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  • Nyberg, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Den komplexa fritidsledaren: En konflikt mellan yrkesrollen och orosanmälningar2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att synliggöra hur fritidsledarna ser på orosanmälningar genom att undersöka hur de konstruerar fritidsledaryrket och sin möjlighet att agera vid oro för en ungdom på fritidsgården. Nio fritidsledare intervjuades enskilt och materialet analyserades ur ett diskurspsykologiskt perspektiv. Resultatet visar att fritidsledarna konstruerar en omfattande yrkesroll som förebilder, relationsbyggare och stödjande vuxna med en kompensatorisk funktion. När oro för en ungdom uppstår är en orosanmälan inte aktuell i första hand eftersom intentionen att hjälpa ungdomen står i konflikt med vad fritidsledarna upplever blir utfallet av en orosanmälan. Förhållningssättet medför att de tar hänsyn till relationer och ungdomens familj. Fritidsledarnas konstruktioner av yrkesrollen visar att de har god potential att uppmärksamma ungdomar som far illa. Däremot upplevs fritidsledarrollen som omfattande vilket tillsammans med en misstro mot socialtjänsten utgör hinder för att anmäla. Kunskap om socialtjänstens arbetssätt, mer praktiknära riktlinjer kring anmälningsplikten och en tydligare samsyn kring yrkesuppdraget skulle därmed kunna utgöra ett stöd för orosanmälningar.

  • Björkstrand, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Balkstam, Eira
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Willing, Josephine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Sign language dictionary as a digital tool in Sign language interpreting education: Score evaluation of sentences for CEFR levels A1-B22019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • Björkstrand, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Balkstam, Eira
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Willing, Josephine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Sign language dictionary as a digital tool in L2 teaching: Score evaluation of sentences for CEFR levels A1-B22019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • Klingborg, Jonatan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics. jonatan.klingborg@gmail.com.
    L'acquisizione del lessico L2 in un programma study abroad: Uno studio longitudinale di apprendenti svedesi di italiano come lingua seconda2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates whetherthe context of learning contributes to the vocabulary acquisitionin asecond language. Swedish L2 learnersof Italian studying at Stockholm universityare compared to Swedish L2 learners studying atthe same program in a study abroad context inRome. The study is longitudinal,and the development of vocabulary knowledge is measured by the Vocabulary Levels Testwith a month in between the tests. Both groups showeda higher knowledge of low frequency words compared to high frequencywords,by the secondtest there had also been establishedan increaseof vocabulary knowledge. However, they study found that the group studying in an at home-contextoutperformed their peers in the study abroad program in Rome in both of the tests.

  • Dutt, Khaleda Gani
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    The Importance of Metanarratives in Comparative Education Research: Situating Inclusive Education in the Global South: snapshots from India and Bangladesh2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Public defence: 2019-11-15 10:00 William-Olssonsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Ul Hassan, Mahmood
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    Achievement tests and optimal design for pretesting of questions2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Achievement tests are used to measure the students' proficiency in a particular knowledge. Computerized achievement tests (e.g. GRE and SAT) are usually based on questions available in an item bank to measure the proficiency of students. An item bank is a large collection of items with known characteristics (e.g. difficulty). Item banks are continuously updated and revised with new items in place of obsolete, overexposed or flawed items over time. This thesis is devoted to updating and maintaining the item bank with high-quality questions and better estimations of item parameters (item calibration). 

    The thesis contains four manuscripts. One paper investigates the impact of student ability dimensionality on the estimated parameters and the other three deal with item calibration.

    In the first paper, we investigate how the ability dimensionality influences the estimates of the item-parameters. By a case and simulation study, we found that a multidimensional model better discriminates among the students.

    The second paper describes a method for optimal item calibration by efficiently selecting the examinees based on their ability levels. We develop an algorithm which selects intervals for the students' ability levels for optimal calibration of the items. We also develop an equivalence theorem for item calibration to verify the optimal design.  

    The algorithm developed in Paper II becomes complicated with the increase of number of calibrated items. So, in Paper III we develop a new exchange algorithm based on the equivalence theorem developed in Paper II.

    Finally, the fourth paper generalizes the exchange algorithm described in Paper III by assuming that the students have multidimensional abilities to answer the questions.

  • Public defence: 2019-11-15 13:00 Lilla Hörsalen, Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Stockholm
    Jønland Højsgaard, Trine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Reframed Identity: Red Cross nurses' identity formation between 1945 and 19772019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim is to explore the construction of nurse identity at the Red Cross Nursing School (RCNS) in Sweden, between 1945 and 1977, when nursing became part of the system of higher education in Sweden. Occupational identity is understood as a construct both of social learning and of a self-image. The empirical data consist of documents from the Red Cross Archive concerning the training of nurses and of interviews with nurses trained during the studied period. A hermeneutical interpretative method has been used. The result showed that the period studied was divided into two different phases. The first phase between 1945 and the end of the 1960s, is called the post war phase. The following phase, from the 1960s until 1977, is called the reform friendly phase. RCNS was in the post war phase a kind of total institution, based on a particular belonging to a very special and highly respected social community, reinforced by the student nurses being dressed in the same uniform and living under the same strong authority in a quite homogeneous group. The training was an introduction to a life-long membership in the total Red Cross Nurse community. This community was in the reform friendly phase challenged by diverse external changes in society. Within a period of approximately ten years, much came to be questioned, and many previously important customs and habits were abandoned. The total community started to dilute, and the lives of students changed gradually passing to a social arrangement where they slept, lived and worked in different places with different people under different authorities. The total community was impossible to modernise, built as it was on pre-modern values and hierarchies. This led to a breakdown of the traditional Red Cross nurse identity based on honour, where they were first of all Red Cross sisters. While the uniform occupational identity was challenged, more and more nurses combined family and work. This meant that their self-identities became more multidimensional. The key to our understanding of the Red Cross nursing education and the shift that took place in the late 1960s is thus to be found in the transformation of the internal collective, where nurses no longer lived and 2 learnt the traditional Red Cross codes of honour and conduct. Gradually, nurse training was integrated into higher education. This was a major reframing of the occupational identity formation, from specially selected Red Cross nurse students being trained into a total community of experienced Red Cross nurses, to an academic education of professional nurses.

