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  • Gougoulakis, Petros
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Kedraka, Katerina
    Democritus University of Thrace.
    Oikonomou, Andreas
    School of Pedagogical and Technological Education.
    Anastasiadis, Panayiotis
    University of Crete.
    Teaching in tertiary education: reflective and experiential approach of University Pedagogy2018In: "Teaching Trends and Challenges in Contemporary Learning Environments" / [ed] Spyros Kioulanis et.al., 2018, p. 656-676Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the round table speeches and discussions on the theme "University Pedagogy: Thoughts, Proposals, Reflections", at the 2nd International Workshop on Applied Didactics: "Teaching Trends and Challenges in Contemporary Learning Environments". In order to achieve the active and experiential engagement of all participants, a process inspired by The Science Café movement has been applied. Participants were invited to send short comments and questions regarding the issue of University Pedagogy/Teaching and learning in Higher Education. These comments were collected, categorized and discussed immediately after the predetermined speeches, which are presented extensively herein with the following titles: "University Pedagogy: Tracing Teaching in Higher Education", "University Pedagogy in Practice: An Epistemological and Didactical Approach" and "University Pedagogy in Greece: findings of empirical research". The participants then participated in an open discussion based on the questions they had asked before, but also after the prepared lectures. The review of all the contributions during the conversation and the submitted proposals conclude that University Pedagogy can be a powerful means of enhancing the quality of Greek Higher Education, provided that: a) university institutions invest in the continuous improvement of the teaching skills of their staff, and (b) university professors have incentives and the readiness to engage in teaching and learning based on a scientific ground and well-tried methods.

  • Gougoulakis, Petros
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    New Public Management Regime and Quality in Higher Education2015In: Science and Society: Journal of Political and Moral Theory/ΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΗ & ΚΟΙΝΩΝΙΑ, ISSN 1108-3697, no 33, p. 91-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A spectre has been haunting the public administration of Western countries –the spectre of New Public Management. This has been all too visible for quite a while, and it coincides with the increasing prevalence of a producing and consuming neo-liberal ideology that has profoundly pervaded all aspects of society, culture and the economy in the current information and globalization era, the dawn of which took place in the early 1970s (Borg & Mayo 2005; Castells 2000; Lengrand 1970). The education sector, and the universities in particular, were no exception. Their alleged autonomy was invaded by neo-liberal ‘forces’ and changed to the point beyond recognition, which has seriously violated the employees’ professional integrity and expertise. As the university gradually transformed into a mass educational institution, without being accompanied by a corresponding increase in resources, the academic staff was constantly reminded that the quality of their work must be raised and ultimately assured. Words and phrases as quality assurance, quality indicators, quality and accountability measures,  evaluation, learning outcomes, etc., penetrated academic life without the consent of the majority of the employees. Hence, this discursive shift was a new reality, imposed though from the outside. It is therefore not surprising that disagreement within academic circles and opposition from significant segments of the civil society was at times vehement. The introduction of the new control regime was perceived more as a threat than as a democratic development based on collegial consensus.

    In the present text, an attempt is made to approach the notion of quality in higher education through the prism of the New Public Management approach.

    The main question being addressed is: What exactly do proponents of New Public Management mean by quality in higher education, what does it entail regarding the staff’s professional integrity and development as well as the assurance of the quality of education offered?

  • Svensson, Julia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Culture and Aesthetics.
    A Golden, Dim Dream: Intermedial analys av Sibylla Palmifera och Lady Lilith2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsens ämne berör användningen av intermedialitet för att förmedla ett narrativ i Dante Gabriel Rossettis verk Lady Lilith och Sibylla Palmifera. I uppsatsen undersöks hur Rossetti problematiserar den samtida kvinnosynen. Med intermedialitet menas användningen av två medier i samma verk, i detta fall sonett och måleri. Syftet är att undersöka hur Dante Gabriel Rossetti problematiserade den rådande tudelade synen på kvinnan som antingen ond eller god.

    Den intermediala teorin som används bygger på W.T.J. Mitchells teori om relationen mellan bild och text, vad dessa medier tillför varandra samt skillnaden mellan dem. Genom analyser av både text och måleri undersöks de bägge verkens ikonologi. Dispositionen består av tre avsnitt. Det första avsnittet fungerar som en bakgrund till de övriga två avsnitten. Avsnitt två och tre består av enskilda analyser av de bägge verken med tillhörande texter.

     Resultatet visar att Dante Gabriel Rossetti med dessa verk problematiserar dualiteten i den samtida kvinnosynen. Genom att använda mytologiska kvinnogestalter skapar Rossetti en mer nyanserad bild av synen på kvinnan under den viktorianska epoken. Användningen av sonett och måleri tillsammans fungerar väl i Lady Lilith då verket får en fördjupad inre mening. I dubbelverket Sibylla Palmifera relaterar dock sonett och målning inte lika bra med varandra. 

  • Wall Scherer, Josefine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Ethnology, History of Religions and Gender Studies.
    En granskande granskning av Uppdrag granskning: Om normalisering av rasism och sexism i SVT2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

    This study is based on two reportages from the program Uppdrag granskning that have received a lot of attention in 2018 and have led to the highest number of claims to the Ministry of press, radio and television in Sweden. The main theme of the two reportages is men ́s sexual violence against women, thus approached from two different perspectives. Through using a Critical Discourse Analysis and intersectional theory the thesis examines how different bodies are given different spaces, what kind of feelings they provoke and how identity is constructed. It becomes evident that the perspective and how the perpetrator is described in the program depend on whether or not he is part of norm of whiteness. The study shows that Uppdrag granskning uses its discursive power to effect feelings in a way that normalizes sexism and racism. Through the hegemonic discourse that Uppdrag granskning creates, things that are unthinkable to say today become possible to say tomorrow.

