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  • Vollbrecht, Nathalie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    ”Känslan att inte bli bedömd”: En studie om tre svenska som andraspråkslärares arbete med formativ bedömning2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie syftar till att undersöka hur tre svenska som andraspråkslärare tolkar och beskriver att det använder formativ bedömning i svenska som andraspråk. Forskningsfrågorna som ställts upp lyder: "Hur tolkas formativ bedömning i svenska som andraspråksundervisningen och vilken inställning har lärarna till arbetssättet?" och "Hur beskriver lärarna sitt arbete med formativ bedömning i svenska som andraspråk?". Vidare ska studien bidra till ökad kunskap kring hur implementering av formativ bedömning i svenska som andraspråkundervisning kan gå till. Slutsatser som kunnat dras är att formativ bedömning ur ett svenska som andraspråksperspektiv är ett relativt glest beforskat område. Däremot finns en hel del forskning av formativ bedömning som generellt begrepp och andraspråksundervisning separat av tillgå vilket legat som grund för denna studie.

    Materialet har samlats in genom semistrukturerade intervjuer vilket är en rekommenderad metod att använda när målet är att få en bild av människors individuella tankar och erfarenheter. Med hjälp av transkribering och en tematisk analysmetod har resultatet framställts med utdrag från respektive respondenters intervjuer Resultatet visar att respondenterna i denna studie ställer sig positiva till användning av formativ bedömning och att de ser ett behov av att tydliggöra mål och kriterier för andraspråkselever. Vidare visar resultatet att respondenterna anser sig undervisa enligt ett formativt arbetssätt men att de alla gånger inte följer strategierna som finns för arbetssättet till punkt och pricka. Kamratbedömning lyfts av samtliga som ett effektiva sätt att arbeta formativt med elever för att dels utveckla självreglerat lärande, dels för att spara tid vid rättning. Vidare poängterar samtliga respondenter att bedömningen i svenska som andraspråk är lika komplex som i andra ämnen men att det är skillnad i vad man behöver fokusera på i SVA. Respondenterna önskar därför att kartläggning av elevernas kunskaper blir mer organiserat på skolorna de arbetar på.

  • Laskowska, Matilda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Direktintegrerade nyanlända elever i årskurserna F-3: En studie om hur klasslärare arbetar språk- och kunskapsutvecklande för att främja elevers lärande2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I och med flyktingvågen år 2015 kom benämningen nyanlända elever att uppmärksammas inom skolvärlden och svensk forskning. Detta gör att en undersökning inom ämnet blir betydelsefull för att möjliggöra en likvärdig utbildning som främjar språk- och kunskapsutveckling för nyanlända elever. Syftet med denna undersökning är att skapa en tolkning av hur lärare i årskurserna F-3 arbetar för att möjliggöra detta. Ytterligare en fråga som undersökts är vad lärare anser är viktiga förutsättningar för att nyanlända elever ska nå skolframgång. Metoder som används i undersökningen är kvalitativa semistrukturerade intervjuer samt observationer med fem lärare som undervisar i någon av årskurserna F-3 i skildra delar av Stockholmsområdet. Resultatet i denna undersökning påvisar att lärarna tillämpar genrepedagogik, elever som resurser för varandra samt multimodala verktyg för att främja både språk- och kunskapsutveckling. Det som däremot sällan förekom om lärarna inte hade förutsättningarna för det var stöttning i form av modersmålet samt explicit stöttning från läraren. Vidare kritiseras placeringstypen direktintegrering av lärarna i studien då de menar att det inte finns rätta förutsättningar för dessa elevers behov i en ordinarie klass. Studiens resultat påvisar därmed en avsaknad av kompetens inom området samt att placeringstypen direktintegrering bör vidareutvecklas för att möjliggöra en likvärdig utbildning samt språk- och kunskapsutveckling för nyanlända elever

  • Gafton, Emanuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Oskar Klein Centre; Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes; Nordic Optical Telescope.
    Attraction and Rejection: On the love–hate relationship between stars and black holes2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Solitary stars wandering too close to the supermassive black hole at the centre of their galaxy may become tidally disrupted, if the tidal forces due to the black hole overcome the self-gravity holding the star together. Depending on the strength of the encounter, the star may be partially disrupted, resulting in a surviving stellar core and two tidal arms, or may be completely disrupted, resulting in a long and thin tidal stream expected to fall back and circularize into an accretion disc (the two cases are illustrated on the cover of this thesis).

