployment and inactivity across the European Union between 2003 and 2013. The study distinguishes between three types of interventions: core programs, directed towards the registered unemployed; peripheral programs, targeting the inactive part of the working age population; and mixed programs, targeting both groups. The results indicate that ALMP have beneficial effects on employment transitions among both the unemployed and the inactive, but that effects differ depending on the type of intervention. Unemployed seem to benefit from increased efforts on ALMP regardless of the type of intervention, whereas the inactive seem to have increased chances to transition into employment if programs target both groups, but not if interventions solely target the inactive.

  • Disputas: 2019-01-18 13:00 hörsal 11, hus F, Stockholm
    Elmgren, Charlotta
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    J.M. Coetzee's Poetics of the Child2019Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation explores how central tensions in J.M. Coetzee’s fiction converge in and are made visible by the child figure. Its central claim is that the child draws attention to how Coetzee’s poetics is characterized by a constant interplay between responsibility to the other—within and beyond history—on the one hand, and irresponsibility, indeterminacy and play on the other. Key to this argument is Giorgio Agamben’s emancipatory thinking on infancy, or the experience of the impotentiality of language, which can be understood as the capacity to hold thought in suspense. This complements productively those strands of existing Coetzee scholarship that, drawing on Blanchot, Levinas, and Derrida, find in Coetzee’s writing—and in responses to that writing—an ethics of hospitality to an alterity that is always yet to emerge. After an overview of interrelated conceptions and evocations of the child figure in theology, philosophy and literature, the study is organized around five central dynamics of a “poetics of the child” in Coetzee: The first chapter presents the child’s navigation between fictions of the self and of the world in a quest for authenticity as a compelling figure for Coetzee’s writing of fiction in the search for a never available truth of self. The second chapter argues that fictional encounters with “other” child figures within history are ethical in their destabilization of boundaries between self and other and in their foregrounding of ironic remainders made visible through different constructions of the child. In dialogue with Hannah Arendt’s thinking on natality, amor mundi and education, the third chapter shows that the child calls attention to how Coetzee’s working through of the uncertainties of new beginnings is closely linked to a care for the world. Finally, the fourth and fifth chapters engage with how Coetzee’s latest works gesture towards infancy and perpetual study, and, relatedly, towards the redemptive potential of a nonposition beyond the taxonomies of Western metaphysics. Ultimately, the thesis hopes to demonstrate the critical possibilities in thinking about—and with—childlike openness and childish experimentation when approaching the writing and reading of the work of J.M. Coetzee.

  • Rzepka, Przemyslaw
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    The chemical nature of CO2 adsorption in zeolite A2019Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The climate changes are accelerated by increasing levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere connected to the fossil-fuel-based energy system. Substantial reforms of the system are needed immediately and could include the implementation of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies. Adsorption-driven CO2 capture is one of the most promising post-combustion CO2 capture techniques, which aim to remove CO2 from N2 in flue gas.

    The nature of adsorption of CO2 can vary. The process can act as physisorption with intermolecular interactions of the van der Waals type or as chemisorption with a significantly perturbed electronic structure of CO2 and for example the formation of CO32- and HCO3- species. The molecular details were elucidated by MAS NMR and IR studies for a zeolite, and the placement of adsorbed molecules was revealed by in situ diffraction data analysis.

    Adsorption-driven processes can be implemented only if highly functional adsorbent materials have been developed. Zeolite A seems to be a promising candidate. This thesis broadly discussed the potential enhancement of the selectivity of CO2 over N2 and CH4 by replacing Na+ with larger monovalent cation e.g. K+ in pore apertures of zeolite A. The positions of the extra-framework cations were analyzed by in situ X-ray diffraction using synchrotron light source. The cations were positioned at the 4- and 6-rings and the 8-ring apertures of the aluminosilicate framework of zeolite A. K+ was favored at the 8-ring sites, and this cation did also gradually substitute the 6-ring sites with and increasing x in |Na12-xKx|-A. Large cations did not fit the mirror plane of the 6-ring and were placed on both its sides. K+ at both positions, in 8-rings and 6-rings, seems to have tailored the size of pore openings.

