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  • Sinander, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska fakulteten, Juridiska institutionen.
    Svenskt rättsskipningsintresse2019Inngår i: Svensk Juristtidning, ISSN 0039-6591, nr 10, s. 932-941Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under de senaste åren har Högsta domstolen (HD) förtydligat att frågan om

    svensk domstols internationella behörighet i icke-lagreglerade förmögenhetsrättsliga

    mål är beroende av om det finns ett svenskt rättsskipningsintresse.

    Denna artikel syftar till att inventera vilka omständigheter och argument som

    typiskt sett kan tala för att det föreligger ett svenskt rättsskipningsintresse och

    därmed svensk behörighet.

  • Jonsson, Gabriel
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för Asien-, Mellanöstern- och Turkietstudier, Avdelningen för koreanska.
    Nya publikationer om Nepal och Nordkorea2019Inngår i: Orientaliska Studier, ISSN 0345-8997, nr 157, s. 163-168Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Jonsson, Gabriel
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för Asien-, Mellanöstern- och Turkietstudier, Avdelningen för koreanska.
    Lodén, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för Asien-, Mellanöstern- och Turkietstudier, Avdelningen för kinesiska.
    Föreningen för orientaliska studier fyller 50 år2019Inngår i: Orientaliska Studier, ISSN 0345-8997, nr 157, s. 6-14Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • Ehlin, Madeleine
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Att styra men inte röra: Styrning av fristående analys- och utvärderingsmyndigheter2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen undersöker hur analys- och utvärderingsmyndigheter positioneras, det vill säga organiseras i relation till regeringen och andra aktörer, och identifierar och diskuterar faktorer som kan bidra till att förklara dessa myndigheters positionering.

    Det teoretiska ramverket om positionering hämtas från litteratur om metagovernance och styrning genom organisering.

    Utgångspunkten är att analys- och utvärderingsmyndigheter existerar i en kontext med grundläggande normer om oberoende. Olika typer av oberoende kan påverka verksamhetens trovärdighet. Samtidigt är positionering är ett centralt styrmedel för regeringen och bygger på strategisk placering av myndigheter gentemot Regeringskansliet och andra intressenter. Att myndigheter interagerar med olika aktörer är inte detsamma som att de är beroende av dem. Men det betyder att dessa aktörer har någon typ av inverkan på verksamheten. Spänningen mellan ett centralt styrmedel och normer om oberoende ger att analys- och utvärderingsmyndigheter utgör en intressant kontext för att studera positionering. Styrningen innehåller inte bara avvägningar mellan kontroll och ansvarsutkrävande utan även mellan uppfattningar om trovärdighet och möjligheten att använda myndigheterna för att uppnå politiska mål.

  • Svensson, Jessika
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska fakulteten, Juridiska institutionen.
    Fragmenterad affärsverksamhet: En analys av antifragmenteringsregeln i OECD:s modellavtal 20172019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • Kuusela, Kuusela
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska fakulteten, Juridiska institutionen.
    När är det tillåtna tillåtet?: Om samtycke enligt BrB 24 kap. 7 §.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • Kubitsky Torninger, Isabella
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    Helga registrerar, Doktor Glas spekulerar: Intertextualitet i Bjarne Moelvs Helgas offer – dagboksroman om ett brott och Hjalmar Söderbergs Doktor Glas2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen syftar till att studera intertextualiteten i Bjarne Moelvs Helgas offer – dagboksroman om ett brott och Hjalmar Söderbergs Doktor Glas. Tyngden i analysen ligger på Moelvs roman, under det att Doktor Glas tjänar som belysande jämförelsematerial.

    Analysen består av tre delar där den textuella strukturen, perspektivet och berättarstrukturen undersöks. Resultaten visar att romanerna uppvisar flera stilistiska likheter men även tydliga skillnader när det gäller jagberättarens framställning. Moelv distanserar sig från det kvinnliga berättarjaget genom att begränsa henne till en iakttagare. Detta ger uttryck för en framställning som konstrueras ur ett genussystem där manliga normer slår igenom i representationer av kvinnor.

  • Eriksson, Ingrid
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Tolk- och översättarinstitutet.
    Retaining or losing the conceptual metaphor: A study on institutional translation of metaphors in political discourse from English into Swedish and Spanish2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The translation of metaphors has been analyzed and discussed for several decades, but there are not many multilingual studies that examine how metaphors are translated. The present study takes a cognitive approach to metaphor and investigates how translators at the European Commission handle metaphorical expressions and the underlying conceptual metaphors in political discourse. The source text is the English language version of the policy document A European Agenda on Migration, and the Swedish and Spanish language versions of it are included as target texts. The study identifies the conceptual metaphors that conceptualize migration and other topics that are closely related to the European migrant and refugee crisis of 2015 and the translation procedures that are used. A total of six translation procedures were found in the target texts, and the most used procedure in the Spanish target text was to retain both the conceptual metaphor and the metaphorical expression, whereas the most used procedure in the Swedish target text was to replace the metaphorical expression with a completely different one and thereby using a different conceptual metaphor. The parallel analysis of all three language versions also revealed that non-metaphorical expressions in the source text were occasionally replaced with metaphorical expressions in the target texts, which proves that adding a conceptual metaphor is one of many translation procedures. The most frequently used source domains in the source text, i.e. water, enemy and applied force, were transferred to both target texts. Some source domains were eventually lost, but a couple of new ones, such as disease and weight, were added instead.

  • Brydolf, Zenzi
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Casserblad, Rebecka
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    "Tror ni att jag fick allt gratis? Jag fick jobba arslet av mig!": En studie om vilken betydelse relationer, nätverk och strategier har för ensamkommande flickors inträde och etablering på den svenska arbetsmarknaden2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to investigate how women who came to Sweden as unaccompanied children experienced their entry into the Swedish labor market based on six qualitative interviews with woman in the age range of 24-32. The interviews were analyzed and interpreted using social capital as a theory. The results show that the informants turned to their friends consisting of other unaccompanied children, and that this network provided security and answers especially in the beginning of their stay in Sweden. Furthermore, our results show that bonding social capital played an important part as an enabler to search for contacts outside the network. All respondents report that it is difficult to get to know Swedes. The respondents did not attribute any significant importance to their social worker but they all emphasized that a significant key to enter the labour market is to learn the Swedish language.

  • Kuyumcuoglu, Simone
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Från kriminalitet till hederlighet: Att förstå vägarna ut ur den kriminella livsstilen2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to identify and interpret former criminal delinquents experiences of what internal, social and structual factors are contingent on the process of change in offending. Method: A qualitative method was used with a hermeneutic approach. A qualitative inquiry was conducted through three semi-structured life story interviews with former criminal delinquents working on an organization that specifically strives to help delinquents to desist from crime.  The mode of analysis utilized in this study was the concept of turning points and a life course perspective which are useful tools in understanding the crucial parts of the processes and factors in the desistance process. Results: The results identified twelve sub-interpretations which were distilled into three over-arching interpretations which lead to the following singular conceptual interpretation: Creating preconditions to promote reintegration and readaptation to society is viewed as important to successfully desist from crime, which, in turn, depends on three sets of factors: cognitive transformation, individual’s social environment and structural/external factors which are interdependent on each other. Future research areas are suggested.

  • Roca Ahlgren, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Pedagogiska förhållningssätt: gentemot elever med diagnosen ADHD2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • Johannesson, Eric
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Filosofiska institutionen.
    A posteriori necessities in one dimension2019Inngår i: Linguistics and Philosophy, ISSN 0165-0157, E-ISSN 1573-0549Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Arguably, the proposition that Mark Twain is Samuel Clemens and the proposition that water is H2O are both a posteriori. Nevertheless, they both seem to be necessary. Ever since Davies and Humberstone (Philos Stud 38(1):1–31, 1980), it has been known that two-dimensional semantics can account for this fact. But two-dimensionalism isn’t the only theory on the market that purports to do so. In this paper, I will look at two alternatives, one by Scott Soames and one by Kathrin Glüer-Pagin and Peter Pagin, and argue that both of them fail. Regarding the former, I argue that the conceptually possible but metaphysically impossible worlds one is required to postulate are hard to conceive of on closer inspection. As for the latter, the proposal doesn’t work for certain modal sentences, and I show that it cannot be easily amended.

