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  • Strømlid, Caroline
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Effects of Behavior Specific Praise Statements.: Teaching three teachers to use BSPS in class.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Being a teacher is not an easy job. There is an increased emphasis on evidence-based methods. Teacher praise is an effective classroom management tool. Behavior specific praise statements is a low intensity teacher delivered strategy where teachers say or write the precise behavior exhibited and how it met an expectation or affected academic/social achievement. This study aimed to increase Behavior Specific Praise Statements among three teachers in Mathematic, English and Social subject studies on student’s social behavior as a group. An intervention consisting of an hour of counseling, post-it notes, and self-registration was given. The teachers decided their own pre-set criteria. Two teachers sat a criterion of three and one teacher sat a criterion of six. The results showed that the intervention had an effect on the teachers use of BSPS. However, one teacher did not reach the pre-set criteria. Practical implications are discussed.

  • Sundell, Jessica
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Psychopathic Personality Traits, Empathy, and Recognition of Facial Expressions of Emotions2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Psychopathic personality traits have been found to be associated with a variety of emotional deficits, including poor facial expression recognition, and reduced capacity to experience empathy. However, research has yielded conflicting results. This study investigated the relationship between psychopathic personality traits, facial emotion recognition, as well as empathy, in a community sample (n = 127), identified as having either low or elevated levels of psychopathic traits. Facial expression recognition was measured using the Hexagon task, which contains morphed facial expressions with two levels of expressivity. Psychopathic traits were assessed using the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory, and empathy was measured with the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. Individuals with elevated psychopathic traits did not display lower accuracy in facial expression recognition compared to the low psychopathic traits group, rather the reverse was found.  Weak to strong negative correlations were found between psychopathic traits and empathy. Zero to weak correlations was found between psychopathic traits and expression recognition, as well as between empathy and expression recognition. The results are compared with similar studies, and implications for the study of psychopathy and emotion recognition are discussed.  

  • Guström, Douglas
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Rädsla för våld och hot om våld, spelar socialt stöd någon roll?2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • Dervisic, Jasenko
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Effects of Burnout Treatmenton Cognitive Functions and onSubjective Well-Being2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Burnout syndrome is increasingly affecting more people in Westerncountries. The question of treatment is important. In this study, we recruitedand investigated 27 burnout patients (16 women, 9 men) and 20 healthycontrols (8 men and 12 women) before and after an intervention. Theintervention consisted of a combination of both cognitive therapy, cognitivebehavioral therapy, individual counseling, and a form of mindfulness grouptherapy (centered around own body awareness) to see whether the treatmenthad an effect on cognitive functions possibly affected by burnout and onsubjective well-being. A battery of neuropsychological tests andquestionnaires were administered to all participants, once before treatment,and once after. All test scores were z transformed and reduced to compositevariables, measuring executive function, verbal memory function andpsychomotor function. No significant interaction effects between group andtest occasions were found. Treatment does not appear to influence cognitivefunctions affected in burnout. However, reports of subjective well-being asmeasured by questionnaires improved after treatment.

  • Borg, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Exploring the time-loss bias: Identification of individual decision rules and heuristics.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has demonstrated that intuitive judgments of timeloss are often biased: overestimated when a high speed is slowed down and underestimated when a low speed is decreased further. Yet, no findings provide cognitive explanations of the bias. The present study (a) collected numerical judgments of time-loss by assigning participants to seven speed matching problems, and (b) collected verbal protocols of participants judgment processes. To identify different decision rules on the individual level, a spectral analysis of judgments was used. The findings show that the ratio rule was most frequently used and similar to the well researched time-saving bias, a ratio heuristic and a difference heuristic could model a majority of the timeloss bias. The validity of the method is supported by a significant correspondence between the spectral analysis measure and the qualitative analysis for consistent participants. By including affect as a third variable, future research could get a closer understanding of the bias effect in real life and consequently develop strategies that can improve road safety. 

  • Urrutia Valdés, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Begränsad framkomlighet på kvinnors bekostnad: En fallstudie utförd på Brunkebergstunneln och David Bagares gata2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Målet med denna studie har varit att visa utmaningarna som befinner sig i processer föreliggande trygghet, även om förutsättningar i den byggda miljön visar motsatsen. Därtill har målet varit att bidra med en kompletterande synvinkel på de utmaningar som finns med trygghet och otrygghet för kvinnor i den bebyggda miljön eftersom det oftast inte förmedlas hur kvinnor verkligen upplever obehag i det offentliga rummet. Genom att använda transect walking som huvudsaklig metod, och fotografering som kompletterande tillvägagångssätt, har det möjliggjorts en djupgående porträttering av de känslor Brunkebergstunneln och David Bagares gata kan förmedla. Metoderna har visat tydliga underliggande mönster i den bygga miljön och de återspeglar både sociala och fysiska möjliggörande och begränsningar. Resultatet har bekräftat många av de teoretiska utgångspunkterna, exempelvis att det tycks finnas ett samspel mellan det sociala och det fysiska som orsakar trygghet och otrygghet. Det har tillika visats att det finns en underordning hos många av kvinnorna som intervjuades. Däribland finns det några som avviker från detta och här går det att tyda hur de troligtvis grundar sina liv i andra sociala kontexter. Vad som befinner sig i överordningen är emellertid en del av framtida studier.

  • Rundelius, Eva
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Blivande psykologers syn på det individcentrerade samhället, internet och sociala medier med avseende på personlig integritet: Future psychologists' view on the individual-centered society, internet and social media in regard to personal integrity2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Personlig integritet är av stor vikt för en sund utveckling av en individs identitet, psykiska hälsa och välbefinnande och påverkas av omgivningen. Personlig integritet är därför en viktig parameter i en psykologs terapeutiska arbete. Syftet med föreliggande kvalitativa studie var att undersöka hur psykologstuderande ser på personlig integritet i dagens individcentrerade samhälle med internet och sociala medier. Sju psykologstuderande på Stockholms universitet intervjuades. Resultatet av en tematisk analys visade att deltagarna ansåg att den personliga integriteten betyder olika mycket för olika individer, men uppfattas påverkas negativt. Möjligheten att behålla en hög integritet upplevs bli allt svårare. Internet tenderar också att påverka identitetsskapandet, särskilt hos unga. Kunskap och dialog framstår som vägen till ett sundare användande av internet. Framtidens psykologer kommer sannolikt att påverkas i sin yrkesutövning av den sänkta integriteten. Studien indikerar flera viktiga framtida forskningsområden och lyfter behovet av att belysa problematiken på psykologutbildningen.

     

  • Bring Larsson, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Öppenhet skapar Öppenhet: Vad tycker unga vuxna med psykisk ohälsa själva har hjälpt dem att må bättre2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Psykisk ohälsa bland unga vuxna i Sverige är växande problem. Problemområdet är komplext med många tänkbara orsaker, vilket försvårar bedömningen av vilka åtgärder som bör tillämpas. Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka vad unga vuxna med psykisk ohälsa själva tyckte hade hjälpt dem att må bättre. Fokuset låg på individen, dess närmaste omgivning och samhället. Fyra kvalitativa intervjuer genomfördes och tolkades med tematisk analys. Deltagarna i studien var 3 kvinnor och 1 man i ålder 25–29 år. Samtliga av deltagarna hade erfarenhet av att föreläsa om sin egen psykiska ohälsa. Via analysen återfanns på individnivå 3 teman: Acceptans, identitet och egna strategier. Från omgivningen framgick 3 teman: Praktiskt stöd, emotionellt stöd och gemensamma strategier. Från samhällets återfanns 3 teman: Information, förståelse och tillit samt hjälpinsatser. En övergripande faktor som var gemensamma för samtliga teman var individanpassning. Slutligen diskuterades det kring fördelar med att inte enbart fokusera på individen vid psykiska ohälsa; det föreslogs istället en helhetssyn som även tog hänsyn till omgivningen och samhället som individen verkade i. Dessutom belystes möjligheten att ändra synen på psykisk ohälsa från reaktiv, där symptomen behandlas, till att istället fokusera på preventiva insatser; att förhindra att symptomen uppstår.