  • Public defence: 2019-11-15 13:00 Nordenskiöldsalen, Stockholm
    Nystrand von Unge, Elin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Ethnology, History of Religions and Gender Studies.
    Samla samtid: Insamlingspraktiker och temporalitet på kulturhistoriska museer i Sverige2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is a study of contemporary collecting practices at museums of cultural history in Sweden. The study takes off from two questions: How is this practice of collecting understood at museums of cultural history today, and how are these modes of collecting effected when museums explicitly collect the “present” rather than the “past”? The aim is to examine how the present day has been collected, what modes of ordering were activated, as well as what relational effects contemporary collecting has had on the knowledge-building processes within the practice.

    The overall theoretical framework of the study primarily stands on sociologist John Law’s understanding of actor network theory. The actor network model is used as a theoretical tool to understand how agency and processes of knowledge production work. In addition, theoretical concepts from memory studies, as well as theories on knowledge building processes, are applied.The empirical material is collected through a combination of interviews and participant observations. Furthermore, archival studies were executed at the Nordiska museet archive.

    Through four chapters, the modes of ordering the Time, the Collectors, the Objects, and the Ideas are examined. The material analysed shows that the cultural historical “hinterland” that shaped the modern museum have had lasting effects on museum-collecting at large, but also on contemporary collecting practices. However, the reversed is also true: Contemporary collecting often acts as an important tool to make the self-evident position of traditional collecting visible. As the act of collecting activates fundamental ethical and moral questions concerning time, place, and social conditions, the practice has had constant effects on museum work in general. Therefore, without an active and conscious collecting, the content of museum work is in risk of stagnating. It is not only through exhibitions and outreach work that museums should have a contemporary societal awareness, but the collecting practices also deserve a mental presence in public space. Stating this, a continued expansive collecting at museums of cultural history is a necessity, by which the general museum-work is pushed forward and expanded. To collect and record expressions of the same contemporary perspectives is here seen as an active way of dealing with the blinding effects of being in the present.

  • Public defence: 2019-11-15 10:00 Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Stockholm
    Srinivas, Vivek
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    To metal, or not to metal: Diverse mechanisms of O2-activation and radical storage in the ferritin superfamily2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Proteins in the Ferritin-like superfamily are characterized by a four alpha-helical structural motif. These proteins are distributed across all three kingdoms of life and perform a wide range of functions. Several members in this protein superfamily can activate dioxygen using a di-metal active site coordinated by four carboxylate and two histidine amino acid residues. The resulting diverse set of dioxygen activated intermediates is used in nature to perform complex redox chemical reaction in cells. The R2 subunit of class I Ribonucleotide reductase and soluble Methane monooxygenase are the most well-characterized groups of proteins in this superfamily. Upon oxygen (or reduced-oxygen) activation of the di-metal site, the R2 subunit can generate a catalytic radical required for the conversion of ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides, while soluble Methane monooxygenase can oxidize methane to methanol in an alternative form of carbon assimilation.

    The work presented in this thesis aims to better understand metal selectivity, working and the regulation of substrate specificity in various proteins of the Ferritin-like superfamily, and the development of a novel method to study radiation-sensitive intermediates. The papers discussed in this thesis present crystallographic and spectroscopic studies of several Ferritin-like superfamily proteins.

    In paper I, the assembly mechanisms of the heterodinuclear manganese-iron cofactor in a class Ic R2 protein and an R2-like ligand-binding oxidase are compared. Paper II presents the discovery of a novel radical-generating subunit subclass of Ribonucleotide reductase in Mollicutes, including mycoplasma pathogens, that breaks the paradigm of metal requirement for radical translocation and catalysis. This new subclass, denoted class Ie, is shown to instead use an unprecedented modified tyrosine DOPA residue in its four-helix bundle for radical translocation and storage. Paper III presents a new X-ray free-electron laser sample delivery system that combines acoustic droplet ejection with a drop-on-tape setup, allowing simultaneous multimodal X-ray diffraction and X-ray emission data collection. This setup is also shown to support photochemical and chemical activation of catalysis in crystals, allowing the study of radiation-sensitive transient reaction intermediates. We used this setup in paper IV to solve the first radiation damage-free crystallographic structures of the soluble methane monooxygenase hydroxylase and its regulatory subunit complex from Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b. The high-resolution crystal structures of the complex, in both di-ferrous and di-ferric oxidation states, illustrate the structural reorganization in the hydroxylase subunit upon binding to the regulatory subunit.

    These results illustrate the functional range and flexibility in the Ferritin-like protein superfamily. Including the distinctive metal discrimination in heterodinuclear metalloproteins, influencing substrate specificity in sMMO, and using a novel metal-free DOPA radical to catalyze ribonucleotide reduction in the class Ie R2 subclass. Experiments using the novel ADE-DOT setup also showed promising progress towards determining the highly sought-after structures of di-metal oxygen activated intermediates such as X and Q in subclass Ia R2 and sMMO, respectively.