    Keywords: Media, Discourses, Critical Discourse Analysis, Critical Whiteness Studies, Racism, Sexism, Uppdrag granskning

  • Wall Scherer, Josefine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Ethnology, History of Religions and Gender Studies.
    Vem hotar Upplysningen?: Om kunskapsproduktion i SVTs Idévärlden2018Student paper second term, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    ABSTRAKT

    Media har mycket makt och inflytande över människor samt stor frihet i att framställa vissa kroppar på vissa sätt. Tolkningen är alltid vår egen men utan ett kritiskt perspektiv osynliggörs de hegemoniska diskurser som media producerar där generaliseringar och stereotypiseringar används för att bygga upp en viss bild. I debatten om vad som är kunskap blir en kritisk blick viktig för att kunna ifrågasätta kunskapsproduktion. I denna studie granskas, genom diskursanalys som metod, media som kunskapsproducent utifrån ett populärvetenskapligt program med just Upplysningen som tema. Upplysningen, som kan ses som en början till en kritiskt tanketradition anses vara hotad. Den här studien går ut på att försöka förstå vem eller vad som skulle kunna vara hotet och på vilket sätt hotet tar sig uttryck. En slutsats är att genusvetenskapen som vetenskap kan ses som hotet. Att ifrågasätta de manliga upplysningsfilosofernas tankar och idéer samt deras upphöjdhet ses som hotfullt. Förnuft står i kontrast till känslan. Identitetspolitik som bygger på erfarenhet ses som motupplysning där vissa grupper ges tolkningsföreträden och därmed frikort från den förnuftiga argumentationen och samtalet.

    Nyckelord: kunskapsproduktion, upplysningen, genusvetenskap, identitetspolitik

  • Sund, Louise
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Ethnology, History of Religions and Gender Studies.
    Prostitution eller Sexarbete?: En Jämförande Analys av Intedinhora och Fuckförbundet2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The prostitution debate in Sweden is generally divided into two dualistic counterparts; one side that sees prostitution as the worst form of oppression, and the other that wants to acknowledge it as a profession and normalize the perception of sex work. The purpose of this essay is to implement a comparative analysis between two organizations that appear to belong to these two counterparts, Intedinhora (Notyourwhore) and Fuckförbundet (Fuckunion). The method involves a comparative analysis, where the two organizations are set against each other to find similarities and differences. Intersectionality, queer theory and discourse theory are used in the analysis - theories that emphasize the importance of the social, cultural and historical contexts that forms individuals and groups structures. The theories help to explain how the organizations looks at prostitution. In a derivation from the theories I found three key concepts that I applied on the material: power, sexuality and victim. The analysis is divided into these key concepts where similarities and differences are described.

    It appears that the organizations share some similarities, mainly in the view of why some people sell sex and not others. They, lean towards an intersectional understanding of the interaction of power symmetry on people’s lives, where class, race and sexual identity affect what choices a person has. However, they seem to differ greatly in the view of the future of the prostitution industry. Intedinhora belongs to those who want prostitution to cease and acknowledge the Swedish sex law as something good, while Fuckförbundet wants to elevate it as a legitimate profession, annul the law in a way to transform the view on the sex worker as an active agent. To sum up, the debate can be understood as dualistic, although there are some similarities between the two sides, mostly in their emphasis on the importance to look at class, sexual identity and race to describe why some sell sex, and another buy it. Fuckförbundet, however, seems to be more ideological than theoretical in their argument than Intedinhora. 

  • Public defence: 2019-02-25 10:00 FA31, Stockholm
    Morå, Knut Dundas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. OKC.
    Statistical Modelling and Inference for XENON1T2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A great number of astrophysical observations suggests that of the matter in our universe, only a sixth is made up of known matter. The rest, named dark matter, has not been successfully identified. This thesis presents the analysis and statistical inference that was used by the XENON1T collaboration to conduct a search for a particular dark matter candidate; weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs).

     

    XENON1T is a dual-phase time projection chamber that can detect particles scattering in a 2 tonne target of liquid xenon with deposited recoil energies above ~3 keV. This is low enough to observe the elastic recoil between a WIMP and a xenon nucleus for WIMP masses >5 GeV c-2.

    The results presented in this thesis use 278.8 days of data, with an analysis mass of 1.3 tonne.

     

    XENON1T uses models for backgrounds and signals within this volume to construct a combined likelihood for two science data-taking periods as well as calibration data-sets. Fits to simulated data-sets were used to calibrate and validate the confidence interval construction. In addition, analysis choices were evaluated both to optimize the discovery power and expected sensitivity of the search, and to improve the robustness of the analysis.

     

    No significant excess was observed in the search for a spin-independent WIMP-nucleon interaction for any WIMP masses between 6  GeV c-2 and 104 GeV c-2 for the 1 ton-year exposure. This analysis produced the strongest constraint on the spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross-section so far, with a minimum of 4.1 10-47 cm2  for a 30 GeV c-2 WIMP.

  • Jensen, Kurt Villads
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Medieval Studies.
    HOSPITALLERS IN SCANDINAVIA AND THEIR CONNECTIONS TO  THE MEDITERRANEAN  AFTER THE FALL OF  THE CRUSADER STATES2018In: ENTRE DEUS E O REI.  O mundo das Ordens Militares / [ed] ISABEL CRISTINA F. FERNANDES, MUNICÍPIO DE PALMELA - GEsOS , 2018, p. 755-772Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • Söderström, Jennifer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Bokstavsinlärning – hur går det till?: En komparativ studie av grundlärares bokstavsundervisning2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka och jämföra hur lärare i årskurs 1 utrycker att de undervisar i bokstavsinlärning. Metoden som används är kvalitativa intervjuer med fyra lärare som arbetar i årskurs 1. Under intervjuerna ställdes frågor om upplägget på undervisningen, vilka bokstäver som man börjar med samt vilket läromedel och material som används. Resultatet visade att alla respondenter uttrycker liknande sätt att introducera bokstäverna på och en del moment arbetar respondenterna på liknande sätt. Som exempel läggs det fokus på att lära eleverna ljuda, forma och öva på skrivriktningen samt få igång lästräningen samtidigt. Resultatet visade även att alla respondenter använder samma läromedel, men på olika sätt – vissa har den som en utgångspunkt och andra som en repetitionsuppgift. Det som skiljde lärarna sig emellan var att de uttryckte olika tillvägagångssätt för att undervisa i bokstavsinlärning och hur de granskade elevernas förkunskaper samt deras användning av bedömningsstöd och diagnoser.