    The effective pore aperture size was shown to depend on the K+ content and to partition small CO2 molecules from large N2 and CH4 because of, likely, differences in diffusivities. Various compositions of |Na12-xKx|-A demonstrated gradual decrease of CO2 uptake with x and an exclusion of N2 and CH4 already for low x. Although already absorbed CO2 molecules were revealed by in situ neutron diffraction to be coordinated mainly by the 8-ring cation or bridging adjacent 8-ring sites. Adsorbed CO2 molecules displaced the cations into the a-cages and resulted in a slight contraction of the overall distribution of extra-framework cations upon the adsorption of CO2.

    The kinetically-enhanced separation of CO2 from N2/CH4 seemed to be associated by a restrained diffusion also for the CO2 molecules. This is problematic for pressure swing adsorption processes. However, it could potentially be addressed by the reduction of size of zeolite crystals to increase the extent of accessible porous space over limited time.

  • Karlsson, Konrad
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Local adaptation in life history traits and population size estimation of aquatic organisms2019Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Human society is dependent on healthy aquatic ecosystems for our basic needs and well-being. Therefore, knowledge about how organisms respond and interact with their environments is pivotal. The Baltic Sea is highly affected by human activity and future populations living in its catchment area will have to respond to multiple set of changing abiotic and biotic predictors.

    The first two papers of this thesis focus on local adaptation, adaptive capacity, and the response to changing temperature, salinity, and food conditions of different Eurytemora affinis populations, a ubiquitous zooplankton species in the Baltic Sea. Development time of zooplankton is an important trait and relates to how fast a population can increase in number. Common garden experiments showed that E. affinis populations from warmer southern areas had shorter development time from nauplii to adult at high temperature compared to populations from colder areas, which indicates an adaptation to temperature. The adaptation was explained by a correlation in development time between higher temperatures, 17 and 22.5 °C, while development between a colder temperature, 12 °C, and the two higher temperatures was uncorrelated. This implies that adaption to short development time at high temperature is unlikely for populations originating from cold temperatures. Hence, global warming will be disadvantageous for northern, compared to southern populations. However, development time is heritable and may change under selection, and may improve the competitive advantage of northern populations. The population with the shortest development time had comparably lower survival at high temperature and low food quality. This represents a cost of fast development, and emphasizes the importance of including multiple stressors when investigating potential effects of climate change.

    E. affinis inhabits a broad range of habitats from an epi-benthic life in freshwater lakes and river mouths, to pelagic life in estuaries. Paper III aims to link the morphology of different populations to habitat and resource utilization. Results showed that the individuals of a pelagic population were smaller in size and more slender, compared to a littoral population of larger and more fecund individuals. In experimentally constructed benthic and pelagic algae communities, the littoral population produced less offspring than the pelagic population when filamentous benthic diatoms were included. This suggests that filaments disturb their feeding and that littoral populations of E. affinis stay epi-benthic. As pelagic fish typically select larger prey, living close to the bottom probably allows the littoral population to grow larger than the pelagic. These results link morphology to habitat specialization, and show contrasting ecological effects of two E. affinis populations.

    Paper IV focuses on the recreational angler’s potential role as a citizen scientist. The pike Esox lucius has a stabilizing role in ecosystems as a top consumer and is highly valued by recreational anglers in European lakes and estuaries. Results showed that recreational angling could be used to estimate population size and connectivity of E. lucius in spatial capture-recapture models. The only prerequisite is that anglers practice catch and release, retain spatial data, and take photos of their caught fish. These results show that data from recreational angling can be of potential use for fisheries managers and researchers.

  • Disputas: 2019-01-25 13:00 L 70, NOD-huset, Kista
    Holmberg, Jörgen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Designing for added pedagogical value: A design-based research study of teachers’ educational design with ICT2019Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In an increasingly digitized world teachers are expected to take on the role of educational designers and use ICT to design in ways that add pedagogical value to teaching and learning. This thesis adopts a design-based research (DBR) approach to: (a) explore and contribute to the educational design processes of teachers of English as a foreign language in their efforts to use ICT for added pedagogical value, (b) examine how ICT is used in educational designs to create/contribute to what the teachers and students describe as added value and (c) explore, problematize and refine DBR as a research approach.

