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  • Gestin, Maxime
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    Helmfors, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    Falato, Luca
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    Lorenzon, Nicola
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    Michalakis, Filip Ilias
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    Langel, Ülo
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik. University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Effect of small molecule signaling in PepFect14 transfection2020Ingår i: PLoS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 15, nr 1, artikel-id e0228189Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cell-penetrating peptides can be used to deliver oligonucleotide-based cargoes into cells. Previous studies have shown that the use of small molecule drugs could be an efficient method to increase the efficacy of delivery of oligonucleotides by cell-penetrating peptides either as targeting agents that can be used in formulation with the cell-penetrating peptide and its cargo or as cell signaling modulators that facilitates the cellular uptake of the treatment. This study presents two aims. The first aim is the identification of small molecule drugs that would induce a synergic effect on the transfection of splice correcting oligonucleotides assisted by PepFect14. The second aim is to identify the mechanisms behind the effect of small molecule drugs modulation of cell-penetrating peptide assisted transfection of oligonucleotides. Through an optimized, high-throughput luciferase assay for short oligonucleotide delivery using cell-penetrating peptides, and the simultaneous addition of a small molecule drug library, we show that three small molecule drugs (MPEP, VU0357121 and Ciproxifan) induced an increase in the transfection efficacy of PepFect14 in complex with a short single-stranded oligonucleotide in HeLa pLuc705 cells. These three drugs are described in the literature to be highly specific for their respective target receptors. However, none of those receptors are expressed in our cell line, indicating a yet non-described pathway of action for these small molecules. We show that the indicated small molecules, without interfering with the particles formed by PepFect14 and the oligonucleotide, interfere via still unidentified interactions in cell signaling, leading to an up-regulation of endocytosis and a higher efficacy in the delivery of short splice correcting oligonucleotides in complex with PepFect14.

  • Tapia Balado, Victoria
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    Enfoque por tareas en la enseñanza del español como lengua moderna en el bachillerato en Suecia: Un estudio sobre los pensamientos de profesores de cómo enseñar l expresión escrita2020Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [es]

    El propósito del presente estudio es investigar cómo cinco profesores titulados enseñan la expresión escrita en el bachillerato que aprenden el español cómo una lengua moderna (ELM), explorando asimismo la manera de cómo ellos trabajan con la retroalimentación en producciones escritas. Existen muchos estudios con varios enfoques que investigan la enseñanza de lenguas basada en tareas (ELBT), desde las perspectivas de los profesores hasta investigar la efectividad de dicho método, sin embargo, hasta hoy en día no se han publicado estudios en Suecia que se han centrado en explorar la perspectiva del profesor con relación a dicho método y que al mismo tiempo se enfoca en explorar cómo la retroalimentación como una actividad para aprender la lengua y mejorar la expresión escrita. Partimos de la creencia de que los profesores trabajan en línea con el plan de estudios de Lenguas Modernas del bachillerato, por lo cual nuestro estudio explícitamente explora las perspectivas de los profesores y sus creencias de cómo trabajar con los criterios relacionados con el desarrollo y aprendizaje de la escritura a través de la retroalimentación. Para realizar el propósito de nuestro estudio, la investigación de tipo cualitativa se realizó a través de entrevistas con cinco profesores y los resultados, fundamentalmente descriptivos, han sido interpretados y contrastados con el plan de estudios de lenguas modernas y seis principios principales de la ELBT. Los resultados nos permiten concluir que los profesores sí explican rasgos de su enseñanza que se parecen a los principios fundamentales de la ELBT, además podemos afirmar que ellos comparten la creencia de que se debe crear oportunidades para aprender la lengua, y oportunidades para centrarse en el proceso de aprender.

  • Rojas Portillo, Ana Neyda
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen. Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    Las metáforas conceptuales en español: Un estudio sobre el conocimiento y uso del refrán entre estudiantes ELE bachillerato2020Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • Melldahl, Bernt
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    Tracce italiane nella Svezia medievale: Documenti in italiano  nel Diplomatario Svedese2020Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to introduce the ten documents, written in the Italian language, registered by Riksarkivet, Stockholm. The oldest document being written in 1346 and the last one in 1520, they all belong to the European medieval period. The study provides the texts (sometimes contracted, sometimes partly translated from Latin), the cultural backgrounds to the texts and possible reasons why they are written in Italian. An additional question concerning the existence of people in Medieval Sweden who were able to read and understand Italian texts is discussed. The importance of the extension of the Italian language in the Mediterranean area as well as in the Levant is referred to as an explanation of the use of Italian in the documents. Important motives of the fact that some of the documents are being found in the Swedish archive are the activities of the Swedish Expeditions to the Vatican library as well as the life of Bridget of Sweden, who played an outstanding role in the political, cultural and political life in Europe in the fourteenth century. A short background to the studies at the Studio of Siena of a number of Swedish students is given and also to the foundation of the University of Uppsala. The study is concluded by presenting an evaluation of the ten documents.

  • Disputation: 2020-04-29 10:00 Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Stockholm
    Baronio, Cesare Michele
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    Computational infrared spectroscopy: Calculation of the amide I absorption of proteins2020Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Infrared spectroscopy is an important technique that allows to retrieve structural information from the analysis of absorption spectra. The main application of infrared spectroscopy within life science is the study of the amide I band, which is correlated with protein backbone conformation and, consequently, with the secondary structure of proteins. However, band assignment and interpretation of the infrared spectra is not straightforward.

    Therefore, several simulation methods were developed to guide the interpretation of experimental amide I spectra. In this thesis, one of these methods is a normal mode analysis, which is based on the evaluation of the intrinsic vibration of the amide groups and the interactions between them. The calculation considers several effects: transition dipole coupling, nearest neighbor interaction, the local environment effect and the effect of hydrogen bond. From the normal mode analysis, it is possible to obtain the simulated infrared spectrum and the contribution of each amide group to a specific spectral range of the spectrum.

    The aim of this thesis and of the included publications is to explain this approach, to improve it and to show its potential. Results from simulations were compared with experimental data for different proteins of interest: amyloid-β oligomers and β-helix proteins. Simulated and experimental infrared spectra showed similar bands. Simulations also provided additional conclusions: they confirmed the random mixing of amyloid-β peptides in oligomers; they suggested that amyloid-β peptides contribute at least two strands in the structure of the oligomers; they revealed that the high wavenumber band, typical of antiparallel β-sheets, can be caused by other secondary structures, but not by parallel β-sheets. In addition, to verify and to improve the accuracy of this approach, simulation results were also put in a direct comparison with results from density functional theory calculations. From this comparison, a new optimal set of parameters for the calculations is suggested.

  • Disputation: 2020-04-29 13:00 Stockholm
    Senkondo, William
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Modelling water resources despite data limitations in Tanzania’s Kilombero Valley2020Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Water is a vital resource for survival on the Earth. Sustainable management of water resources is therefore required for the wellbeing of present and future generations. A cornerstone of water resources management is scientific guidance supported by relevant data (in terms of quantity and quality). Most developing regions, where such guidance is crucial due to the intimate connection between natural resources and livelihoods, unfortunately face data limitations. This thesis aims to develop systematic approaches for informing water resources management in data limited regions. Specifically, this work targets Tanzania’s Kilombero Valley (KV) basin as an exemplar of a data limited region undergoing social-economic development through expansion and intensification of agriculture and other water-related interventions. Through a synthesis of lessons learned from the ongoing evolution of hydrological modelling development for water resources management in the Eastern Africa, several promising approaches were identified that could potentially be robust despite data limitations across the region. Putting these approaches into practice, recession analysis based on non-continuous discharge data in conjunction with estimations of the actual evapotranspiration (ET) using remote sensing techniques provided a basis to improve process understanding and help characterize the hydrological systems in the KV basin. This understanding translated into more-informed parameter estimation and improved accuracy when integrated into the development of a hydrological modelling framework using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model. The modeling framework established for KV has potential to be used as tool for estimating impacts of water resources management strategies relative to future anthropogenic pressures and climatic changes. What is even more promising, is the possibility to derive scientific guidance to assist water resources management in a data limited region through implementation of an integrated workflow which employs state-of-the-science approaches. The methodological framework for model development adopted in this thesis could be applied in any data limited region facing similar challenges as those of the KV basin.

  • Hörberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    Ekström, Ingrid
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Sandöy, Camilla
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    Lundén, Peter
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    Olfactory Influences on Visual Categorization: Behavioral and ERP Evidence2020Ingår i: Cerebral Cortex, ISSN 1047-3211, E-ISSN 1460-2199Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Visual stimuli often dominate nonvisual stimuli during multisensory perception. Evidence suggests higher cognitive processes prioritize visual over nonvisual stimuli during divided attention. Visual stimuli should thus be disproportionally distracting when processing incongruent cross-sensory stimulus pairs. We tested this assumption by comparing visual processing with olfaction, a “primitive” sensory channel that detects potentially hazardous chemicals by alerting attention. Behavioral and event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were assessed in a bimodal object categorization task with congruent or incongruent odor–picture pairings and a delayed auditory target that indicated whether olfactory or visual cues should be categorized. For congruent pairings, accuracy was higher for visual compared to olfactory decisions. However, for incongruent pairings, reaction times (RTs) were faster for olfactory decisions. Behavioral results suggested that incongruent odors interfered more with visual decisions, thereby providing evidence for an “olfactory dominance” effect. Categorization of incongruent pairings engendered a late “slow wave” ERP effect. Importantly, this effect had a later amplitude peak and longer latency during visual decisions, likely reflecting additional categorization effort for visual stimuli in the presence of incongruent odors. In sum, contrary to what might be inferred from theories of “visual dominance,” incongruent odors may in fact uniquely attract mental processing resources during perceptual incongruence.