  • Ornellas, Adriana
    et al.
    Falkner, Kajsa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Edman Stålbrandt, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Enhancing graduates’ employability skills through authentic learning approaches2018In: Higher Education, Skills and Work-based Learning, ISSN 2042-3896, E-ISSN 2042-390XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce a theoretical framework based on authentic learning approaches that can be taken into consideration in higher education (HE) contexts to design activities that enable students to develop employability skills.

    Design/methodology/approach

    Three methods were used to develop the framework: desk research on current demand and supply of new graduate’s employability skills; interviews in four European HE institutions to identify authentic learning scenarios; and asynchronous online focus group to validate the framework.

    Findings

    The paper takes a competence-centred approach to the concept of employability skills and sets out a taxonomy of skills required to enhance new graduates’ employability. It also gives criteria and examples of authentic learning scenarios in HE settings that promote the acquisition of these skills.

    Research limitations/implications

    The framework developed remains theoretical. In a second phase, the framework will be applied to implement authentic activities in different programmes and subjects of five HE institutions, and the results will be reported in future publications.

    Practical implications

    The framework gives directions to create real and practical ways to enhance new graduates’ employability skills by improving the connection between HE curricula and the demands of the real world.

    Originality/value

    The added value of the paper lies in adopting a learner-centred, genuine and effective learning approach, such as authentic learning as a catalyst for bringing work experience to formal learning in HE institutions, in order to better develop graduates’ employability skills.

  • Ulriksson, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Omprövningsrätten enligt skadeståndslagen i förhållande till rättskraft2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    5 kap. 5 § SkL innebär ett avsteg från rättskraftsinstitutet och inbegriper två rättsliga principer som kolliderar. Principen om full kompensation för den skadelidande och principen om domens orubblighet, där framförallt skadevållaren ska kunna räkna med att när ersättningen är slutreglerad har den fullgjort sina förpliktelser. Naturligtvis blir paragrafen därför motsägelsefull och dess innehåll har fått utvecklas genom praxis.

    Tyngdpunkten i praxis har särskilt legat på vad som omfattas av väsentlighetsrekvisitet i 5 kap. 5 § SkL. Framförallt är det fem domar från högsta domstolen som förtydligar vad som anses vara väsentligt förändrade förhållanden. Sammanfattningsvis har det i dessa domar konstaterats att väsentlighetsrekvisitet är uppfyllt när en ekonomisk kumulativ differens om 10 % uppstått efter att skadeståndersättningen avgjorts slutligt.

    Ett område som dock inte närmare har studerats gällande omprövningsrätten i SkL är vilka förhållanden som kan tas upp till omprövning. Syftet med uppsatsen är att utreda vilka delar av ett skadestånd som kan tas upp till omprövning enligt 5 kap. 5 § SkL. Uppsatsen avser därför att klargöra vilka omständigheter som omfattas av rättskraft och vad som initierar att rättskraften bör frångås inom skadeståndsrätten. Vidare kommer andra juridiska discipliners förhållanden till omprövningsrätten som rättslig företeelse att analyseras för att få ett helhetsperspektiv av vilka motiv som föranleder avsteg från rättskraftsinstitutet.

    För att uppnå syftet utreds förlajnde frågeställning:

    - Är hela skadeståndsfrågan öppen för omprövning i alla delar eller gäller den bara ändrade förhållanden?

  • A. Manneh, Ilana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Supporting Learning and Teaching of Chemistry in the Undergraduate Classroom2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is agreement in research about the need to find better ways of teaching chemistry to enhance students’ understanding. This thesis aims to contribute to the understanding of how we better support teaching and learning of undergraduate chemistry to make it meaningful and intelligible for students from the outset. The thesis is concerned with examining the interactions between student, specific content and teacher in the undergraduate chemistry classroom; that is, the processes making up the three relations of the didactic triangle. The data consists of observations of students and tutors during problem-solving activities in an introductory chemistry course and interviews with graduate students.

    Systematic analyses of the different interactions between the student, the chemistry content, and the tutor are made using the analytical tool of practical epistemology analysis. The main findings of the thesis include detailed insights into how undergraduate chemistry students deal with newly encountered content together with didactic models and concrete suggestions for improved teaching and for supporting continuity and progression in the undergraduate chemistry classroom. Specifically, I show how students deal with the chemistry content through a complex interaction of knowledge, experiences, and purposes on different levels invoked by both students and tutors as they interact with each other. Whether these interactions have a positive or negative effect on students’ learning depends on the nature of knowledge, experiences and purposes that were invoked. Moreover, the tutor sometimes invoked other purposes than the ones related to the task at hand for connecting the activity to the subject matter in general. These purposes were not always made continuous with the activity which resulting in confusion among students. The results from these analyses were used for producing hypotheses and models that could support continuity and progression during the activity. The suggested models aim to make the content more manageable and meaningful to students, enabling connections to other experiences and purposes, and helping teachers and tutors to analyze and reflect on their teaching. Moreover, a purpose- and activity-based progression is suggested that gives attention to purposes in chemistry education other than providing explanations of chemical phenomena. The aim of this ‘progression in action’ is to engage students in activities were they can see the meaning of chemical concepts and ideas through their use to accomplish different chemical tasks. A general conclusion is that detailed knowledge about the processes of teaching and learning is important for providing adequate support to both undergraduate students and university teachers in the chemistry classroom.

  • Leiva, Alejandro
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Three Faces of Diversity Rhetoric: Managerialization, marketing and ambiguity2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past decades, the language of diversity management has spread from the US to many parts of the world, including Sweden, where it emerged in the mid 1990’s. Consisting of three papers, this thesis contributes to the field of critical diversity studies by examining the multifaceted character of diversity rhetoric among Swedish diversity consultants. A central point of debate in previous research has been the relationship between, on one hand, diversity management rhetoric, and on the other hand, equal opportunities and antidiscrimination law. Scholars suggest that Scandinavian and Swedish “diversity” are strongly associated with ideals of equality, antidiscrimination and corporate social responsibility. This thesis gives nuance to this picture by focusing on the views of consultants.