  • Hamré, Moa
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Mapping glacier change in Sweden between the end of ‘Little Ice Age’ and 2008 with orthophotos and a Digital Elevation Model2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 poäng / 60 hpOppgave
  • Sandblom, Oskar
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Waste Incineration as a Possible Source of Perfluoroalkyl Acids to the Environment – Method Development and Screening2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 poäng / 60 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Atmospheric deposition has been suggested to be a major input pathway of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) to the Baltic Sea catchment area and to the Baltic Sea itself. However, the sources of PFAAs to the atmosphere are not well characterized. In this study we investigated if waste incineration plants in Sweden could be a source of PFAAs to the atmosphere and to the environment in general. Samples of the end products from waste incineration were collected at four different incineration plants. The plants differed in size and technical advancement and were considered to be representative for the majority of waste incineration plants in Sweden. The collected samples were slag from the furnaces, fly ash from the flue gases, “bambergkaka” (a mix of fly ash and sludge from wastewater treatment) as well as condensate and wastewater from the cleaning process of the flue gases. Two methods were developed, one for analysis of PFAAs in solid samples and one for water samples. Method validation showed good performance for both methods in terms of precision and accuracy, despite low recoveries obtained for the method for solid samples. The results from sample analysis revealed that PFAAs were present in all solid samples at concentrations in the low to sub ng/g range and in all but one condensate and wastewater samples at concentrations in the low to sub ng/L range. The quantified concentrations were used to estimate the potential annual discharges of PFAAs from waste incineration plants to the environment. Emission scenarios via landfills, via wastewater treatment plants and to the atmosphere were considered. The main conclusion of this study is that waste incineration in Sweden is not a significant source of PFAAs to the atmosphere or to the environment in general.

  • Mattsson, Emma
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Importance of Fucus vesiculosus (bladderwrack) for coastal fish communities in the Baltic Sea2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 poäng / 120 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Within temperate coastal seascapes, macroalgae provide habitats for different organisms such as invertebrates and fish. In analogy to seagrass meadows, macroalgae beds are known for their importance as fish nurseries. However, within the Baltic Sea the importance of the canopy forming macroalgae Fucus vesiculosus for coastal fish communities, especially the juveniles, is unclear. In order to address this knowledge gap, fish communities in areas with and without F. vesiculosus were investigated around Askö, an island in the archipelago of the Baltic Sea. Sites were subjected to different exposures (sheltered, exposed or very exposed) and three different methods were used for sampling (underwater visual census (UVCs), beach seine netting and remote underwater videos (RUVs)). Overall, fish community composition differed significantly among locations and fish abundance and fish biomass were significantly higher in sites with F. vesiculosus than sites without. There was no significant relationship between algae cover or habitat complexity and fish abundance/biomass in sites with F. vesiculosus. Fish behaviour differed between sites with and without F. vesiculosus, with fish feeding more in sites with F. vesiculosus and traveling more in sites without F. vesiculosus. Only one location, Knabberskär, had significantly higher species richness in F. vesiculosus than in sites without F. vesiculosus. There were no differences in juvenile abundance among sites with or without F. vesiculosus and abundance of adult fish was higher than juvenile fish, regardless of location, site or species. Mean invertebrate abundance was a twice as high in the sheltered location Husbåtsviken than in Knabberskär. Higher fish abundance, fish biomass and species richness in sites with F. vesiculosus compared to sites without, suggest that macroalgae may play an important role in the Baltic Sea, however it might not be as important for juvenile fishes as predicted. The three different sampling methods provided similar results for fish abundance, but not for fish biomass. Continued studies where the relationship between fish communities and aspects of F. vesiculosus structure (such as canopy height) as well as linkage with other habitats is recommended for further understanding and better protection of F. vesiculosus habitats.

  • Bergman, Åke
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi. Swedish toxicology sciences research center, Sweden; Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Tongji University, China.
    Bignert, AndersQiu, YanlingTongji University, China.Huang, QinghuiYin, Daqiang
    Chemical Pollution Challenges in the Yangtze River Delta: Communication Brief2019Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Nuottaniemi, Andreas
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för språkdidaktik.
    Språket på väggarna: En etnografiskt inspirerad studie av hur flerspråkighet synliggörs i en skolas lingvistiska landskap2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka i vilken mån och hur flerspråkighet synliggörs i en skolas lingvistiska landskap. Detta görs utifrån följande frågeställningar: (1) Vilka språk finns representerade i skolans lingvistiska landskap och hur reflekterar de elevernas språkliga resurser? (2) I vilken mån framställs flerspråkighet som en resurs i det lingvistiska landskapet? (3) På vilket sätt kan det lingvistiska landskapet bidra till (re)produktionen av ideologier förknippade med språk i skolan? Flerspråkighet tolkas i uppsatsen utifrån ett translanguaging-perspektiv, där språkförmågan hos individen ses som en sammanhållen, flytande kompetens. Frågeställningarna undersöks med en etnografiskt inspirerad metoduppsättning, bestående av informella intervjuer och deltagande observation, som tillsammans gör det möjligt att analysera den mångkulturella skolans språkmiljö i sin kontext. Totalt har 164 fotografier föreställandes semiotiska artefakter i det lingvistiska landskapet analyserats, med hjälp av de geosemiotiska begreppen situering och kodpreferens. Resultatet visar att skolans lingvistiska landskap endast i mycket liten utsträckning reflekterar elevernas språkliga kompetenser och synen på flerspråkighet som resurs. Det framgår också av det lingvistiska landskapet att flerspråkiga elever  positioneras som andraspråksinlärare, snarare än emergent flerspråkiga. En slutsats är att ett mer medvetet arbete med synliggörandet av flerspråkighet i skolans fysiska miljö sannolikt skulle ge eleverna bättre förutsättningar att realisera sin potential som flerspråkiga individer.

  • Malmborg, Pernilla
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Hästhållningens roll i det föränderliga peri-urbana landskapet: En kvalitativ fallstudie av Österåkers kommun2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The rural landscape surrounding the bigger cities are becoming increasingly fragmented due to pressures from urbanization and higher demands on conflicting usages of available buildable land. This has resulted in the natural and cultural landscapes in peri-urban areas being threatened. One usage of this land by equine sport is expanding where the horses need access to land and nature. A great majority of the horses in Sweden are kept in peri-urban areas, but horse keeping is also a factor that increases the risk for land use conflicts.

    The aim of this study is to better understand the role of horse keeping in the peri-urban landscape, by investigating these activities through the lens of ecosystem services. This study looked into the challenges and potential of horse keeping in physical planning, and how it is currently included by the local government of Österåker municipality in Stockholm county. This was achieved as a qualitative case study, consisting of interviews with local horse keepers, a web based survey for municipal residents and an analysis of available local government planning policies, reports and strategic documents.

    Horse keeping was found to be primarily associated with cultural ecosystem services, by its contribution to the equine sport sector and the preservation of the rural cultural and natural landscape with high recreational values. By preserving farmland and grazing pastures for horses, horse keeping can also be linked to supporting, regulating and provisioning ecosystem services.

    In addition, horse keeping in peri-urban areas was found to end in the periphery of the local physical planning. However, there is a need to integrate a long-term strategy and holistic perspective to achieve the full potential of the horse keeping, considering the contribution to the ecosystem services. There is a need for a more creative planning if horses should reach the potential as a resource and a planning tool for a sustainable development in the dynamic peri-urban landscape.

  • Disputas: 2019-12-20 10:00 Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Stockholm
    Iadaresta, Francesco
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Textile Related Chemicals: Analytical Approaches Towards the Assessment of Human and Environmental Exposures2019Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The textile manufacturing chain involves an extensive use of chemicals as early as fabric-production. To confer special features to textile materials, more chemicals are required in subsequent steps. Furthermore, potentially harmful substances can end up in clothes as transformation products. Compounds that are not covalently bonded to the fabrics have high probability to be released on the skin or into the environment when the clothes are worn or laundered.

    In order to remove interfering compounds from solvent extracts of investigated textiles, a cleanup step based on solid phase extraction using graphitic carbon black was developed resulting in effective dye removal. In a pilot screening, nitroanilines were detected up to 0.57 mg/g, which was 2-3 order of magnitude higher than measured quinolines.

    Human exposure to chemicals can occur through skin contact. Benzothiazole was chosen as model compound for in-vitro experiments. Its permeation was experimentally determined in order to estimate dermal exposure. Carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks, associated to wearing t-shirt containing BT, according to international standards, were found to be below the acceptable exposure levels.

    It has been shown that chemical concentrations decreased during domestic washing. A procedure was developed for enrichment and clean-up of textile related compounds from water samples. The method was applied to three wastewater treatment plant effluents located in Stockholm. Tolyltriazole, 1-benzotriazole, and UV-P were detected within the range of 53-1148 ng/L.