  • Delphin, Emelie
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Seasonal changes in clupeids maturation constrains the food quality of chicks of the common guillemot (Uria aalge): A case study of a potential mismatch, from the perspective of the common guillemot chicks on Stora Karlsö, the Baltic Sea2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 40 poäng / 60 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Common guillemots are integral elements of the Baltic Sea marine ecosystem. They possess life-history characteristics such as relatively long lifespan, quite low fecundity resulting in only one egg per breeding season – characteristics that make them particularly vulnerable to even small changes in the environment. Higher weight of their single chick, gained during the breeding season, ensures higher survival rates for Guillemot fledglings. Hence, during the breeding season not only quantity but also quality of prey within the foraging area are central for their reproduction success.

    Objectives: This study applies the match-mismatch hypothesis on a predator-prey relationship by investigating common guillemot chicks’ fledgling weight on Stora Karlsö in relation to their key prey, sprat and herring. Maturity in sprat and herring were used as an indicator for fitness and spawning abundance of food quality for parental guillemot for raising chicks’.

     

    Data: The study used data of chicks’ weights when leaving their nests from common guillemots (40,936 chicks) collected between 2007 and 2017 from the Swedish Baltic Sea Bird Project. Data of sprat and herring gonadal maturity was obtained from the PLANFISH project and inspections of catches from the commercial and industrial fisheries.

     

    Method: Common guillemot chick fledgling weights between years were analysed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Maturity in sprat and herring were used as a proxy to estimate spawning state and predict the peak day of highest abundance of potential spawners. A Generalized Additive Model (GAM) was used to predict the peak day of highest abundance of potential spawners. For estimating match-mismatch lags, a cross-correlation function analysis (CCF) was conducted to analyse chick fledgling weight in relation to sprat and herring’s maturity states (fitness).

     

    Results: The study showed that common guillemot chicks have decreased in weight annually between 2002 and 2017. The results further show that it is obviously more advantageous for chicks to leave their breeding ledge during the first part of the fledgling period (end of June) since chicks that leave their breeding ledge during the end (mid July) of the period showed a lower mean weight. The statistical analysis also showed that chicks had a significant weight loss of approximately 3 % between all pairwise compared consecutive years (2009-2017). The analysis of sprat and herring maturity (fitness) resulted in strong inter-annual variation, and analysis showed that intra-annual fish maturity has an influence on chick weight. Cross correlation analysis revealed a significant positive correlation lag between herring mean maturity and chick mean weight during the fledgling period at day 0-2 days before leaving nest and a significant negative correlation at lag days 3-20 (approximate time period of hatching to young chick) but a negative correlation between sprat mean maturity and chick fledgling weight at lag 5-9 days after leaving nest and a significantly positive correlation between day 9-19 (approximate date of hatching). These results indicate that sprat might be the essential and necessary food during the chicks’ first period while herring comes to play a more vital role in the later.

     

    Conclusion: This study shows that breeding success in common guillemots not only strongly depends on quantity of essential fish prey species but also on the food quality (fitness) of the fish prey species. Moreover, chicks’ weight, and thus their potential later survival, is strongly dependent on the right timing of abundance of the developed maturity stages of the two relevant fish species, sprat and herring, during the 21 days of the breeding season. The study thus helps to clarify final causes and consequences of seasonal phenological changes in species’ lifehistory traits and the effects on other species.

  • Disputation: 2020-04-27 10:00 De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Posselt, Malte
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap.
    Transformation of Micropollutants in the Hyporheic Zone2020Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Hyporheic zones (HZs) are reactive transition regions between rivers and aquifers which are thought to play an important role in the attenuation of micropollutants. Micropollutants are chemical substances such as pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals or personal care products that are found in trace concentrations in the environment and that can be harmful to organisms. This thesis aimed to narrow the knowledge gap on the environmental fate of wastewater-derived polar organic micropollutants in the aquatic environment, with a specific emphasis on the hyporheic zone.

    In Paper I an efficient workflow was developed for the in-situ characterization of polar organic micropollutants and their transformation products (TPs) in the hyporheic zone at high spatial and temporal resolution and with minimal disturbance of natural flow paths. A low volume sampling device was combined with a newly developed high throughput-direct injection-UHPLC-MS/MS method. Application in the field revealed significant differences in micropollutant concentrations that varied over small time- and spatial scales. In Paper II the results of a comprehensive field study performed in the urban lowland river Erpe in Berlin, Germany, are presented. The work provided data on in-situ attenuation behavior of 24 micropollutants and TPs, along with novel insights into the spatially- and temporally varying environmental factors which play a major role in controlling in-stream attenuation of micropollutants. Paper III describes a novel, multi-flume experiment designed to investigate the influence of hyporheic exchange flow and sediment bacterial diversity on dissipation half-lives of 31 micropollutants and associated TPs. Attenuation and transformation of most substances increased significantly with bacterial diversity; fewer compounds responded to both bacterial diversity and hyporheic exchange flow. In addition to the discovery of several novel TPs, a number of bacterial strains were identified that might be associated with micropollutant degradation. In Paper IV the fate of metformin in the hyporheic zone was examined using large-scale (100m) recirculating flumes to perform realistic yet well-controlled experiments. In addition to determining dissipation half-lives in surface and pore water, the formation of novel TPs was investigated via suspect screening and bacterial communities were characterized using microbiological analyses. Data from these experiments indicate that dunes and macrophytes promote hyporheic exchange flow and create reactive environments with steep and varying biogeochemical gradients, which enhanced the degradation of metformin.

    Collectively, the fate of 33 parent compounds and 37 transformation products was assessed in field and mesocosm experiments described in this thesis. Additionally, 29 suspected TPs were tentatively identified. Higher bacterial diversity in the hyporheic zone and more intense hyporheic exchange flows significantly enhanced biodegradation of organic micropollutants. A number of known and novel TPs were discovered under diverse conditions, many of which showed signs of environmental persistence, providing further evidence for inclusion of TPs in contaminant risk assessments and regulatory frameworks. This work highlights the importance of considering both small- and reach-scale temporal and spatial variability for a mechanistic understanding of attenuation in in-stream studies.

  • Näsman, Frida
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för etnologi, religionshistoria och genusvetenskap.
    Stockholms livescenkultur: En etnologisk studie av vad Stockholms mindre och mellanstora livescener betyder för aktiva besökares meningsskapande2020Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats studerar människors kopplingar till Stockholms mindre och mellanstora konsertlokaler, i syfte att undersöka vilka betydelser dessa lokaler har för aktiva besökares meningsskapande. Materialet består utav sex semistrukturerade intervjuer med två tjejer och fyra killar i åldrarna 21–37 som frekvent vistas i stadens konsertlokaler, samt en observation. Det teoretiska ramverket som använts för att analysera empirin innefattar Sara Ahmeds fenomenologiska teoretiseringar om orienteringar och linjer, i kombination med Pierre Bourdieus habitusbegrepp. Resultatet jag fick visade att individerna ser lokalerna som viktiga mötesplatser som möjliggör deras livsstil och ger dem ett sammanhang där de känner sig orienterade. Nedstängningarna av dessa resulterar i oro och desorientering.

  • Rosati, Eleonora
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska fakulteten, Juridiska institutionen, Institutet för immaterialrätt och marknadsrätt (IFIM).
    US Court Rules that Unlicensed Reproduction of NBA Players' Tattoos in Their Videogame Avatars is not a Copyright Infringement2020Ingår i: Journal of Intellectual Property Law and Practice, ISSN 1747-1532, Vol. 15Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this summary judgment opinion, the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York (SDNY) ruled that the unlicensed reproduction of three NBA players’ tattoos in their videogame avatars: (1) was to be regarded as de minimis; (2) was subject to an implied licence from the tattoo artists to the players; and (3) qualified as fair use under §107 of the US Copyright Act.

  • Wahlström, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för språkdidaktik.
    Digital textåterkoppling på SVA Grund2020Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessment is a central part of the teaching praxis and a formative type is regarded valuable for student learning. Still, there is a gap in knowledge in how written assignments by Swedish as a second language students is assessed formatively. The gap in knowledge is even bigger when the corrective feedback is given in digital platforms. The purpose with this study was therefore to investigate the teacher’s feedback on written assignments in a learning management system called Lunis. The texts were written by four adult students at SVA Ground (Swedish language aquision for adults). The feedback was analyzed quantitatively according to feedback types, amount of feedback, and on which feedback type the student revised correctly or incorrectly. The study also included a qualitative approach. Two of the four students were interviewed with TAP (think aloud protocol) and two with retrospective interviews to find how they think, act and resonate about the feedback. In addition, the teacher was interviewed about her view on feedback in general and on specific case investigated in the present study. The result showed that students and the teacher regard feedback as a learning opportunity. The teacher responds quickly to the written assignments and gives feedback on half of all observed errors. The students respond to 95 % of the given feedback and revise 84 % of them correctly. Explicit feedback type dominates when its directed to grammar and metalinguistic dominate when the teacher marks the text content. The majority of all feedback is explicit and this form also provides the highest correct student revision. The metalinguistic type gives least correct revisions but is anyhow understood by the students. It may be concluded from the results of the present study that the feedback is effective, the student appreciate feedback on the grammar and is able to reasoning metalinguistic about the feedback even when they revise it incorrect.

  • Mannish, Scarlett
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för språkdidaktik.
    Lived Experiences of a High-Status Language in a Low-Status Medium: Swedish Bilingual Students’ Investment in English Mother Tongue Instruction2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sverige är ett av få länder som erbjuder modersmålsundervisning till elever i grundskolan med ett annat modersmål än svenska. Traditionellt har forskningen kring modersmålsundervisning fokuserat på positiva aspekter trots de logistiska och ideologiska hindren i dess utförande som resulterat i ämnets låga status. Denna studie undersöker dikotomin som uppstår mellan engelska som ett globalt språk med hög status och engelska inom modersmålsundervisningen med låg status, och belyser rollen som den engelska modersmålsundervisningen spelar i en miljö som redan erbjuder gott om möjligheter för engelskspråkig utveckling. Genom att studera modersmålselevernas erfarenheter av engelskundervisning avslöjas anledningarna till deras Investering, dvs. varför de söker ytterligare engelskundervisning. Forskningsmaterialet samlades in genom blandade forskningsmetoder bestående av fyra djupintervjuer och en enkät med elever i slutet av årskurs nio på grundskolor i Stockholm. Den presumtiva idén att elever drivs av möjligheten till ett lättvunnet betyg visas vara en del av en mycket större bild som representerar helheten av studenternas anledningar till att delta i engelskamodersmålsundervisning. Kvantitativa och kvalitativa data visar att Investering i modersmålsklasser är dynamiskt och relaterat till förändringar i studentens liv utanför klassrummet och nära knutet till elevernas uppfattning av obligatoriska engelskalektioner som otillräckliga samt en önskan om att utveckla en engelsktalande identitet där engelskaläraren är en bidragande faktor. Eleverna är också medvetna om det kulturella kapital som en skicklig engelsktalare gynnas av.