    Paper 1 tries to answer this question: Do Swedish diversity consultants managerialize antidiscrimination law? Research on the US and the UK asserts a conflict between legal equality and the instrumental rhetoric of diversity management. However, studies on continental Europe and Scandinavia tend to posit diversity rhetoric as linked to ethnicity and tempered by legal and social equality. Building on interviews with diversity consultants, this paper shows that their diversity constructions conform to the managerialization thesis. 

    Paper 2 argues that diversity’s three common rhetorical moves—its broad scope, its business case, and its dissociation from legal frames—are more open to interpretation than typically portrayed in the critical diversity research. While scholars tend to interpret this rhetoric as managerial dilution of legal and equality ideals, findings indicate that consultants may use the same rhetorical moves to incorporate an equality logic and extend legal ideas beyond the limits of the law. These interpretative discrepancies are conceptualized as ambiguity—i.e., the same rhetorical moves may support more than one interpretation.

    Paper 3 examines the ongoing institutional work of diversity consultants as they rhetorically try to build a business case for “ethnic marketing” in Sweden. Extant literature suggests that ethnic marketing relies on making differences between “them” (ethnic minority consumers) and “us” (majority consumers). This paper asserts that while making differences is crucial when creating “ethnic” consumers (“different from us”), another rhetorical strategy, “making similarities,” is used to construct already otherized people as “consumers” (“similar to us”). Further, findings show that Sweden’s lack of official statistics on ethnicity and general reluctance towards highlighting ethnicity may function as institutional obstacles that hamper the legitimacy and spread of ethnic marketing.

  • Caputo, Andrea
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Genomic and morphological diversity of marine planktonic diatom-diazotroph associations: a continuum of integration and diversification through geological time2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Symbioses between eukaryotes and nitrogen (N2)-fixing cyanobacteria (or diazotrophs) are quite common in the plankton community. A few genera of diatoms (Bacillariophyceae) such as Rhizosolenia, Hemiaulus and Chaetoceros are well known to form symbioses with the heterocystous diazotrophic cyanobacteria Richelia intracellularis and Calothrix rhizosoleniae. The latter are also called diatom-diazotroph associations, or DDAs. Up to now, the prokaryotic partners have been morphologically and genetically characterized, and the phylogenetic reconstruction of the well conserved nifH gene (encodes for the nitrogenase enzyme) placed the symbionts in 3 clusters based on their host-specificity, i.e. het-1 (Rhizosolenia-R. intracellularis), het-2 (Hemiaulus-R. intracellularis), and het-3 (Chaetoceros-C- rhizosoleniae). Conversely, the diatom-hosts, major representative of the phytoplankton community and crucial contributors to the carbon (C) biogeochemical cycle, have been understudied.

    The first aim of this thesis was to genetically and morphologically characterize the diatom-hosts, and to reconstruct the evolutionary background of the partnerships and the symbiont integration in the host. The molecular-clock analysis reconstruction showed the ancient appearance of the DDAs, and the traits characterizing the ancestors. In addition, diatom-hosts bearing internal symbionts (with more eroded draft genomes) appeared earlier than diatom-hosts with external symbionts. Finally a blast survey highlighted a broader distribution of the DDAs than expected.

    The second aim of this thesis was to compare genetic and physiological characteristics of the DDAs symbionts with the other eukaryote-diazotroph symbiosis, i.e. prymnesiophyte-UCYN-A (or Candidatus Atelocyanobacterium thalassa). The genome comparison highlighted more genes for transporters in het-3 (external symbiont) and in the UCYN-A based symbiosis, suggesting that symbiont location might be relevant also for metabolic exchanges and interactions with the host and/or environment. Moreover, a summary of methodological biases that brought to an underestimation of the DDAs is reported.

    The third aim of this thesis was to determine the distribution of the DDAs in the South Pacific Ocean using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) approach and to outline the environmental drivers of such distribution. Among the het-groups, het-1 was the most abundant/detected and co-occurred with the other 2 symbiotic strains, all responding similarly to the influence of abiotic factors, such as temperature and salinity (positive and negative correlation, respectively). Globally, Trichodesmium dominated the qPCR detections, followed by UCYN-B. UCYN-A phylotypes (A-1, A-2) were detected without their proposed hosts, for which new oligonucleotides were designed. The latter suggested a facultative symbiosis. Finally, microscopy observations of the het-groups highlighted a discrepancy with the qPCR counts (i.e. the former were several order of magnitudes lower), leading to the idea of developing a new approach to quantify the DDAs.  

    The fourth aim of this thesis was to develop highly specific in situ hybridization assays (CARD-FISH) to determine the presence of alternative life-stages and/or free-living partners. The new assays were applied to samples collected in the South China Sea and compared with abundance estimates from qPCR assays for the 3 symbiotic strains. Free-living cells were indeed detected along the transect, mainly at deeper depths. Free-living symbionts had two morphotypes: trichomes and single-cells. The latter were interpreted as temporary life-stages. Consistent co-occurrence of the 3 het-groups was also found in the SCS and application of a SEM model predicted positive interactions between the het groups. We interpreted the positive interaction as absence of intra-specific competition, and consistent with the previous study, temperature and salinity were predicted as major drivers of the DDAs distribution.

  • Neethiraj, Ramprasad
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Advances in studying the role of genetic divergence and recombination in adaptation in non-model species2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the role of genetic divergence and recombination in adaptation is crucial to understanding the evolutionary potential of species since they can directly affect the levels of genetic variation present within populations or species. Genetic variation in the functional parts of the genome such as exons or regulatory regions is the raw material for evolution, because natural selection can only operate on phenotypic variation already present in the population. When natural selection acts on a phenotype, it usually results in reduction in the levels of genetic variation at the causal loci, and the surrounding linked loci, due to recombination dynamics (i.e. linkage); the degree to which natural selection influences the genetic differentiation in the linked regions depends on the local recombination rates.