  • Jansson, Louise
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Landsbo, Filip
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    "Det heter ju HBTQ, det finns ett B där också!": Minoritetsstress hos bi- och pansexuella: Upplevelser och hanteringsstrategier2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • Anderstig, Sofia
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Relationen mellan beteendeproblematik hos barn med funktionsnedsättning och psykisk ohälsa hos föräldrar: Kan den medieras av upplevelsemässigt undvikande?2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • Bell, Christina
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Vigström, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Oxytocins påverkan på relationella upplevelser under sensorisk deprivation: och hur dessa modereras av anknytning.2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Med en kombinerad kvalitativ och kvantitativ ansats genomfördes denna experimentella studie för att undersöka om och i så fall hur intranasalt oxytocin påverkar relationella upplevelser under sensorisk deprivation samt om anknytning är en modererande variabel. Resultaten (N=114) visade att intranasalt oxytocin inte påverkade antal eller förekomst av relationella upplevelser i sensorisk deprivation, jämfört med placebo. Det fanns inte heller något stöd för att typ av behandling hade några interaktionseffekter med anknytningsdimensionerna ångest och undvikande. En tänkbar anledning till de uteblivna resultaten kan vara att många deltagare upplevde den sensoriska deprivationen som något obehaglig, vilket kan ha gjort att experimentets design inte fungerade som avsett. Explorativa tester visade att intranasalt oxytocin påverkade förekomsten av negativa kontra positiva/neutrala relationella upplevelser. De som fick oxytocin hade i lägre utsträckning negativa och i högre utsträckning positiva eller neutrala relationella upplevelser under den sensoriska deprivationen, jämfört med de som fick placebo. Studien bidrar till mer osäkerhet kring effekterna av intranasalt oxytocin och motiverar vidare forskning.

  • Morén, Fernando
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Psykoterapi vid en utbildningsklinik: Kan patientfaktorer användas för prognoser om symtomförändring och patientnöjdhet efter behandling?2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Patientfaktorernas bidrag till psykoterapiutfall är ett område som varit föremål för jämförelsevis få studier, trots allt större fokus på patienters agens och perspektiv vid psykoterapi. Det är inte känt vilka patientfaktorer som kan påverka utfallet vid utbildningskliniker. Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka om data gällande demografi och symtom före behandling för 115 patienter vid Linköpings Universitets psykologmottagning kunde användas för prognos av symtomreduktion och/eller patienttillfredsställelse efter behandling. Regressionsanalyser genomfördes för att besvara frågeställningarna. Demografiska och anamnestiska faktorer predicerade inte symtomförändring. Högre grad av komorbid depressivitet predicerade lägre grad av ångestminskning efter behandling, men graden av komorbid ångest predicerade inte graden av depressionsminskning efter behandling. Demografiska och anamnestiska faktorer (att vara i en relation, att inte medicinera mot psykiska besvär) predicerade högre patienttillfredsställelse. Graden av symtom före behandling predicerade dock ej patienttillfredsställelse. Studien bekräftar vissa tidigare fynd och motsäger andra, vilket antyder att utbildningskliniker på viktiga punkter skiljer sig från andra behandlingsmiljöer.

  • Wetterqvist, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Motiverande samtal i interventioner med manliga förövare av våld i nära relationer  Motivational interviews in interventions with male offenders of intimate partner violence2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Seven professionals who worked with men sentenced for intimate partner violence in a psychosocial intervention project in Valencia were interviewed about motivational interviews. Motivational interviews can increase these clients' assumption of responsibility and motivation. The purpose of this study was to seek knowledge about the function of motivational interviews in an intervention with offenders. The method for the study was qualitative using a semi-structured interview. An inductive thematic analysis was used to code and analyze data. The analysis resulted in four themes: 1. Assume responsibility, 2. Motivation - a reason to change and to set a goal, 3. Strategies to motivate and 4. A bond. The respondents described the motivational interviews of use to bond with clients, to resolve their resistance and to deal with difficult feelings towards the clients. As professionals they considered that motivated clients had found a personal reason to change and had formulated a relevant goal.

  • Cronwall, Ernst
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Psykometrisk evaluering av RRS-BR och BSRI i svensk översättning2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Trots internationellt utbredd användning av självskattningsskalor som mäter depressiv ruminering saknas det psykometriskt validerade skalor för att mäta konstruktet i svenskspråkiga sammanhang. Syftet med det föreliggande arbetet var att undersöka validiteten hos självskattningsskalor av ruminativ disposition (Ruminative Responses Scale – Brooding and Reflection) och pågående ruminering (Brief State Rumination Inventory) i svensk översättning. Skalorna besvarades av psykologistudenter (n = 314) tillsammans med mått på depressivitet, ångest, stress samt symtomövergripande psykiska besvär (Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21) och livstillfredställelse (Satisfaction With Life Scale). Båda rumineringsskalorna visade acceptabel intern konsistens men bristfällig överenstämmelse med testade faktormodeller. Efter att problematiska item raderats visade skalorna god överenstämmelse med modellerna och bibehållen acceptabel intern konsistens. Starkare korrelationer med symtomövergripande psykiska besvär jämfört med depression, stress eller ångest indikerade att skalorna mäter en generell maladaptiv typ av ruminering, snarare än en depressionsspecifik form.

  • Johannesson, Livia
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholms centrum för forskning om offentlig sektor (SCORE).
    Qvist, Martin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Ett megaprojekt tar form: Den tidiga planeringen av Nya Karolinska Solna2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten redovisar resultat från en studie av processerna bakom beslutet om att bygga Nya Karolinska Solna och fokuserar därmed på perioden från initiering och inledande planering av NKS-projektet fram till det formella beslutet togs 2008. Det empiriska material som ligger till grund för undersökningen består av policydokument och semistrukturerade intervjuer med 17 nyckelpersoner som haft insyn i processen under de tidiga skedena. Studien visar att det vid millennieskiftet öppnades ett ”möjlighetsfönster” på den landstingspolitiska dagordningen för att bygga ett nytt universitetssjukhus. Detta skedde genom att kostnaderna för de omfattande renoveringsbehoven på Karolinska universitetssjukhuset i Solna blev kända. Ledande landstingspolitiker lanserade då ett koncept med inriktning mot ett litet, högspecialiserat, forskningsdrivet, flexibelt universitetssjukhus i närhet till Karolinska Institutet. Förutom renoveringsbehoven knöt lösningskonceptet an till två andra aktuella problembilder vid tiden. Den första handlade om en styrningsproblematik mellan landstinget och Karolinska sjukhuset där ledningen inom landstinget uppfattade att Karolinska sjukhuset under lång tid hade expanderat okontrollerat. Den andra handlade om excellensforskning och formulerades som att Stockholm hade förlorat i konkurrenskraft inom den medicinska forskningen. Under hela den studerade perioden har det på politisk nivå funnits en betydande samsyn kring lösningskonceptet och inriktningen låses fast redan i uppstartsfasen och ligger sedan fast hela vägen till beslut. Vidare visar undersökningen att den tidiga planeringen av NKS präglades av en prioritering av handlingskraft framför bred förankring av de centrala delarna i konceptet. Detta innebar inte att det saknades tillfällen till dialog och involvering av intressenter. Tvärtom kännetecknas betydande delar av processen av att det på olika sätt öppnades upp för deltagande och aktörssamverkan. Detta deltagande skedde dock utifrån strategiska överväganden vad gäller vilka aktörer som bjöds in och i vilken roll de hade mandat att påverka. Sammanfattningsvis pekar rapporten på tre huvudsakliga lärdomar kring organiseringen av de tidiga planeringsskedena för att utveckla förmågan att planera stora projekt i framtiden. De handlar om vikten av att inte låsa fast de konceptuella ramarna för ett projekt på ett för tidigt stadium, att bjuda in till dialog med berörda grupper för att skapa legitimitet för projektet och att dessa öppningar för dialog organiseras på ett ändamålsenligt sätt.

  • Disputas: 2019-11-08 10:00 Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Stockholm
    Vilhjálmsdóttir, Jóhanna
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    Choreography of a proton pump: Studies of charge-transfer reactions in cytochrome c oxidase2019Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last step of cellular respiration, electrons from metabolites are transferred to molecular oxygen, mediated by the enzyme complexes of the respiratory chain. Some of these enzyme complexes couple these redox reactions to formation of an electrochemical proton gradient across the cell membrane. The proton gradient is used e.g. by ATP synthase to drive synthesis of ATP. 

    The terminal enzyme complex in the respiratory chain, cytochrome c oxidase (CytcO), catalyses reduction of O2 to water. In this process it contributes to maintaining the electrochemical proton gradient by two separate mechanisms: (i) by uptake of electrons and protons from the opposite sides of the membrane (for O2 reduction to water). (ii) by proton pumping across the membrane. Protons used in the O2 reduction, as well as protons that are pumped, are taken up through two different proton-uptake pathways, the D and the K pathways. In addition, a third proton-transfer pathway has been suggested for the mitochondrial CytcOs, namely the H pathway. So far, the molecular mechanism by which CytcO pumps protons has not been determined. 