  • Rydholm, Karin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för språkdidaktik.
    "Ursäkta mig, snälla!": Artighet i svenska språket. Ett huvudbry för nyanlända andraspråksinlärare.2020Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka hur artighet i språk kan ha betydelse för andraspråksinlärares motivation och attityd till språkinlärandet. Det faktum att artighet inte finns kodifierat i det svenska språket och att vi sedan en längre tid har anammat du-tilltalet i Sverige, kan ställa till problem för många grupper av andraspråksinlärare som är vana vid att ha språkliga verktyg för artighet i kommunikationen med andra. Genom att utföra en rad i låg grad strukturerade kvalitativa intervjuer med SFI-elever från Latinamerika, har jag försökt få klarhet i hur pass viktigt det är för dem att kunna uttrycka sig artigt på även sitt andraspråk. Med en narrativ ansats har jag tolkat intervjupersonernas berättelser om hur de upplever det svenska språkets avsaknad av artighetsformler och tilltalstitlar och hur de förhandlar för att vidmakthålla takt och identitet i den nya sociokulturella kontexten.

  • Disputation: 2020-04-24 10:00 hörsal 11, hus F, Stockholm
    Robertsson, Magna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Personligt mod: Om krigsdekorationer som mjuk normstyrning under insatsen i Afghanistan åren 2008-20122020Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    During the 2000s, Sweden has pursued an active foreign and security policy. This has meant participation in several international military operations and has left many Swedish soldiers and officers with combat experience. Thus, the Swedish parliament decided in 2010 on a political reform of the veterans area, with more extensive societal support, war decorations to express the government recognition of personal sacrifices made in the service and a new medal for courage in combat. Considered as a reward system, it functions as an immaterial and emotionally established incentive, in contrast to the financial and bonus reward systems that are otherwise common.

    From a governance perspective, this setting is fundamentally interesting. The complexity of military operations and the demands for efficiency in armed combat are in contrast with the democratic state's need to guarantee the rule of law, even from a distance and under difficult conditions. Traditional government is not sufficient because the situation is characterized by high contextual uncertainty and therefore requires more situational adaptive control. Organizing in a professional model implies autonomy for military officials, and this means that there is a form of gap in terms of civilian control.

    In the dissertation, a concept and an analytical model are formulated to understand this phenomenon, entitled soft norm governance, that also form one of the main results. The model combines four levels of analysis to describe the dynamics of the steering mix: organizational metagovernance, rule control, policy work and professional ethics. One conclusion is that professional ethics has a two-way function in the chain of implementation steering, both as a decisive factor for concrete decision-making, but also as an objective for the government’s soft norm governance. Thus, this control gap does not mean absence of control, but that other value-based norm systems govern our actions. In this way, soft norm governance also reaches beyond the scope of the law.

    The theoretical framework is metagovernance, the idea that the modern state is steering at a distance and with subtle methods, such as by organizational measures. It opens for the importance of soft law, social norms and ethics in governmental steering. The case study of the veterans policy and medal of courage contributes empirically to the specification of these theories. Furthermore, new institutionalism adds an explanatory value with a rationality of action for the officials, a so-called logic of appropriateness based on the professional role and on adaptation to the situation at hand and to applicable rules. Theoretically, the thesis contributes by supplementing with a logic of values, which takes into account the profession's ethical and moral rationality of action, which is particularly important in situations such as armed conflict.

    The methodological approach combines a structural statistical perspective with a qualitative and understanding-oriented perspective and can, with the support of the analytical model, illuminate both pattern and function. The material base is a total selection from the medal preparation of eight contingents in Afghanistan during the years 2008-2012, i.e. FS16-FS23. It consists of the archive material from the nominations as well as in-depth interviews with responsible commanders at the international units and at the national headquarters, including the Commander-in-Chief.

  • Disputation: 2020-04-24 13:00 Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Stockholm
    Forsberg, Björn
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik. Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory.
    Fast and reliable alignment and classification of biological macromolecules in electron microscopy images2020Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last century, immense progress has been made to charter and understand a wide range of biological phenomena. The origin of genetic inheritance was determined, showing that DNA holds genes that determine the architecture of proteins, utilized by the cell for most functions. Mapping of the human genome eventually revealed around 20000 genes, showing a vast complexity of biology at its most fundamental level.

    To study the molecular structure, function and regulation of proteins, spectroscopic techniques and microscopy are employed. Until just over a decade ago, the determination of atomic detail of biomolecules like proteins was limited to those that were small or possible to crystallize. However recent technological advances in cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) now allows it to routinely reach resolutions where it can provide a wealth of new information on molecular biological phenomena by permitting new targets to be structurally characterized.

    In cryo-EM, biological molecules are suspended in thin vitreous sheet of ice and imaged in projection. Collecting millions of such images permits the reconstruction of the original molecular structure, by appropriate alignment and averaging of the particle images. This however requires immense computational effort, which just a few years ago was prohibitive to full use of the image data.

    In this thesis, I describe the development of fast algorithms for processing of cryo-EM data, utilizing GPUs by exposing the inherent parallelism of its alignment and classification. The acceleration of this processing has changed how biological research can utilize cryo-EM data. The drastically reduced processing time now allows more extensive processing, development of new and more demanding processing tools, and broader access to cryo-EM as a method for biological investigation. As an example of what is now possible, I show the processing of the fungal pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC), which poses unique processing challenges. Through extensive processing, new biological information can be inferred, reconciling numerous previous findings from biochemical research. The processing of PDC also exemplifies current limitations to established.

  • Disputation: 2020-04-24 13:00 Lilla hörsalen, Naturhistoriska riksmuséet, Stockholm
    Wahlberg, Emma
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Molecules and morphology in Empidoidea (Diptera): Phylogenetic analysis and taxonomical implications2020Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The classification and evolutionary history of the superfamily Empidoidea (Diptera) have been far from straightforward subjects. Morphology based phylogenies of the superfamily have been unable to answer many questions raised by both systematists and biogeographers, as well as ecologists and ethologists, partly due to morphological modifications and adaptations difficult to interpret. In paper I a phylogeny is presented which was the first published that was based on molecular data with multiple loci and with high support. We sampled several groups never included in molecular analyses before and were able to resolve several relationships and recover several species groups that were previously unplaced. Atelestidae is confirmed as the sister group to remaining families. Hybotidae is sister group to Dolichopodidae, Ragadidae stat. n. and Empididae. Species included in the family Brachystomatidae are found to be nested within Empididae and Brachystomatidae is therefore lowered to subfamily. The erection of Ragadidae to family, sister to Empididae, is based on genetic distances between the present families and subfamilies. Paper II deals with the genus Wiedemannia (Empididae: Clinocerinae), also using molecular data but also put into a spatial and temporal context with molecular dating. The subgenera are found to be non-monophyletic and are therefore suggested to be rejected as accepted names. The dated tree, based on molecular data and known fossil records, suggests an initial diversification 50 million years ago followed by further diversification events that may be linked to changes in sea levels on a global scale. We also provide a Species Distribution Model map suggesting areas of potential hot spots as based on climatic variables. Following the results in paper I, the internal relationships of Ragadidae are revised in paper III. The lack of DNA data, partly caused by few available specimens and the rarity of some species, motivated a morphological approach together with a maximum parsimony analysis to investigate the monophyly of species groups and genera. The flower feeding genera Iteaphila and Anthepiscopus are found to form a distinct monophyletic clade together with Hormopeza. The internal relationships are revised, updated diagnostic characters are provided as well as a determination key to the genera. In paper IV we deal with the taxonomical issue of Chvalaea sopianae and C. rugosiventris, two species in the family Hybotidae. Both species were originally described from single female specimens.  However, the sex of C. rugosiventris was mistaken in the original description, and the differential characters of the two species are based on sexual dimorphism. The two species are synonymized and the male of C. rugosiventris redescribed. We also provide additional geographic data on the hybotid species Allanthalia pallida and Leptodromiella crassiseta. The final paper, paper V, presents records of new species to Sweden and new records within Sweden of a large number of species of Hybotidae, Empididae and Ragadidae. We also provide a substantial addition of genetic barcodes of the Swedish fauna, shared publicly in The Barcode of Life Database. This increases the coverage of Swedish taxa in the database with 71% for Empididae and 13% for Hybotidae.

  • Disputation: 2020-04-24 13:00 David Magnussonsalen (U31), Stockholm
    Syrjänen, Elmeri
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    The effects of valenced odors on facial perception2020Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    We use our senses to navigate in the world. An important property of olfaction, the sense of smell, is to enable us to approach beneficial things, and to avoid what might be toxic or otherwise harmful in our environment. Other peoples’ behaviors are also paramount for our survival. Thus, we use our vision to decode their internal states from their facial expressions. For many modalities, multiple senses are integrated to enhance sensory percepts. In this thesis, I investigated how valenced odors affect the perception of facial expressions. Specifically, using a multi-method approach, I studied the integration of unpleasant and pleasant odor contexts on odor-congruent and incongruent facial expressions, disgusted, and happy faces.

    The effects I am interested in are those that valenced odors have on face perception, attention to faces, and the cortical processing of faces. To answer these questions, I used questionnaires, ratings, EEG, and behavioral measures such as reaction times. Across studies, ratings of face valence are affected in the direction of the odor valence (e.g., faces are rated more negatively in the context of an unpleasant odor). Also, overall, the results in my studies indicate that faces are perceived as more arousing in valenced odor contexts; however, these effects occur regardless of facial expression.