  • Public defence: 2019-11-15 10:00 De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    H. Britton, Thérèse
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Att möta det levda: Möjligheter och hinder för förståelse av levd religion i en studiebesöksorienterad religionskunskapsundervisning2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The general aim of this study is to develop knowledge about how field visit-oriented religious teaching can contribute to students’ understanding of lived religion, in terms of inner diversity, religious practice and experiential dimensions. Previous research about Religious education (RE) shows that the Swedish non-confessional school subject “Religion” mainly deals with history, dogmas and concepts. Few students are concerned with the subject-matter itself in RE. "Secular" students talk about religion as something old-fashioned that concerns "the others". On the other hand, students who identify themselves religiously do not recognize what is being taught in school about their own tradition, since they miss perspectives concerning religion as part of everyday life, i.e., lived religion. A growing interest in individuals’ lived religion has also been identified in the field of religious studies. These circumstances related to field of RE serve as motivational ground for the present doctoral thesis.

    This thesis investigates designed RE-teaching in lower secondary school (year nine). The teaching design draws on findings reported in the licentiate thesis (Britton 2014).  Three theoretical approaches are used and integrated in a theoretical framework. The approaches applied to define and operationalize students’ understanding of lived religion are selected parts of Michail Bachtin's (1997) dialogue theory, Robert Jackson's (2002) interpretive approach of Religious education, and Meredith McGuire's (2008) religion sociology theories about lived religion.

    The empirical data were produced from selected parts of an enacted teaching design about Buddhism, including a field visit to a Tibetan-Buddhist congregation. The data consist of grade nine students' oral and written utterances from a lesson sequence, including lesson recordings, student journals, lesson exercises, assignments, group discussions and an examination. In addition, follow-up interviews were conducted with students, the teacher and the temple representative. Data were analysed using the integrated theoretical-analytical framework, in order to provide knowledge about what opportunities and obstacles in religious teaching that contribute to students’ understandings of lived religion.

    Three main results emerged. First, students' personal perspectives and values ​​of religion in general, and of the religious tradition studied (Buddhism) in particular, are important parts of students' understanding of lived religion. From students’ responses, some perspectives that interfered with their understanding of lived (Buddhist) religion were identified: student understandings that touch upon the links between individual freedom and religion; the relation between belief and religious practice and experiences; and ‘Western Buddhism’ in relation to Buddhism outside the West. Second, three didactical tools were constructed, aiming to develop RE teaching to further facilitate students’ understanding of lived religion: individual perspective, a diversity model and self-reflection. Didactical questions about representation, safe space and self-reflexivity came up. Third, there is support for arguing that lived religion as a perspective in the Swedish school subject of religion can be a goal as well as means to create a more inclusive religious education.

  • Isayeva, Anelya
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Managed realignment - a future climate change adaptation strategy in Sweden? Case studies from Swedish municipalities2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on exploring the concept of managed realignment as a potential climate change adaptation strategy in Sweden. The empirics is based on the qualitative case study research within three Swedish municipalities of Trelleborg, Halmstad and Karlstad. The concept of territorial governance was used as the analysis framework for the empirical data. The aim of this thesis is to contribute to further research on managed realignment in Sweden, point out on current constraints and potentials of managed realignment within Swedish context and the current needs for making it a potential climate adaptation strategy in Sweden.

  • Lindström, Jonathan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Childbearing among Polish migrant women in Sweden: A country-of-origin and country-of-destination approach2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines childbearing among Polish migrant women and their descendants in Sweden. While many studies have focused on immigrants' childbearing in relation to women in the destination country, this study uses a country-of-origin and a country-of-destination approach in order to more thoroughly examine the socialization, selection and adaptation hypotheses. Using a piecewise-exponential model, the transitions to first and second births are analyzed using Swedish register data and the Polish Generations and Gender survey (GGS). The results show that the Polish stayers and the first-generation have relatively similar fertility behavior in the transition to first birth but not in the transition to second birth. However, parts of the similarity in the transition to first birth can be attributed to marital status selection. By examining the 1.5-generation and the second-generation in relation to Swedish natives, it is possible to see fertility convergence across generations, both when it comes to timing and quantum. This study also shows that family migrants have higher risk of having a first child compared to migrants moving for other reasons. However, in the transition to second birth, there is no difference. 

  • Ölcer, Baris
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Formativ planering: Elevers lärande i fysik genom kontinuerlig återkoppling2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish and international studies show that Swedish students' results in physics have deteriorated. The aim of this study is to investigate whether students can achieve better study results if their work according to the course planning is checked continuously so that they are in phase with the planning. By continuously checking, one gets the opportunity to discover students who are lagging behind but also to see how the teaching has been absorbed by the students more generally. The study was done in two parallel upper secondary classes studying the basic course in physics and occurred between two test periods. Both classes had the same teacher, course book, course plan and exams. A few basic tasks where selected and assigned from the course plan and given to the test group but not to the control group. The test group students got their solutions checked and got feedback. The effect size of this intervention was measured and compared to the control group. The result showed that the test group had achieved a better result after the intervention. Even if the result was significant, it is too uncertain to be generalized, in view of the small sample size (16 students) who participated in the study. As participation in the survey was voluntary and non-grading, the number of submissions was not as many as it had been expected. The approach is time consuming both for teacher and student, but it makes visible why teachers should check their students and how this can be implemented.

  • Strømlid, Caroline
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Effects of Behavior Specific Praise Statements.: Teaching three teachers to use BSPS in class.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Being a teacher is not an easy job. There is an increased emphasis on evidence-based methods. Teacher praise is an effective classroom management tool. Behavior specific praise statements is a low intensity teacher delivered strategy where teachers say or write the precise behavior exhibited and how it met an expectation or affected academic/social achievement. This study aimed to increase Behavior Specific Praise Statements among three teachers in Mathematic, English and Social subject studies on student’s social behavior as a group. An intervention consisting of an hour of counseling, post-it notes, and self-registration was given. The teachers decided their own pre-set criteria. Two teachers sat a criterion of three and one teacher sat a criterion of six. The results showed that the intervention had an effect on the teachers use of BSPS. However, one teacher did not reach the pre-set criteria. Practical implications are discussed.