    Studies investigating the role of genetic divergence and recombination are common in model species such as Drosophila melanogaster. Only recently have genomic tools allowed us to start investigating their role in shaping genetic variation in non-model species. This thesis adds to the growing research in that domain. In this thesis, I have asked a diverse set of questions to understand the role of genetic divergence and recombination in adaptation in non-model species, with a focus on Lepidoptera.

    First, how do we identify causal genetic variation causing adaptive phenotypes? This question is fundamental to evolutionary biology and addressing it requires a well-assembled genome, the generation of which is a cost, labor, and time intensive task. In paper I, I present a tool, MESPA, that stitches together exonic sequences in fragmented assemblies to produce high-quality gene models. These high-quality gene models can be used by researchers in the downstream analyses, providing genomic insights for a fraction of cost of a high quality genome. 

    Second, what does the pattern of recombination rate look like in chromosomes that lack centromeres (i.e.holocentric chromosomes)? In paper II, I compare the recombination landscape and the patterns of nucleotide diversity in three Lepidotera with holocentric chromosomes, Pieris napi, Bombyx mandarina, and Bombyx mori, with a monocentric species. Our results show that on average these three Lepidoptera have high rates of recombination across the vast majority of their genome. Our results also suggest that given similar effective population sizes, these species are likely to harbor more genetic diversity compared to monocentric species, which has important evolutionary consequences for these species.

    Third, what is the potential for parallelism at the genetic level in convergent melanic phenotypes? In paper III, I investigated the genetic basis of the female-limited melanic phenotype in the green-veined white (Pieris napi) butterfly, and found a 20kb region, approximately 50kb from the gene cortex, associated with this trait. This gene has been implicated in melanic phenotypes in other Lepidoptera that diverged from Pieris approximately 100my, indicating very high predictability for this trait.

    Finally, what is the role of cis-regulatory variation in local adaptation? In paper IV, I analyzed the relationship between allele specific expression (ASE) and genetic divergence (FST) in the F1 hybrids of Pieris napi napi and Pieris napi adalwinda. I show that intersecting results from ASE with FST is a powerful approach to identify genes involved in local adaptation.

  • Anker-Hansen, Jens
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education. Skolverket.
    Andrée, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    In Pursuit of Authenticity in Science Education2019In: NorDiNa: Nordic Studies in Science Education, ISSN 1504-4556, E-ISSN 1894-1257, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 498-510Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a systematic review of how authenticity is used in science education research and discusses the implications these uses have for the design of science education classroom practices. Authenticity has been discussed in education for decades. However, the authenticity of science education not only concerns the design of educational activities, but also the content of what is being taught. This article reviews research articles published in 2013 and 2014, in the three highest ranking journals in science education, regarding how authenticity is framed in science education. The findings suggest that the uses vary greatly from referring to externally defined practices to student relevance. The findings are discussed with the notions of cultural and personal authenticity to suggest important aspects involved with designing science classroom activities authentic to the different references. Based on the review, we have developed a strategy for balancing authenticity in science education classroom practices between cultural and personal authenticity.

  • Karlström, Matti
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Hamza, Karim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Preservice Science Teachers’ Opportunities for Learning Through Reflection When Planning a Microteaching Unit2019In: Journal of Science Teacher Education, ISSN 1046-560X, E-ISSN 1573-1847, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 44-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although microteaching is a common approach to engaging preservice teachers in reflection on teaching in on-campus courses, this reflection is usually carried out as a separate part. We examined how preservice middle school science teachers reflected amid planning a 20-min microteaching unit on sustainable development. Six groups of preservice teachers were video recorded and their conversations transcribed. We used practical epistemology analysis to analyze moments of reflection in these conversations. The preservice science teachers recurrently engaged in reflection in the course of their planning, which led to changes in perspective concerning important aspects of how to plan teaching that may be considered central for preservice science teachers to learn during their teacher education. Preservice teachers’ reflection was related to the openness of the task, as they had to make decisions about many different aspects of their teaching. Even aspects that are not on the table in a real-world setting, for instance having the possibility of deciding on the age of the target students, led to productive reflection and opportunities for learning. Our results contribute to increased awareness of the possibilities of microteaching for facilitating learning during planning. This may provide science teacher educators with better possibilities of supporting their preservice science teachers’ reflective practice.

  • Lavett Lagerström, Malin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Piqueras, Jesús
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Palm, Ola
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Planning for learning progressions with the didactical model organizing purposes: a study in context-based science teaching2018In: NorDiNa: Nordic Studies in Science Education, ISSN 1504-4556, E-ISSN 1894-1257, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 317-330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last years the didactical model organizing purposes has provided important insights about how teachers work with moment-to-moment learning progressions in science teaching. In the present study, organizing purposes were used to plan a lesson within a context-based unit in Biology, in which the Ebola disease was the overarching context. The lesson was planned in two parts. In the first part, the students worked with a model that simulated the spread of Ebola; in the second part, the model was discussed and compared with the real disease. The analysis of the enacted lesson shows that the students’ experiences from the model were effectively used by the teacher to establish a learning progression towards the learning goals. This was done by eliciting questions, comparisons between the model and real diseases, and recalling specific situations that allowed students to use everyday experiences and scientific concepts. Moreover, by maintaining focus in the context of the unit, the teacher through these actions, constantly directed the lesson towards the learning goals.

  • Dudas, Cecilia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Rundgren, Carl-Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Lundegård, Iann
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Didactic modelling of complex sustainability issues in chemistry education2018In: NorDiNa: Nordic Studies in Science Education, ISSN 1504-4556, E-ISSN 1894-1257, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 267-284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To meet future challenges regarding sustainability issues, science education needs to address how to educate scientifically literate and responsible citizens. One aspect of this is how to draw students’ attention to the complexity in sustainability issues. Therefore, this study analyses how complexity can become visible in students’ deliberations. The study has been conducted as an in-situ study at two upper secondary schools. The data was analysed using Practical Epistemological Analysis (PEA) and Deliberative Educational Questions (DEQ). The results show that four different kinds of considerations were used to visualise complexity. Those considerations regarded facts and values in relation to known and unknown facts. The considerations were used to develop a didactic model. Design principles were also developed, which together with the model can support teachers in didactic analyses regarding complex sustainability issues in chemistry education. Furthermore, the study shows that chemistry education can contribute to development of Bildung and democratic citizenship.