    In study 1, I found that valenced odors and facial expressions are integrated at an earlier time-frame than previously thought. Specifically, I found that the N170 event-related potential component (ERP) to disgusted facial expressions was lower in amplitude in the unpleasant odor condition than in the pleasant odor condition. This effect was not present for happy faces in the N170 component. An unpleasant odor might thus facilitate the processing of threat-related information.

    In study 2, I found evidence that odors, in general, did not affect the recognition speed of facial expressions that changed from neutral to disgusted or happy over 3 seconds. Also, I found robust evidence against congruency effects in facial expression recognition reaction times (RTs). The results indicated that faces overall were recognized faster in the unpleasant odor condition. Further, these results were not qualified by individual differences in body odor disgust. Thus, unpleasant odors might facilitate the recognition of facial expressions regardless of trait body odor disgust.

    In study 3, I studied whether valenced odors directed spatial attention toward odor-congruent facial expressions in a “dot-probe” task. I found decisive evidence that odors do not affect attention towards disgusted and happy facial expressions, casting doubt on the dot-probe experiment. However, I found that probes were detected faster as a function of time-on-task in the unpleasant odor condition. I hypothesized that this effect might be due to maintained vigilance in the presence of an unpleasant odor and task fluency effects.

    In summary, the results indicate that valenced odors affect facial perception. Generally, faces are perceived as more valenced and arousing in odor contexts. Further, an unpleasant odor may decrease RTs; however, this effect seems to be irrespective of the target type. Also, odor face integration may happen earlier than thought; yet, evidence in the literature is mixed, and more research is needed. The methods I have used may increase transparency and robustness of published results, and help accelerate knowledge development in this field of research.

  • Disputation: 2020-04-24 13:00 Stockholm
    Ketzer, Daniel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi. Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany .
    Land Use Conflicts between Agriculture and Energy Production: Systems Approaches to Allocate Potentials for Bioenergy and Agrophotovoltaics2020Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The developments towards a bio-based economy and a renewable energy-based power supply require thorough assessments of feedstocks and frameworks. In the past, political targets for increasing shares of renewable energies for combatting climate change have triggered direct land use changes (LUCs) and even indirect land use changes (iLUCs). As a consequence, residues from grassland and agriculture, which are not used for other purposes, got into the focus of renewable energy policies. Despite the technical feasibility, a general approach for assessing amounts of residues has been lacking, making planning processes for bioenergy highly customized. This study introduces a general, uniform modeling-approach based on Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and publicly available statistical and map data to locate potentials on a 1 km-grid throughout the European Union (EU). Sustainable potentials were calculated for five model regions in Northwest Europe considering input data such as animal livestock, regional (elevation-dependent) yield data, protection areas, and residue-to-crop ratios. Framing two scenarios, the model results were fed into a Decision Support Tool (DST) as a planning tool for bioenergy. Agricultural residues and surplus grass may provide significant potentials on regional levels, e.g. up to 52,236 TJ/ a from straw and 1,301 TJ/ a from root crop residues in Northrhine-Westphalia, or 9,141 TJ/ a from oil plant residues in Île de France, and 12,226 TJ of surplus grass in Rhineland-Palatinate.

    At the same time, ground mounted PV-systems were installed on arable land formerly used for food or feed production. Hence, high quality soils were taken out of agricultural production. For addressing this type of conflict, Agrophotovoltaic (APV) systems combine agricultural biomass and solar power production on the same site and time for increasing area use efficiency. Even though APV might prove suitable in the technical sense, it might be rejected by society i.e. due to its landscape impact. The Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI)-concept was applied for APV by involving stakeholders already in the technology development process. In a series of workshops with citizens and experts, a comprehensive analysis of the driving and restraining forces for APV was done. A System Dynamics approach with Causal Loop Diagrams (CLD) visualizes and reveals the internal and external dynamics of the APV-technology. Stakeholders have pointed out the importance of defining a good framework for APV first, i.e. roof and industrial areas for PV system shall be exploited first. Any change in the set-up for the PV-system impacts the conditions for the agricultural cultivation conditions, i.e. the height and width of the mounting system influences the working conditions and distribution of water. The shading of the plants can increase the yields in dry and hot summers, while it may lead to yield reductions in other years. The acceptance level is driven by regional aspects such as tourism, local recreation and landscape impact. In this way, local knowledge from participatory studies is seen as prerequisite for a legitimate framework.

  • Törrönen, Jukka
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD).
    Roumeliotis, Filip
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kriminologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD).
    Samuelsson, Eva
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete. Department of Social Work, Stockholm University.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD). Centre for Alcohol PolicyResearch, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Australia.
    Kraus, Ludwig
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD). IFT Institut für Therapieforschung München, Germany; Institute of Psychology, ELTE Eötvös Loránd University Budapest, Hungary.
    How do social media-related attachments and assemblages encourage or reduce drinking among young people?2020Ingår i: Journal of Youth Studies, ISSN 1367-6261, E-ISSN 1469-9680Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Research shows that young people’s online practices have become a continuous, seamless and routine part of their physical and social worlds. Studies report contradictory findings on whether social media promotes intoxication-driven drinking cultures among young people or diminishes their alcohol consumption. By applying actor-network theory, our starting point is that the effects of social media depend on what kinds of concerns mediate its use. Social media alone cannot make young people drink more or less but influences their drinking in relation to specific attachments that we call here ‘assemblages’. The data consist of individual interviews among girls (n = 32) and boys (n = 24) between 15 and 19 years old from Sweden, covering topics such as alcohol use, social media habits and leisure time activities. The paper maps the variety of assemblages that mediate young people’s online practices and analyzes how young people’s drinking-related social media assemblages increase, decrease or exclude their alcohol consumption. The analysis shows that social media-related attachments seem to reduce our interviewees’ use of alcohol by providing competing activities, by transforming their drinking under the public eye, by reorganizing their party rituals to be less oriented towards drinking and by facilitating parents’ monitoring of their drinking situations.

  • Ebbesson, Jonas
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska fakulteten, Juridiska institutionen, Stockholms miljörättscentrum (SMC).
    Miljörättslig blick på FN:s hållbarhetsmål: "(What's So Funny 'Bout) Peace, Love and Understanding"2019Ingår i: Miljörätten och den förhandlingsovilliga naturen: Vänbok till Gabriel Michanek / [ed] Jan Darpö, Maria Forsberg, Maria Pettersson och Charlotta Zetterberg, Uppsala: Iustus förlag, 2019, s. 187-207Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Ebbesson, Jonas
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska fakulteten, Juridiska institutionen, Stockholms miljörättscentrum (SMC).
    Miljöskydd och mänskliga rättigheter runtom i världen2019Ingår i: Festskrift till Wiweka Warnling Conradson / [ed] Richard Arvidsson, Pernilla Leviner, Jane Reichel, Mauro Zamboni och Karin Åhman, Stockholm: Jure , 2019, s. 87-103Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Eriksson, Niklas
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur, Arkeologi.
    Sveriges äldsta skeppsritning: en utredning och ett tolkningsförsök2020Ingår i: Forum navale, ISSN 0280-6215, E-ISSN 2002-0015, Vol. 76, s. 14-44Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden´s oldest Ship Drawing: an investigation and interpretationSweden’s oldest drawing of a ship is kept in the National Archives. It depictsa warship with two rows of gunports, hence the working name ‘Theanonymous two-decker’. Unfortunately, nothing is known regarding itsprovenance, when it was made, or who drew it. Most likely we will neverknow which ship is depicted. However, this does not imply that the drawingis totally vapid or incomprehensible. The aim of this article is to datethe drawing, but also to narrow down in which historical context the drawingmay have been created in. The article also sets out to discuss whichships may have been of a similar design. An underlying motif is to makethe drawing more accessible for further research.38 39Drawings from the seventeenth century and earlier are very rare.Through comparing the present drawing with the few other examples thatexist it is apparent that it has not been used for calculating lines and shapeof the ship’s hull, but rather to present the general layout and arrangementof decks, gunports and different rooms aboard.An analysis of the drawing reveal that it was drawn in 1:64 scale usinga ruler of about one foot’s length as the single tool. Contemporary mastershipwrights used dividers, curve rulers and similar to produce their drawings.Hence ‘The anonymous two-decker’ is more of a sketch than a properdrawing. With no doubt it was made by a person with substantial knowledgeabout ships and how to draw and calculate with scale, but it questionableif it was a master shipwright.The drawing has several notes and texts in English. The colour of thetext differs from the colour of the ink in the drawing, which indicates thatthe text is secondary. This means that the person who drew the image andthe one who wrote on it do not have to be the same. Previous researchershave suggested that the drawing was made in England or from an Englishoriginal, but in fact there were several English and Scottish master shipwrightsworking at Swedish shipyards in the late sixteenth and early seventeenthcentury. The text could have been made by one of them.The drawing reveals the ship´s main dimensions: Length of keel, width,depth of hold, as well as some other measurements. It is not possible toidentify a particular ship that corresponds to these dimensions, but it is apparentthat the ship is proportionally wide in relation to its length, whichis archaic. The number of gunports however corresponds to what we knowregarding the Swedish ship Scepter, this without saying that the drawingdepicts this very ship. Scepter was likely much larger than ‘The anonymoustwo-decker’.

  • Disputation: 2020-04-22 13:00 hörsal 7, hus D, Stockholm
    Harouny, Jonathan Egeland
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Filosofiska institutionen.
    Internalism and the Nature of Justification2020Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    There are many important dimensions of epistemic evaluation, one of which is justification. We don’t just evaluate beliefs for truth, reliability, accuracy, and knowledge, but also for justification. However, in the epistemological literature, there is much disagreement about the nature of justification and how it should be understood. One of the controversies that has separated the contemporary epistemological discourse into two opposing camps has to do with the internalism-externalism distinction. Whereas internalists defend certain core assumptions about justification from the pre-Gettier tradition, externalists generally think that the traditional conception is untenable and should be replaced.