    Literature studies and a collaborative self-study preceded the DBR to guide its focus and implementation. The DBR was carried out over a period of two years in four upper secondary schools in Sweden in which every student had access to their own computer. The research data consists of: (a) audio recorded design conversations, (b) enacted educational designs and design elements as parts of these, (c) reflective log entries written by the participating teachers, (d) focus group interviews with students and (e) the researcher’s field notes.

    Six different theoretical frameworks and models are used in combination in the accompanying articles to analyze the data and achieve the three research aims. The findings show how teachers’ pedagogical reasoning and TPACK development are interconnected and reciprocal aspects of the educational design process and how the externalization of, and reflection on, these aspects is necessary to develop the specific and practical TPACK needed to realize design intentions in situated contexts. A number of challenges and opportunities in the educational process have been identified.

    Moreover, the findings show how ICT was used to contribute added value in educational designs by facilitating: (a) more authentic and seamless learning experiences in external online contexts with both in-class and out-of-class actors irrespective of time and place, (b) an exchange of digital knowledge representations of understanding and practice between different actors, e.g. for the purposes of modelling, supporting cognitive apprenticeship, meta-cognitive self-regulation and formative assessment and (c) new and extended forms of, and opportunities for, collaborative creation and meaning-making.

    The current common focus in DBR on the development of prescriptive design principles is problematized in relation to the findings of the thesis, which illustrate the complex and situated nature of the educational design process. A theoretically and empirically informed design framework (DF) is developed and used as a conceptual tool to guide and analyze educational design processes and enactments. The findings illustrate how the use of the DF and the process of collaborative design reflection contributed to the analysis of the teachers’ design intentions and de facto design practices and to a DBR format that allowed the participants to use their respective competencies in the development of educational designs for added value. The thesis thereby serves as an example of how DBR can be methodically implemented to study and generate increased knowledge about teachers’ design intentions and design practices, develop research-based educational designs in line with teachers’ pedagogical intentions and support their development as educational designers.

  • Disputas: 2019-01-18 13:00 Hörsal 5, hus B, Stockholm
    Fonseca, Max
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Your Treatment, My Treat?: On Lifestyle-Related Ill Health and Reasonable Responsibilitarianism2019Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    How should the costs of unhealthy lifestyles be distributed between individual citizens and the state? This study approaches this question by investigating the justifiability of the responsibilitarian idea that people who are responsible for their lifestyle-choices should also be held responsible for the costs that these lifestyle-choices generate.

    Two main conclusions come out of this investigation. The first is that the basic justification of responsibilitarian health policies can be found in what is called the Civic Blame approach to responsibilitarianism. This approach builds upon a moralized conception of responsibility, accountability responsibility. On this conception, the moral quality of contemporary imprudent people’s behaviour is the essential starting point for establishing that they ‘are responsible’. Consequently, what justifies responsibilitarian health policies on this approach is not that imprudent people cause their own ill health or that they exercise sufficient control over their lifestyle-choices, but that they breach reciprocity-based civic obligations through their health-risking behaviour.

    The second conclusion is that the emphasis on fairness of blame/differential treatment inherent in the Civic Blame approach imposes two important justificatory constraints. The first is that the response to the breaches of civic obligations must be properly proportional and context-sensitive in order to be fair. This constraint can most likely be handled however, since a response of the right kind can be found by holding imprudent people responsible via Sin-Taxes (rather than via harsher policies). More problematic for responsibilitarians is the second constraint: to show that contemporary imprudent people’s behaviour is morally problematic to begin with, and, thereby, to show that contemporary prudent people’s reactive attitudes to health-risking behaviour are fair.

    Thus, although the Civic Blame approach outlined in the study provides the basic theoretical building blocks for the justification of responsibilitarian health policies, this approach also provides the tools for critically questioning the justifiability of contemporary health policies of responsibilitarian kind.