    While some aspects of a tidal disruption can be described analytically with reasonable accuracy, such an event is the highly non-linear outcome of the interplay between the stellar hydrodynamics and self-gravity, tidal accelerations from the black hole, radiation, potentially magnetic fields and, in extreme cases, nuclear reactions. In the vicinity of the black hole, general relativistic effects become important in determining both the fate of the star and the subsequent evolution of the debris stream.

    In this thesis we present a new approach for studying the relativistic regime of tidal disruptions. It combines an exact relativistic description of the hydrodynamical evolution of a test fluid in a fixed curved spacetime with a Newtonian treatment of the fluid's self-gravity. The method, though trivial to incorporate into existing Newtonian codes, yields very accurate results at minimal additional computational expense.

    Equipped with this new tool, we set out to systematically explore the parameter space of tidal disruptions, focusing on the effects of the impact parameter (describing the strength of the disruption) and of the black hole spin on the morphology and energetics of the resulting debris stream. We also study the effects of general relativity on partial disruptions, in order to determine the range of impact parameters at which partial disruptions occur for various black hole masses, and the effects of general relativity on the velocity kick imparted to the surviving core. Finally, we simulate the first part of a tidal disruption with our code and then use the resulting debris distribution as input for a grid-based, general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics code, with which we follow the formation and evolution of the resulting accretion disc.

  • Holmström, Ingela
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Teckenspråksforskningen under 2000-talet: En översikt2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns många olika inriktningar inom teckenspråksforskningen idag och en avsevärd mängd studier utifrån olika perspektiv och på olika språkliga nivåer. I den här forskningsrapporten görs en översikt över svensk och internationell teckenspråksforskning under 2000-talet, med särskilt fokus på allmänspråkvetenskap. Rapporten berör dock även kognitiv lingvistik, psyko- och neurolingvistik samt sociolingvistik. Dessutom fokuseras i ett varsitt avsnitt barns teckenspråk och inlärning av teckenspråk som andraspråk. Det som tas upp är ett urval av den forskning som bedrivits och rapporten gör inte anspråk på att vara heltäckande, men ger utöver de översiktliga beskrivningarna också ett stort antal referenser för fortsatt egen läsning inom de olika områden som tas upp.

  • Asprem, Egil
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Ethnology, History of Religions and Gender Studies.
    Aren't We Living in a Disenchanted World?2019In: Hermes Explains: Thirty Questions about Western Esotericism / [ed] Wouter J. Hanegraaff, Peter Forshaw, Marco Pasi, Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2019, p. 13-20Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Svendsen, Jens Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Marketing.
    Ambulance rushing through the blistering wind: on four poems2019In: Captiver Calliope Ten / [ed] John Schouten, Hilary Downey, John F. Sherry, Jr., Montreal, Quebec, Canada: CCT, Concordia University , 2019, p. 37-40Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Svendsen, Jens Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School, Marketing.
    Ambulace rushing through the blistering wind: in four poems2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • Honigs, Katrina
    et al.
    Lombardi, Luigi
    Tirabassi, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics. University of Bergen.
    Derived equivalences of canonical covers of hyperelliptic and Enriques surfaces in positive characteristic2019In: Mathematische Zeitschrift, ISSN 0025-5874, E-ISSN 1432-1823Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We prove that any Fourier–Mukai partner of an abelian surface over an algebraically closed field of positive characteristic is isomorphic to a moduli space of Gieseker-stable sheaves. We apply this fact to show that the set of Fourier–Mukai partners of a canonical cover of a hyperelliptic or Enriques surface over an algebraically closed field of characteristic greater than three is trivial. These results extend earlier results of Bridgeland–Maciocia and Sosna to positive characteristic.

  • Topor, Alain
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. University of Agder, Norway.
    von Greiff, Ninive
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Skogens, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Micro-affirmations and Recovery for Persons with Mental Health and Alcohol and Drug Problems: User and Professional Experience-Based Practice and Knowledge2019In: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, ISSN 1557-1874, E-ISSN 1557-1882Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recurrent factors contributing to a recovery process from co-occurring mental health and addiction problems mentioned by users and professionals have been analyzed as part of working alliances and helpful relationships. Still, we lack knowledge about how helpful relationships are developed in daily practice. In this article, we focus on the concrete construction of professional helpful relationships. Forty persons in recovery and fifteen professionals were interviewed. The interviews were analyzed according to thematic analysis, resulting in three themes presented as paradoxes (1) My own decision, but with the help of others; (2) The need for structures and going beyond them; and (3) Small trivial things of great importance. Micro-affirmations have a central role in creating helpful relationships by confirming the individuals involved as more than solely users or professionals. More attention and appreciation should be paid to practices involving micro-affirmations.