    In this work we have studied proton- and electron-transfer reactions in aa3-type CytcOs, with the aim of understanding the functional design of the proton-pumping machinery in CytcO. First, we studied structural variants of CytcO from the bacterium Rhodobacter (R.) sphaeroides, where an amino-acid at position 425, previously shown to undergo redox-induced conformational changes, was substituted. The results point to a link between redox-induced structural changes and intramolecular proton-transfer rates through the D pathway. Second, we studied the electron distribution in the “activated” oxidized (OH) state of CytcO, by using an electrostatic complex of CytcO and cytochrome c. We also investigated electron-transfer reactions linked to proton pumping in structural variants of CytcO from R. sphaeroides and the yeast Saccharomyces (S.) cerevisiae, with mutations in the proposed D and H proton-uptake pathways. The data indicate that the S. cerevisiae mitochondrial CytcO uses the D pathway for proton uptake and pumping as the R. sphaeroides CytcO. Lastly, we studied reactions linked to proton uptake and pumping in structural variants of CytcO from R. sphaeroides with alterations in both proton-uptake pathways. The data elucidated the mechanism of proton transfer and gating in CytcO.

  • Disputas: 2019-11-08 10:00 Vivi Täckholmsalen (Q-salen), NPQ-huset, Stockholm
    Silao, Fitz Gerald S.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    The Role of Proline Catabolism in Candida albicans Pathogenesis2019Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that has evolved in close association with human hosts. Pathogenicity is linked to an array of virulence characteristics expressed in response to environmental cues and that reflect the requirement to take up and metabolize nutrients available in the host. Metabolism generates the energy to support the bioenergetic demands of infectious growth, including the ability to reversibly switch morphologies from yeast to filamentous hyphal forms. Amino acids are among the most versatile nutrients available in the hosts as they can serve as both carbon and nitrogen sources, be transformed to key metabolic intermediates, or utilized to modulate extracellular pH via deamination forming ammonia. Of the proteinogenic amino acids, proline is unique in having a secondary amine covalently locked within an imine ring. Accumulating evidence implicates proline catabolism as being critical in the pathogenesis of many human diseases, ranging from bacterial and parasitic infections to cancer progression. This work focuses on the role of proline catabolism on C. albicans  pathogenesis.

    Paper I describes how proline induces filamentous growth in C. albicans. Hyphal growth is induced by an increase in intracellular ATP, a positive regulator of the Ras1/cAMP/PKA pathway. Proline is a direct substrate for ATP production, its catabolism in the mitochondria by proline oxidase (Put1) and Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) dehydrogenase (Put2) leads to the generation of FADH2 and NADH, respectively. Arginine and ornithine induce filamentous growth due to being catabolized to proline. Strikingly, mitochondrial proline catabolism is essential for hyphal growth and escape from macrophages.

    Paper II documents that proline catabolism is an important regulator of reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis in C. albicans. When cells depend on proline as an energy source, the activities of the two catabolic enzymes Put1 and Put2 must operate in synchrony; perturbation of these highly regulated catabolic steps exerts deleterious effects on growth. Cells lacking PUT2 exhibit increased sensitivity to exogenous proline. This sensitivity is linked to ROS generation, likely due to the accumulation of the toxic intermediate P5C. Consistently, a put2-/- mutant is avirulent in Drosophila and in a 3D skin infection model, and hypovirulent in neutrophils and a systemic murine infection model.

    Paper III shows that the enzymatic step directly downstream of Put2, the deamination of glutamate to α-ketoglutarate catalyzed by glutamate dehydrogenase (Gdh2), releases the ammonia responsible for the alkalization of the extracellular environment when C. albicans  cells grow in the presence of amino acids. Cells lacking GDH2 do not alkalinize the medium. Alkalization is thought to induce hyphal growth in cells engulfed by macrophages. Surprisingly, filamentous growth of gdh2-/- cells is not impaired in filament-inducing media, or importantly, in situ in the phagosome of primary murine macrophages. Thus, alkalization is not a requisite for filamentous growth within macrophages.

    The results demonstrate that under physiologically relevant host conditions, proline catabolism is important for C. albicans pathogenesis. Further studies are warranted to determine the applicability of this pathway as a potential target for therapeutic approaches aimed at combating this major fungal pathogen.

  • Disputas: 2019-11-08 13:00 Lilla hörsalen, Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Stockholm
    Larsson, Eric
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Innerstadsgymnasierna: En studie av tre elitpräglade gymnasieskolor i Stockholm och deras positionering på utbildningsmarknaden2019Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    During the early 1990s Sweden underwent extensive educational reforms. Vouchers, freedom of choice, establishment of so-called “free-schools” together with far-reaching decentralization took the place of a highly centralized educational system, with few private schools and a very low degree of differentiation. A stated intention of these reforms was that freedom of choice as well as a greater number of educational options would level the playing field. It was believed that existing regulations hampered socially disadvantaged students and, by extension, opportunities for social and geographical mobility. Educational marketization has advanced and intensified since the 1990s, particularly in metropolitan areas and medium-sized cities. This is evident both in the increasing number of schools and in students commuting to inner city schools, and additionally in the continuous development of marketing strategies. Consequently, marketization has become an institutionalized part of Swedish education, and students and schools must equally adjust to the prevailing competitive conditions. Much of the research in the field has focused on the effects and extension of marketization and how free-schools and school choice affect socially vulnerable areas. However, instead of focusing on schools in socially vulnerable areas, I am interested in the schools at the top of the hierarchy and the elite segment of upper secondary schools in Stockholm. More precisely, the focus of this dissertation has been on how three sought-after and prestigious upper secondary schools position themselves in the educational market, but also how they are affected by and adjust to it. A further aim has been to analyse students’ educational strategies and the socialization processes that arise in their encounter with the schools as institutions. 

    This thesis has been guided by a theoretically inspired ethnography. The ethnographical data were primarily collected during a single academic year and within three separate elite upper secondary schools. The data set consists of observations in classrooms and other school-related spaces (meeting rooms, corridors etc.), interviews and data from official statistics. It also contains a wide array of documents, web sites, school magazines, anniversary books and photographs.  

    Using a Bourdieusian perspective, the analysis shows how both schools and students deploy strategies to cope with and adapt to the hierarchies and struggles of the contemporary educational market. The schools rely on accumulated institutionalized assets such as history, alumni, transfers to prestigious universities and their geographical locations. At the same time, they also need to provide an up-to-date educational setting to stay ahead, and moreover, to be able to collaborate and compete with the other elite schools. The analysis also illustrates why students choose these socially and academically selective schools and how they adjust to the school environment. It is illuminated that these schools are more than formal educational settings, they are places where students negotiate, debate, explore and develop soft skills. Nevertheless, they are also competitive school environments and while some students thrive, others struggle. This becomes apparent when they encounter and act in relation to the different social, symbolic and academic boundaries that exist in each school.

  • Härenstam Nielsen, Felix
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för etnologi, religionshistoria och genusvetenskap, Etnologi.
    Till sägnernas land: Revitalisering av medeltid och folklore i samtida populärkultur2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att visa hur folklore och medeltid revitaliseras i samtida populärkultur. Detta undersöks med hjälp av en genomgång och analys av dataspelet The Witcher 3: Wild Hunt tillsammans med ett urval av mediematerial från dess marknadsföring. Analysen utförs med utgångspunkt i Erving Goffmans begrepp ramverk och nycklar och relateras till uppfattningar om autenticitet, nostalgi, historiebruk och Michael Dylan Foster och Jeffrey Tolberts begrepp folkloresque. Uppsatsen avslutas med en sammanfattande diskussion om hur folklore och medeltid samverkar med varandra och presenteras i dataspelet som medium.

  • Disputas: 2019-11-06 14:00 Gröjersalen, hus 3, Kräftriket, Stockholm
    Dahlström, Petter
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomiska institutionen.
    New Insights on Computerized Trading: Implications of Frequently Revised Trading Decisions2019Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Computerized trading may be viewed as an aspect of modernization of financial markets. This dissertation contains four articles that in different ways examine to what extent the modernization influences the economics of the markets.

    Article 1 investigates transaction costs for large orders which are split up by execution algorithms to be executed in smaller pieces.  I find that the costs associated with not being able to execute all pieces are substantial. These costs can be lowered by speeding up the trading pace but at the expense of higher costs for the successfully executed pieces.

    Article 2 investigates the strategies trading firms pursue in particular cases, known as toxic arbitrage opportunities. We find that trading firms, that otherwise behave as market makers, morph into liquidity takers as toxic arbitrage opportunities emerge. In contrast to common belief, market makers are net beneficiaries of toxic arbitrage, and this finding puts into question whether the amount of toxic arbitrage leads to wider bid-ask spreads.

    Article 3 investigates the information content of limit orders in an alternative way by studying the price impact implied by the depth in the limit order book. I find that the price impact estimates are slightly lower relative to those from a structural vector auto regressive model, but slightly higher compared to those from a price impact regression. Thus, the limit order book implied price impact estimates match those from benchmark models, and this finding contradicts earlier research.

    Article 4 investigates the economic rationale behind limit order cancellations. We put forth a model that explains the frequent limit order cancellations seen in today’s markets, and we test its predictions using a unique data set from Nasdaq. Our results points towards that frequent order cancellations is a benign feature of modern market making, as opposed to different types of manipulative behavior.