    Suspect and non-target screening methodology was developed do detect and identify substances in textile materials. The occurrence of thirteen suspect compounds, belonging to quinolines, nitroanilines, benzotriazoles, benzothiazoles and phthalates, was confirmed through suspect analysis approach. Furthermore, using a non-target screening approach, compounds not included in the suspect list such as nitrophenols, organophosphate and acridine were identified.

    In order to remove interfering compounds from the textile extracts, a cleanup step based on solid phase extraction using graphitic carbon black was developed resulting in effective dye removal. In a pilot screening, nitroanilines were detected up to 0.57 mg/g, which was 2-3 times higher than measured quinolines.

    Human exposure to chemicals can occur through skin contact. Benzothiazole was chosen as model compound for in-vitro experiments. Its permeation was experimentally determined in order to estimate dermal exposure. Carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks, associated to wearing t-shirt containing BT, according to international standards, were found to be below the acceptable exposure levels.

    It has been shown that chemical concentrations decreased during domestic washing. A procedure was developed for enrichment and clean-up of textile related compounds from water samples. The method was applied to three wastewater treatment plant effluents located in Stockholm. Tolyltriazole, 1-benzotriazole, and UV-P were detected within the range of 53-1148 ng/L.  

    Suspect and non-target screening methodology was developed do detect and identify substances in textile materials. The occurrence of thirteen suspect compounds, belonging to quinolines, nitroanilines, benzotriazoles, benzothiazoles and phthalates, was confirmed through suspect approach. Furthermore, using a non-target screening approach, compounds not included in suspect list such as nitrophenols, organophosphate and acridine were identified.

  • Disputas: 2019-12-20 10:00 Vivi Täckholmsalen (Q-salen) NPQ-huset, Stockholm
    Rowiński, Piotr K.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Evolutionary consequences of maternal effects and stress2019Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Maternal effects occur when maternal environment or phenotype influence offspring phenotype, in addition to genetic contribution of the mother. As maternal effects often influence phenotypes that are under natural selection, they hence have evolutionary consequences. Further, the expression of both maternal effects and evolutionary potential has been argued to depend on environmental conditions, but the evidence of this dependency for the process of adaptation has been inconclusive. The main objective of this thesis was to investigate evolutionary consequences of maternal effects and stressful or variable environmental conditions.

    I started by performing a meta-analysis of quantitative genetic studies that investigated expression of additive genetic, maternal, and residual variance under both stressful and benign environmental conditions (Paper I). Data spanning over many animal taxa and stress types revealed that high levels of environmental stress correlated with increased expression of genetic and residual variances. However, against our predictions, maternal effects were relatively unaffected by stress.

    In Paper II and III, I explored the evolutionary divergences of traits previously shown to be under maternal control. Specifically, in Paper II, I performed a second meta-analysis, that investigated if parents of common frogs (Rana temporaria) influenced offspring development time to mediate the effects of time constraints, across a latitudinal cline. I found that reproductive delay in the parental generation correlated with decreased development time in tadpoles of northern R. temporaria populations, suggesting that parental effects may further decrease development time in populations from time-constrained environments.

    In Paper III, I used an annual killifish system, to explore if environmental unpredictability, measured by variation in precipitation during rainy season, correlated with maternally mediated variation in embryo development time (bet-hedging). Although I found significant among-species differences in variation in development time, there was no clear linear relationship between variation in development time and precipitation. The results suggest that either bet-hedging is not important for persistence in the unpredictable annual killifish habitats, or that other ecological factors, rather than precipitation unpredictability, influenced evolution of variation in development times.

    Lastly, I investigated if occurrence of placenta correlated with increased offspring brain size among poeciliid fish (Paper IV). In contrast to our prediction, I did not find any consistent differences in relative brain size between the fry of placental and non-placental species. It is possible that either the poeciliid placental structures do not have a sufficient capacity to transfer resources necessary for increased brain development, or that other factors, such as sexual selection, or differences in food abundance and competition, shaped brain evolution among poeciliids.

    In conclusion, the results of this thesis suggest that environmental stress may influence evolutionary potential by increasing genetic variation available for selection, that time-constrained habitats may be conducive to evolution of parental effects on offspring development times, and that maternal influence on offspring traits may be difficult to detect, as many ecological factors may potentially influence evolution of life-history and morphology traits.

  • Disputas: 2019-12-20 13:00 Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Edenroth Cato, Fanny
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Barn- och ungdomsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Det högkänsliga subjektets tillblivelse: Diskursiva praktiker om identitet, förmåga och funktionsvariation2019Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation examines discursive practices about the highly sensitive person (HSP) from the perspective of knowledge production, categorization and community formation. In contemporary Sweden it has become increasingly common to talk about oneself in terms of being constituted in a particular way, e.g., as having a brain that functions differently than the average. The HSP often represents a person with exceptional capabilities and vulnerabilities, such as a sensitive nervous system and an empathetic disposition. The HSP discourse shares commonalities with the discourse of disability activism related to neuropsychiatric diagnoses. Namely, that by using specific discursive strategies, communities are being formed. The HSP community works to counteract the negative preconceived notions about high sensitivity, and bring to light the ignorance surrounding the needs of HSPs in society.

    This compilation thesis consists of a summarizing introduction and three articles. The empirical material covers posts from an online discussion forum for parents, and one aimed at young people, blogs composed by teenage girls, and children’s books written by different types of experts. These discursive arenas are analyzed with concepts from discursive psychology and poststructuralist theory. The results show how psychological and biomedical discourses are producing citizen subjects in relation to governing in specific social contexts. Within a Foucauldian tradition such forms of governance are termed biopolitics and biosociality.

    The first article examines how the HSP category is transforming notions of good motherhood. It suggests that mothers’ interaction in an online discussion forum reflects the intensive mothering norms of child-centered parenting. Mothers share their therapeutic narratives while highlighting the problems surrounding an incomprehensible social environment and the ordeals of having a guilty conscience. Through the prism of the highly sensitive child, however, motherhood acquires new anticipatory, considerate and susceptible norms, and strategies that constitute a highly sensitive parenting style.

    The second article studies how young people take different stances in discursive struggles concerning the HSP category online. The article illustrates how youths disclose the weaknesses and strengths of being highly sensitive, as well as objecting to norms of biosociality that are connected to the HSP. According to these findings young people are pioneering a new informed ethics of the self as they perform HSP subjectivity.

    The third article investigates children’s books that may be used as therapeutic tools aimed at informing and educating both adults and children about girls’ experiences of being HSPs, or of having a neuropsychiatric diagnosis. In these books dis/abilities are often transformed into exceptional capabilities. Through a process of identification, the girl protagonists may come to manage their behavior and emotions according to the premise of the diagnosis, thus, redefining their personhood as ideal citizen subjects.

    In conclusion, norms of biosociality and biopolitical governance regulate citizens to confess and assert their capabilities and dis/abilities, yet the discursive practices also reflect the construction of social problems and their potential solutions. Citizens appear to struggle to (re)define such problems in an identity political manner in order to (re)produce knowledge on their own terms.

  • Färlin, Christel
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Barn- och ungdomsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Holmqvist, Isabelle
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Barn- och ungdomsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Undervisning med bilderböcker och lärplatta i förskolan: En kvalitativ studie av fem förskollärares erfarenheter av undervisning för de yngsta barnen i förskolan2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • Spitzinger, Cristina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Socialantropologiska institutionen.
    Språket och makten. Kvinnligt och manligt sätt att tala i universitetsmiljö.1996Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • Helander, Karin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kultur och estetik.
    Barndomsbilder: Ingmar Bergman och teatern2019Inngår i: Kungl. vitterhets historie och antikvitets akademien: Årsbok 2019, Stockholm: Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademien, 2019Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Disputas: 2019-12-19 10:00 Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Mu, Xin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    Protein stability and mobility in live cells: Revelation of the intracellular diffusive interaction organization mechanisms2019Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Biochemical processes inside living cells take place in a confined and highly crowded environment. As such, macromolecular crowding, one of the most important physicochemical properties of cytoplasm, is an essential element of cell physiology. It not only gives rise to steric repulsion, but also promotes non-specific, transient, interactions (referred to as diffusive interactions) between molecules. Since diffusive interactions are a key way to achieving a highly organized intracellular environment, without such interactions, the cell is just “a bag of molecules”. Therefore, understanding how diffusive interactions modulate protein behavior in live cells is of fundamental importance for revealing the mechanisms of molecular recognition, as well as for understanding the cause of protein misfolding diseases.