    In this compilation thesis, I argue for, defend, and develop a particular brand of internalism, both in general and with respect to specific sources of justification. In papers 1 and 2, I defend a couple of well-known arguments for mentalism and accessibilism. Moreover, I also point out how prominent versions of these theses are vulnerable to serious problems (e.g., about over-intellectualization and vicious regresses). Part of my goal in the first couple of papers is to figure out what commitments the internalist should take on in order to avoid the externalist's objections, while at the same time receiving support from considerations that have motivated internalism in the past. In papers 3 and 4, I start from the assumption that mentalism is true and attempt to answer the following questions: 1) which non-factive mental states can play a justification-conferring role with respect to empirical belief? And 2) why does this set of states play the epistemic role it does? In response to question 1, I argue that all and only one's beliefs and perceptual experiences have justificatory relevance. In response to question 2, I argue that one's beliefs and perceptual experiences are one's strongly representational states, and that strongly representational states necessarily provide support to certain empirical propositions. Having done so, I then defend mentalism about scientific evidence from a couple of prominent objections in the recent literature. Lastly, in papers 5 and 6, I argue for a particular brand of internalism about testimonial and memorial justification and show how that position has a dialectical advantage over its main competitors. 

  • Disputation: 2020-04-22 13:00 FA32, Stockholm
    Norell, Jesper
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. 1990.
    Fingerprints of light-induced molecular transients: from quantum chemical models of ultrafast x-ray spectroscopy2020Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Absorption of sunlight generates renewable electricity and powers the growth of plants, but also causes severe damage both to synthetic materials and biological tissue. The wildly varying outcomes of these light-induced processes are ultimately determined by much slighter differences in their underlying reaction pathways, induced by the transient properties of short-lived and miniscule molecules; a powerful approach to their detection and characterization is offered by ultrafast x-ray spectroscopy, with identification of spectral fingerprints and further guidance from quantum chemical models.

    This thesis contains the computational half of three experimentally joint projects that push the limits for detection of electronic, spin and structural dynamics of small molecular systems in solution. A wide selection of theoretical frameworks are combined to model various aspects of the measurements: from multi-configurational descriptions of non-adiabatic couplings in the photo-dynamics and multi-electron transitions in the x-ray spectroscopy, to affordable simulations of extensive aqueous solutions by density functional theory and classical mechanics.

    Applied to experimental data, the presented quantum chemical results allowed in particular to: simultaneously identify molecular forms and electronic states of aqueous 2-thiopyridone, to determine a detailed pathway for its excited-state proton-transfer; characterize the charge-transfer state of aqueous ferricyanide, to extend well-known concepts from steady-state spectroscopy into the ultrafast domain; establish the newly implemented framework of multi-configurational Dyson orbitals, as a powerful tool for simulation of photoelectron spectroscopy.

    A number of computational predictions are additionally presented for hitherto-unexplored experimental regions, which may help to guide and optimize future measurements.

  • Edmark, Karin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI). IFAU, Sweden; IFN, Sweden; CESIfo, Sweden.
    Haelermans, Carla
    The Impact of Voucher Schools: Evidence from Swedish Upper Secondary Schools2020Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Edmark, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI). IFAU, Sweden; Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden; CESIfo, Sweden.
    Persson, Lovisa
    The impact of attending an independent upper secondary school: Evidence from Sweden using school ranking data2020Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides a comprehensive study on how attending a Swedish Independent upper secondary school affects students’ academic and short-term post-secondary outcomes. Beyond having access to population registers that measure school attendance and student outcomes, we are able to control for student preferences for independent provision, as stated in school application forms. The results from a CEM/VAM approach suggest a positive independent school effect on: final GPA, test results in English and Swedish, the likelihood to graduate on time, and attending post-secondary education. However, we also find a larger discrepancy between the final grade and the standardized test result among the independent school students, in a way that accords with more lenient grading practices among independent schools. Results from an alternative difference-in-difference analysis around admission thresholds yielded no additional insights, due to imprecise estimates.

  • Hagman, Martin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Meteorologiska institutionen (MISU).
    Processes important for forecasting of clouds over snow2020Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Armed Forces setup of the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) has problems to forecast low clouds in stably stratified conditions when the ground is covered by snow. The aim of this thesis is to understand what causes this deficit. Simulations during January and February 2018 are here compared with observations from Sodankylä in northern Finland. It is revealed that neither type of planetary boundary layer parameterization chosen nor vertical or horizontal interpolation are responsible for the deficiency. Instead, our experiments show that, to first order, poor initialization of Stratocumulus (Sc) clouds from the host model, Atmospheric Model High Resolution (HRES), of the Integrated Forecast System (IFS) is the missing link. In situations when Sc clouds are missing in the IFS analysis, although they exist in reality, we use information from vertical soundings from Sodankylä. In the initialization process we used the fact that liquid potential temperature is constant in a well-mixed cloud. Initializing cloud water and cloud ice from IFS HRES and from soundings with different methods improves the model performance and the formation of very low artificial clouds at the first model level is prohibited.

  • Svahn, Emelie
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematikämnets och naturvetenskapsämnenas didaktik.
    Lära från makro till mikro: Att använda animationer inom undervisning av biologi2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Animationer är ett allt vanligare inslag i biologiundervisningen, inte minst för att visa molekylära processer som är svåra att förstå utifrån 2-dimensionella stillbilder. I denna studie undersöks hur en animation kan användas av elever för att studera fotosyntes från ekosystem till molekyl. Tre elever som läser Biologi 2 på gymnasiet har fått ta del av en animation och sedan diskuterat denna utifrån en elevuppgift. Uppgiften var utformad för att belysa olika biologiska organisationsnivåer. Elevernas diskussion spelades in, transkriberades och sammanställdes med fältanteckningar från diskussionen. Materialet har sedan analyserats, dels utifrån elevernas samtalsform med det teoretiska ramverket exploratory talks och dels utifrån elevernas förmåga att se hur strukturer och funktioner är sammanlänkade över olika nivåer med ramverket systems thinking. Resultaten visar att en stor del av elevernas samtal uppvisade kännetecken på exploratory talk, vilket ger goda förutsättningar för lärande i grupp. Eleverna diskuterade också strukturer och funktioner som är involverade i fotosyntesen på ett sätt som tyder på systems thinking. Resultaten indikerar att en animation med påföljande diskussion utifrån en elevuppgift gav goda förutsättningar för elever att utforska fotosyntesen som system och att diskutera fotosyntesen som energiprocess på olika biologiska organisationsnivåer.

  • Gunarsson, Jonas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematikämnets och naturvetenskapsämnenas didaktik.
    Dialog och kommunikation inom högstadiets matematik: En studie i praktiskt utövande2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att resonera och kommunicera kring matematik är uttalade förmågor som matematikundervisningen skall innehålla och eleverna skall utveckla. Att dessa förmågor är viktiga stöds av forskning som antyder att dialog och kommunikation kring matematik förbättrar elevers förståelse för matematik och därmed förbättrar deras studieresultat. Vidare finns forskning som hävdar att hög grad av interaktion leder till effektivt lärande, samt att studieresultaten förbättras om dialogerna hålls i mindre grupper, snarare än i helklass.

     

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka en konkret undervisningsform som en lärare i en svensk högstadieskola bedriver. Denna lärares undervisning kännetecknas av ett annorlunda sätt att använda klassrummet, genom att möjliggöra att eleverna kan skriva på väggarna. Detta skapar nya möjligheter till interaktion och matematisk dialog mellan eleverna och detta utövande verkar leda till mer dialog bland eleverna än vad undervisning i ett traditionellt klassrum gör. Frågan är då vad som kännetecknar undervisningen i denna lärares klassrum vad gäller kommunikation och användandet av tillgängliga resurser. I denna studie har den matematiska dialogen i klassrummet analyserats med hjälp av Alrø och Skovsmoses IC-modell (2002) för att på så sätt försöka identifiera intressanta matematiska dialoger. Denna modell har sedan kompletterats för att inbegripa även den fysiska miljön, uppgifternas karaktär och det gemensamma språket.

     

    Resultatet visar att möjligheten att skriva på väggarna i rent fysisk mening skapar ett ”Joint Problem Space” (Roschelle & Teasley, 1995, Granberg & Olsson, 2015), vilket är en förutsättning för att eleverna skall kunna arbeta effektivt tillsammans mot samma mål, d.v.s. att lösa uppgiften. Men för att kunna utnyttja de möjligheter som den fysiska miljön ger, måste lektionerna planeras noggrant, uppgifter väljas ut med omsorg, elevgrupper delas in med eftertanke, samt instruktioner ges med tydlighet. Mer komplexa uppgifter och öppna uppgifter verkar skapa större möjlighet för eleverna att ha givande och utvecklande dialoger kring matematik än vad enklare, mer procedurinriktade uppgifter har. Icke desto mindre så verkar det synliggjorda lärandet skapa möjligheter till dialog och en fördjupad förståelse oavsett uppgiftens karaktär. Därutöver antyder studien vikten av ett gemensamt språk, såväl rent lingvistiskt som begrepps-, notations- och procedurmässigt.

  • Gunnarsson, Jonas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematikämnets och naturvetenskapsämnenas didaktik.
    Dialog och kommunikation inom högstadiets matematik: En studie i praktiskt utövande2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • Welander, Robert
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematikämnets och naturvetenskapsämnenas didaktik.
    Elevers frågor kring hållbar utveckling uttryckt genom deras teckningar och samtal2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studiens syfte är att bidra till det naturvetenskapliga kunskapsfältet i lärande för hållbar utveckling genom att analysera elevernas samtal kring deras teckningar som berör miljö- och klimatfrågor och på så sätt få en fördjupad kunskap om vad eleverna anser som angeläget om hållbar utveckling. Insamlingsmetoden bestod av semistrukturerade kvalitativa gruppintervjuer från elever i åk 5 och det empiriska materialet analyserades med hjälp av tematisk analysmetod. Tre huvudteman identifierades: Klimatoro, Människans ansvar samt Teknikutveckling. Vardera tema har två tillhörande subteman som identifierades utifrån de uttryck som eleverna använde i samtalsintervjun. Dessa subteman är Klimatpåverkan på jorden och Klimatpåverkan på djur, vilka tillhörande huvudtemat Klimatoro. Kollektivt ansvar och Personligt ansvar kategoriserades under huvudtemat Människans ansvar. Hinder och Möjligheter kategoriserades till huvudtemat Teknikutveckling. Studiens resultat visar att eleverna känner stor oro inför framtidens klimat men att de även uttrycker hopp för eventuella framtida lösningars positiva påverkan på klimatet. De framhåller även sitt personliga ansvar och det kollektiva ansvaret i förhållande till samhället i stort. Resultat visar att elever behöver få rum för sina frågor i undervisningen för att stärka sin demokratiska identitet som framtida medborgare. Studien ger lärare i naturvetenskapen en förståelse för hur elever bör integreras mer i undervisningen när det gäller frågor kring hållbar utveckling.