  • Bohlin, Sarah Maria Lena
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Teaching Theory and Cultural Production in Urban Modernity: A Comparative Analysis of The Great Gatsby and City of Glass, Informed by Pedagogical Aims2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • Dellmuth, Lisa Maria
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia och internationella relationer.
    Scholte, Jan Aart
    Tallberg, Jonas
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Institutional sources of legitimacy for international organisations: Beyond procedure versus performance2019Inngår i: Review of International Studies, ISSN 0260-2105, E-ISSN 1469-9044, Vol. 45, nr 4, s. 627-646Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article addresses a significant gap in the literature on legitimacy in global governance, exploring whether, in what ways, and to what extent institutional qualities of international organisations (IOs) matter for popular legitimacy beliefs towards these bodies. The study assesses the causal significance of procedure and performance as sources of legitimacy, unpacks these dimensions into specific institutional qualities, and offers a comparative analysis across IOs in three issue areas of global governance. Theoretically, the article disaggregates institutional sources of legitimacy to consider democratic, technocratic, and fair qualities of procedure and performance. Empirically, it examines the effects of these institutional qualities through a population-based survey experiment in four countries in different world regions with respect to IOs in economic, security, and climate governance. The findings demonstrate that both procedure- and performance-related aspects of IO policymaking matter for popular legitimacy beliefs. This result holds across democratic, technocratic, and fair qualities of IO procedure and performance. Disaggregating the results by issue area indicates that a broader scope of institutional qualities are important for legitimacy beliefs in economic governance compared to security governance and, especially, climate governance. These findings suggest that propositions to reduce the institutional sources of IO legitimacy to single specific qualities would be misguided.

  • Tagesson, Stefanie
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för etnologi, religionshistoria och genusvetenskap, Genusvetenskap.
    Hur ett monster blir ett monster: Monsterkroppars tillblivelse och orientering i True Blood2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie behandlar monsterkroppar i HBO:s tv-serie True Blood (2008 – 2014) och deras tillblivelse samt orientering utifrån skevhet, performativ materia och temporalitet. Med utgångspunkt i Sara Ahmeds queera fenomenologi analyseras empirin genom en queer och reparativ läsning i syfte att studera huruvida True Blood som tv-serie kan ha emancipatorisk och subversiv potential. Studiens empiriska omfång utgörs av sju sända säsonger av True Blood, innehållandes totalt åttio avsnitt, och som urval har primärt tre kvinnliga karaktärer följts. Dessa tre karaktärer definieras ha monsterkroppar utifrån den normativa människokroppen. I analysen diskuteras, förutom de tre valda karaktärerna, även andra monsterkroppar. Slutsatsen är att True Blood som text utmanar och ifrågasätter, genom sina monsterkroppar, normativa föreställningar och räta linjer och därmed anses ha emancipatorisk och subversiv potential.

  • Eklund, Julia
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för etnologi, religionshistoria och genusvetenskap, Genusvetenskap.
    Den ojämställda försäkringen: Kvinnors upplevelser av föräldraledigheten2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The distribution of paid parental leave in Sweden today remains unequal despite several political reforms. In addition, previous research shows that this unequal distribution leads to negative health effects for the women who use the majority of the parental leave. The aim of this study is therefore to create an understanding of why women takes out the majority of the paid parental leave. Four interviews have been made with women who have done just that. By analyzing the material through feminist post-structuralism and queer theory, the women’s discursive understanding of their own situation is made visible. Three themes emerge: the first theme shows how an essentialist understanding of the woman is ruling despite the fact that the women on many occasions also demonstrate a constructivist understanding. The second theme highlights a discourse where the women are both expected to take out the majority of the parental leave while also being responsible for an equal distribution, which is impossible to fulfill. The last theme shows how two aspects are made invisible, first, the problems that arise due to an uneven distribution and, second, that an equal distribution of the parental leave is possible. These themes are understood as normalization processes and a way to maintain the power structure between the sexes.

  • Willing, Josephine
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Användning av perspektiv i svenskt teckenspråk hos hörande andraspråksinlärare2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna studie undersöker jag hur hörande vuxna andraspråksinlärare (L2) använder och utvecklar perspektiv i tre olika kategorier: karaktärens, observatörens ochblandat perspektivi svenskt teckenspråk under en tidsperiod på ett år. Målgruppens resultat har jämförts med en kontrollgrupp bestående av döva förstaspråkstalare (L1). Resultatet visar att målgruppen från andra inspelningstillfället till fjärde inspelningstillfället har utvecklat flera perspektiv i alla kategorier. När det gäller språkliga likheter och skillnader mellan målgruppen och kontrollgruppen är en tydlig likhet att alla uttrycker sina imiterande gester på samma sätt. Resultatet visar också att flera informanter i målgruppen använder dubbla referenter i teckenrummet. Det kan bero på att de föredrar observatörperspektivet eftersom de har svårigheter med blandat perspektiv. Kontrollgruppen har istället betydligt högre andel blandat perspektiv än målgruppen.  

  • Ngailo, Edward
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Matematiska institutionen.
    On functions of a Wishart matrix and a normal vector with applications2018Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of two papers which take a critical look on functions of an inverse Wishart matrix and a Gaussian vector. In the first paper, the product expression, of which the inverse of the pooled estimator of the covariance matrix is inverse Wishart distributed and the difference of sample means is multivariate normally distributed, is investigated by exploring the distributional properties via a stochastic representation for both the finite sample case and the infinite sample case under the large-dimensional asymptotic regime. A test theory is developed to study the contribution of population coefficients in the discriminant function. Furthermore, we investigate the performance of the classification analysis based on the discriminant function. In the second paper, the expression of the product of the inverse sample covariance matrix and the sample mean vector with regard to the derivation of moments of the estimated tangency portfolio weights is studied. In particular, higher order central and non-central moments of the elements of such a product are obtained. Moreover, the closed-form expressions of the second, the third and the fourth central moments are provided whose expressions do not depend on special mathematical functions, like the confluent hypergeometric function. Furthermore, we deduce analytical expressions for the mean, the variance, the skewness, and the kurtosis from the higher-order central and non-central moments of the tangency portfolio weights. Finally, the developed results have been successfully applied to real weekly data of eight stocks traded on NASDAQ.

  • Kjell, Linnea
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Lindström, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Emotionellt lönearbete inom socialt arbete: Likheter och skillnader mellan två verksamheter inom det sociala arbetet2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Emotions are a part of social work, and how the employees manage and process them can affect the quality of the services that they provide. It is therefore of importance to explore how social workers can manage and process their emotions and which support and possibilities to do so their organizations provide. This study is based on Hochschild´s theory of emotional labour, using her concept deep acting and surface acting. The aim of this study has been to examine similarities and differences in managing emotions between two different social work practices, one social services unit and one treatment unit. In order to explore this we conducted two focus group interviews, one at each unit. The study showed that both units were affected emotionally by their work and the actions of their clients. The treatment unit appears to primarily use deep acting and the social services unit appears to primarily use surface acting. The need to process their emotions is fulfilled in both places, primarily through collegial support and because they themselves creates the time to process, but the organization does not create any specific space for this.

  • Kahraman-Özvan, Roj
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Socialdemokraternas ideologi: En beskrivande idéanalys av Socialdemokraternas partiprogram och valmanifest under 2000-talet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Under den senaste tiden har det debatterats kring att Socialdemokraterna har kommit närmare högerpartierna i Sverige. Syftet med studien är att undersöka vad Socialdemokraterna har för ideologi idag och om partiets ideologi har förändrats under 2000-talet. Genom att tillämpa en beskrivande idéanalys av Socialdemokraternas valmanifest och partiprogram under 2000-talet, undersöks vilka socialistiska, liberala och konservativa drag det går att se hos Socialdemokraterna idag. Analysen av Socialdemokraternas ideologi utgår ifrån valda kategorier och grundar sig i teoretiska ramverk, som består av de klassiska ideologierna socialism, liberalism och konservatism. Studiens slutsats är att det går att se stora socialistiska drag hos Socialdemokraterna idag, men även vissa liberala och konservativa drag. Undersökningen visar även att Socialdemokraternas ideologi inte har förändrats under 2000-talet.

  • Palmgren, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Matematiska institutionen.
    Categories with families and first-order logic with dependent sorts2019Inngår i: Annals of Pure and Applied Logic, ISSN 0168-0072, E-ISSN 1873-2461, Vol. 170, nr 12, artikkel-id 102715Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    First-order logic with dependent sorts, such as Makkai's first-order logic with dependent sorts (FOLDS), or Aczel's and Belo's dependently typed (intuitionistic) first-order logic (DFOL), may be regarded as logic enriched dependent type theories. Categories with families (cwfs) is an established semantical structure for dependent type theories, such as Martin-Löf type theory. We introduce in this article a notion of hyperdoctrine over a cwf, and show how FOLDS and DFOL fit in this semantical framework. A soundness and completeness theorem is proved for DFOL. The semantics is functorial in the sense of Lawvere, and uses a dependent version of the Lindenbaum-Tarski algebra for a DFOL theory. Agreement with standard first-order semantics is established. Applications of DFOL to constructive mathematics and categorical foundations are given. A key feature is a local propositions-as-types principle.