    This thesis focuses on how macromolecular crowding influences the stability and diffusive motions of proteins within living cells by modulating their diffusive interactions. First, we investigated the thermal stability of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), a protein involved in the development of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), in mammalian and E. coli cells. Intriguingly, the major thermodynamic consequence of macromolecular crowding is due not only to conventional steric repulsions, but primarily to the detailed chemical nature of the diffusive protein interactions in live cells. Secondly, we presented a mutational study of how these diffusive interactions influence the rotation of proteins in the mammalian and bacterial cytosol. The result is a quantitative description of the physicochemical code for the intracellular protein motion, showing that it depends critically on the surface details of protein and the type of the host cell as well. Thirdly, we characterized the impact of  intracellular protein concentration by altering the volume of E. coli cells by osmotic shock. The results obtained show that the intracellular diffusion of proteins is not determined by the chemical properties of the protein surface alone, but also by the frequency of concentration-dependent encounters. Moreover, it appears that eukaryotes and bacteria have achieved fidelity of biological processes through different evolutionary strategies. Overall, these observations have numerous implications for both functional protein design and deciphering the evolution of the surface characteristics of proteins.

    Subsequently, we attempted to shed new light on the Hofmeister series, using protein-folding kinetics as observable. The results indicate that the Hofmeister series cannot be explained entirely by the traditional Kosmotropes/Chaotropes classification. Strong hetero-ion pairing cannot be ignored when trying to understand the effects of salts on protein salting-in and salting-out behaviors.

  • Selgas, Gianfranco
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    Caracas especular: espectadores y espacios emancipados en la instalación audiovisual Imagen de Caracas2019Inngår i: Iberoamericana: América Latina, España, Portugal, ISSN 1577-3388, E-ISSN 2255-520X, Vol. 19, nr 72, s. 181-195Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [es]

    En este artículo no me propongo analizar rasgos concretos de la instalación audiovisual-multimedia Imagen de Caracas, sino tomarla como índice de algo posible o nuevo. Mi argumentación es que Imagen de Caracas puede interpretarse como una forma especulativa donde, por medio de la integración de formas plásticas y artísticas, la correspondencia entre arte y comunidad puede ser indicativa de una función emancipadora. Esta función no es aislada: el momento de su emergencia coincide con una serie de eventos artísticos tanto en Venezuela como en el resto de América Latina que persiguieron articulaciones entre lo estético y lo político. Enmarcado en este devenir, Imagen de Caracas se erige como espejo crítico de la ciudad de Caracas y su gente, y en esa reflexión de una ciudad que se mira a sí misma alojó, en su intento por mostrar desde adentro el afuera, el germen emancipatorio delos espacios y los espectadores.

  • Bornlöf, Julia
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för mediestudier, Modevetenskap.
    Bloody Penny Picture Pose: A comparative study on the representation of sexuality and violence within the aesthetics of Victorian Gothic horror2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    There is an ongoing fascination with the Victorian era as well as the genre of horror, and the characters originating from the first 18th century Gothic tales still appear in our Western popular culture today. The Victorian Gothic novels contain elements of romanticism and violence which often results in strong undertones of heated sexuality. I argue that it is one of the reasons for the genre’s wide popularity. This thesis examines the representation of femininity and female sexuality within a Victorian horror context by a comparative analyse of illustrations from British 19th century Penny Blood publications with contemporary fashion photographs. The images are analysed by applying Erwin Panofsky’s method of Iconography and with the theoretical framework of feminist visual culture, and historical theories on sexuality, biology and violence. The thesis shows how Gothic visualisations are interpreted and appropriated photographically today, where the latter is darker and more exaggerated than the former. Symbols of sexuality, female agency, dominance and submission are equally found in the Victorian and the contemporary material. However, the Victorian aesthetic has become a platform where a nude, sexual female body in a S&M situation can offer a spectrum of meanings and even symbols of feminism. It is a visual culture where women can fight back, taking revenge on their oppressor and looking fierce when doing so. 

  • Ferreira Cunha, Cristina J.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för slaviska och baltiska språk, finska, nederländska och tyska.
    Rezeptionsästhetische Literaturdidaktik im DaF-Unterricht. Das Bilderbuch als Anlass für Unterrichtsgespräche über das Thema: Der Umgang mit dem Fremden: Antje Damm, Der Besuch. Bild-/Textanalyse und literaturdidaktische Vorschläge2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    While subject-specific research shows that the use of picturebooks in foreign language lessons is beneficial to the acquisition of a foreign language as well as to the development of visual literacy, there is evidence that the use of picturebooks in German as a Foreign Language lessons in Sweden is being neglected. The main subject of this thesis is to offer suggestions as to how Antje Damm´s picturebook Der Besuch can be employed in German as a Foreign Language lessons in Sweden in order to uncover and discuss different responses to the alien by the main character.

    The philosophical background of this study is based on Bernhard Waldenfels´ notions of alienness and the event of responsivity. A central line of argument is that the plural character of our experiences determines how the alien is perceived. Bettina Schröder´s work Bild(er)leser wissen mehr! Das Bil-derbuch als Vermittler von “Visual Literacy”: Eine Aufgabe für die Kinder- und Jugendbibliotheksarbeit? is not only decisive for the analysis of the visual elements of the picturebook but also for the design of a questionnaire that enables the thematic exploration of Damm´s picturebook during German as a Foreign Language lessons. By separately analysing the visual and the verbal elements of the picturebook as well as their relationship, the result of the first part of this work points out four approaches to the alien by the main character: isolation, elimination, ignoration (Weghören) and hospitality. Furthermore, the thematic analysis of Der Besuch makes it evident that picture and text tell the same story in their own specific and autonomous way. Based on the results of the first part, the findings of the second part suggest a guideline as how Damm´s picturebook can be used in German as a Foreign Language lessons. A three-phased model presents a set of example questions designed to enable the meticulous exploration of the theme when working with the picturebook.

  • Olson, Jonas
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Filosofiska institutionen.
    Metaethics Out of Speech Acts? Moral Error Theory and the Possibility of Speech2019Inngår i: Companions in Guilt Arguments in Metaethics / [ed] Christopher Cowie, Richard Rowland, Routledge, 2019, s. 73-85Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Are there moral facts? According to moral nihilism, the answer is no. Some moral nihilists are moral error theorists, who think that moral judgements purport to refer to moral facts, but since there are no moral facts, moral judgements are uniformly false or untrue. Terence Cuneo has recently raised an original and potentially very serious objection to moral error theory (Cuneo 2014). According to Cuneo’s ‘normative theory of speech’, normative facts, some of which are moral facts, are crucially involved in explanations of how it is that we are able to perform illocutionary speech acts, such as asserting, promising, and commanding. Many versions of moral error theory reject not only moral facts, but also normative facts of the kind Cuneo takes to be among the prerequisites of our abilities to perform illocutionary speech acts. If Cuneo’s argument is successful, then, moral error theory has the unsettling implication that we do not speak, and possibly that we cannot speak. I shall argue, however, that the argument ultimately fails, chiefly because its core premise fails to establish that illocutionary speech acts are normative in the first place.

  • Disputas: 2019-12-17 10:00 14, Stockholm
    NDIKUBWAYO, INNOCENT
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Matematiska institutionen. Makerere University.
    Topics in polynomial sequences defined by linear recurrences2019Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This licentiate consists of two papers treating polynomial sequences defined by linear recurrences.

    In paper I, we establish necessary and sufficient conditions for the reality of all the zeros in a polynomial sequence {P_i} generated by a three-term recurrence relation P_i(x)+ Q_1(x)P_{i-1}(x) +Q_2(x) P_{i-2}(x)=0 with the standard initial conditions P_{0}(x)=1, P_{-1}(x)=0, where Q_1(x) and Q_2(x) are arbitrary real polynomials.

    In paper II, we study the root distribution of a sequence of polynomials {P_n(z)} with the rational generating function \sum_{n=0}^{\infty} P_n(z)t^n= \frac{1}{1+ B(z)t^\ell +A(z)t^k} for (k,\ell)=(3,2) and (4,3) where A(z) and B(z) are arbitrary polynomials in z with complex coefficients. We show that the roots of P_n(z) which satisfy A(z)B(z)\neq 0 lie on a real algebraic curve which we describe explicitly.