  • Mohamed El Hassan, Ashraf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Multiparty Quantum Communication and fs-laser Written Integrated Optics Circuits2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantum information science, the rapidly developing interdisciplinary field,  gives power to the information and communications technologies (ICT) by  providing secure communication, precision measurements, ultra-powerful simulation and ultimately computation. It is well known that photons are an ideal candidate for encoding the quantum bit, or "qubit", in quantum information and specially for quantum communication. This thesis consists of two main parts. In the first part, realization of quantum security tasks using optical fibers has been implemented. Bell tests are a cornerstone of quantum key distribution and are necessary for device-independent security. Device-independent Bell inequality test must be performed with care to avoid loopholes. Time-energy entanglement has a distinct advantage over polarization as it is easier transmitted over longer distances, therefore, it may be preferable as a quantum resource to perform reliable key distribution. Novel multi-party communication protocols: secret sharing, detectable Byzantine agreement, clock synchronization, and reduction of communication complexity, all these quantum protocols has been realized without compromising on detection efficiency or generating extremely complex many-particle entangled states. These protocols are realized in an optical fiber setup with sequential phase modulation on single photons. In recent years there has been great interest in fabricating ICT optical setups in low scale in glass chips, which would replace the bulk setups on tables used today. In the second part of the thesis, realization of photonic waveguides in glass has been implemented. Using femtosecond laser inscription of waveguides in glass, photonic quantum technologies and integrated optical circuits are becoming more and more important in miniaturization of optical circuits written in different glass samples for the quantum optics and quantum information processing. These platforms offer stability over the time-scales required for multi-photon coincidence based measurements. The study and optimization the different building blocks for integrated photonic quantum circuits, for instance the directional coupler and Mach-Zehnder interferometer is very important. The principal goal is to develop a method for design, fabrication and characterization of integrated optics circuits for further applications in quantum information. Incorporation of photon sources, detectors, and circuits integrating waveguides technology can be used to produce integrated photonics devices.

  • Linnarsson, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Shifting Regimes: State Formation and Political Reform in Early Modern Sweden2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How, and in what ways, could early modern state formation have promoted the development of modern democratic institutions? The research project Shifting Regimes: Representation, Administrative Reform and Institutional Change in Early Modern Sweden propose to answer this question by studying the interaction between the political and the administrative spheres during regime shifts in Sweden, c. 1527–1810. The wider purpose is to analyze the agency behind institutional change by comparing the actions of political leaders with those of major administrative bodies. To study how key decision-makers acted to influence the organization of the state the project will focus on several “critical junctures”, or periods when the Swedish state experienced substantial change in a relatively short time. This paper presents preliminary findings from one of the case studies in the larger project: the political regime shift and its consequences in 1765–1766. The case study applies the concept of ‘state capacity’ to give a theoretical explanation for the regime changes in Sweden in the mid 1760s.

  • Hughes, Patrick William
    Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, Germany.
    Between semelparity and iteroparity: Empirical evidence for a continuum of modes of parity2017In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 7, no 20, p. 8232-8261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of times an organism reproduces (i.e., its mode of parity) is a fundamental life‐history character, and evolutionary and ecological models that compare the relative fitnesses of different modes of parity are common in life‐history theory and theoretical biology. Despite the success of mathematical models designed to compare intrinsic rates of increase (i.e., density‐independent growth rates) between annual‐semelparous and perennial‐iteroparous reproductive schedules, there is widespread evidence that variation in reproductive allocation among semelparous and iteroparous organisms alike is continuous. This study reviews the ecological and molecular evidence for the continuity and plasticity of modes of parity—that is, the idea that annual‐semelparous and perennial‐iteroparous life histories are better understood as endpoints along a continuum of possible strategies. I conclude that parity should be understood as a continuum of different modes of parity, which differ by the degree to which they disperse or concentrate reproductive effort in time. I further argue that there are three main implications of this conclusion: (1) that seasonality should not be conflated with parity; (2) that mathematical models purporting to explain the general evolution of semelparous life histories from iteroparous ones (or vice versa) should not assume that organisms can only display either an annual‐semelparous life history or a perennial‐iteroparous one; and (3) that evolutionary ecologists should base explanations of how different life‐history strategies evolve on the physiological or molecular basis of traits underlying different modes of parity.