  • Wedin, Åsa
    et al.
    Claesson, Urban
    Olson, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för de humanistiska och samhällsvetenskapliga ämnenas didaktik. Högskolan Dalarna, Sverige.
    Irisdotter Aldenmyr, Sara
    Introduktion2018Inngår i: Utbildning och Lärande / Education and Learning, ISSN 2001-4554, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 5-6Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    I och med detta temanummer av tidskriften Utbildning & Lärande tar Högskolan Dalarna över ansvaret för tidskriften efter Högskolan i Skövde. Detta introducerande temanummer inriktas mot praktiknära forskning, vilket står i samklang med lärosätets ambitioner inom såväl grundutbildning som på forskningsnivå, där undervisning, lärande, fostran och omsorg är tongivande kunskaps-objekt. Ämnet pedagogiskt arbete, med sin snart två decennier långa existens som skolpraktikorienterat grund- och forskningsämne, vittnar inte bara om en tydlig ambition att bidra med kunskap om vad som händer och sker i förskolans och skolans institutionella praktiker. Det rymmer även ambitionen att finna produktiva vägar att utveckla vad det metodiskt innebär att bedriva forskning i skolans kontext. Bidragen i detta temanummer tar sig an såväl frågor kring vilka kunskapsbidrag som praktiknära forskning bör prioritera, som frågor kring hur denna forskning kan bedrivas på ett fruktbart sätt.

  • Tedre, Matti
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Competing Claims to Computing as a Discipline (Invited talk)2015Inngår i: 15th Congress of Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science, University of Helsinki , 2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • Stirna, Janis
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Capability Driven Development of Context-aware Enterprise Applications – Challenges, Approach and Experiences2015Inngår i: 5th Enterprise Engineering Working Conference, CIAO! Network , 2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Enterprises are facing the need to adapt their businesses according to various situations in which their applications need to be used. To answer this challenge an EU FP7 project “Capability as a Service in digital enterprises” (CaaS) has been initiated. The aim of CaaS is to support the capture and analysis of changing business context in the design of information systems (IS) using the capability notion. Capability is seen as the ability and capacity that enables an enterprise to achieve a business goal in a certain context. The key rationale behind a capability driven approach is to capture the dependence of organizational and IS designs on application context and to provide explicit support for run-time adjustments according to changes in the application situation. The CaaS project is developing a methodology and a tool environment for capability driven development. We envision to further advance the service oriented paradigm and to develop context aware business capabilities by using Enterprise Modelling techniques as a starting point of the development process, capability design patterns for reuse of best practices, as well as composition of required capabilities and algorithms for run-time adjustment. This talk will address the main principles of the capability driven development methodology, as well as present the current experiences of capability design in three use case companies of the CaaS project – SIV AG (Germany) for business process outsourcing, Fresh T Limited (UK) for compliance management, and Everis (Spain) for capability management in e-government platforms.

  • Kowalski, Stewart
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Bednar, Peter
    Bider, Ilia
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Proceedings of STPIS'18: Preface2018Inngår i: 4th International Workshop on Socio-Technical Perspective in IS development (STPIS'18): Proceedings / [ed] Stewart Kowalski, Peter Bednar, Ilia Bider, CEUR-WS.org , 2018, s. i-iiiKonferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume contains the papers presented at STPIS'18: 4th International Workshop on Socio-Technical Perspective in IS Development to beheld on June 12, 2018 in Tallinn, Estonia.

  • Bider, Ilia
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Perjons, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Using Fractal Enterprise Model to Assist Complexity Management2018Inngår i: BIR-WS 2018: BIR Short Papers, Workshops and Doctoral Consortium / [ed] Jelena Zdravkovic, Jānis Grabis, Selmin Nurcan, Janis Stirna, CEUR-WS.org , 2018, s. 233-238Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with the problems of a complex organizational system in which not each of its parts is directly connected to all other parts. For such a system, it is important to identify which parts/sub-systems need to be directly connected to each other, and which could be left without such connections. The paper puts forward a hypothesis that a suitable enterprise model could be used for this end, and investigates the suitability for this end of one particular enterprise modeling technique called Fractal Enterprise Model.