  • Lundström, Fredrik
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur, Arkeologiska forskningslaboratoriet.
    Secrets of the Spearhead: Developing Continuum Mechanical Simulations and Organic Residue Analysis for the Study of Scandinavian Flint Spearhead Functionality2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is a pilot study, designed to test and develop methods suitable for the study of Scandinavian flint spearhead functionality. The functionality of projectile and lithic point armament has not been studied for almost 30 years in Scandinavia. Meanwhile, methods used to analyse lithic projectiles have developed considerably. However, few of these methods are precise enough to be used in conjunction with Scandinavian stone technological analyses that emphasize the societal aspect of lithic points. Consequently, two methods were chosen that could provide data for Scandinavian research issues: 3D-scanning/continuum mechanical simulations and organic residue analysis. The methods were tested on 6 experimental spearheads. The continuum mechanical simulation generated both visual and numerical data that could be used to create precise functional-morphological descriptions. The data could also potentially be used for projectile point classification. The organic residue analysis revealed promising results for the use of an artefact and activity specific analysis, with a sequential extraction protocol. In unison, the results from both analyses could be used to reveal how spearheads were functionally designed and used in Stone Age Scandinavia, even though there are methodological and technological issues that need solving.

  • Disputas: 2019-11-01 10:00 CCK lecture hall, building R8, Solna
    Sandström, Helena
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum.
    Contouring & planning variability in stereotactic radiosurgery: How to assess and address the weakest link in stereotactic radiosurgery?2019Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) employing one or a few fractions of high doses of radiation has continuously increased due to the technical development in dose delivery and morphological and functional imaging. As the target volume in SRS is usually defined without margins, the treatment success critically depends on accurate definition and contouring of the target volume and organs at risk (OARs) which are commonly situated in the proximity of the target making their precise delineation particularly important in order to limit possible normal tissue complications. Subsequent treatment planning is reliant on these volumes, which makes the accurate contouring a requisite to high quality treatments. 

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the current degree of variability for target and OAR contouring and to establish methods for analysing multi-observer data regarding structure delineation variability. Furthermore, this was set in a broader picture including the importance of contouring studies, the clinical implications of contouring errors and the possible mitigation of the variability in contouring by robust treatment planning.

    A multi-centre target and OAR contouring study was initiated. Four complex and six common cases to be treated with SRS were selected and subsequently distributed to centres around the world performing Gamma Knife® radiosurgery for delineation and treatment planning. The resulting treatment plans and the corresponding delineated structures were collected and analysed.

    Results showed a very high variability in contouring for the four complex radiosurgery targets. Similar results indicating high variability in delineating the common targets and OARs were also reported. This emphasised the need of continuous work towards consistent and standardized SRS treatments. Consequently, the results of the OAR analysis were incorporated in an effort to standardize stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Variations in treatment planning were as well analysed for several of the indications included in the initial study on contour delineation and the results showed a high variability in planned doses including several plans presenting large volumes of the brain receiving a higher dose than 12 Gy, indicating an elevated risk of normal tissue complications.

    The results of the contouring work were, as a last step of this thesis, used as input for a robust treatment planning approach considering the variability in target delineation. The very preliminary results indicate the feasibility of the probabilistic approach and the potential of robust treatment planning to account for uncertainties in target extent and location.

  • Ojakangas, Margareta
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Vad krävs för att elever inom studieväg 1 ska ha goda förutsättningar att genomföra kurserna på Sfi? En kvalitativ intervjustudie av några rektorers uppfattningar om möjligheter och hinder för elever inom studieväg 1 att klara sina studier på Sfi2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Sfi är en skolform inom vuxenutbildningen där det bedrivs undervisning i svenska som andraspråk. Eleverna kan gå tre olika studievägar beroende på skolbakgrund från hemlandet där studieväg 1 är anpassad för elever med ingen eller maximalt fem års skolbakgrund från sitt hemland. Det innebär att i gruppen finns elever som lär sig läsa och skriva för första gången på ett nytt språk. Enlig Skollagen (SFS: 2010:800) har eleven som påbörjar studier på Sfi rätt att avsluta kursen med stöd men vuxenutbildningen där Sfi ingår är undantagna de delar i Skollagen (SFS: 2010:800) som anger särskilt stöd. Läs- och skrivinlärningen ska enligt Kursplanen för Sfi (2018) ske under hela studietiden parallellt med den kurs som eleven studerar. Syftet med studien är att undersöka rektorers uppfattning om vad de anser krävs för att elever med minder än fem års skolbakgrund från hemlandet ska kunna fullfölja sina studier på Sfi. Tidigare forskning har visat att framgångsrik läs- och skrivinlärning för analfabeter bygger på modersmålet, för eleven känt kulturellt och socialt kontexts som gör undervisningen förståelig, meningsfull och motiverande. Metoden som använts för insamling av data är semistrukturerade intervjuer med rektorer från sju olika kommunala Sfi. Intervjuerna har analyserats induktivt med stöd av innehållsanalys. Resultatet visar att rektorerna upplevde att samverkan mellan Sfi, Arbetsförmedling och socialtjänst störs av de olika uppdrag verksamheterna har gentemot individen som försvårar för eleverna att uppnå målen i kurserna. Rektorerna angav att specialpedagogiskt perspektiv och utvecklingsarbete var viktigt för att stödja elevens utveckling. Rektorerna tog även upp det formativa arbetssättet som ett medel att synliggöra elevens progression och kartläggning av behov. För att stödja elevers lärande behöver Sfi, Arbetsförmedlingen och socialtjänsten samverka för att eleven ska uppleva den röda tråden mellan studierna på Sfi och den aktivitet som sker övrig tid. En sådan aktivitet kan vara språkpraktik där eleven utvecklar språket samtidigt med förståelse för olika kulturella och sociala kontext som den möter. För att möta elever olika behov är det önskvärt att Sfi utvecklar inkluderande specialpedagogik enligt Hornbys (2015) teori där eleven får stöd både i grupp och enskilt utifrån elevens behov.     

  • Løcke Zabel, Nicoline
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Planning for just cities?: A study investigating the accessibility for and the characteristics of the vulnerable group on the housing market.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • Quasnik, Vanessa
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    A micro-typological study of Pashai varieties in Afghanistan2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The Hindu Kush region stretches from Afghanistan over Pakistan to North India and is home to what is commonly known as the Dardic languages. The Dardic langagues are a group of Indo-Aryan languages that have in isolation and under contact developed or retained features that can not be found in Indo-Aryan languages outside the region. In the ongoing project ”Language contact and relatedness in the Hindu Kush region” data on over 50 languages has been collected including nine varieties of northwest Indo-Aryan Pashai spoken in west Afghanistan. A cognate analysis and an analysis of phonological, morphological, syntactical and lexical features were conducted. The cognate analysis shows that the Pashai varieties build two clusters, a western group consisting of the three western Pashai varieties and an eastern group consisting of six eastern varieties. The structural analysis shows a more diverse picture with three potential clusters, a group of the two most western varieties, a northeastern group and a central group consisting of one western variety and two southeastern varieties. Some features found to be shared by languages in the region are also found in all Pashai varieties like a subject-object-verb order and postpositions.

  • Verdizade, Allahverdi
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Selected topics in the phonology and morphosyntaxof Laboya: A field study2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates selected topics in the phonology and morpho-syntax of Laboya, a largely undescribed Austronesian language of Sumba island in eastern Indonesia. The study was carried out during nine weeks of field work. The language data is comprised by collected questionnaires and free narratives. The results of the study show that Laboya is a head-marking language, in which grammatical relations are encoded by clitics hosted by the verb. There are two sets of pronominal clitics indexing the subject and object arguments of verbs, as well as the possessors of noun phrases. Definiteness is important for the choice of clitics indexing the verb arguments. In addition, there are several highly frequent clitical elements with various functions. The patterns of their co-occurrence and interaction are accounted for. Negation demonstrates different patterns for main, subordinate and imperative clauses.Relative clauses are post-nominal and introduced by two distinct proclitics for subjective and objective relative clauses respectively. Noun phrases of all argument types are accessible for relativization.The phonology of Laboya is rather typical for Sumbanese languages, having a five vowel system and a contrastive vowel length. There are around twenty consonants, three of which are implosives. The phonology of Laboya differs somewhat from neighbouring languages by the de-prenasalization of formerly pre-nasalized voiced plosives, and by the frequent deletion of word-final vowels /i/ and /u/.