  • Johnson, Hanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Narrative Perspective in a Wordless Graphic Novel: Shaun Tan's The Arrival2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In a narrative the narrator tells the story, and the focalizer is a character through whose eyes the story is seen. The narrator is thus the one who speaks, whilst the focalizer is silent. The identification of these two narratological features is made with the help of verbal cues such as personal pronouns for instance. Determining the narrator and the focalizer can sometimes be challenging due to ambiguous cues in the analyzed text, as well as narratological aspects which at times can be difficult to distinguish from each other. Determining the narrator and the focalizer in graphic narratives (comics) with no narrative voice, or which completely lack words, must be done with the help of pictorial cues instead. In this thesis, Shaun Tan’s wordless graphic narrative The Arrival is used in order to show how the narrator and the focalizer can be determined by combining pictorial cues with the reader’s general knowledge of storytelling as well as his or her experiences from real life scenarios. To analyze narratological features in The Arrival, I employ terminology from comics studies, literary and film narratology. My analysis shows that determining the narrator and the focalizer in narratives lacking explicit narrative voice is possible by using only pictorial cues.

  • Jonsson, Ida
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Petticoats or Miniskirts: A Comparative Analysis of Feminine Narration in Pride and Prejudice and Bridget Jones's Diary 2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Both Pride and Prejudice (Jane Austen) and Bridget Jones’s Diary (Helen Fielding) have been thoroughly examined by literary critics. When discussed from a feminist perspective, critics are ambiguous as some claim that the novels work against feminist values rather than the reverse. This essay aims to add to the existing discussion, with focus on narration, specifically the narrative authority heroines Elizabeth and Bridget claim. Thus, it is situated within feminist narratology, examining the discourse of the narrative rather than the story. Analysis is conducted with Alison Case’s concept feminine narration, where women traditionally have been narrative witnesses without authority. Through acts of plotting and preaching, authority is claimed by which the narrator can control the meaning the reader is meant to derive from the narrative. I argue that Elizabeth and Bridget both assert narrative authority throughout their stories, thus breaking gendered conventions by claiming agency in traditionally male positions. Additionally, the comparative analysis enables discussion on “Chick lit” literary status, which has been questioned by critics.

                Analysis shows that both Elizabeth and Bridget assert narrative authority throughout their stories, by acts of plotting and preaching. Often, both heroines meet male characters attempting to usurp narrative authority by assuming the role of master-narrator, a figure who traditionally possesses more authority. By avoiding these attempts, Elizabeth and Bridget escape the position as narrative witnesses and claim authority, thus directing the readers towards the intended meaning of respective narratives. Furthermore, the comparative analysis opens up for a broader discussion of issues women have faced, and continue to face, throughout time.

  • Mole, Richard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Julmust, Must or Christmas Cola?: Translation Strategies for Words for Culture Specific Items in Two Translations of Liza Marklund’s 'Sprängaren2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Research within translation characterises cultural references as being problematic for translators, meaning they must choose between different translation strategies as to how to transfer these references into the translated text. These strategies are often described in general terms according to how closely oriented they are to the target-culture or source-culture, known as domestication or foreignisation. Translation of literature into English is minimal in world terms and there is seemingly a lack of statistically comparable data concerning the translation of cultural references. This study investigates and compares translation strategies of words denoting cultural references in two translations of the 1998 Swedish Nordic Noir novel Sprängaren by Liza Marklund. The methodology in the study is based on descriptive translation studies, and a categorisation model for types of cultural references is used, as well as an adapted taxonomy model for evaluating translation strategies. Issues addressed are: what types of strategies are used; whether strategies change between translations; how the second translation stands in relation to the retranslation hypothesis and whether any general translation norms are apparent. Results show that a wide variety of translation strategies are used for different types of cultural references, with subtle differences in strategies used in each translation. However, both translations appear to be more domestication-oriented with little overall movement towards to the source culture, as the retranslation hypothesis suggests.

  • Grafström, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Centre for Organizational Research (SCORE).
    Windell, Karolina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Centre for Organizational Research (SCORE).
    Självgenererande nyhetsjournalistik: När åsikter blir nyheter2019Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här rapporten analyserar vi nyhetsflödet kring Nya Tiders medverkan på Bok- och biblioteksmässan i Göteborg 2016. Tidningens medverkan fick stor uppmärksamhet i både traditionella och sociala medier. Den omfattande nyhetsbevakningen väcker frågor om hur nyheter skapas och hur de hålls vid liv. När blir egentligen en händelse till en nyhet? Syftet med rapporten är därför att skapa förståelse för hur en nyhet konstrueras och hur den hålls vid liv över tid. Vi är särskilt intresserade av att förstå hur olika aktörers samspel – informationsutbyte – påverkar förutsättningarna för hur en nyhet överlever. Vi använder ett institutionellt organisationsteoretiskt perspektiv för att förstå hur normer som styr nyhetsjournalistikens innehåll och format reproduceras och förändras i utbytet mellan aktörer på det nyhetsproducerande fältet. Vår analys visar att bevakningen initialt i hög grad följde förväntade och etablerade normer för nyhetsproduktion till att över tid i högre grad vara motiverat och pådrivet av åsiktsmaterial i form av ledare, krönikor och olika typer av debatter med journalister. Nyhetsflödet kom därigenom att präglas av principen att vad andra journalisterna har att säga om det inträffade betraktades som en nyhet i sig; en utveckling som vi förstår som en självgenererande nyhetsspiral. Dels får händelsen sprängkraft av att sakfrågan relaterar till ytterst centrala principer för det journalistiska fältet – yttrandefrihetens gränser – det vill säga vem som ska och bör samt under vilka förhållanden uttrycka sig i det offentliga rummet. Dels drivs nyheten fram av att journalister får kommentera, analysera och uttrycka sina åsikter om det är rätt eller fel att Nya Tider medverkar på Bok- och biblioteksmässan och att det innehållet anses vara stoff till fortsatt nyhetsproduktion. Studien väcker frågor om vad som händer när åsiktsinnehåll blir i centrum för och motiverar att en nyhetsberättelse drivs framåt – en utveckling som kan tänkas stärkas i takt med att det journalistiska nyhetstempot ökar och resurserna minskar. 