  • Hughes, P. William
    Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, Germany; University of Cologne, Germany.
    Minimal-Risk Seed Heteromorphism: Proportions of Seed Morphs for Optimal Risk-Averse Heteromorphic Strategies2018In: Frontiers in Plant Science, ISSN 1664-462X, E-ISSN 1664-462X, Vol. 9, article id 1412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seed heteromorphism is the reproductive strategy characterized by the simultaneous production of multiple seed types. While comparing heteromorphic to monomorphic strategies is mathematically simple, there is no explicit test for assessing which ratio of seed morphs minimizes fitness variance, and hence offers a basis for comparing different heteromorphic strategies. Such a test may be particularly valuable when more than two distinct morphs are present, since many strategies may have equivalent geometric fitnesses. As noted by Gillespie (1974), in these cases avoiding rare but evolutionarily important instances of severe reductions in fitness involves the minimization of variation in fitness—i.e., risk. Here I compute the optimal proportions of two or more seed morphs for heteromorphic strategies that either: (1) minimize total fitness variance; or (2) maximize the fitness-risk ratio—i.e., the “extra” fitness accrued per unit of “extra” fitness variance. This work thereby provides a testable null hypothesis to estimate the optimal frequencies of seed morphs when multiple heteromorphic strategies have evolved in environments with severe fitness risks. Moreover, it also permits the calculation of expected seed morph frequencies when more than two seed morphs are produced.

  • Hughes, P. William
    et al.
    Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, Germany.
    Simons, Andrew M.
    Microsatellite evidence for obligate autogamy, but abundant genetic variation in the herbaceous monocarp Lobelia inflata (Campanulaceae)2015In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 28, no 11, p. 2068-2077Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although high levels of self‐fertilization (>85%) are not uncommon in nature, organisms reproducing entirely through selfing are extremely rare. Predominant selfers are expected to have low genetic diversity because genetic variation is distributed among rather than within lineages and is readily lost through genetic drift. We examined genetic diversity at 22 microsatellite loci in 105 individuals from a population of the semelparous herb Lobelia inflata L. and found (i) no evidence of heterozygosity through outcrossing, yet (ii) high rates of genetic polymorphism (2–4 alleles per locus). Furthermore, this genetic variation among lineages was associated with phenotypic traits (e.g. flower colour, size at first flower). Coupled with previous work characterizing the fitness consequences of reproductive timing, our results suggest that temporal genotype‐by‐environment interaction may maintain genetic variation and, because genetic variation occurs only among lineages, this simple system offers a unique opportunity for future tests of this mechanism.

  • Hughes, Patrick William
    et al.
    Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, Germany; University of Cologne, Germany.
    Soppe, Wim J. J.
    Albani, Maria C.
    Seed traits are pleiotropically regulated by the flowering time gene PERPETUAL FLOWERING 1 (PEP1) in the perennial Arabis alpina2019In: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 28, no 5, p. 1183-1201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The life cycles of plants are characterized by two major life history transitions—germination and the initiation of flowering—the timing of which are important determinants of fitness. Unlike annuals, which make the transition from the vegetative to reproductive phase only once, perennials iterate reproduction in successive years. The floral repressor PERPETUAL FLOWERING 1 (PEP1), an ortholog of FLOWERING LOCUS C, in the alpine perennial Arabis alpina ensures the continuation of vegetative growth after flowering and thereby restricts the duration of the flowering episode. We performed greenhouse and garden experiments to compare flowering phenology, fecundity and seed traits between A. alpina accessions that have a functional PEP1 allele and flower seasonally and pep1 mutants and accessions that carry lesions in PEP1 and flower perpetually. In the garden, perpetual genotypes flower asynchronously and show higher winter mortality than seasonal ones. PEP1 also pleiotropically regulates seed dormancy and longevity in a way that is functionally divergent from FLC. Seeds from perpetual genotypes have shallow dormancy and reduced longevity regardless of whether they after‐ripened in plants grown in the greenhouse or in the experimental garden. These results suggest that perpetual genotypes have higher mortality during winter but compensate by showing higher seedling establishment. Differences in seed traits between seasonal and perpetual genotypes are also coupled with differences in hormone sensitivity and expression of genes involved in hormonal pathways. Our study highlights the existence of pleiotropic regulation of seed traits by hub developmental regulators such as PEP1, suggesting that seed and flowering traits in perennial plants might be optimized in a coordinated fashion.