  • Hedström, Linda
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Johans, Ulrica
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Utmaningar i det integrerade klassrummet: En kvalitativ studie om lärares upplevelser i grundskolan2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka hur lärare hanterar att undervisa elever med intellektuell funktionsnedsättning (IF) som är integrerade i en grundskoleklass samt vilka utmaningar lärarna ställs inför.

    Studiens utgångspunkt är Vygotskijs sociokulturella perspektiv som vi har kompletterat med Nilholms och Göranssons (2013) indelning i begreppsdefinitioner av inkludering. Studien är kvalitativ och empirin består av intervjuer med åtta lärare med lång yrkeserfarenhet. Det inspelade intervjumaterialet analyserades enligt metoden kvalitativ innehållsanalys och vi fick då fram fyra huvudkategorier: organisation, lärares profession, bedömning enligt två kursplaner samt etik.

  • Borelius Simon, Nikolai
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur, Arkeologi.
    Ätt, kyrka, och ättens kyrka: Runstenar och tidigkristna gravmonument inmurade i kyrkor i västra Östergötland2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis the author - based on case studies on the now demolished old Högby church in Högby parish outside of Mjölby, and the crypt church ruin of Sverkersgården in Västra Tollstad parish at the slopes of mount Omberg – proposes that rune stones and early Christian grave monuments were bricked into Romanesque church buildings during the 12th and 13th century in western Östergötland as a way for the landed elite families to include the churches into their odal right of land ownership, as well as a way to manifest the patron of the church in the sacral space equivalent to portraits of church patrons.

  • Hedin, Albin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur, Arkeologi.
    Gnestaleden under järnålder och vikingatid: Centralplatser längst en vattenled i Södermanland2020Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In this essay I look into central entities along a water route that connect Mälaren in Mariefred with the Baltic sea in Trosa. I start with tuna magnate farms from the middle iron age (200- 550) to then focus on the entity that replaced tuna magnate farms in the late iron age and at last focus on early churches.

  • Alam, Mahbub Ul
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Henriksson, Aron
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Karlsson Valik, John
    Ward, Logan
    Naucler, Pontus
    Dalianis, Hercules
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Deep Learning from Heterogeneous Sequences of Sparse Medical Data for Early Prediction of Sepsis2020Ingår i: Proceedings of the 13th International Joint Conference on Biomedical Engineering Systems and Technologies / [ed] Federico Cabitza, Ana Fred, Hugo Gamboa, SciTePress, 2020, Vol. 5, s. 45-55Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Sepsis is a life-threatening complication to infections, and early treatment is key for survival. Symptoms of sepsis are difficult to recognize, but prediction models using data from electronic health records (EHRs) can facilitate early detection and intervention. Recently, deep learning architectures have been proposed for the early prediction of sepsis. However, most efforts rely on high-resolution data from intensive care units (ICUs). Prediction of sepsis in the non-ICU setting, where hospitalization periods vary greatly in length and data is more sparse, is not as well studied. It is also not clear how to learn effectively from longitudinal EHR data, which can be represented as a sequence of time windows. In this article, we evaluate the use of an LSTM network for early prediction of sepsis according to Sepsis-3 criteria in a general hospital population. An empirical investigation using six different time window sizes is conducted. The best model uses a two-hour window and assume s data is missing not at random, clearly outperforming scoring systems commonly used in healthcare today. It is concluded that the size of the time window has a considerable impact on predictive performance when learning from heterogeneous sequences of sparse medical data for early prediction of sepsis.

  • Ojala, Karin
    et al.
    Sörman, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur, Arkeologi.
    Medelhavsbrons i Närke: Hasslefyndet kastar ljus över kontaktvägar, metallanvändning och offerskick under bronsålderns slutskede2020Ingår i: Medusa. Svensk tidsskrift för antiken, ISSN 0349-456X, Vol. 41, nr 1, s. 28-34Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • Sörman, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur, Arkeologi.
    Casting in the Longhouse: The Organization of Metalworking in Late Bronze Age Settlements in South-Eastern Sweden2019Ingår i: Current Swedish Archaeology, ISSN 1102-7355, Vol. 27, s. 143-189Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Traces of bronze casting – fragmented moulds and crucibles – frequently occur at Late Bronze Age settlements. These traces are often assumed to represent utilitarian domestic production, in contrast to more specialised workshop production at ritual or elite locations. Moreover, settlements have usually been reduced to overall production units, while actual arrangements for bronze casting within sites have remained unexplored. The aim of this paper is to provide new insight into the organization of metalworking from an empirical and ‘bottom up’ perspective by examining the spatial and social contexts of bronze casting. The analysis draws on ten excavated sites in south-eastern Sweden and addresses three spatial levels: site, setting and framing. The study shows that domestic arenas often hosted varied and complex metalworking staged at various indoor and outdoor hearths located in the core areas of settlements. Rather than being conceptualized as levels, the organization of Late Bronze Age metalworking was a multifaceted, communicative and user-oriented practice. These insights have consequences for excavation methods as well as for the interpretation of the role of metalworking in society.

  • Voytiv, Sofiya
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Ukrainian and Russian organizations in Sweden and the conflict “back home”2019Ingår i: Connections, ISSN 0226-1766, Vol. 39, nr 1, s. 1-20Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates whether the Maidan Revolution in Kyiv (late 2013–early 2014) and the ongoing armed conflict in Eastern Ukraine (early 2014) have been reflected in the collaboration networks of Ukrainian and Russian organizations in Sweden between 2013 and 2016.

    I use ERG models to account for the probabilities of ties between the organizations, depending on the network structure and individual attributes such as ethnic identification and the choice of a side to support in the conflict.

    Results suggest that it is support for a certain side in the conflict, and not ethnic self-identification, which drives the clustering of the networks during the most violent period.

  • Disputation: 2020-04-17 13:00 Auditorium (215), Manne Siegbahnhusen, Stockholm
    Björkman, John
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kultur och estetik.
    "Må de herrskande klasserna darra": Radikal retorik och reaktion i Stockholms press, 1848-18512020Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation explores the formation of the modern historiography of class in mid-nineteenth century Sweden by analyzing constitutive rhetoric of class in the Stockholm press from 1848 to 1851. The aim is to study how disparaged workers during the February Revolution in France began to be ascribed a new kind of unified agency, and how workers in Stockholm became recipients of mobilizing appeals from all parts of the political spectrum. To this end the dissertation examines periodical papers representing the three major political positions of the period, i.e. a royalist conservative press, liberal papers in opposition, and a newly emerging socialist press. How were workers described, invoked and addressed as a new kind of community of political interest and action in these publications?

    Refuting perspectives of socio-economic determinism, this study adopts a conception of belonging and agency that views political communities as discursively produced by the creation of subject positions and the interpellation of individuals to them. The study is also influenced by recent re-evaluations of the category of the event associated with poststructuralism, and analyzes operations of constitutive rhetoric in forming a new symbolic field of class identity and agency in an open-ended and multivalent historical situation.

    The analysis shows how workers were construed as political agents in the Stockholm press during the mid-nineteenth century turmoil by being described, invoked and addressed within the framework of four main rival narratives. The socialist press tried to evoke a self-organizing working class within a collectivist narrative of labour’s liberation and universal male suffrage. The liberal press interpellated workers to a position aligned with the reformist middle class within a narrative of individual self-determination and gradual improvement. The royalist narrative of reconciliation was aimed at separating the large mass of workers from socialist and communist ideologues, deemed as mischievous outsiders, while at the same time offering them a new-found and prominent role as protectors of social harmony and peace. Only within the royalist narrative of catastrophe were the workers continuously excluded from mobilizing appeals, instead being invoked as the harbingers of an approaching communist revolution, against which all other sections of society should unite.

  • Disputation: 2020-04-17 10:00 Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Norrthon, Stefan
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet.
    Teaterrepetitionens interaktion: Professionella praktiker i ett repetitionsarbete från manus till föreställning2020Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis builds on three studies that explore a professional rehearsal process as situated interaction and as a longitudinal process. Primarily, the thesis contributes to the area of interactional linguistics, but it also seeks to contribute new knowledge to theatre studies. The empirical focus is on the participants’ interaction during the rehearsal process and how the performance develops procedurally over time. The main questions driving this research are: 1) What interactive, professional practices do the participants engage in during the rehearsal process, and in what way? 2) How is the script coordinated with other multimodal resources in the development from written text to performance?

    The theory and method used for this work is multimodal interaction analysis, that is, Ethnomethodological Conversation Analysis (EMCA) developed towards multimodal analysis of verbal and non-verbal resources in communication. The data collection was carried out at Riksteatern, Sweden’s largest touring theatre, where Effekten, by Lucy Prebble (2013), had its Swedish premiere in the fall of 2015. I followed rehearsals of a selection of five scenes from the first rehearsal day to opening night. The data consist of field notes, as well as video recordings of a total of 85 hours, filmed mainly with three cameras. In addition, the data include approximately four hours of audio recordings.