  • Sundell, Jessica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Psychopathic Personality Traits, Empathy, and Recognition of Facial Expressions of Emotions2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Psychopathic personality traits have been found to be associated with a variety of emotional deficits, including poor facial expression recognition, and reduced capacity to experience empathy. However, research has yielded conflicting results. This study investigated the relationship between psychopathic personality traits, facial emotion recognition, as well as empathy, in a community sample (n = 127), identified as having either low or elevated levels of psychopathic traits. Facial expression recognition was measured using the Hexagon task, which contains morphed facial expressions with two levels of expressivity. Psychopathic traits were assessed using the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory, and empathy was measured with the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. Individuals with elevated psychopathic traits did not display lower accuracy in facial expression recognition compared to the low psychopathic traits group, rather the reverse was found.  Weak to strong negative correlations were found between psychopathic traits and empathy. Zero to weak correlations was found between psychopathic traits and expression recognition, as well as between empathy and expression recognition. The results are compared with similar studies, and implications for the study of psychopathy and emotion recognition are discussed.  

  • Guström, Douglas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rädsla för våld och hot om våld, spelar socialt stöd någon roll?2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Dervisic, Jasenko
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Effects of Burnout Treatmenton Cognitive Functions and onSubjective Well-Being2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Burnout syndrome is increasingly affecting more people in Westerncountries. The question of treatment is important. In this study, we recruitedand investigated 27 burnout patients (16 women, 9 men) and 20 healthycontrols (8 men and 12 women) before and after an intervention. Theintervention consisted of a combination of both cognitive therapy, cognitivebehavioral therapy, individual counseling, and a form of mindfulness grouptherapy (centered around own body awareness) to see whether the treatmenthad an effect on cognitive functions possibly affected by burnout and onsubjective well-being. A battery of neuropsychological tests andquestionnaires were administered to all participants, once before treatment,and once after. All test scores were z transformed and reduced to compositevariables, measuring executive function, verbal memory function andpsychomotor function. No significant interaction effects between group andtest occasions were found. Treatment does not appear to influence cognitivefunctions affected in burnout. However, reports of subjective well-being asmeasured by questionnaires improved after treatment.

  • Borg, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Exploring the time-loss bias: Identification of individual decision rules and heuristics.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has demonstrated that intuitive judgments of timeloss are often biased: overestimated when a high speed is slowed down and underestimated when a low speed is decreased further. Yet, no findings provide cognitive explanations of the bias. The present study (a) collected numerical judgments of time-loss by assigning participants to seven speed matching problems, and (b) collected verbal protocols of participants judgment processes. To identify different decision rules on the individual level, a spectral analysis of judgments was used. The findings show that the ratio rule was most frequently used and similar to the well researched time-saving bias, a ratio heuristic and a difference heuristic could model a majority of the timeloss bias. The validity of the method is supported by a significant correspondence between the spectral analysis measure and the qualitative analysis for consistent participants. By including affect as a third variable, future research could get a closer understanding of the bias effect in real life and consequently develop strategies that can improve road safety. 

  • Urrutia Valdés, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Begränsad framkomlighet på kvinnors bekostnad: En fallstudie utförd på Brunkebergstunneln och David Bagares gata2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Målet med denna studie har varit att visa utmaningarna som befinner sig i processer föreliggande trygghet, även om förutsättningar i den byggda miljön visar motsatsen. Därtill har målet varit att bidra med en kompletterande synvinkel på de utmaningar som finns med trygghet och otrygghet för kvinnor i den bebyggda miljön eftersom det oftast inte förmedlas hur kvinnor verkligen upplever obehag i det offentliga rummet. Genom att använda transect walking som huvudsaklig metod, och fotografering som kompletterande tillvägagångssätt, har det möjliggjorts en djupgående porträttering av de känslor Brunkebergstunneln och David Bagares gata kan förmedla. Metoderna har visat tydliga underliggande mönster i den bygga miljön och de återspeglar både sociala och fysiska möjliggörande och begränsningar. Resultatet har bekräftat många av de teoretiska utgångspunkterna, exempelvis att det tycks finnas ett samspel mellan det sociala och det fysiska som orsakar trygghet och otrygghet. Det har tillika visats att det finns en underordning hos många av kvinnorna som intervjuades. Däribland finns det några som avviker från detta och här går det att tyda hur de troligtvis grundar sina liv i andra sociala kontexter. Vad som befinner sig i överordningen är emellertid en del av framtida studier.

  • Rundelius, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Blivande psykologers syn på det individcentrerade samhället, internet och sociala medier med avseende på personlig integritet: Future psychologists' view on the individual-centered society, internet and social media in regard to personal integrity2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Personal integrity is of great importance for the healthy development of an individual's identity, mental health and well-being and is influenced by the environment. Personal integrity is therefore an important parameter in a psychologist's therapeutic work. The purpose of the present qualitative study was to investigate how psychological students look at personal integrity in today's individual-centered society with internet and social media. Seven psychologist students at Stockholm University were interviewed. The result of a thematic analysis showed that the participants considered that the personal integrity means different things to different individuals, but is perceived to be adversely affected. The ability to maintain high integrity is perceived to be increasingly difficult. The Internet also tends to affect identity creation, especially among young people. Knowledge and dialogue are the way to a healthier use of the internet. The psychologists of the future are likely to be affected by their reduced integrity in their professional practice. The study indicates several important future research areas and highlights the need to highlight the problems during psychology education