  • Bider, Ilia
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Perjons, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Using Structural Coupling Approach for Defining and Maintaining Identity of an Educational Institution. Experience Report2018Inngår i: 4th International Workshop on Socio-Technical Perspective in IS development (STPIS'18): Proceedings / [ed] Stewart Kowalski, Peter Bednar, Ilia Bider, CEUR-WS.org , 2018, s. 24-39Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an ongoing study on defining and maintaining organizational identity of an institution of higher education, such as a department or school. The theoretical background used in the study is the concept of structural coupling that comes from biological cybernetics. The study concerns the authors own department. The paper presents proposals of to which elements of the environment such an institution is structurally coupled and how the identity maintenance is arranged. The paper provides examples of how maintaining identity works or not works in practice based on reflections on the authors' experience of working in their own department. It also shows that maintaining identity may requires changes in different components of the socio-technical system, e.g. methods, people, technology.

  • Sommarlund, Susan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Barn- och ungdomsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Det särbegåvade barnet - två konstruktioner av samma barn: En kvalitativ intervjustudie2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att analysera hur föräldrar och  pedagoger konstruerar det särbegåvade förskolebarnet. Utgångspunkten är åtta förskolebarn vars föräldrar och pedagoger intervjuats. Genom kvalitativa intervjuer och tematisk analys har de berättelser som återkommit i intervjuerna identifierats. Berättelserna har analyserats med hjälp av tolkningsrepertoarer och positionering. De narrativ som blivit synliga är föräldrars konstruktion av det särbegåvade barnet som ett problembarn och pedagogers konstruktion av det särbegåvade barnet som ett idealbarn utifrån Läroplanens strävansmål. Dessa två diskurser, familjediskursen och förskolediskursen krockar, maktförhållandet påfrestar samarbetet mellan diskurserna och de olika synerna på normalitet ger bilden av ett dilemmabarn.

  • Beckman, Ludvig
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Rösträttsåldern och demokratinsavgränsningsproblem2018Inngår i: Demokratins framtid / [ed] Katarina Barrling; Sören Holmberg, stockholm: Sveriges Riksdag , 2018, s. 81-110Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Iqbal (وحید اقبال ), Waheed
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Meteorologiska institutionen (MISU).
    On atmospheric low frequency variability, teleconnections and link to jet variability2019Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The atmosphere is a complex system with an infinite number of independent variables. The best approximations of the atmosphere are made using numerical models. The use of such models provides an invaluable tool for studying the atmospheric system. In the atmosphere, narrow bands of strong winds at upper levels, called jet streams, impact the underlying large-scale weather conditions. In this Ph.D. thesis, I have studied jet stream variability from reanalyses and climate models. The regional climate model RCA4 simulations over South Asia reveal a good agreement between model results and reanalysis for jet stream representation. Lateral boundary data sources are believed to contribute to discrepancies over the mountainous regions.

    Currently, the weather forecasts have an upper limit of around 10 days. The atmospheric variability between 10 to 40 days is known as low frequency variability (LFV). This Ph.D. thesis also examined the LFV from a non-linear perspective, which indicated the existence of multiple recurring atmospheric conditions. The North Atlantic eddy-driven jet, which explains a major part of the winter variability over the North Atlantic region, has three preferred latitudinal positions situated south, closest to, and north of its climatological mean position. These positions represent, respectively, Greenland blocking, a low-pressure system over the North Atlantic, and a high-pressure system over the North Atlantic. An improved representation of this jet is reported from CMIP5 GCMs. However, the existence of three preferred latitudinal positions remains a challenge for these models.

    The statistical properties of recurring atmospheric conditions can potentially enhance current weather and climate predictions. Techniques from dynamical system theory, like unstable periodic orbits, can be employed to reconstruct such statistical properties. This has been demonstrated, for the first time, in a three-level baroclinic model, of intermediate complexity, for the Northern Hemisphere winter.