  • Thorsén, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Matematiska institutionen.
    Assessment of the uncertainty in small and large dimensional portfolio allocation2019Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Portfolio theory is a large subject with many branches. In this thesis we concern ourselves with one of these, the precense of uncertainty in the portfolio allocation problem and in turn, what it leads to. There are many forms of uncertainty, we consider two of these. The first being the optimization problem itself and optimizing what might be the wrong objective. In the classical mean-variance portfolio problem we aim to provide a portfolio with the smallest risk while we constrain the mean. However, in practice we might not assign a fixed portfolio goal but assign probabilities to the amount of return a portfolio might give and its relation to benchmarks. That is, we assign quantiles of the portfolio return distribution. In this scenario, the use of the portfolio mean as a return measure could be misleading. It does not take any quantile into account! In the first paper, we exchange the portfolio moments to quantile-based measures in the portfolio selection problem. The properties of the quantilebased portfolio selection problem is thereafter investigated with two different (quantile-based) measures of risk. We also present a closed form solution under the assumption that the returns follow an elliptical distribution. In this specific case the portfolio is shown to be mean-variance efficient.

    The second paper takes on a different type of uncertainty which is classic to statistics, the problem of estimation uncertainty. We consider the sample estimators of the mean vector and of the covariance matrix of the asset returns and integrate the uncertainty these provide into a large class of optimal portfolios. We derive the sampling distribution, of the estimated optimal portfolio weights, which are obtained in both small and large dimensions. This consists of deriving the joint distribution of several quantities and thereafter specifying their high dimensional asymptotic distribution.

  • Eftekhari, Jila
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    KULTURELLA SKILLNADERS PÅVERKAN PÅ PSYKOTERAPIPROCESSEN: Iranskfödda, högutbildade kvinnors erfarenheter av psykoterapi2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I takt med att människor rör sig över geografiska och kulturella gränser, kommer alltfler individer med olika kulturella bakgrund i kontakt med psykoterapi. Klienten och psykoterapeuten representerar sina sociokulturella kontexter och den interpersonella dynamiken som uppstår i vardagen förekommer även i psykoterapin. Syftet med denna studie var att få en fördjupad förståelsen för klienternas erfarenheter av kulturella skillnader i terapiprocessen. Frågeställningen var om den terapeutiska processen påverkas av kulturella olikheter samt om kulturskillnader utgör ett hinder i terapin. Kvalitativa semistrukturerade intervjuer genomfördes med sex kvinnor och analyserades utifrån induktiv tematisk analys. Resultatet visade att terapeuternas individualistiska kultur stod i kontrast till klienternas kollektivistiska kultur och orsakade missuppfattningar. Missförstånd påverkade den terapeutiska alliansen negativt. Klienterna utbildade terapeuterna för att hindra felbedömningar. Undervisningen innebar ökade kunskap -och förtroende men också en uppgivenhet hos klienterna pga. att den upptog mycket tid och hindrade ett fördjupat terapeutiskt samtal.

  • Ask, Julia
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för etnologi, religionshistoria och genusvetenskap, Religionshistoria.
    Decoration and Death: The Sringar of Baba Shamshan Nath2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • Disputas: 2019-12-16 10:00 sal 14, hus 5, Kräftriket, Stockholm
    Krüger, Oliver
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Matematiska institutionen.
    On linear graph invariants related to Ramsey and edge numbers: or how I learned to stop worrying and love the alien invasion2019Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis we study the Ramsey numbers, R(l,k), the edge numbers, e(l,k;n) and graphs that are related to these. The edge number e(l,k;n) may be defined as the least natural number m for which all graphs on n vertices and less than m edges either contains a complete subgraph of size l or an independent set of size k. The Ramsey number R(l,k) may then be defined as the least natural number n for which e(l,k;n) = ∞ .

    In Paper I, IV and V we study strict lower bounds for e(l,k;n). In Paper I we do this in the case where l = 3 by, in particular, showing e(G) ≥ (1/3)(17n(G) - 35α(G) - N(C4;G)) for all triangle-free graphs G, where N(C4;G) denotes the number of cycles of length 4 in G. In Paper IV we describe a general method for generating similar inequalities to the one above but for graphs that may contain triangles, but no complete subgraphs of size 4. We then show a selection of the inequalities we get from the computerised generation. In Paper V we study the inequality 

    e(G) ≥ (1/2)(ceil((7l - 2)/2)n(G) - l floor((5l + 1)/2)α(G))

    for l ≥ 2, and examine the properties of graphs G without cliques of size l+1 such that G is minimal with respect to the above inequality not holding, and show for small l that no such graphs G can exist.

    In Paper II we study constructions of graphs G such that e(G) - e(3,k;n) is small when n ≤ 3.5(k-1). We employ a description of some of these graphs in terms of 'patterns' and a recursive procedure to construct them from the patterns. We also present the result of computer calculations where we actually have performed such constructions of Ramsey graphs and compare these lists to previously computed lists of Ramsey graphs.

    In Paper III we develop a method for computing, recursively, upper bounds for Ramsey numbers R(l,k). In particular the method uses bounds for the edge numbers e(l,k;n). In Paper III we have implemented this method as a computer program which we have used to improve several of the best known upper bounds for small Ramsey numbers R(l,k).

  • Wickholm, Hanna
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska fakulteten, Juridiska institutionen.
    Kapitalbuffertkraven ur ett konstitutionellt perspektiv2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Following the global financial crisis in 2007-2009, there has been a rapid regulatory development of the international financial market. Arguably, the magnitude of the costs resulting from this crisis was caused by the fact that banks and other financial institutions, due to inadequate regulation, did not have sufficient capital to handle the unpredicted disturbances in the financial market. Hence, a number of new international standards have been introduced to enhance the stability of both the financial system as a whole and individual financial market players. One of the most important new standards concerns additional capital buffers for financial institutions. The capital buffer requirements, which originally were adopted through international agreements, have now been introduced in Sweden due to EU-law.

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine the constitutional legality of capital buffer requirements in relation to the Swedish distribution of normative competence. As a separate and independent part of this legality test, the thesis also answers the question of whether decisions regarding the capital buffer requirements are categorized as norm decisions or administrative decisions. In order to be able to examine the constitutional legality of the capital buffers, the regulation that governs the capital buffer requirements must be thoroughly examined. Therefore, the thesis also explores the detailed and technically complex regulations that regulate the capital buffer requirements. Within the framework of this investigation the origin of the buffers, the Swedish implementation process and the application of the buffer requirements by the Swedish Financial Supervisory Authority is examined.

    The examination of the capital buffer requirement's compatibility with the Swedish distribution of normative competence shows that the use of delegation to implement the buffer requirements into Swedish regulation is legal. However, it is questionable if the legal technique used is appropriate. The categorization of decisions regarding the capital buffer requirements shows that all the capital buffer requirements cannot be attributed to one single category. This lack of coherence makes the Swedish implementation of the capital buffers questionable.

  • Kharel, Binita
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska fakulteten, Juridiska institutionen.
    PENGARNA & RIKSBANKEN: Ett konstitutionellt perspektiv på Sveriges centralbank och digitala centralbankspengar2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning:

    Uppsatsen ämnar undersöka den svenska centralbankens mömöjligheter att distribuera digitala centralbankspengar till allmänheten utifrån ett konstitutionellt perspektiv. Som utgångspunkt för att utreda frågan, om digitala centralbankspengar, behandlar uppsatsen Riksbankens förslag att införa kontobaserade e- kronor. Genom att tillämpa en rättsdogmatisk metod besvaras frågeställningar om Riksbanken, med nuvarande reglering, har mandat att tillhandahålla konto- baserade e-kronor till allmänheten. Därefter följer en utredning av vilka konsekvenser Riksbankens mandat skulle medföra på den svenska betalningsmarknaden, för att besvara frågan om huruvida Riksbankens mandat bör omfatta kontobaserade e-kronor eller inte. Framställningens slutsatser mynnar ut i att den svenska betalningsmarknaden kan komma att påverkas negativt både för de fall Riksbankens mandat skulle förbli oförändrat eller komma att ändras. Redogörelsen visar bland annat på att ett oförändrat mandat för med sig att en klassisk centralbanksuppgift, att tillhandahålla lagligt betalningsmedel, kan komma att fasas ut. Vid ett utökat mandat visar utredningen att den finansiella stabiliteten kan äventyras då risken för bankrusningar befaras öka.

    I uppsatsen behandlas och diskuteras frågeställningar om pengars natur, Riksbankens mandat och vilka inverkningar digitala centralbankspengar kan komma att medföra på den svenska betalningsmarknaden.