  • Bring Larsson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Öppenhet skapar Öppenhet: Vad tycker unga vuxna med psykisk ohälsa själva har hjälpt dem att må bättre2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Psykisk ohälsa bland unga vuxna i Sverige är växande problem. Problemområdet är komplext med många tänkbara orsaker, vilket försvårar bedömningen av vilka åtgärder som bör tillämpas. Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka vad unga vuxna med psykisk ohälsa själva tyckte hade hjälpt dem att må bättre. Fokuset låg på individen, dess närmaste omgivning och samhället. Fyra kvalitativa intervjuer genomfördes och tolkades med tematisk analys. Deltagarna i studien var 3 kvinnor och 1 man i ålder 25–29 år. Samtliga av deltagarna hade erfarenhet av att föreläsa om sin egen psykiska ohälsa. Via analysen återfanns på individnivå 3 teman: Acceptans, identitet och egna strategier. Från omgivningen framgick 3 teman: Praktiskt stöd, emotionellt stöd och gemensamma strategier. Från samhällets återfanns 3 teman: Information, förståelse och tillit samt hjälpinsatser. En övergripande faktor som var gemensamma för samtliga teman var individanpassning. Slutligen diskuterades det kring fördelar med att inte enbart fokusera på individen vid psykiska ohälsa; det föreslogs istället en helhetssyn som även tog hänsyn till omgivningen och samhället som individen verkade i. Dessutom belystes möjligheten att ändra synen på psykisk ohälsa från reaktiv, där symptomen behandlas, till att istället fokusera på preventiva insatser; att förhindra att symptomen uppstår.

  • Jansson, Louise
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Landsbo, Filip
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    "Det heter ju HBTQ, det finns ett B där också!": Minoritetsstress hos bi- och pansexuella: Upplevelser och hanteringsstrategier2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Anderstig, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Relationen mellan beteendeproblematik hos barn med funktionsnedsättning och psykisk ohälsa hos föräldrar: Kan den medieras av upplevelsemässigt undvikande?2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Bell, Christina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Vigström, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Oxytocins påverkan på relationella upplevelser under sensorisk deprivation: och hur dessa modereras av anknytning.2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Med en kombinerad kvalitativ och kvantitativ ansats genomfördes denna experimentella studie för att undersöka om och i så fall hur intranasalt oxytocin påverkar relationella upplevelser under sensorisk deprivation samt om anknytning är en modererande variabel. Resultaten (N=114) visade att intranasalt oxytocin inte påverkade antal eller förekomst av relationella upplevelser i sensorisk deprivation, jämfört med placebo. Det fanns inte heller något stöd för att typ av behandling hade några interaktionseffekter med anknytningsdimensionerna ångest och undvikande. En tänkbar anledning till de uteblivna resultaten kan vara att många deltagare upplevde den sensoriska deprivationen som något obehaglig, vilket kan ha gjort att experimentets design inte fungerade som avsett. Explorativa tester visade att intranasalt oxytocin påverkade förekomsten av negativa kontra positiva/neutrala relationella upplevelser. De som fick oxytocin hade i lägre utsträckning negativa och i högre utsträckning positiva eller neutrala relationella upplevelser under den sensoriska deprivationen, jämfört med de som fick placebo. Studien bidrar till mer osäkerhet kring effekterna av intranasalt oxytocin och motiverar vidare forskning.

  • Morén, Fernando
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Psykoterapi vid en utbildningsklinik: Kan patientfaktorer användas för prognoser om symtomförändring och patientnöjdhet efter behandling?2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Patientfaktorernas bidrag till psykoterapiutfall är ett område som varit föremål för jämförelsevis få studier, trots allt större fokus på patienters agens och perspektiv vid psykoterapi. Det är inte känt vilka patientfaktorer som kan påverka utfallet vid utbildningskliniker. Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka om data gällande demografi och symtom före behandling för 115 patienter vid Linköpings Universitets psykologmottagning kunde användas för prognos av symtomreduktion och/eller patienttillfredsställelse efter behandling. Regressionsanalyser genomfördes för att besvara frågeställningarna. Demografiska och anamnestiska faktorer predicerade inte symtomförändring. Högre grad av komorbid depressivitet predicerade lägre grad av ångestminskning efter behandling, men graden av komorbid ångest predicerade inte graden av depressionsminskning efter behandling. Demografiska och anamnestiska faktorer (att vara i en relation, att inte medicinera mot psykiska besvär) predicerade högre patienttillfredsställelse. Graden av symtom före behandling predicerade dock ej patienttillfredsställelse. Studien bekräftar vissa tidigare fynd och motsäger andra, vilket antyder att utbildningskliniker på viktiga punkter skiljer sig från andra behandlingsmiljöer.

  • Wetterqvist, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Motiverande samtal i interventioner med manliga förövare av våld i nära relationer  Motivational interviews in interventions with male offenders of intimate partner violence2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Seven professionals who worked with men sentenced for intimate partner violence in a psychosocial intervention project in Valencia were interviewed about motivational interviews. Motivational interviews can increase these clients' assumption of responsibility and motivation. The purpose of this study was to seek knowledge about the function of motivational interviews in an intervention with offenders. The method for the study was qualitative using a semi-structured interview. An inductive thematic analysis was used to code and analyze data. The analysis resulted in four themes: 1. Assume responsibility, 2. Motivation - a reason to change and to set a goal, 3. Strategies to motivate and 4. A bond. The respondents described the motivational interviews of use to bond with clients, to resolve their resistance and to deal with difficult feelings towards the clients. As professionals they considered that motivated clients had found a personal reason to change and had formulated a relevant goal.