    In the Northern Hemisphere winter, there are times when the stratosphere gets warmer due to upward propagation of heat fluxes from the troposphere. This type of situation triggers a major sudden stratospheric warming, resulting in the equatorward shift of the jet streams and yielding much colder than usual surface conditions over the extratropics. I have studied thirty such events from the Japanese reanalysis data in relation to the three preferred latitudinal positions of the North Atlantic eddy-driven jet. The probability of strong upward propagation from the troposphere is significantly higher for the central position of the North Atlantic eddy-driven jet. These findings can potentially improve the troposphere-stratosphere predictions.

  • Rivero Losada, Illa
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
    Formation of solar bipolar regions: Magnetic flux concentrations from suction of the negative effective magnetic pressure instability2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Sunspots stand out on the visible solar surface. They appear as dark structures evolving and changing over time. They host energetic and violent events, like coronal mass ejections and flares, and concentrate strong magnetic fields. Hundreds of years of studies provide a record of sunspot cycles, as reported by the well-known butterfly diagram, as well as some of their general observational properties, such as size, maximum field strength, and lifetime. However, we lack a general theory that explains how the magnetic field cluster in the spots and how it evolves over time.

    This thesis studies the negative effective magnetic pressure instability (NEMPI) as a mechanism able to form such magnetic flux concentrations and thus magnetic spots. A weak magnetic field suppresses the turbulence locally and reduces the turbulent pressure. The resulting contraction concentrates the field further, which reduces the turbulent pressure even more, and so on. We study the conditions where NEMPI is excited, trying to reproduce some of the complexities of the solar environment. We focus on the effects of rotation, the change of stratification, and the influence of a simplified corona. We solve the magnetohydrodynamic equations using both direct numerical simulations and mean-field simulations of strongly stratified turbulence in a weak magnetic field.

    Even slow rotation with a Coriolis number of 0.01 can suppress the instability. Higher values of rotation lead to dynamo action, increasing the magnetic field in a new coupled dynamo-NEMPI system. In the solar case, the dependence of NEMPI on rotation constrains the depth where the instability can operate: since the Coriolis number is very small in the uppermost layers of the Sun, NEMPI can only be a shallow phenomenon. Changing the type of stratification from isothermal to polytropic pushes the instability further to the upper parts of the computational domain. Unlike the isothermal case, in the polytropic cases the density scale height is no longer constant, but the stratification decreases deeper down, making it increasingly difficult for NEMPI to operate.

    A corona changes dramatically the semblance of flux concentrations. A bipolar region is formed, instead of a single spot. It develops at the interface between the turbulent and the non-turbulent layers, forming a loop-like structure in the coronal layer. The bipoles move apart and finally decay and disappear. We study the structure in a wide range of parameters and test the physical conditions of its appearance. Higher stratification and imposed field strength intensify the magnetic structures, which reach even equipartition values, until a plateau and subsequent decrease occur. The increase of the domain size strengthens the maximum magnetic field and gives more coherence to the spots, keeping their sizes. We measure a strong large-scale downward and converging flows associated with the concentration of flux. Finally, we also include rotation in the two-layer model, confirming the previous results: slow rotation suppresses the formation of bipolar regions. A stronger imposed magnetic field alleviates the suppression somewhat and strengthens the structures.

    These studies demonstrate the viability of NEMPI to form magnetic flux concentrations in both monopolar and bipolar structures. We find that NEMPI can only develop in the uppermost layers, where the local Coriolis number is small and the stratification strong.

  • Gartz, Mira
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Desire, cows and resilience: Investigating motivations to steward a bio-cultural refuge in Northern Sweden2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 poäng / 60 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, centuries of agricultural modernization have marginalized locally adapted food cultures and food production systems. Yet in some places these practices and cultures survive, even in areas that lack conducive circumstances for agricultural production. These places are called bio-cultural refugia.

    Dominant agricultural practices are based on the production of only a few species which reduce biodiversity and the resilience of landscapes. Bio-cultural refugia provide important alternatives and pathways toward sustainable agricultural development, but are currently conceived of as living museums and are not well-connected to markets. This study investigates a re-emerging bio-cultural refuge in Northern Sweden, which revolves around an endangered native cattle breed, traditional recipes and an open landscape.