    The three studies focus on different practices involved in the theatrical rehearsal process. Study I follows the participants as they laminate (Goodwin 2018) eight lines in a scene where the characters are quarrelling. The aim is to document longitudinally how the actors develop, use and coordinate these and other multimodal resources in different phases of the rehearsal process. Study II focuses on one line in the script, with the aim of uncovering how the participants develop the performance by framing (Goffman 1974) various theatrical contexts in situated interactions and over time. Study III focuses on how the participants at the end of the rehearsal process create timing in transitions between rehearsed scenes by developing and using cues.

    The results show that, and how, rehearsing is a longitudinal process of collaborative creativity, in which the production team together, and moment by moment, develop the performance. Multimodal resources are used in different ways at different points in the process, and there is a shared authorship behind the theatrical performance. The results challenge previous research on theatre and theatre work, in which rehearsing has often been described as an asymmetric interaction between a director and an ensemble. Linguists’ interest in theatre has mainly focused on written scripts, also when the subject has been the relationship between scripts and performances. This thesis argues that the situated and collaborative process of rehearsing should be considered in order to understand the relationship between scripts and performances.

  • Disputation: 2020-04-17 09:00 sal FB55, AlbaNova universitetscentrum, Stockholm
    Preston, Markus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum.
    Developments for the FPGA-Based Digitiser in the PANDA Electromagnetic Calorimeters2020Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The strong interaction between quarks and gluons is one of the fundamental interactions described by the standard model of particle physics. Systems of quarks bound together by the strong interaction are known as hadrons, of which the proton and the neutron are the most common examples. The theoretical framework of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is used to describe the strong interaction, but becomes increasingly difficult to use as the distance between the interacting particles increases. On the length scales relevant for hadrons, for instance, non-perturbative approaches to QCD have to be used. Experimental data are needed to verify these approaches. PANDA is one of the four experimental pillars of the upcoming FAIR facility in Darmstadt, Germany. In PANDA, an antiproton beam with a momentum between 1.5 and 15 GeV/c will interact in a hydrogen or nuclear target, allowing studies of various aspects of non-perturbative QCD. Motivated by the high interaction rates and the diverse physics goals of the experiment, a triggerless readout approach will be employed. In this approach, each detector subsystem will be equipped with intelligent front-end electronics that independently identify signals of interest in real time. In the electromagnetic calorimeter, FPGA-based digitiser modules will be used for this task. The high-radiation environment in PANDA will pose a challenge to these modules, due to both potential radiation damage and high signal rates from the calorimeter. In this thesis, these issues are addressed. First, the results from experimental measurements and Monte Carlo modelling of radiation-induced single event upsets in the FPGA are described. These studies have allowed predictions of the rate of single event upsets during operation of PANDA. Secondly, a newly developed algorithm for real-time processing of calorimeter signals in an FPGA at high pile-up rates is described. This algorithm provides a significant improvement in the time resolution of the calorimeter and allows reconstruction of the pulse height and timing of piled-up detector signals.

  • Disputation: 2020-04-17 10:00 David Magnussonsalen (U31), Stockholm
    Cancino Montecinos, Sebastian
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    New perspectives on cognitive dissonance theory2020Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive consistency is generally considered a fundamental aspect of the human mind, and cognitive dissonance theory is the most famous and studies theory within this framework. Dissonance theory holds that when related cognitions are in conflict (e.g. when behaving counter to one’s attitudes), people will experience negative affect. This affective reaction motivates people to engage in various dissonance-reduction strategies (e.g. attitude change). The aim of this thesis was to investigate some novel, and unanswered questions within dissonance research, and to relate dissonance theory to neighboring theories.

    In Study I, it was predicted (and supported) that cognitive dissonance (writing a counter-attitudinal essay in the induced-compliance paradigm) would lead to people exhibiting an abstract mindset. The rationale for this prediction (based on action-identification theory) was that unfamiliar and difficult situations, were action is usually impeded (much like dissonant situations), lead to individuals adopting more concrete representations of the situation – for the sake action execution. However, since people usually want to find meaning in their actions, they will quickly, after the action is executed, adopt an abstract representation of the situation – which might also lead to spillover effects were people’s mental representation of their actions in general become more abstract.

    In Study II, the aim was to investigate to what extent, and how, emotions relate to the attitude-change effect in the induced-compliance paradigm. Past researchers usually predict that negative emotions should be positively related to this effect. Based on the notion of emotion regulation, however, attitude change (a form of reappraisal) implies that people are positively (and less negatively) tuned to the situation – and should therefore feel more positive (and less negative) emotions towards the situation. Thus, contrary to past research, it was predicted that negative emotions would be inversely related to attitude change, and positive emotions would be positively related to attitude change. Result across two experiments supported these predictions.

    Lastly, in Study III, the aim was to provide a general theoretical model of dissonance reduction. Based on a cognitive-emotion perspective (including appraisal theories of emotion, emotion regulation, and coping), it was suggested that reduction processes are influenced by the intensity of the initial affective reaction. This affective reaction is in turn influenced by the magnitude of the dissonance and the novelty-familiarity dimension of the situation. When the dissonance magnitude is too big, and the situation novel, people might disengage rather quickly (leaving the situation or distracting themselves). If, however, people have enough motivation and cognitive capacity, they might engage more in the reduction processes. The advantage of this model is that it can be applied to any dissonant situation.

    Taken together, these studies suggest that there is still much to discover in dissonance research, and much can be gained by conceptualizing dissonance processes within a cognitive-emotion framework. Future research should focus more on how the social context (e.g. influence of other people) might affect these dissonance processes. More emphasis should also be put on the prevalence of different dissonant situations, and the accompanied reduction attempts, in real-life settings.

  • Bergvik, Amanda
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Wigren, Carina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Psykometrisk utvärdering av G-DIT: ett nytt screeningformulär för hasardspelsyndrom2020Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Spel- och spelberoende är ett angeläget område att beforska då det visat sig ha enorma konsekvenser på både individ- och samhällsnivå. Examensuppsatsen syftade till att psykometriskt utvärdera ett nyutvecklat screeningformulär för spelberoende Gambling DisorderIdentification Test (G-DIT). G-DIT uppvisade goda psykometriskaegenskaper avseende intern konsistens samt konvergent respektive divergent validitet. I explorativ faktoranalys upptäcktes tre faktorer som var i linje med G-DIT:s tänkta dimensioner. Däremot fanns en signifikant medelvärdesskillnad vid test-retest, dock med lågeffektstyrka. Det fanns en lägre systematisk skillnad hos gruppen som skattade låga poäng på G-DIT jämfört med de som skattade högre poäng. De optimala kliniska gränsvärdena påvisade att G-DIT skulle kunna fungera som ett screeningformulär för att särskilja mellan ingen, lindrig respektive svår/medelsvår spelproblematik. G-DIT:s förmågaatt differentiera mellan olika svårighetsgrader behöver ytterligare studeras.

  • Jurelius, Olle
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    ”Jag tänker ju aldrig i termer av motivation för jag tycker att – asså det är ett så yvigt ord som inte säger så mycket”: En diskursanalys av hur åtta psykologer pratar om patienters behandlingsmotivation2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Behandlingsmotivation är ett svårfångat men viktigt begrepp för att förstå patientens förändringsprocess i psykoterapi. I denna studie användes diskursanalys för att undersöka hur verksamma psykologer pratar om behandlingsmotivation. Den text som analyserades bestod av transkriberingar av individuella intervjuer med åtta psykologer som arbetar med kognitiv beteendeterapi (KBT). Med utgångspunkt i Norman Faircloughs definition av diskursbegreppet analyserades hur talet skapar konsekvenser för terapeut, patient och deras gemensamma relation. Särskilt fokus lades vid hur större övergripande diskurser såväl som små formuleringar på lingvistisk nivå innebar att ramar sattes för vilken plats behandlingsmotivation får samt vilka subjektpositioner terapeut och patient har möjlighet att inta utifrån olika diskurser. Flera olika definitioner av behandlingsmotivation trädde fram vilket även gav unika konsekvenser. Särskilt syntes hur en New Public Management- och en evidensdiskurs tycks innebära ett begränsat handlingsutrymme för såväl terapeut som patient där KBT ses som ett solitt paket eller rentav medicin med liten plats för flexibilitet. Denna diskurs ger konsekvensen att terapeuten får svårigheter att inta en subjektposition där hen tar ansvar för patientens behandlingsmotivation – istället ses det som att patienten på egen hand måste vara ”redo” då hen söker sig till mottagningen.

  • Idering, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Myllykoski, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Theory of Mind och emotionsigenkänning hos rättspsykiatriska patienter med tillstånd inom psykosspektrumet2020Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Våldsamt beteende har omfattade negativa konsekvenser för individ såväl som samhälle, och är följaktligen av stort intresse för forskningen. Tidigare studier har påvisat ett samband mellan våldsamhet och nedsatt social kognition. Vidare har brister i social kognition observerats hos personer med schizofreni. Trots dess påtagliga relevans är studierna på denna grupp inom rättspsykiatrin få. I denna uppsats undersöktes sambandet mellan de socialkognitiva domänerna emotionsigenkänning och Theory of Mind (ToM), inklusive affektiv och kognitiv ToM, hos rättspsykiatriska patienter inom psykosspektrumet. Utifrån tidigare forskning förväntades en starkare korrelation mellan emotionsigenkänning och affektiv ToM jämfört med kognitiv ToM. Vidare undersöktes huruvida förmågorna skilde sig åt mellan patienterna beroende på om våldsbrotten varit psykotiskt drivna eller inte. Båda patientgrupperna förväntades uppvisa sämre emotionsigenkänning och ToM än den friska kontrollgruppen. Deltagarna undersöktes med Double Movie Assessment of Social Cognition-Multiple Choice och Emotion Recognition Assessment in Multiple Modalities. Med Pearsons produktmomentkorrelationskoefficient noterades en stark korrelation mellan emotionsigenkänning och ToM, men ingen signifikant skillnad för korrelationerna mellan emotionsigenkänning och affektiv respektive kognitiv ToM erhölls. I en MANOVA konstaterades att båda patientgrupperna generellt var sämre än kontrollgruppen, förutom i affektiv ToM, där ingen signifikant skillnad erhölls mellan patientgruppen vars våldsbrott varit icke-psykotiskt drivna och kontrollgruppen. Patientgruppen vars våldsbrott varit psykotiskt drivna uppvisade dessutom signifikant sämre ToM än den andra patientgruppen. Resultatet ger ytterligare belägg för socialkognitiva svårigheter hos rättspsykiatriska patienter, vilket fordrar fortsatt forskning samt utveckling av metoder för att stärka dessa förmågor.