  • Murholm, Mariella
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Eriksson, Linn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Psykologiska kontrakt och HR-yrkesverksammas karriär-förväntningar: En kvalitativ studie om upplevelsen av brutna psykologiska kontrakt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Vad beror det på att vissa anställda erbjuds karriärmöjligheter och andra typer av utvecklingsmöjligheter av sin arbetsgivare på en arbetsplats och andra inte? Att en anställd söker en tjänst internt och besitter en lång erfarenhet eller högre utbildning men en nyligen anställd som nyligen börjat får jobbet, eller att en anställd helt plötsligt inte får stanna kvar på sin arbetsplats utan rimlig förklaring? Dessa händelser är exempel av situationer som uppstår dagligen inom olika organisationer och arbetsplatser, där anställda och arbetsgivare har olika uppfattningar om vilka förväntningar och löften de har gentemot varandra. Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka dessa komplexa förväntningar närmare med utgångspunkt i teoretiska antaganden om så kallade psykologiska kontrakt (även kallad informella och osynliga kontrakt). Dessa kontrakt är motsatsen till formella skriftliga kontrakt där titel, befattning och lön framgår. Psykologiska kontrakt handlar om vilka outtalade löften, åtaganden och förväntningar som finns mellan arbetsgivare och anställd, vad man tror att man är överens om men som forskningen visar att vi oftast inte är. Vad får det för konsekvenser när de psykologiska kontrakten bryts?

    Psykologiska kontrakt finns i alla relationer, mellan familjemedlemmar, inom vänskapsrelationer, på arbetsplatsen osv. I denna studie fokuserar vi på att undersöka de psykologiska kontrakten ur en arbetstagares synvinkel gällande karriärutveckling och utvecklingsmöjligheter hen upplever sig ha på sin nuvarande, eller hade på en tidigare arbetsgivare. Med hjälp det teoretiska ramverket kring psykologiska kontrakt som utgångspunkt genomfördes åtta kvalitativa intervjuer med yrkesverksamma tjänstemän inom Human Resources (HR). Resultaten visar att flera av respondenterna har haft erfarenheter utav brutna psykologiska kontrakt genom arbetslivet, på både låg och hög nivå. Det visar sig även att våra respondenter har väldigt liknande åsikter om hur deras karriärutveckling leds i första hand personligen av dem själva som högst ansvariga men att det även måste ske med en känsla av trygghet till chefen och dess stöd i en växelverkan. Att chefen håller det hen lovar och att den anställde känner sig rättvis behandlad framhölls av respondenterna som mycket betydelsefullt för deras välbefinnande.

  • Järverot, Eira
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Varufierade vänner: En studie av tre karriärböcker om influencerskap och deras framställning av relationen mellan följare och influencer2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna uppsats undersöks influenceryrket utifrån de tre karriärböckerna Hej, jag heter Mirza och jag är influencer (av Mirza Bico), Yrke: Influencer (av Linda Hörnfeldt) och Digital passion (av Frida Boisen) vars författare själva på olika sätt jobbar med sina sociala medier. Studien bygger på tidigare forskning som gett uttryck för kändisskapet på sociala medier som utmärkande av både närhet till följare och förhållningssättet till sig själv som en vara. Uppsatsens syfte är att undersöka upprätthållande av den närhet till följare, som visats i tidigare forskning, parallellt med tillgodoseendet av det ekonomiska intresset i att de säljer reklamutrymme på sina sociala medier – vilket får följarna att framstå som kunder. Böckerna analyseras utifrån ett marxistiskt teoretiskt ramverk, med grunden i Georg Lukács teorier och begreppen reifikation och varufiering. Reifikation innebär en anpassning efter kapitalistiska samhällets strukturer och relationer, vilket tar sig uttryck i den borgerliga människans medvetande. Varufiering syftar till processen som gör saker, arbetskraft eller personer till varor.

    Studien visar att den upplevda närheten som beskrivs till följarna tycks upprätthållas genom objektivering av personliga egenskaper, till att fylla funktionen att få följarna att återvända till kanalen. Den kalkylerbarhet av egenskaperna som framstår i beskrivningarna av relationen liknar en anpassning efter den rationalisering som Lukács menar utmärker det kapitalistiska produktionssättet. Relationen tycks varufieras då företag köper utrymme för att marknadsföra produkter för influencerns följare. Det tycks dock som att en influencer samtidigt behöver förhålla sig till krav på öppenhet och ärlighet gentemot följarna, vilka uttrycks i böckerna, vilket jag tolkar som följarnas önskan efter någonting genuint mänskligt och icke-reifierat. Det ekonomiska intresset tycks tätt sammantvinnat med upprätthållandet av vad som framstår som en nära relation, och ställer krav den marknadsföring som görs att framstå som uppriktig. För att uppnå detta tycks en influencers hela liv reifieras till en arena för det personliga varumärket. Detta kan även ses som ett absurt uttryck av vad C.S Cremin kallar det post-ironiska tillståndet, där kapitalismens kultur inkorporeras i personen.

  • Hjerten Njem, Li
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Manneheimer, Jakob
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Fotboll som integrationsarena2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Premat, Christophe
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    La francophonie, entre littérature et politique2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The presentation will focus on the impact of the institutional discourse produced by the organization of Francophonie on the aesthetical canon of “littérature francophone”. In the first part of the seminar, there will be a comparison between the history of Francophonie and the history of littérature francophone, the analysis of key actors such as Léopold Sédar Senghor who mixed political discourse with literary comments before dealing with the difference between francodoxie and francophonie. The main focus is on the ideological discourse on French language.