  • Hård af Segerstad, Rebecka
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska fakulteten, Juridiska institutionen.
    Parters möjligheter att avtala om negativ rättskraft: Specifikt om supplerande moment i stadfästa förlikningar2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Code of Judicial Procedure (Rättegångsbalken, RB) states that a judgment has binding effects and that the same matter can not be tried twice (17 ch. 11 §). The rule expresses the concept res judicata. It exists to benefit the administration of justice and to an effective economy of justice administration. It also brings security to parties in knowing a conflict has come to a final end. Moreover, the regulation is supposed to direct parties to prepare with all means required, before engaging the court with their dispute. The inconvenience with 11 § is that it is not foreseeable. It can cause a matter, that has not been examined by the court, to be covered by the binding effects – given the legal consequence of the new motion is either the same or alternative and economically equivalent to the previous one. Res judicata then prevents a new examination of the matter, even though the practical causes differ. Thus, it can be questioned if 11 § indeed provides security and predictability to disputing parties. This legal state is a consequence of a vaguely formulated law, the way it is interpreted by the Swedish Supreme Court and in legal scholar.

    In this essay I examine whether the rule in 11 § is better suited to be formulated by disputing parties themselves, than exclusively through hard law. Should the possibilities for disputing parties to make procedural agreements be expanded, and accordingly allowing parties to gain further insight and control over the binding effects of 17 ch. 11 § RB?

    The method used to answer this question is legal dogmatics. On the basis of established sources within the Swedish legal system – such as the Law, its motives, rulings from the Swedish Highest Court and legal doctrine – legal dogmatics is sufficient to establish the current legal situation, de lege lata. At the same time the method provides room for a critical perspective on the legal system and opens up for a discussion on what form the legal system should take, de lege ferenda.

    The conclusion presented in the essay is this. In civil disputes the conflicting parties in question have a major impact over the trial’s framework, on the basis of the principle of dispositions. In accordance with this it is logical for the legal system to allow the parties also to have an influence over the binding effects of 17 ch. 11 § RB. Conflicting parties are in some aspects well suited to make procedural agreements, especially in the form of vindicated settlements. This model, if interpreted in the procedural legal system, could result in predictability for conflicting parties and benefit the economy of justice administration.

  • Sandberg, Mina-Niqole
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska fakulteten, Juridiska institutionen.
    Entreprenadvitets tillämpning och funktioner: Särskilt om jämkning av entreprenadvite2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats har haft till syfte att utreda entreprenadvitet; vilka syften och funktioner ett entreprenadvite har, hur entreprenadvitet tillämpas och i vilka sammanhang det finns möjlighet att jämka ett entreprenadvite. Genom att parterna i förväg avtalar om att vite skall utgå vid entreprenörens dröjsmål, tydliggörs parternas riskfördelning och entreprenörens kostnad för kontraktsbrott. Entreprenadvitet har flera syften och funktioner som är tätt sammanflätade i varandra. Ett huvudsakligt syfte med avtalat entreprenadvite är att skapa förutsebarhet för båda parter. Från beställarens perspektiv är ett huvudsakligt syfte med entreprenadvitet att fungera som påtryckning för att entreprenören ska prestera i enlighet med avtalet. Vidare är entreprenadvitet en ersättningsgaranti vid entreprenörens dröjsmål utan att denne behöver bevisa någon skada. Från entreprenörens perspektiv medför entreprenadvitet en kalkylerbarhet av olika scenarier då entreprenörens kostnad för dröjsmål begränsas till entreprenadvitet även om beställaren skulle ha lidit en större skada. Vidare kan entreprenadvitet ha ett signalvärde i förhållande till beställaren. I framställningen redogörs också för flera syften och funktioner. 

    Entreprenadvitet är en exklusiv ersättning. I entreprenadavtal stipuleras ett par undantag då det är möjligt att jämka ett vite, bland annat till följd av att beställaren före färdigställandet tagit entreprenaden, eller del därav, i bruk eller i sammanhang när beställaren haft en icke väsentlig ekonomisk nytta av annat ibruktagande av entreprenaden eller del därav. Därutöver finns en möjlighet att jämka ett entreprenadvite genom en helhetsbedömning i enlighet med 36 § avtalslagen. I framställningen konstateras dock att Högsta domstolen hittills har varit mycket restriktiv med att jämka viten mellan kommersiella parter.

  • Garpedal, Ebba
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska fakulteten, Juridiska institutionen.
    Försäkrat intresse inom motorfordonsförsäkring2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • Hagström, Lina
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska fakulteten, Juridiska institutionen.
    Det offentligas tjänstemän – rättsstatens väktare?2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is, according to its constitution, a state governed by law. The rule of law is upheld by the correct application of specific sources of law, consisting exclusively of legislation and its legislative history, court practise, established practise and the literature of jurisprudence. The non-regard for all other kinds of arguments, such as, for example, subjective justice in the matter at hand, ensures that formal justice is maintained. The outcome of two similar cases must result in the same ruling regardless of the person presiding.

    However, the courts are not the only place where the rule of law must be respected. In state and municipal administrations, legal decisions concerning individuals are made every day. Oftentimes administration officers are the first instance of adjudication. To achieve the same level of legality, administration officers must apply the same sources of law as do law graduates, but without any education in law.

    In this thesis, the method of legal problem solving that is practised by administration officers is studied, as well as the historical development of the profession of administration officers. Three representatives were interviewed about the scope of the method used in specific cases. The results showed that the methods clearly differed from the method of law graduates, in part due to organisational, economic and educational differences, and that the historical legacy is still very present in the administrative work.

  • Hammarén, Axel
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska fakulteten, Juridiska institutionen.
    EU-rättslig minimireglering och den svenska modellen2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen syftar till att utreda hur EU-rättsliga minimiregleringar inom arbetsrätten påverkar den svenska modellen. Utvecklingen av arbetsrätten på EU-nivå har inneburit stora utmaningar för den svenska modellen och för partsautonomin. Ytterligare förändringar kan bli aktuella och kommer troligtvis att innebära ännu större påfrestningar på det svenska arbetsrättliga systemet. Troligtvis går vi mot en arbetsrätt med mer omfattande och detaljerad lagstiftning alternativt så krävs ett system med möjlighet till allmängiltigförklaring av kollektivavtal. I vilket fall kan man konstatera att den svenska modellen, som den ser ut idag, är under tryck på förändring.

  • Wallin, Josefina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Flyktingar – ett hot mot samhällets funktionalitet?: En studie om riksdagsledamöters retorik angående asylsökande och flyktingar hösten 2015 utifrån Köpenhamnsskolans säkerhetiseringsteori2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie har undersökt om retoriken kring asyl- och flyktingfrågan ändrades bland riksdagsledamöter under hösten 2015 utifrån Köpenhamnsskolans säkerhetiseringsteori. Detta har möjliggjorts genom processpårning som metodologiskt tillvägagångssätt där riksdags- och regeringsdokument analyserats genom säkerhetiseringsteorin. Studiens analys visar att flyktingar och asylsökande framställdes som ett existentiellt hot gentemot det svenska samhällets funktionalitet i slutet av hösten 2015 och de sedvanliga politiska rutinerna frångicks i hanteringen av frågan. En fullständig säkerhetisering skedde således i december 2015 i samband med proposition 2015/16:67 ”Särskilda åtgärder vid allvarlig fara för den allmänna ordningen eller den inre säkerheten i landet”. Dock visar studiens resultat att det finns en otydlighet i säkerhetiseringsteorins definitioner av nyckelbegreppet säkerhetiseringsaktör.