  • Cronwall, Ernst
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Psykometrisk evaluering av RRS-BR och BSRI i svensk översättning2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Trots internationellt utbredd användning av självskattningsskalor som mäter depressiv ruminering saknas det psykometriskt validerade skalor för att mäta konstruktet i svenskspråkiga sammanhang. Syftet med det föreliggande arbetet var att undersöka validiteten hos självskattningsskalor av ruminativ disposition (Ruminative Responses Scale – Brooding and Reflection) och pågående ruminering (Brief State Rumination Inventory) i svensk översättning. Skalorna besvarades av psykologistudenter (n = 314) tillsammans med mått på depressivitet, ångest, stress samt symtomövergripande psykiska besvär (Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21) och livstillfredställelse (Satisfaction With Life Scale). Båda rumineringsskalorna visade acceptabel intern konsistens men bristfällig överenstämmelse med testade faktormodeller. Efter att problematiska item raderats visade skalorna god överenstämmelse med modellerna och bibehållen acceptabel intern konsistens. Starkare korrelationer med symtomövergripande psykiska besvär jämfört med depression, stress eller ångest indikerade att skalorna mäter en generell maladaptiv typ av ruminering, snarare än en depressionsspecifik form.

  • Lidén, Anne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Gun Kessle – konst, uttryck och motiv2019In: Den vanartige Jan Myrdal: Ett seminarium kring ett 75-årigt författarskap / [ed] Per-Arne Skansen, Stockholm: Gun Kessles och Jan Myrdals stiftelse , 2019, p. 85-102Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna artikel bygger på ett föredrag som hölls vid Jan Myrdal-seminariet "Den vanartige Jan Myrdal", 14 april 2019 i ABF-huset Stockholm, under programpunkten "Jan Myrdals och Gun Kessles bild- och konstsyn". Gun Kessle (1926-2007) drabbades i tonåren av TBC och vistades under 10 år på sanatorier. En presentation görs av Gun Kessles konst och konstnärliga verksamhet från den tidiga perioden på 1950-och 60-talet, då hon levde med konstnären Torsten Renqvist. Från utbildningarna vid Konstakademien i Stockholm, Gerlesborgsskolan i Bohuslän och Hampstead School of Art i London. Gun Kessle följde i sin konstsyn William Morris i Arts and Crafts- rörelsen. Hennes utgivning av Morris texter har fått stor betydelse i dagens konstutbildningar. I källmaterialet ingår opublicerat material från Jan Myrdalbibliotekets arkiv, bl. a. "Gun Kessles Minnesanteckningar".

    Hennes tidiga teckningar och målningar samt grafik presenteras vad gäller stil och uttryck samt hennes motivval och teman med städer, byar och landskap samt människors arbete. Därutöver ges en översiktlig presentation hennes val av kontnärliga tekniker, motiv och teman under de många resor till Europa och Asien som hon genomförde från slutet av 1960-talet tillsammans med Jan Myrdal och fram till sin död 2007. I en stor produktion av illustrerade böcker, teckningar, akvarell och gouache samt fotografier skildrade hon folk i vardag och arbete i länder som Afghanistan, Indien och Kina. Ett särskilt fokus hade Gun Kessle på de arbetande kvinnorna i landsbygdens byar samt hos nomadiserande folk i Asien.

  • Johannesson, Livia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Centre for Organizational Research (SCORE).
    Qvist, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Ett megaprojekt tar form: Den tidiga planeringen av Nya Karolinska Solna2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten redovisar resultat från en studie av processerna bakom beslutet om att bygga Nya Karolinska Solna och fokuserar därmed på perioden från initiering och inledande planering av NKS-projektet fram till det formella beslutet togs 2008. Det empiriska material som ligger till grund för undersökningen består av policydokument och semistrukturerade intervjuer med 17 nyckelpersoner som haft insyn i processen under de tidiga skedena. Studien visar att det vid millennieskiftet öppnades ett ”möjlighetsfönster” på den landstingspolitiska dagordningen för att bygga ett nytt universitetssjukhus. Detta skedde genom att kostnaderna för de omfattande renoveringsbehoven på Karolinska universitetssjukhuset i Solna blev kända. Ledande landstingspolitiker lanserade då ett koncept med inriktning mot ett litet, högspecialiserat, forskningsdrivet, flexibelt universitetssjukhus i närhet till Karolinska Institutet. Förutom renoveringsbehoven knöt lösningskonceptet an till två andra aktuella problembilder vid tiden. Den första handlade om en styrningsproblematik mellan landstinget och Karolinska sjukhuset där ledningen inom landstinget uppfattade att Karolinska sjukhuset under lång tid hade expanderat okontrollerat. Den andra handlade om excellensforskning och formulerades som att Stockholm hade förlorat i konkurrenskraft inom den medicinska forskningen. Under hela den studerade perioden har det på politisk nivå funnits en betydande samsyn kring lösningskonceptet och inriktningen låses fast redan i uppstartsfasen och ligger sedan fast hela vägen till beslut. Vidare visar undersökningen att den tidiga planeringen av NKS präglades av en prioritering av handlingskraft framför bred förankring av de centrala delarna i konceptet. Detta innebar inte att det saknades tillfällen till dialog och involvering av intressenter. Tvärtom kännetecknas betydande delar av processen av att det på olika sätt öppnades upp för deltagande och aktörssamverkan. Detta deltagande skedde dock utifrån strategiska överväganden vad gäller vilka aktörer som bjöds in och i vilken roll de hade mandat att påverka. Sammanfattningsvis pekar rapporten på tre huvudsakliga lärdomar kring organiseringen av de tidiga planeringsskedena för att utveckla förmågan att planera stora projekt i framtiden. De handlar om vikten av att inte låsa fast de konceptuella ramarna för ett projekt på ett för tidigt stadium, att bjuda in till dialog med berörda grupper för att skapa legitimitet för projektet och att dessa öppningar för dialog organiseras på ett ändamålsenligt sätt.

  • Kindenberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Skrivande är en väg till texttolkning2019In: Svenskläraren, ISSN 0346-2412, no 3, p. 8-11Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Vilhjálmsdóttir, Jóhanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Choreography of a proton pump: Studies of charge-transfer reactions in cytochrome c oxidase2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last step of cellular respiration, electrons from metabolites are transferred to molecular oxygen, mediated by the enzyme complexes of the respiratory chain. Some of these enzyme complexes couple these redox reactions to formation of an electrochemical proton gradient across the cell membrane. The proton gradient is used e.g. by ATP synthase to drive synthesis of ATP. 

    The terminal enzyme complex in the respiratory chain, cytochrome c oxidase (CytcO), catalyses reduction of O2 to water. In this process it contributes to maintaining the electrochemical proton gradient by two separate mechanisms: (i) by uptake of electrons and protons from the opposite sides of the membrane (for O2 reduction to water). (ii) by proton pumping across the membrane. Protons used in the O2 reduction, as well as protons that are pumped, are taken up through two different proton-uptake pathways, the D and the K pathways. In addition, a third proton-transfer pathway has been suggested for the mitochondrial CytcOs, namely the H pathway. So far, the molecular mechanism by which CytcO pumps protons has not been determined. 

    In this work we have studied proton- and electron-transfer reactions in aa3-type CytcOs, with the aim of understanding the functional design of the proton-pumping machinery in CytcO. First, we studied structural variants of CytcO from the bacterium Rhodobacter (R.) sphaeroides, where an amino-acid at position 425, previously shown to undergo redox-induced conformational changes, was substituted. The results point to a link between redox-induced structural changes and intramolecular proton-transfer rates through the D pathway. Second, we studied the electron distribution in the “activated” oxidized (OH) state of CytcO, by using an electrostatic complex of CytcO and cytochrome c. We also investigated electron-transfer reactions linked to proton pumping in structural variants of CytcO from R. sphaeroides and the yeast Saccharomyces (S.) cerevisiae, with mutations in the proposed D and H proton-uptake pathways. The data indicate that the S. cerevisiae mitochondrial CytcO uses the D pathway for proton uptake and pumping as the R. sphaeroides CytcO. Lastly, we studied reactions linked to proton uptake and pumping in structural variants of CytcO from R. sphaeroides with alterations in both proton-uptake pathways. The data elucidated the mechanism of proton transfer and gating in CytcO.

  • Silao, Fitz Gerald S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    The Role of Proline Catabolism in Candida albicans Pathogenesis2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that has evolved in close association with human hosts. Pathogenicity is linked to an array of virulence characteristics expressed in response to environmental cues and that reflect the requirement to take up and metabolize nutrients available in the host. Metabolism generates the energy to support the bioenergetic demands of infectious growth, including the ability to reversibly switch morphologies from yeast to filamentous hyphal forms. Amino acids are among the most versatile nutrients available in the hosts as they can serve as both carbon and nitrogen sources, be transformed to key metabolic intermediates, or utilized to modulate extracellular pH via deamination forming ammonia. Of the proteinogenic amino acids, proline is unique in having a secondary amine covalently locked within an imine ring. Accumulating evidence implicates proline catabolism as being critical in the pathogenesis of many human diseases, ranging from bacterial and parasitic infections to cancer progression. This work focuses on the role of proline catabolism on C. albicans  pathogenesis.

    Paper I describes how proline induces filamentous growth in C. albicans. Hyphal growth is induced by an increase in intracellular ATP, a positive regulator of the Ras1/cAMP/PKA pathway. Proline is a direct substrate for ATP production, its catabolism in the mitochondria by proline oxidase (Put1) and Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) dehydrogenase (Put2) leads to the generation of FADH2 and NADH, respectively. Arginine and ornithine induce filamentous growth due to being catabolized to proline. Strikingly, mitochondrial proline catabolism is essential for hyphal growth and escape from macrophages.

    Paper II documents that proline catabolism is an important regulator of reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis in C. albicans. When cells depend on proline as an energy source, the activities of the two catabolic enzymes Put1 and Put2 must operate in synchrony; perturbation of these highly regulated catabolic steps exerts deleterious effects on growth. Cells lacking PUT2 exhibit increased sensitivity to exogenous proline. This sensitivity is linked to ROS generation, likely due to the accumulation of the toxic intermediate P5C. Consistently, a put2-/- mutant is avirulent in Drosophila and in a 3D skin infection model, and hypovirulent in neutrophils and a systemic murine infection model.

    Paper III shows that the enzymatic step directly downstream of Put2, the deamination of glutamate to α-ketoglutarate catalyzed by glutamate dehydrogenase (Gdh2), releases the ammonia responsible for the alkalization of the extracellular environment when C. albicans  cells grow in the presence of amino acids. Cells lacking GDH2 do not alkalinize the medium. Alkalization is thought to induce hyphal growth in cells engulfed by macrophages. Surprisingly, filamentous growth of gdh2-/- cells is not impaired in filament-inducing media, or importantly, in situ in the phagosome of primary murine macrophages. Thus, alkalization is not a requisite for filamentous growth within macrophages.

    The results demonstrate that under physiologically relevant host conditions, proline catabolism is important for C. albicans pathogenesis. Further studies are warranted to determine the applicability of this pathway as a potential target for therapeutic approaches aimed at combating this major fungal pathogen.