  • Brandtler, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Svenska/Nordiska språk.
    Josefsson, Gunlög & Lundin, Katarina: Nycklar till grammatik. 158 s. Studentlitteratur. Lund 2018. ISBN 978-91-44-11759-12018Inngår i: Språk och stil, ISSN 1101-1165, E-ISSN 2002-4010, Vol. 28, s. 211-214Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Brandtler, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Svenska/Nordiska språk.
    The question of form in the forming of questions: The meaning and use of clefted wh-interrogatives in Swedish2019Inngår i: Journal of Linguistics, ISSN 0022-2267, E-ISSN 1469-7742, Vol. 55, nr 4, s. 755-794Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the meaning and use of clefted wh-interrogatives (I-clefts) in Swedish. It is shown that I-clefts always relate immediately to the topic under discussion and serve to clarify a matter in relation to this topic. They are never used in out-of-the-blue contexts. I argue that I-clefts have the same information structure as typically assumed for declarative clefts: the clefted clause expresses an existential presupposition and the cleft phrase is the identificational focus of the utterance. I further argue that the implication of existence commonly associated with canonical argument questions is weaker (a conversational implicature) than the existential presupposition associated with clefts. The results from an extensive corpus survey show that argument I-clefts (who, what) constitute no less than 98% of the total number of I-clefts in my material. This frequency is linked to the presuppositional status of the cleft construction: in contexts where the denoted event is presupposed as part of the common ground, the clefted variety is the more effective choice, due to its clear partitioning of focus and ground. The ‘cost’ of using a more complex syntactic structure (the cleft) is thus counterbalanced by the benefit of being able to pose a question adjusted to the contextual requirements. As non-argument questions are typically presuppositional irrespective of syntactic form, the gain of using a cleft is less obvious – hence their infrequency in the material.

  • Danckwardt-Lillieström, Kerstin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematikämnets och naturvetenskapsämnenas didaktik.
    Drama i kemisalen: En designbaserad studie av hur kreativt drama kan stödja gymnasieelevers lärande av kemisk bindning2019Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A major challenge for chemistry education is to develop the students' understanding of chemical bonding. In upper-secondary school, the challenges are commonly expressed as difficulties for students to distinguish between intra and intermolecular bonding and to understand chemical bonding in terms of electronegativity. The aim of this thesis is to investigate in what ways creative drama can support the students' learning of non-spontaneous chemical concepts related to electronegativity and chemical bonding. Drama has previously been suggested to support science learning, but studies in science education are limited and the potential of using drama to afford student theoretical reasoning in chemistry needs further scrutiny and design development. In the study which forms the basis of the thesis, socio-cultural theory of learning is combined with multimodal social semiotic analysis. The study was conducted as a design-based study with interventions in three cycles in two schools. The interventions, including the drama activity and students group discussions before and after, were video-and audiotaped. In Article 1, data from cycle 2 was analyzed with respect to what kind of semiotic work students were engaged in. In Article 2, the data from cycles 1, 2 and 3 were analyzed on the basis of thematic content analysis resulting in themes regarding in what ways the students explored electronegativity and chemical bonding and in what ways creative drama afforded collective student agency. The main findings point to the importance of meaning-making through transduction to develop students' conceptual understanding of chemical bonding. In the students' semiotic work, it was possible to create relations between electronegativity and the polarity of molecules and to link the polarity of the molecules to intermolecular bonding in the collective whole class interaction, which in turn is a prerequisite for understanding phase changes. The interaction between the student groups was pivotal for linking the chemistry's sub-micro and macro levels. Further, the results show that the students' bodily formations of molecules in certain groups prompted semiotic work in other groups, which got consequences for the students’ collective agency. The visualization of the students' bodily formations created opportunities for students to pay attention to differences in representations of chemical bonding. A notion called epistemic dissonance is introduced to account for the emergent epistemic tensions/contradictions that become recognized by the students in the creative drama. Emergent epistemic dissonances constitute opportunities for collective work concerning the conceptual relations where students act as learning resources for oneanother. This thesis points to the importance of designing creative drama in such ways that both the material and social structure may support the students' collective agency.

  • Stjernfeldt, Sandra
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för etnologi, religionshistoria och genusvetenskap, Etnologi.
    Det hänger på håret!: Maskulina gestaltningar i Stockholms raksalonger2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie undersöker relationen mellan hår, kön, kropp och rum. Specifikt undersöks hur relationen mellan maskulinitet och hår i form av skägg framträder på tre raksalonger i Stockholm våren 2019. Detta analyseras främst med Sara Ahmeds (2006) begrepp orienteringar och linjer, som beskriver hur vi kroppsligt erfar omvärlden. Judith Butlers (2007) performativa genus är också tolkningsgrundande. Intervjuer med en barberare och kund från var observerad raksalong, har synliggjort informanters strävan efter svåruppnåeliga maskulina ideal, som ett fylligt skägg. Studien berör även nutida historiebruk. Två av tre raksalongers miljö har bidragit till maskulina gestaltningar, orienterade mot nostalgisk känsla av brittisk herrklubb från förra sekelskiftet. Raksalongernas genuina kvalitetsupplevelse, har kontrasterats mot damsalongers sämre service och expertis. Två barberare och kunder eftersträvar dock känslomässig öppenhet, vilket kan sägas ta spjärn från stereotypa maskuliniteter. Detta har möjliggjort omorienteringar mot maskuliniteter med traditionellt sett mer mjuka, feminina värden.

  • Disputas: 2019-10-30 09:00 David Magnussonsalen (U31), Stockholm
    Eklund, Rasmus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Electrophysiological correlates of consciousness2019Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    How does the brain enable us to experience seeing or hearing a stimulus? If a stimulus is repeatedly presented at the awareness threshold, subjects will report that they are aware of the stimulus on half of the presentations. Electroencephalography (EEG) can be used to non-invasively record neural activity as event-related potentials (ERPs). The contrastive analysis of neural activity to trials rated as aware minus neural activity to trials rated as unaware reveals the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC). Research on the NCC in vision has resulted in two ERPs: an early negative difference wave (visual awareness negativity, VAN) and a subsequent late positivity (LP). Visual awareness may be reflected by one or both of these ERPs. However, the contrastive analysis (aware minus unaware) may not isolate the NCC because it arguably compares aware processing with a combination of unaware processing and no processing. In support, previous research that tried to isolate a comparison between aware processing and unaware processing found that LP was the only NCC. However, subsequent replications suggested VAN and LP as NCC. Because of these mixed results, we followed up on these studies in Study I with a preregistered design that manipulated stimulus size. Results showed VAN and LP as NCC. The findings provide evidence for VAN as an early NCC.

    Another main goal of this thesis was to investigate auditory awareness. In Study II, an auditory threshold task was used, and the contrastive analysis revealed an early negative difference wave (auditory awareness negativity, AAN) and LP. These ERPs are comparable to VAN and LP in vision. Because post-perceptual processes related to responding may confound the NCC in contrastive analysis, no-response tasks can be used to isolate awareness-related activity. In vision, a previous study in which the manual response requirement was manipulated showed effects on LP but not on VAN. In Study III, we used a similar task with auditory stimuli at the awareness threshold. Results suggested that AAN and LP are unaffected by the response manipulation. However, the present no-response task may not be optimal for removing post-perceptual processing because subjects need to reflect on their experience even if they do not need to respond manually. Additional analyses that attempted source localization of the AAN suggested that it is generated in auditory cortex.

    From a theoretical perspective, one view of these results is that VAN and AAN reflect local recurrent processing and that this is the neural signature of awareness, whereas LP reflects global recurrent processing that enables reporting. Other views suggest that VAN and AAN merely reflect preconscious processes, whereas LP and global recurrent processing reflect consciousness. The studies described in this thesis do not support one theory over the other but provide robust evidence for early neural correlates of visual and auditory awareness.