  • Disputas: 2019-12-13 10:00 Vivi Täckholmsalen (Q-salen), NPQ-huset, Stockholm
    Keehnen, Naomi L.P.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Immunity & the butterfly: A functional genomic study of natural variation in immunity2019Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Butterflies are ubiquitous and abundant, occurring in a wide variety of environments that contain diverse microbial communities with varied pathogenic pressures. These pathogens and parasites present a constant threat to organisms, and have led to the evolution of complex and intricate immune responses. Despite strong selection against immunological threats, organisms display great variation in their immune capabilities, both on the genetic and physiological level. Investigating this variation remains challenging, since differences in immune responses might arise from changes in the amount, size or performance of cells or organs. Disentangling these relative contributions is important, as the targets of selection are expected to differ, ranging from immune genes directly related to the phenotype to genes indirectly involved via cell proliferation. This thesis focuses on characterizing the immune system of the butterfly Pieris napi and investigating its remarkable variation across populations by using both phenotypic and genotypic measurements. By integrating RNA-seq with life history measurements, I found that the cost of infection and wounding in the final larval stage carries over the metamorphic boundary in P. napi (Paper II). Using population comparisons, I identified both the action and potential targets of natural selection in wild populations within their respective immune responses (Paper I, III & IV). The immune genes in P. napi show increased genetic variation compared to the rest of the genome, and microevolutionary selection dynamics act on these genes between and among populations (Paper I). I measured the cellular immune responses related to phagocytosis and melanization in common garden reared larvae originating from two allopatric populations (Spain, Sweden) (Paper III & IV). The two populations were found to differ in their blood cell composition, and overall phagocytic capability, driven by the increased phagocytic propensity of each cell type (Paper III). However, genome wide analysis of divergence between these populations found no excess genetic differentiation in genes annotated to phagocytic capacity, suggesting that our observed population differences might arise from genes affecting the activation or transdifferentiation of cells, which currently lack functional annotation. Interestingly, genes involved in glutamine metabolism, which have been linked to immune cell differentiation in mammals, did show divergence between the populations. In addition, the populations also differed in prophenoloxidase activity, a common method for quantifying immune related melanization in insects, along with the abundance of the cell-type (oenocytoids) related to this important immune function (Paper IV). Integrative analysis using both transcriptomic and genomic data revealed that the genes involved in this phenotype showed no significant differentiation between the populations. However, a gene involved with proper trafficking of melanogenic enzymes in vertebrates was found to be highly expressed and highly diverged between the two populations, providing an interesting candidate for future studies. This thesis demonstrates the advantages of integrating several genomic tools with lab experiments to quantify natural variation in the immune system of butterflies.

     

  • Tiselius, Elisabet
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Tolk- och översättarinstitutet.
    Englund Dimitrova, Birgitta
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Tolk- och översättarinstitutet.
    Asymmetrical language proficiency in dialogue interpreters: Methodological issues2019Inngår i: Translation, Cognition and Behaviour, ISSN 2542-5277, Vol. 2, nr 2, s. 305-322Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Language proficiency of dialogue interpreters, who typically work in the public service sector, is an under-researched area. Contrary to conference interpreters, for dialogue interpreters there is no generally accepted definition of proficiency levels of working languages. This article discusses language proficiency in dialogue interpreting. It presents a methodological problem, namely, how to define and determine a given interpreter’s stronger and weaker working language. In our article we discuss different methods for determining the individual interpreter’s stronger and weaker working languages, such as self-assessment, demographic, socio-linguistic questionnaire and test score (Dialang). We conclude that there is a need for more research into this area.

  • Disputas: 2019-12-12 10:00 Vivi Täckholmsalen (Q-salen) NPQ-huset, Stockholm
    Ólafsson, Einar B.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Signaling determinants in Trojan horse-mediated dissemination of Toxoplasma gondii2019Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that infects all warm-blooded vertebrates including one third of the global human population. While infection is typically asymptomatic in healthy human hosts, reactivated and acute infection in immunosuppressed or immunecompromised individuals can lead to lethal toxoplasmic encephalitis After ingestion, the parasite crosses the intestinal epithelium and rapidly achieves systemic dissemination, ultimately establishing chronic infection in the brain. Shortly after crossing the intestinal epithelium T. gondii encounters dendritic cells (DCs). Paradoxically, T. gondii tachyzoites exploit the inherent migratory ability of DCs for dissemination via a “Trojan horse” mechanism. Within minutes of active invasion by T. gondii tachyzoites, DCs adopt a hypermigratory phenotype that mediates rapid systemic dissemination of T. gondii in mice. Previous studies have demonstrated that the hypermigratory phenotype involves cytoskeletal rearrangement, redistribution of integrins and high-velocity in vitro cell migration (termed hypermotility), which is initiated by GABAergic signaling. However, the downstream effectors of GABAergic signaling in parasitized DCs remain enigmatic. Leukocyte migration often relies on adhesion and proteolysis of extracellular matrix (ECM). However, the role of ECM proteolysis in hypermigration has not been addressed. In this thesis, the migratory activation of T. gondii-infected DCs is characterized in terms of cell signaling and ECM proteolysis.

    In paper I we demonstrate that MMP-mediated proteolytic activity of DCs is abolished upon T. gondii infection. To investigate DC pericellular proteolysis at the single cell level, we developed a high-content imaging and automated image analysis method. With pharmacological inhibitors and gene silencing, we show that T. gondii-infected DCs lose the ability to degrade ECM through the upregulation of TIMP1 and the loss of podosome structures.

    In paper II we show that the hypermigratory phenotype induced by GABAergic signaling in T. gondii-infected DCs is dependent on L-type voltage dependent Ca2+ channel (L-VDCC) activation, predominantly CaV1.3. Pharmacological antagonism of CaV1.3 and gene silencing of cav1.3 blocked hypermotility. Further, inhibition of L-VDCCs with benidipine significantly reduced T. gondii dissemination in a mouse model.

    In paper III we address the impact of TIMP1 on the migratory activation of T. gondii-infected DCs. Using pharmacological antagonism and shRNA-mediated gene silencing, we demonstrate that secreted TIMP1 induces motility and migration in T. gondii-infected DCs by activating ITGB1-FAK signaling through interactions with CD63.

    In paper IV we report that the GTPase Ras functions as a molecular switch in the migratory activation of T. gondii-infected DCs. We identify that VDCC-CaM-CaMkII and Met signaling converge on Ras-mediated Erk phosphorylation leading to migratory activation of T. gondii-infected DCs.

    In summary, my thesis details novel host signaling pathways hijacked by the protozoan parasite T. gondii in Trojan horse DCs for dissemination. Through the investigation of host-parasite interactions, we shed new light on mechanisms that govern leukocyte migration and strategies employed by T. gondii to achieve pervasive dissemination. Gaining further insights into the biology that underlies T. gondii pathogenesis and persistence will help ameliorate toxoplasmosis in at-risk groups.

  • Qureshi, Abdul Aziz
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    Establishing the mechanistic basis of sugar transport2019Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Sugar is a vital molecule required for cell viability and homeostasis. Sugar is important for metabolic energy, energy storage, signaling, structure and osmolyte regulation. Transport of sugar represents an important physiological process. Specific membrane transporter families have evolved to mediate the transport of sugar across biological membranes. In this thesis, we describe our work leading to a better mechanistic understanding of two sugar transporter families, namely glucose (GLUT) transporters and nucleotide-sugar (NST) transporters.

    Members of GLUT transporters, belonging to the Solute Carrier (SLC2) family, are involved in the uptake of various monosaccharides across the cellular membranes. Activity of different NSTs, belonging to the (SLC35) family, is crucial for the process of glycosylation by mediating the translocation of activated sugars from the cytoplasm into the lumen of either Golgi and/or ER organelles. GLUTs and NSTs families carry out transport processes fundamental to human physiology and pathophysiology. Despite the profound importance of GLUTs and NSTs in human health, comprehensive understanding of their architecture and mechanistic features with respect to determinants of substrate binding and allosteric coupling at the molecular level has remained elusive.

    In this thesis, we address key functional and structural properties of GLUT and NST mediated sugar transport. We combine crystal structures with robust binding and transport assays as well as computational approaches. The role of lipids in fine-tuning the activity of transporters is also exemplified by demonstrating the effect of lipid composition in the transport activity of GLUTs using in-vitro proteoliposome assays. Our work has not only enhanced the current understanding of GLUT and NST function, but also developed themes and methods that are likely relevant to many types of small molecule transporters.

  • Sjöberg, Susanne
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Microbially mediated manganese oxides enriched in yttrium and rare earth elements in the Ytterby mine, Sweden2019Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Microorganisms are able to manipulate redox reactions and thus exert extensive control on chemical speciation and element partitioning in nature, affecting the formation and dissolution of certain minerals. One of these redox active elements is manganese (Mn), which in its oxidized states (III/IV), commonly forms Mn oxide-hydroxide minerals. A microbially mediated birnessite-type Mn oxide enriched in yttrium (Y) and rare earth elements (REE) has been studied in our research. The YREE-enriched birnessite was found in a tunnel to the main shaft of the former Ytterby mine in Sweden, well known as the place of discovery of scandium, yttrium, tantalum and five of the REEs. The thesis aims to define preconditions and processes leading to the formation of this Ytterby birnessite, with particular focus on microbial involvement and the potentially promoting role of biofilms. Dynamics and mineral products of the natural system are studied in combination with analyses of Mn phases produced in vitro by microbes isolated from this system. In addition, the nature of the YREE association with the birnessite-type Mn oxides is investigated.