  • von Peltzer, Elise
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies.
    La actitud hacia el aprendizaje del léxico en la enseñanza de ELE: Un estudio sobre las actitudes de alumnos y profesores en el bachillerato2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [es]

    El presente estudio sobre la enseñanza de español como lengua extranjera (ELE) intenta establecer qué actitud tienen los profesores y los alumnos hacia la adquisición del léxico y si esta actitud afecta la enseñanza. 

    En el aprendizaje de las lenguas, el conocimiento léxico es una parte fundamental y, por eso, los objetivos principales de este trabajo han sido evaluar qué opinan los informantes sobre dicha materia. Dos grupos de nivel 3 (Steg 3), en total 40 alumnos, han compartido su opinión a través de un cuestionario. El cuestionario nos permitió evaluar la actitud individual de cada alumno y al mismo tiempo establecer motivaciones u otros factores que podían afectar la adquisición en la sala de clase.

    Considerando que los profesores en la sala de ELE muchas veces son los únicos representantes del idioma, también se investigó cómo ellos motivan a los alumnos a aprender palabras, es decir, cómo influyen en la actitud hacia la materia. Asimismo, los dos profesores formaron parte de una entrevista y reflexionaron cómo su propia actitud hacia el léxico afecta la implementación de la materia en clase. 

    Los resultados de la investigación mostraron algunas diferencias entre los profesores y sus alumnos. Así se confirmaron nuestra hipótesis sobre el rol significativo del profesor en la sala de ELE, y que, de cierto modo, la actitud que se genera hacia el léxico del español depende de la actitud del mismo profesor.

  • Östergren, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Martikainen, Pekka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). University of Helsinki, Finland; The Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Germany.
    Tarkiainen, Lasse
    Elstad, Jon Ivar
    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik
    Contribution of smoking and alcohol consumption to income differences in life expectancy: evidence using Danish, Finnish, Norwegian and Swedish register data2019In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Despite being comparatively egalitarian welfare states, the Nordic countries have not been successful in reducing health inequalities. Previous studies have suggested that smoking and alcohol contribute to this pattern. Few studies have focused on variations in alcohol-related and smoking-related mortality within the Nordic countries. We assess the contribution of smoking and alcohol to differences in life expectancy between countries and between income quintiles within countries.

    Methods We collected data from registers in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden comprising men and women aged 25–79 years during 1995–2007. Estimations of alcohol-related mortality were based on underlying and contributory causes of death on individual death certificates, and smoking-related mortality was based on an indirect method that used lung cancer mortality as an indicator for the population-level impact of smoking on mortality.

    Results About 40%–70% of the between-country differences in life expectancy in the Nordic countries can be attributed to smoking and alcohol. Alcohol-related and smoking-related mortality also made substantial contributions to income differences in life expectancy within countries. The magnitude of the contributions were about 30% in Norway, Sweden and among Finnish women to around 50% among Finnish men and in Denmark.

    Conclusions Smoking and alcohol consumption make substantial contributions to both between-country differences in mortality among the Nordic countries and within-country differences in mortality by income. The size of these contributions vary by country and sex.

  • Lindmark, Dulguun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Ethnology, History of Religions and Gender Studies. 1992.
    Balettkroppen som medel och mål: En etnologisk studie om balettdansares förståelse av kroppens betydelse2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med min uppsats är att undersöka kroppens betydelse inom baletten med hjälp av före detta balettelever samt professionella yrkesbalettdansare och deras berättelser om sina personliga erfarenheter och upplevelser av att dansa. Detta med hjälp av filosofen Iris Marion-Youngs resonemang och Judith Butlers genusteori. Genom intervjuer med sex informanter, visas hur de förstår kroppen som en process och ett görande. I analysen framgår hur kroppen starkt påverkas beroende på kön och balettutbildningen.  En balettdansares kropp skapas, formas och omformas i skolan enligt gällande normer för teknik och könsföreställningar. Men också utseende och kroppsideal påverkas. Det som vi upplever som beständigt, ursprungligt, stabilt och som fysiska fakta hos kroppar för män och kvinnor är en produkt av kulturella normer och värderingar. Skolan bidrar till att kropparna övas på bestämda sätt. Den gör alltså, genom föreställningar om manligt och kvinnligt, att små flickor och pojkar uppmuntras till att träna och röra på sina kroppar på olika sätt.

  • Rehbinder, Caspian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Konflikt och förändring i svensk arbetskraftsinvandringspolitisk debatt 2008–20182019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish migration policy and the debate surrounding it has undergone significant changes during the ten years that have past since the reform of 2008. This thesis looks at the debate in the Swedish parliament on labour migration from 2008 to 2018, and answers questions. 1. What are the conflict lines in Swedish labour migration policy debate? 2. How has the parties’ argumentation on labour immigration policy changed over time? To answer the questions, type arguments are created on a two-dimensional field with a material and an non-material axis, as well as previous experience of how parties argued for more open or restrictive policies. The arguments are coded with the type arguments used. The Swedish parties can be divided in two groups: five parties that are consistently for a more open labour migration policy – the Moderates, Centre Party, Christian Democrats, Liberals and Green Party – and three parties that are consistently for a more restrictive policy – the Social Democrats, Left Party and Sweden Democrats. The two-dimensional model of migration policy conflict is poorly suited to describe the conflict between these clusters. Among the open, the centre-right parties and especially the Moderates, use a more material argumentation, while the Green Party use a more non-material argumentation. Among the restrictive, the Social Democrats and Left Party use almost exclusively references to the fact that labor migration risks pressing wages and conditions on the Swedish labour market, while the Sweden Democrats also refer to other arguments. Almost no argumentation for more restrictive policy is non-material. Over time, the argumentation for a more open labour migration changed significantly towards more material and less non-material arguments, while the restrictive argumentation has remained unchanged. There is probably a connection with the development of the migration policy debate towards a more restrictive discourse.