  • Roc Roc, David
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Above-ground biomass estimation in boreal productive forests using Sentinel-1 data2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 poäng / 45 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Estimation of biomass has high importance for economic, ecologic and climatic reasons due to the multiple ecosystem services offered by forested landscapes. Measurements that are taken in the field incur personal and economic costs. Nevertheless, biomass surveying based on remote sensing techniques offer efficiency thanks to covering large areas. The European Space Agency (ESA) Sentinel-1 satellite offers promising capabilities for above-ground biomass (AGB) estimation through synthetic aperture radar (SAR) based microwave remote sensing. In this study, experimental AGB estimations based on Sentinel-1 C-band data were produced over the Remingstorp estate (Västergötland County, Sweden) to analyze its performance over boreal productive forests. The obtained measurements were compared against reference values obtained by combining photogrammetric, aerial laser scanning (ALS) and field measurements. Thus, a reference high-resolution canopy height model (CHM) was produced from the difference between photogrammetric digital surface model (DSM) values and ALS digital terrain model (DTM) values. The comparison of CHM observations against diameter at breast height (DBH) field measurements revealed the existence of a vegetation height - vegetation volume relationship for the study species (Pinus Sylvestris and Picea Abbies), which allowed bole volume estimation based on vegetation height values. SAR-based AGB estimates were produced by defining statistical relationships between backscatter intensity and interferometric coherence measurements against reference CHM values. Additionally, evaluation of biomass estimation through interferometric (InSAR) height was possible by comparing against reference photogrammetric DSM. Backscatter signal saturation of C-band at low biomass volumes prevented quantification of biomass but permitted differentiation between forested and non-forested surfaces. Estimation of AGB through interferometric coherence was possible through modeling volumetric decorrelation, which on the contrary prevented biomass retrieval from InSAR height. Due to the given frequency properties at C-band, HV cross-polarized channel was used in all cases for better detection of the canopy layer. Image acquisition under stable conditions was a priority to avoid noise derived from variable dielectric properties, acquisition geometry effects and temporal decorrelation. Hence, image acquisitions under stable hydrometeorological conditions (i. e. stable frozen or dry) and for the lowest repeat-pass interval (i. e. 6-days) were prioritized.

  • Disputas: 2019-10-28 13:00 FP41, hus 1, AlbaNova universitetscentrum, Stockholm
    de Andrés Prada, Roberto
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Physics Department and Fribourg Center for Nanomaterials (FriMat), University of Fribourg, Switzerland.
    Pulsed laser deposition and nanofabrication of mesoscopic devices based on cuprates and manganites2019Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores the growth, the nano-fabrication and the study of the magneto-transport properties of Superconductor/Ferromagnet/Superconductor (SFS) structures from complex oxides such as the high Tc superconducting cuprate YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO) and the ferromagnetic manganites La2/3Ca1/3MnO3 and La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 (LCMO and LSMO), deposited with the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique.The present work has been possible thanks to the collaboration between the “Magnetism and Superconductivity” Group at the University of Fribourg, in Switzerland, and the “Experimentell Kondenserade Materiens Fysik” Group at Stockholm University, in Sweden.

    Earlier, the two research groups in Fribourg and Stockholm had studied SFS structures from YBCO/LaMnO3/YBCO multilayers with 20 nm thick ferromagnetic and insulating LaMnO3 barriers, and obtained signs of an unconventional spin-triplet current across these structures. This finding motivated the present thesis work with a focus on two main aspects.

    Firstly, to explore other candidate materials suitable as barriers and optimise their growth conditions as to maintain a large ferromagnetic moment and thus a high spin polarisation of the charge carriers. Secondly, to study what happens when the thickness of the ferromagnetic and insulating LaMnO3 barrier is reduced well below 20 nm to enable larger supercurrents.

    It has been shown for a series of YBCO/LCMO multilayers that the ferromagnetic moment of LCMO depends critically on the PLD growth conditions as well as on the thickness and even structural details of the YBCO layer on which they are grown. Furthermore, a protocol has been established to grow heterostructures with strongly ferromagnetic manganite layers embedded in thick YBCO layers by optimising the PLD growth conditions and by substituting the bottom YBCO layer with a Co and Ca substituted version of YBCO that has a tetragonal structure (tYBCO) instead of the orthorhombic one of plain YBCO.

    Devices suitable for perpendicular magneto-transport measurements have been nano-fabricated from YBCO/manganite/YBCO multilayers with ~10 nm thick LCMO and LSMO layers as the F barriers. While no clear indications of a spin-triplet component of the superconducting order parameter have been obtained yet, a negative and hysteretic magneto-resistance has been observed that is indicative of a strong ferromagnetic order in the thin manganite barrier. The latter suggests a potential memory functionality of such structures that could be exploited in future spintronic memory devices.

    Moreover, devices have been fabricated on SFS structures with a reduced thickness of the LaMnO3 barrier of 10 nm and 5 nm. These samples were grown prior to the beginning of this PhD work using non optimised growth conditions, and it was found that the ferromagnetic properties of these LaMnO3 barriers are strongly deteriorated. It remains to be seen whether the ferromagnetic order of such thin LaMnO3 layers can be also recovered by using the optimised growth conditions as for LSMO and LCMO.

  • Disputas: 2019-10-28 10:00 David Magnussonsalen (U31), Stockholm
    Zakirova Engstrand, Rano
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Families of young children with autism spectrum disorder in Sweden: The role of culture and intergenerational support2019Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have shown high variability in learning outcomes in response to evidence-based interventions, suggesting a need for individualization of intervention programmes for each child and his/her family. To explain this variability and develop effective intervention strategies research suggested focusing on identification of important contextual factors that might influence the effectiveness of a specific intervention for each child such as family cultural characteristics and characteristics of service settings and systems. The overarching aim of the thesis was to identify and describe proximal and distal environmental factors and processes affecting implementation and provision of interventions and services for young children with ASD and their families within the context of the Swedish support system. Two theoretical models guided the research project: Bronfenbrenner’s bioecological model of human development and Wachs’s multiple-influences model of individual variability. The specific objectives addressed using a mixture of qualitative and quantitative methods were: (i) to investigate the scope of reporting ethnicity and other cultural factors in research publications by Swedish scholars involved in empirical research in ASD in children and youth (Study 1); (ii) to explore perceptions of autism, beliefs about its causes, and treatment preferences expressed by parents of children with ASD from culturally, ethnically and linguistically diverse backgrounds (Study 2), and (iii) to explore grandparents’ perceived needs in relation to having a young grandchild with ASD (Study 3).

    The results of data triangulation across the three studies showed that within the context of the Swedish support system, three proximal environmental factors were associated with identification of ASD in young children and families’ use of services and interventions before and after the child was diagnosed with ASD. These were parents’ belief systems (including perceptions about child’s autism, help-seeking behaviours, and treatment preferences); the role of preschool teachers, and the role of other service providers, such as healthcare professionals. Data triangulation singled out seven groups of distal environmental factors: beliefs of extended family; family cultural, ethnic and linguistic background; family socio-economic characteristics (occupation and education level); Swedish formal support system enacted through various legislative acts; international laws and regulations; information sources (mass media and social media), and conceptualization and clinical definition of ASD (as reflected in DSM and ICD classifications). Findings also highlight the importance of taking into consideration of role of ASD researchers as an additional distal environmental factor affecting implementation of interventions and services for culturally and linguistically diverse children with ASD and their families.

    The results of the studies provide insights into understanding of families’ belief systems about ASD causes, treatment preferences, and needs that are essential for planning and provision of family-level early interventions for children with ASD in the cultural context of Sweden. Implications for practice and future research are discussed. 

  • Junker, Svenne
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholms centrum för forskning om offentlig sektor (SCORE).
    Yngfalk, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholms centrum för forskning om offentlig sektor (SCORE).
    Vägen fram till beslutet om offentlig-privat samverkan för Nya Karolinska Solna2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utifrån ett styrningsperspektiv undersöker rapporten hur frågan kring finansieringen av NKS utreddes efter maktskiftet i Stockholms läns landsting 2006 fram till dess att fullmäktige i juni 2008 beslutade om offentlig-privat samverkan (OPS). Analysen tar fasta på två teoretiska utgångspunkter vad gäller beslutsfattande i organisationer. Den första är att graden av tillträde till organisationens beslutsprocesser och beslutstillfällen påverkar beslutsutfallen. Den andra är att skeenden i organisationer påverkas av styrning. Med styrning avses för det mesta förhållandet mellan överordnade beslutsfattare och anställda i organisationen som bereder besluten. Studien bygger på en kvalitativ analys av utredningar om offentlig-privat samverkan som genomförts, ett 50-tal officiella dokument inom NKS-projektet samt fem kvalitativa djupintervjuer med olika nyckelaktörer inom NKS-projektet. Resultaten visar att OPS huvudsak var en idé som drevs inom landstinget från politiskt håll och att maktskiftet i landstinget 2006 blev avgörande för att OPS-alternativet valdes, trots att det mer eller mindre hade avskrivits i två tidigare utredningar. Här pekar rapporten på betydelsen av hur NKS-frågan kom att organiseras inom landstinget. Den nya politiska ledningen skapade en ny och relativt självständig enhet för NKS-frågan, vilket gjorde att tillträdet till processen minskade. Den nya enheten använde sig också flitigt av konsulter i sitt utredningsarbete. Genom dessa konsulter kom arbetet med upphandlingsfrågan successivt att snävas in. Undersökningen visar också att den ansvariga enheten tidigt anpassade sitt arbete efter politiska signaler som förespråkade OPS. Sådana signaler är svåra att utläsa av formella beslut utan var främst av informellt slag.