  • Hedberg, Marina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Kan socialt stöd mildra konsekvenserna av anställningsotrygghet?2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskning har visat att anställningsotrygghet utgör en stressfaktor som kan medföra en rad negativa konsekvenser för individen och organisationen. Den här studien undersökte om socialt stöd från kollegor och socialt stöd från chef kan mildra de negativa effekterna av anställningsotrygghet på arbetstrivsel, intention att stanna och arbetsprestation. Studien baseras på en enkätundersökning bland tjänstemän i ett svenskt industriföretag (N=263) som genomgick en organisationsförändring. Resultaten av hierarkiska multipla regressionsanalyser visade att anställningsotrygghet var negativt relaterat till intention att stanna. Stöd från kollegor och stöd från chef var positivt relaterade till arbetstrivsel och arbetsprestation, och stöd från chef hängde därutöver samman med intention att stanna. Huvudresultatet var att stöd från kollegor också fungerade som en moderator för intention att stanna och arbetsprestation, medan stöd från chef inte hade någon modererande effekt. Slutsatsen är att vid organisationsförändringar kan de anställda ha nytta av det sociala stöd de kan få från kollegor.

  • Buchta, Katharina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Sjuksköterskans arbetsplatslärande på kirurgisk vårdavdelning: En intervjustudie med kvalitativ inriktning2020Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetsplatslärande har betydelse för samhället, organisationen/företaget och den enskilde individen, och tillmäts allt större betydelse för utvecklingen av den kompetens som behövs i yrkesutövningen. Sjuksköterskans arbete i en kunskapsintensiv och föränderlig verksamhet förutsätter gedigen yrkeskompetens. Tidigare forskning visar att informellt lärande på arbetsplatsen är den viktigaste källan för lärande och kompetensutveckling. Arbetsplatsen är dock sällan organiserad för detta, och det saknas kunskap om sjuksköterskans informella lärande. Studiens fokus är sjuksköterskans arbetsplatslärande på kirurgisk vårdavdelning. Studiens syfte är att undersöka sjuksköterskans arbetsplatslärande och hur arbetsplatslärande främjas och försvåras på kirurgiavdelningen ur sjuksköterskans synvinkel. Den teoretiska föreställningsramen består av sociala och konstruktivistiska perspektiv på lärande, arbetsplatslärande och kompetensutveckling. Nio sjuksköterskor från kirurgisk vårdavdelning har intervjuats. Datamaterialet har bearbetas genom induktiv tematisk analys följt av deduktiv analys utifrån ett analytiskt ramverk för arbetsplatslärande. Resultatet visar sjuksköterskans arbetsplatslärande i huvudsak är informellt genom att utföra arbetet. Personalomsättning, ett naturligt högt arbetsflöde och förekomst av inhyrningssjuksköterskor bidrar till att lärmiljön präglas av hög arbetsbelastning och tidsbrist. Arbetet uppfattas som lärorikt men kompetensutveckling hindras av arbetets organisering, konflikter och bristen på erfarna sjuksköterskors kompetens. Utmaningen består inte i arbetsuppgifternas svårighetsgrad utan lärmiljöns omständigheter. Kompetensutvecklande aktiviteter prioriteras till nya och nyanställda sjuksköterskor, och en högre klinisk kompetens efterfrågas inte. Arbetsplatslärande främjas av sjuksköterskans personliga drivkrafter och motiv. Studiens slutsats består i att kirurgiavdelningens lärmiljö har hög lärpotential i högstrukturerade arbetsuppgifter, ronden med läkare och efterfråga av konstruktiv feedback men arbetets organisering och känsliga sociala relationer hindrar nyttjandet av dessa lärmöjligheter. Likriktning av rutiner och arbetssätt vore en möjlighet att minska missförstånd och konflikter som uppstår vid konkurrens om arbetsuppgifter och arbetssätt. Översyn av arbetsuppgifters tidsmässiga förläggning samt ökade möjligheter till samarbete skulle kunna underlätta utnyttjande av lärmöjligheter.

  • Axelsson, Charlotte
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kultur och estetik.
    En drottnings identitet: En porträttanalys av drottning Desideria av Sverige och Norge2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen är en porträttanalys av drottning Desideria av Sverige och Norge där syftet med undersökningen är att påvisa hur Desideria framställde sin identitet i olika porträtt. Syftet är även att undersöka om hennes make Karl XIV Johan var influens till porträtten eller beställare av porträtten. Undersökningen analyserar tre parporträtt för att undersöka Karl XIV Johans roll i porträtten och hans motiv, men även tre enskilda porträtt av Desideria för att analysera Desiderias identitet och personlighet i porträtten. Metoden som användas är en ikonografisk och ikonologisk tolkning.  Resultatet av undersökningen visar att Desideria kännetecknade sin identitet som kvinna, fransk, modemedveten, familjekär och Sveriges drottning. Detta visas genom de olika dräkterna Desideria bär men även i hennes ansiktsuttryck. Hon ville värva hovet och befolkningen på grund av deras negativa syn på henne. Hon ville ge hovet och befolkningen en mer positiv uppfattning om henne och inte en oartig köpansflicka från Frankrike. Hon blev en mer dominant figur inom det svenska hovet. Karl XIV Johans motiv resulterade med att han vill framställa sig och Desideria som värdiga av den svenska tronen och vinna över befolkningen genom marknadsföring och porträttera sig annorlunda än tidigare monarker.

  • Vumilia Muhindo, Marc Antoine
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kultur och estetik. Skogsängsgatan 12C.
    Faustin Linyekula: Postcolonial perspective and heterodoxy in dramaturgy2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

                                             ABSTRACT

    Bachelor´s thesis in Performance Studies, Stockholm University Spring 2018

    Faustin Linyekula: Postcolonial perspective and orthodoxy in dramaturgy

    Marc-Antoine Vumilia Muhindo

     This thesis aims to bring to the fore the means through which artistic postcolonial practices could qualitatively impact the evolution of the performance field in the Western. Research questions include the existence or not of a postcolonial aesthetics.

    The work is contained in the double theoretical framework of postcolonialism and of French sociologist Bourdieu´s theory of social fields. Postcolonialism constitutes the ideological and critical frame, while the theory of social field is used to analyse the nature of the structuring forces that compose the theatre milieu and the nature of the power relationships that shape it. The main materials that are analysed and commented during the research are videos of live performance. Different methodological tools were used to exploit the material in an interpretative approach, like dramaturgical analysis, theatre semiotics, dance analysis and cultural semiotics.

    This essay opens with an introductory discussion that elucidates some problematic key concepts, such as postcolonial performance. Follows a descriptive chapter that studies the Parisian theatre milieu as a social field according to French sociologist Bourdieu´s theory, by focussing on the power relations.  Focus is set on the application of Bourdieu´s concepts of heterodoxy to theatre. The following chapter scrutinizes the concept and practice of postcolonial perspective applied to theatre. The features of postcolonial theatre are highlighted and illustrated through the analysis of two performances by Congolese choreographer Faustin Linyekula : The Dialogue Series ii: La création du monde (1923-2012) and The Dialogue Series iv: Moya, in their social and political contexts. The aim is to demonstrate that the dramaturgical frame in which the semiotic signs are articulated in the artist´s artefacts, constitutes a paradigm of heterodoxy in the field of Western performing arts.

    As a conclusion, this work considers that dramaturgical practices grounded in postcolonial critical perspective, are an opportunity to enrich and open western dramaturgy and theatre studies to the reality of the fast-changing and globalizing world.

     

    Key words: Postcolonial studies, heterodoxy, syncreticity, Faustin Linyekula, Bourdieu, theatre,Congo,dramaturgy.

                                             ABSTRACT

    Bachelor´s thesis in Performance Studies, Stockholm University Spring 2018

    Faustin Linyekula: Postcolonial perspective and orthodoxy in dramaturgy

    Marc-Antoine Vumilia Muhindo

     This thesis aims to bring to the fore the means through which artistic postcolonial practices could qualitatively impact the evolution of the performance field in the Western. Research questions include the existence or not of a postcolonial aesthetics.

    The work is contained in the double theoretical framework of postcolonialism and of French sociologist Bourdieu´s theory of social fields. Postcolonialism constitutes the ideological and critical frame, while the theory of social field is used to analyse the nature of the structuring forces that compose the theatre milieu and the nature of the power relationships that shape it. The main materials that are analysed and commented during the research are videos of live performance. Different methodological tools were used to exploit the material in an interpretative approach, like dramaturgical analysis, theatre semiotics, dance analysis and cultural semiotics.

    This essay opens with an introductory discussion that elucidates some problematic key concepts, such as postcolonial performance. Follows a descriptive chapter that studies the Parisian theatre milieu as a social field according to French sociologist Bourdieu´s theory, by focussing on the power relations.  Focus is set on the application of Bourdieu´s concepts of heterodoxy to theatre. The following chapter scrutinizes the concept and practice of postcolonial perspective applied to theatre. The features of postcolonial theatre are highlighted and illustrated through the analysis of two performances by Congolese choreographer Faustin Linyekula : The Dialogue Series ii: La création du monde (1923-2012) and The Dialogue Series iv: Moya, in their social and political contexts. The aim is to demonstrate that the dramaturgical frame in which the semiotic signs are articulated in the artist´s artefacts, constitutes a paradigm of heterodoxy in the field of Western performing arts.

    As a conclusion, this work considers that dramaturgical practices grounded in postcolonial critical perspective, are an opportunity to enrich and open western dramaturgy and theatre studies to the reality of the fast-changing and globalizing world.

     

    Key words: postcolonial studies, heterodoxy, syncreticity, Faustin Linyekula, Bourdieu, theatre.