    It is unclear how bio-cultural refugia emerge or can persist. Recent literature on human adaptive capacity in social-ecological systems explains how sustainability outcomes depend on the dynamic interrelations of opportunities, abilities and desires. In this thesis I empirically investigate the role of desires to stewardship practices through a discourse analysis with roots in psychoanalytic theory. The aim of the thesis is to add to the understanding of how and why a bio-cultural refuge can emerge and persist in the Global North.

    I find that desires expressed by stewards in the bio-cultural refuge is mostly directed to people, and not to achieve ecological sustainability for its own sake. The most commonly articulated motivation is to care for people in the village by developing the local economy, contradicting a general conception of stewardship originating in pro-environmental values. Nevertheless, the informants do steward a bio-cultural refuge. This is explained by the coincidental opportunity to buy the native cattle and existing subsidies to keep them, and by abilities such as farming- and cooperation skills, creativity and entrepreneurial thinking.

    Stewardship of bio-cultural refugia is crucial for biosphere resilience. In order to maintain and develop existing bio-cultural refugia we must start to re-imagine what they can mean not only for ecologies but also for society and people, as they hold important knowledge on energy efficient food production. By creating opportunities that resonate with people’s needs and desires in particular places it may be possible to attract new stewards for bio-cultural refugia, and to (re)produce the ecological knowledge that is necessary for a sustainable and resilient future

  • Reitti, Marcus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för organisk kemi.
    Diaryliodonium Salts: Synthesis, Applications and Computational Investigations2019Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic chemists have the ability to create complex organic molecules by connecting molecular building blocks in different ways. To name a few, these molecules are used as medicines, pesticides or in our household electronics, and are therefore crucial to life as we know it. While many excellent methods for the connection of these fragments are known, serious issues regarding efficiency and sustainability remain. Our research concerns the use of diaryliodonium salts as a way of improving on these issues. Diaryliodonium salts are hypervalent iodine reagents used to transfer aryl groups to suitable nucleophiles. This thesis concerns the synthesis of these reagents and their use in the formation of carbon-nitrogen and carbon-oxygen bonds.

    The first project investigates the possibility to synthesize unsymmetrical diaryliodonium salts starting from elemental iodine and arenes, as such a method could be more cost efficient and sustainable compared to existing methods starting from iodoarenes. It was found that highly sterically congested diaryliodonium salts could be synthesized in high yields.

    Next, we applied diaryliodonium salts in the arylation of nitrite to form aromatic nitro compounds. The methodology offered a broad scope with good to excellent yields. Furthermore, we presented the in situ functionalization of diaryliodonium salts that had been formed from iodoarenes and arenes. This conceptually novel approach could be a step towards a catalytic reaction using diaryliodonium salts.

    In the third project we investigated the mechanisms of O-arylations with diaryliodonium salts to provide a deeper understanding of the reaction pathways involved in product and byproduct formation. Reactions between electron-rich diaryliodonium salts, hydroxides or secondary alcohols were studied.  When using hydroxide as the nucleophile, the side products could be suppressed by the addition of aryne traps, suggesting such an intermediate in the reaction. A novel mechanism for the formation of the aryne was proposed based on DFT calculations.  When alcohols were used we detected the oxidation of the alcohol rather than aryne products. The oxidized product was shown to not originate from arynes or a radical process but was formed via an intramolecular deprotonation from a 4-coordinated intermediate as suggested by DFT-calculations and experiments.

    In the final project we developed two complementary methods for the synthesis of phenols using hydroxide surrogates as nucleophiles. These compounds have previously been difficult to make using diaryliodonium salts due to aryne formation or overarylation to form diaryl ethers. The first method used hydrogen peroxide as the surrogate and allowed formation of electron-deficient and moderately electron-rich phenols. The synthesis of ortho-alkyl substituted phenols could be accomplished by using silanols as the surrogate. This allowed us to synthesize several highly congested phenols in good yields. Highly electron-rich diaryliodonium salts were, however, not compatible with either of the two methods.