  • Larsson, Eric
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Innerstadsgymnasierna: En studie av tre elitpräglade gymnasieskolor i Stockholm och deras positionering på utbildningsmarknaden2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the early 1990s Sweden underwent extensive educational reforms. Vouchers, freedom of choice, establishment of so-called “free-schools” together with far-reaching decentralization took the place of a highly centralized educational system, with few private schools and a very low degree of differentiation. A stated intention of these reforms was that freedom of choice as well as a greater number of educational options would level the playing field. It was believed that existing regulations hampered socially disadvantaged students and, by extension, opportunities for social and geographical mobility. Educational marketization has advanced and intensified since the 1990s, particularly in metropolitan areas and medium-sized cities. This is evident both in the increasing number of schools and in students commuting to inner city schools, and additionally in the continuous development of marketing strategies. Consequently, marketization has become an institutionalized part of Swedish education, and students and schools must equally adjust to the prevailing competitive conditions. Much of the research in the field has focused on the effects and extension of marketization and how free-schools and school choice affect socially vulnerable areas. However, instead of focusing on schools in socially vulnerable areas, I am interested in the schools at the top of the hierarchy and the elite segment of upper secondary schools in Stockholm. More precisely, the focus of this dissertation has been on how three sought-after and prestigious upper secondary schools position themselves in the educational market, but also how they are affected by and adjust to it. A further aim has been to analyse students’ educational strategies and the socialization processes that arise in their encounter with the schools as institutions. 

    This thesis has been guided by a theoretically inspired ethnography. The ethnographical data were primarily collected during a single academic year and within three separate elite upper secondary schools. The data set consists of observations in classrooms and other school-related spaces (meeting rooms, corridors etc.), interviews and data from official statistics. It also contains a wide array of documents, web sites, school magazines, anniversary books and photographs.  

    Using a Bourdieusian perspective, the analysis shows how both schools and students deploy strategies to cope with and adapt to the hierarchies and struggles of the contemporary educational market. The schools rely on accumulated institutionalized assets such as history, alumni, transfers to prestigious universities and their geographical locations. At the same time, they also need to provide an up-to-date educational setting to stay ahead, and moreover, to be able to collaborate and compete with the other elite schools. The analysis also illustrates why students choose these socially and academically selective schools and how they adjust to the school environment. It is illuminated that these schools are more than formal educational settings, they are places where students negotiate, debate, explore and develop soft skills. Nevertheless, they are also competitive school environments and while some students thrive, others struggle. This becomes apparent when they encounter and act in relation to the different social, symbolic and academic boundaries that exist in each school.

  • Broman, Elias
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre.
    Motwani, Nisha H.
    Bonaglia, Stefano
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Landberg, Tommy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Nascimento, Francisco J. A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre.
    Sjöling, Sara
    Denitrification responses to increasing cadmium exposure in Baltic Sea sediments2019In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 217, article id 105328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Benthic ecosystems have come under intense pressure, due to eutrophication-driven oxygen decline and industrial metal contamination. One of the most toxic metals is Cadmium (Cd), which is lethal to many aquatic organisms already at low concentrations. Denitrification by facultative anaerobic microorganisms is an essential process to transform, but also to remove, excess nitrate in eutrophied systems. Cd has been shown to decrease denitrification and sequester free sulfide, which is available when oxygen is scarce and generally inhibits complete denitrification (i.e. N2O to N2). In polluted sediments, an interaction between oxygen and Cd may influence denitrification and this relationship has not been studied. For example, in the Baltic Sea some sediments are double exposed to both Cd and hypoxia. In this study, we examined how the double exposure of Cd and fluctuations in oxygen affects denitrification in Baltic Sea sediment. Results show that oxygen largely regulated N2O and N2 production after 21 days of exposure to Cd (ranging from 0 to 500 μg/L, 5 different treatments, measured by the isotope pairing technique (IPT)). In the high Cd treatment (500 μg/L) the variation in N2 production increased compared to the other treatments. Increases in N2 production are suggested to be an effect of 1) enhanced nitrification that increases NO3− availability thus stimulating denitrification, and 2) Cd successfully sequestrating sulfide (yielding CdS), which allows for full denitrification to N2. The in situ field sediment contained initially high Cd concentrations in the pore water (∼10 μg/L) and microbial communities might already have been adapted to metal stress, making the effect of low Cd levels negligible. Here we show that high levels of cadmium pollution might increase N2 production and influence nitrogen cycling in marine sediments.

  • Petersson, Jöran
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Sayers, Judy
    Rosenqvist, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Andrews, Paul
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Opportunities for year-one children to acquire foundational number sense: comparing English and Swedish adaptations of the same Singapore textbook2019In: Proceedings of the Seventh Conference on Research in Mathematics Education in Ireland (MEI 7) / [ed] Lorraine Harbison, Aisling Twohill, Dublin: Institute of Education, Dublin City University , 2019, p. 251-258Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we compare adaptations of a Singaporean year-one mathematics textbook for use in England and Sweden respectively. The texts were analysed in two different ways against the eight dimensions of Foundational Number Sense (FoNS), a set of core competences that the literature has shown to be necessary for year-one children’s later mathematical learning. The first analysis, based on frequencies, showed that neither adaptation incorporated any opportunities for children to acquire the two FoNS competence relating to estimation and number patterns respectively. They also showed that the English adaptation comprised significantly more tasks than the Swedish, particularly with respect to systematic counting, where the former comprises 26% more tasks than the latter. The second analysis, based on moving averages, showed that across five of the six FoNS categories for which there were data, the temporal location and emphases of FoNS-related learning were comparable, with, in particular, no such opportunities after the mid-point of the school year in either book. However, the English adaptation’s presentation of systematic counting, occurring at various points throughout the school year, was substantially different from the Swedish adaptation, highlighting differences due, we speculate, to interpretations of local didactical traditions.