    Natural birnessite has the composition Mx(Mn3+, Mn4+)2O4•(H2O)n  with M ususally being (Na,Ca) and x=0.5. An empirical formula based on element analyses for the Ytterby birnessite has been assessed as M = (Ca0,37-0,41YREE0.02Mg0.04Other metals0.02-0.03), with [Mn3+]/[Mn4+] = 0.86-1.00 to achieve charge balance. We find that there is a preference for the trivalent YREEs over divalent and monovalent metals. There is also a preferential uptake of light rare earth elements (LREE) relative to heavy rare earth elements (HREE), likely due to mineralogical preferences for charge and ionic radius. The YREEs are strongly bound to the mineral structure and not merely adsorbed on the surface. The Mn deposit subsystems (fracture water, Mn oxide precipitating biofilm and bubble biofilm) are phylogenetically significantly different and the microbial community composition of the feeding water has little impact on the derived biofilms. The signature microbial groups of the Mn oxide producing biofilm Rhizobiales (e.g., Pedomicrobium), PLTA13 Gammaproteobacteria, Pirellulaceae, Blastocatellia and Nitrospira are adapted to the specific characteristics of the biofilm: an emerging extreme environment (low temperature, no light, high metal concentration) which is in part generated by the biofilm components themselves. Known Mn oxidizers are identified among these niched microbial groups and four of the isolated bacterial species (Hydrogenophaga sp., Pedobacter sp., Rhizobium sp. and Nevskia sp.) as well as one fungal species (Cladosporium sp.) are involved in Mn oxide production. Hydrogenophaga sp. and Pedobacter sp. produce Mn oxides independently while results imply a synergistic relationship between Rhizobium sp. and selected species. Members of the Pedobacter and Nevskia genera are previously not known to oxidize Mn. Microstructural characterizaton show that the growth pattern of the birnessite-type Mn oxides is either dendritic/shrublike or spherulitic/botryoidal. Nucleation takes place in close association to the biofilm and initial Mn precipitates are observed at different locations depending on the mediating species. Encrustations of cells and other organic structures by Mn precipitates serve as stable nuclei for further growth. The close relationship appears to decrease in importance as the aggregates of poorly crystalline precipitates grow. In the more developed crystals, a repetitive pattern, Liesegang-type of rings, suggests that abiotic factors take over.

  • Valdés Santurio, Eduardo
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. CERN.
    Development of the read-out link and control board for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Upgrade2019Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The Phase-II upgrade plan for the ATLAS Hadronic Tile Calorimeter facing the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) era includes approximately 1000 radiation tolerant read-out link and control boards (Daughterboards) that will provide full-granularity digital data to a fully-digital trigger system off-detector through multi-Gbps optic fibres. Different Daughterboard (DB) revisions have been developed, each successively aiming to meet the demanding HL-LHC requirements. The DB communicates with the off-detector systems via four 9.6 Gbps uplinks and two 4.8 Gbps downlinks. The DB performs high-speed read-out of digitized Photomultiplier (PMT) samples, while receiving and distributing configuration, control and LHC-synchronous timing to the front-end system. The design aims to minimize radiation-induced errors and enhance data reliability by embracing a fully double redundant design using CERN radiation hard GBTx ASICs and Xilinx FPGAs, implementing Triple Mode Redundancy (TMR), adopting Soft Error Mitigation (SEM) to correct for configuration memory Single Event Upsets (SEU), and employing Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) and Forward Error Correction (FEC) in the data format of the uplink and downlink, respectively. Total Ionizing Dose (TID), Non-Ionizing Energy Losses (NIEL) and Single Event Effects (SEE) radiation tests have been performed in order to assess the radiation tolerance strategies followed in the design and to qualify the DB for the HL-LHC requirements according to the ATLAS policy on radiation tolerant electronics. This thesis presents the author's contribution to the development of the DB through the different revisions, the integration of the DB to the Demonstrator and the radiation tests performed aiming to demonstrate the readiness of the DB to withstand the radiation requirements imposed by the HL-LHC. Resulting of this document, the author proposes strategies to be used in the new DB design moving forward the final design to be produced and inserted in ATLAS during the 2024-2026 period.

  • Valencia, Luis
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    Cellulose Nanofibril-based Hybrid Materials: Eco-friendly design towards separation and packaging applications2019Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanocellulose has been lately considered as the “Holy-Grail” in the design of sustainable materials due to its bio-origin and an unprecedented combination of prominent features, including good mechanical properties, anisotropy and versatile surface chemistry. In addition, nanocellulose in the form of cellulose nanofibrils, can adopt variable structures and morphologies depending on the processing technique, such as aerogels, films and monoliths.

    However, there are limitations that hinder the implementation of cellulose nanofibrils in “real-life applications”, such as inherent interaction with bacteria and proteins, thus leading to surface-fouling; and loss of integrity due to water-induced swelling. A way to overcome these challenges, and provide further functionality, is through hybridization strategies, at which the multiple components act synergistically towards specific properties and applications. In this thesis, the aim is to present multiple strategies for the synthesis of novel cellulose nanofibril-based hybrid materials, in the form of 2D-films and 3D-foams, towards their employment for separation applications or active food packaging.

    A novel strategy to surface-functionalize cellulose nanofibril-membranes is proposed via grafting zwitterionic polymer brushes of poly (cysteine methacrylate). The modification can suppress the absorption of proteins in an 85%, as well as decreasing the adhesion of bacteria in an 87%, while introducing antimicrobial properties, as demonstrated against S. aureus.

    The spontaneous formation of functional metal oxide nanoparticles occurring in situ on cellulose nanofibrils-films during the adsorption of metal ions from water is investigated, which occurs without the additional use of chemicals or temperature. Notably, this process not only enables the upcycling of materials through multi-stage applications, but also provides a cost-effective method to prepare multifunctional hybrid materials with enhanced dye-removal/antimicrobial activity.

    The processing of functional composite films from cellulose nanofibril-stabilized Pickering emulsions and their suitability to be used as active edible barriers was demonstrated. The presence of oil in the films fine-tuned the properties of the films, as well as acted as the medium to encapsulate bio-active hydrophobic compounds, providing further functionality such as antioxidant and antimicrobial properties.

    Anisotropic porous hybrid foams with ultra-high loading capacity of sorbents (e.g., zeolites and metal-organic frameworks) were produced via unidirectional freeze-casting method using cellulose nanofibrils/gelatin as template material. The foams indeed exhibited ultra-high loading capacity of sorbent nanomaterials, a linear relationship between sorbent content and CO2 adsorption capacity, and high CO2/N2 selectivity.

  • Ruesta Tirado, Gianluca
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för språkdidaktik.
    Transspråkande på SFI: En kvalitativ studie om lärares och elevers användning av sina språkliga repertoarer2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish for Immigrants (SFI) is a study program provided by Swedish municipalities to those who are resident in the country, above the age of 16 and in need to acquire basic skills in the Swedish language. Through this course, students are expected to develop their language knowledge to a level that allows them to participate actively in society as well as communicate freely at work or in other educational environments.

    The aim of this study is to analyse how teachers and students in two different SFI classrooms use their linguistic repertoires to make meaning in oral interaction with each other. Moreover, the study intends to investigate the study participants’ stance of the use of different languages at SFI.

    This has been done with translanguaging as the main theoretical framework. Translanguaging is an approach to multilingualism which takes into consideration multilingual individuals’ lived experiences and language practices as ways for them to make meaning. Through this approach, every language that is represented in the classroom and other semiotic resources are valued as a part of a multilingual person’s linguistic repertoire and can therefore be used in interaction. Because translanguaging has been mainly used in research about primary school and in contexts where English is the target language, this thesis wanted to further explore how translanguaging is used as a pedagogical approach in a Swedish as a second language course where the students are adults.

    Designed as a qualitative research, the study has employed classroom observations and semi- structured interviews as the research methods. First, classroom observations were conducted in the two studied classrooms and were documented by means of field notes and audio recordings. After an initial analysis of all the data collected through the observations, the study participants were interviewed about their stance on the use of multiple languages as a mean of instruction and about their recollections of some critical moments using the stimulated recall technique.

    The study results showed that the teacher in one classroom only used Swedish as the language of instruction, while the teachers in the second classroom drew upon both their and their students’ linguistic repertoires in their teaching. The interview with one of these teachers showed a positive stance towards the use of the different resources from both teachers’ and students’ linguistic repertoires. Students in both classrooms were observed using different languages, such as Swedish, English and their mother tongues, as well as body language and other resources as a way to make meaning in interaction with others and solve tasks. Interviews with students showed though different attitudes towards the use of different languages in SFI-instruction: while some students see positive sides in the possibility of using their other languages during classes, other students expressed an opposition to this

    practice and a preference for the use of Swedish only.