  • Yngfalk, Carl
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholms centrum för forskning om offentlig sektor (SCORE).
    Junker, Svenne
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholms centrum för forskning om offentlig sektor (SCORE).
    Allt ljus på OPS: Legitimeringen av offentlig-privat samverkan för Nya Karolinska Solna2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport undersöker och diskuterar användningen av så kallad offentlig-privat samverkan (OPS) i upphandlingen, finansieringen och byggnationen av Nya Karolinska Solna (NKS). Rapporten har ett organisationsteoretiskt perspektiv med fokus på att förstå legitimitets- skapande strategier och praktiker i och kring projektorganisationen i allmänhet och NKS- förvaltningen i synnerhet. Baserat på en analys av dels 28 djupintervjuer med involverade tjänstepersoner, landstingspolitiker och konsulter, dels cirka 500 officiella dokument och inofficiellt arbetsmaterial inom NKS-projektet från landstingsstyrelsens arkiv, visar resultaten från undersökningen att organiseringen av NKS-projektet i landstinget, och särskilt olika managementkonsulters relationer till NKS-förvaltningen, hade avgörande betydelse för legitimeringen av OPS-idén. Inte minst visar rapporten att beslutsblindhet i många avseenden präglat processen för att upphandla och finansiera Nya Karolinska enligt OPS-modellen. Denna blindhet visar sig i att processen att utreda förutsättningarna för en OPS-upphandling samt att besluta om ett OPS-avtal och sedan förhandla fram ett avtal, alltsammans under mandatperioden mellan 2006 och 2010, var forcerad och legitimerades via externa parter med egna kommersiella intressen, som vare sig redogjordes för på ett transparent sätt eller hanterades på ett sakligt sätt i processen. NKS-förvaltningen kom att präglas av elitism, vilket bland annat innebar att anställda inom NKS-förvaltningen upplevde sig varken ha tid eller möjlighet att lyfta och utreda problem, att peka på risker och villkor för OPS-modellen eller att arbeta igenom detaljer i avtalet när det väl tecknades. Centralt i processen med att legitimera OPS var också att påvisa förekomsten av konkurrens, vilket tog sig uttryck i att omförhandla regler och villkor för upphandlingen så att de passade rådande omständigheter.

  • Samuelsson, Moa
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för etnologi, religionshistoria och genusvetenskap.
    Dåtiden i samtiden för framtiden: En studie av ordet kulturarv i dagstidningar under 1900-talet2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här studien undersöks användandet av termen kulturarv i dagstidningar under 1900-talet. Syftet är att visa hur innebörden och användandet av ordet förändras över tid genom att sätta ordet i sitt sammanhang och i relation till sin kontext. Därigenom kan termens utveckling, innebörd, hur det har använts och i vilka sammanhang det använts inom synliggöra dess utveckling. Materialet består av artiklar från fyra årtionden som är jämt fördelade över seklet 1900. Med utgångspunkt i diskursteori och begreppet hegemoni diskuteras och analyseras ordet utifrån de fyra årtiondena men även utifrån fyra aspekter som är framträdande i materialet. Studien avslutas i en redogörande diskussion där förändringar av ordet under 1900-talet presenteras. 

  • Baldwin, Nicholas Charles
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Jack Kerouac’s Poetics: Repetition, Language, and Narration in Letters from 1947 to 19562019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the fame the prolific impressionistic, confessional poet, novelist, literary iconoclast, and pioneer of the Beat Generation, Jack Kerouac, has acquired since the late 1950’s, his written letters are not recognized as works of literature.  The aim of this thesis is to examine the different ways in which Kerouac develops and employs the poetics he is most known for in the letters he wrote to friends and publishers before becoming a well-known literary figure.  In my analysis of Kerouac’s poetics, I analyze 20 letters from Selected Letters, 1940-1956.  These letters were written before the publication of his best-known literary work, On The Road. The thesis attempts to highlight the characteristics of Kerouac’s literary control in his letters and to demonstrate how the examination of these poetics: repetition, language, and narration merits the letters’ treatment as works of artistic literature.

    Likewise, through the scrutiny of my first novella, “Trails” it then illustrates how the in-depth analysis of Kerouac’s letters improved my personal poetics, which resemble the poetics featured in the letters.

  • Riley, Daniel
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen, Latinamerikainstitutet.
    Democracy by Force: The Impact of US Military Intervention on Democracy in Post-Cold War Haiti2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This paper contributes to the current debate on the democratic impact of US military intervention in the post-Cold War era through a comparative study of two interventions in Haiti in 1994 and 2004. Due to a lack of significant academic work on Haitian democratisation, theory could not be found to sufficiently define Haiti as a political entity. Therefore, the state is defined through the concept of plutocratic democracy; a form of sub-tier democracy. Using this concept, an analytical framework is created to measure the impact of US military intervention in the 1994 and 2004 cases studies. Through a comparison of both cases, it is deduced that US military intervention stunts Haitian democratisation because a large proportion of US political actors support the informal plutocracy in Haiti at the behest of democracy. The claims of this study are supported by an extensive literature review, as well as media sources, official reports and communications from relevant actors.

     

  • McBay, Emelie
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kultur och estetik.
    ”Ett arv från mor och mormor”: En undersökning av Lisa Johanssons konst och konstnärskap2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats undersöker tre utvalda offentligt tillgängliga verk av konstnären Lisa Johansson för att försöka utöka kunskapen kring dennes konstnärskap. Detta med särskilt fokus på material och den unika teknik hon använde sig av. För att göra detta tar uppsatsen avstamp i Lisa Johanssons biografi och marxistisk teori samt teori kring textilkonst, kvinnligt arbete och materialitet.

    De frågor uppsatsen ämnar besvara lyder:

    1. Hur förhåller sig Lisa Johanssons verk till konstvärlden respektive slöjdrörelsen?
    2. Hur kan Lisa Johanssons materialval och tillvägagångssätt i skapandet av hennes verk respektive motiv i dem förstås utifrån den kunskap som kan hämtas kring hennes person och samtid?
    3. Hur kan Lisa Johanssons val av material förstås i förhållande till verkens motiv och hur dessa är framställda?

    Uppsatsen uppvisar hur Lisa Johanssons konstnärskap kan tyckas inta en position på gränsen mellan hemslöjd och konst genom sin koppling till tradition, samt visar på de sätt som hennes materialval och teknik kan förstås utifrån hennes biografi. Uppsatsen uppvisar också möjligheten att tolka hennes verk som kritiska gentemot både industrialiserings- och effektiviseringshets samt utskrivningen av kvinnor ur historiska narrativ kring konst. Utöver detta visas även på kopplingarna mellan Lisa Johanssons val av teknik, material och motiv.

  • Disputas: 2019-10-25 10:00 William-Olssonsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Ödalen, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Meteorologiska institutionen (MISU).
    Model analysis of ocean carbon storage and transport across climate states2019Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The ocean carbon cycle plays a fundamental role in the Earth’s climate system, on decadal to multi-millennial timescales. Of the carbon held in the ocean, the atmosphere, and the terrestrial biosphere combined, more than 90% resides in the ocean. Carbon enters the surface ocean through air-sea gas exchange and from terrestrial sources. It is transported to the deep ocean with the ocean circulation and through the so-called biological pump, where carbon is taken up in the surface ocean by photosynthetic organisms that fall down and decompose at depth. This thesis contributes to the understanding of the processes involved in ocean carbon storage and transport. It examines how these processes respond to model perturbations, and how this response influences our attempts to simulate glacial-interglacial fluctuations in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2).

    The thesis investigates the response of the simulated ocean carbon storage, and distribution of the isotopic tracer δ13C, to changes in physical and biological parameters. In the included studies, we use observational as well as proxy records of oceanic properties to evaluate our model simulations. In addition, we use a climate model to interpret proxy evidence of glacial-interglacial changes in ocean δ13C. By using a separation framework, we identify the origin of the carbon in the model ocean, and attribute observed changes to the processes involved.

    The results indicate a strong link between ocean carbon storage and the strength of the global ocean overturning circulation. Stronger circulation leads to less carbon storage through a weakening of the biological pump, and through reduced solubility due to an increase in global ocean average temperature.

    In simulations of glacial climate, we find that biological adaptability to the surrounding nutrient conditions, through a flexible carbon-to-phosphorus ratio (C/P) in ocean photosynthesis, increases the ocean carbon storage compared to simulations where fixed C/P is applied. The biological flexibility improves the model’s ability to reproduce glacial atmospheric CO2. In line with previous research, we find freshwater input to the North Atlantic to be an important factor for reproducing glacial proxy records. The ensemble of simulations that achieve a good representation of glacial-interglacial δ13C indicates a deglacial whole-ocean change in δ13C of 0.28 ± 0.06‰.

    The thesis underlines the importance of the initial state, and the choice of model parameterisations, for the outcome of model ensemble, and intercomparison studies. Finally, it proposes a new method for estimation of ocean carbon transport, and attribution of this transport to different water masses and carbon system processes.