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  • Sjögren Teeling, Emma
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Ringbom, Sanna Katariina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Vänskapens magi: En studie om förskolebarn i behov av särskilt stöd, vänskap och sociala färdigheter2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how preschool teachers work to create and maintain social skills and friendship for children with special needs. Research shows that children with special needs are included in fewer friendship relations compared to other children. The study has examined how 28 preschool teachers estimated children's playing skills based on the observation sheet Teacher Impression Scale - Swedish version (TIS-S). Six preschool teachers have been interviewed and described their function in the work of promoting friendship relationships between children with special needs and other children. The methods used were the TIS-S observation sheet, survey and interviews. The study has used both qualitative and quantitative research methods. It was found that children, who the preschool teachers had concerns about, were rarely chosen as friends and needed support in their social behavior. The strategies described were, among other things, to divide the children into smaller groups, as well as an approach meant to increase the status of the children with special needs. In this approach two phenomenas were discovered, one which aimed to avoid and one which aimed to contribute. One conclusion was that the preschools in the study did not actively work with concrete interventions to promote friendship. An another conclusion was that a consensus on the concept children with special needs was lacking. In conclusion, the organizational conditions described by the preschoolers were discussed as obstacles that aggravated friendship interventions for children with special needs. 

  • Karlsson, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Kupias, Christin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Finns det någon som förstår mig och mitt barn?: En kvalitativ studie om vårdnadshavares upplevelser gällande undervisningssituationen för barn med särskild begåvning2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Dietrich, Svenja
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Fohlin, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Kooperativt lärande i läs- och skrivutvecklingen: En systematisk litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Ay, Elife
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Sener, Sevinc
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Hur kan den inkluderande undervisningen se ut för elever med läs- och skrivsvårigheter?2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Lindgren Chin, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Sfi-lärarens roll och specialpedagogiska kompetens: En intervjustudie med lärare som undervisar i svenska för invandrare2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Intervjustudien är kvalitativ och undersöker lärare som undervisar i svenska för invandrare (sfi) med erfarenhet från att undervisa kortutbildade elever. Intervjuerna har analyserats utifrån en hermeneutisk analys samt en tematisk analys. Syftet med studien har varit att undersöka lärares syn på specialpedagogik inom ramen för sfi-undervisningen för kortutbildade elever. Detta har undersökts genom intervjuer med sex sfi-lärare. I intervjuerna har fokus legat på lärarnas perspektiv när det gäller den egna yrkesrollen, behoven, och olika förhållningssätt. Även deras syn på den egna undervisningens potential och hinder för lärande har fokuserats.  Studien har utgått från tre frågeställningar: 1) Hur förhåller sig sfi-lärarna till specialpedagogisk kompetens? 2) Hur ser sfi-lärarna till och på elevernas behov? Och slutligen 3) Hur är lärarnas syn på den egna yrkesrollen?

    Det är författarens tolkning i kombination med förförståelsen av kontexten, och av utsagorna, som utgjort den hermeneutiska analysen i studien.

    Det är en svår och utmanande roll att arbeta som sfi-lärare med kortutbildade elever. Samtidigt som lärarna i studien trivs i yrkesrollen och med eleverna är de medvetna om att det är en krävande uppgift. Eleverna som har kort eller ingen utbildningsbakgrund har behov av en extra anpassad undervisning. Det finns behov som lärarna ser men inte alltid har verktyg, strategier eller kompetens för att tillgodose i undervisningen. Sfi-lärarna ser på elevernas behov som något som är tillskrivet eleven, men inte det sociala sammanhanget. Utifrån sin kompetens och de resurser som finns gör lärarna sitt yttersta för att möta eleverna och individualisera undervisningen. Lärarna är medvetna om vilken central roll de har för eleverna. De är även oerhört engagerade i att det ska gå bra för eleverna.

  • Lidén, Anne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Art History.
    Tidskriften Förr och Nu har hundraåriga anor1984In: Förr och Nu. Tidskrift för en folkets kultur, ISSN 0345-3162, no 4, p. 12-21Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Artikeln beskriver månadstidningen Förr och Nu- Illustrerad läsning för hemmet som utkom i två följder 1870-1891. Den grundades av pastor B. Wadström som en bildande och sedlig tidskrift för familjens högläsning i hemmet, en ersättning av den muntliga traditionen. Så småningom fick moralens ideal ge vika för de sköna konsternas musa, och ny redaktör blev A.F. Stjernstedt. Tidskriften skildrade historia och konsthistoria men även natur och ny teknik, samt internationella utblickar utifrån en kristen och fosterländsk grundsyn. Översättningar av utländsk litteratur presenterades. Hans Hildebrand med sitt pionjärarbete kring Sveriges medeltid hörde till medarbetarna liksom konstnären Carl Larsson och Bruno Liljefors, vilka bidrog med originalverk 

    Artikeln visar tidningens utveckling från ett moraliskt till ett mer estetiskt fokus genom en kritisk bildanalys av tidskriftens titelplanscher. I logotypen ersätts de stränga gudinnorna Tron, Rättvisan och Visheten av de sköna fria konsternas musor, Litteraturen, Måleriet och Musiken. Istället för pyramider, vikingaskepp och kungliga slott visas Lunds romanska domkyrka och Nationalmuseums nya byggnad inramat av fornnordisk dekor.

  • Lidén, Anne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Art History.
    Medeltidsutställningen på Statens Historiska Museum: Kritik och vision1988In: META, ISSN 0348-7903, no 3, p. 29-47Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Artikeln ger en översiktlig beskrivning av medeltidsutställningen på Statens Historiska Museum, med en kritisk analys av rumsutformning, föremål och utställningsdesign. Ett syfte med rapporten är att öka tillgängligheten och intresset för Sveriges historia och medeltidens samhälle. Analysen relaterar till aktuell museidiskussion om principer gällande stil, motiv, historisk kontext och kronologisk presentation som förts vid internationella konferenser 1987-1988, bl.a. den internationella ICOM museologi-konferensen i Umeå 1988. Jämförelse görs även med tusenårsutställningen i Skara samma år. Artikelns fokus är en fallstudie om medeltidskonst med St.Olavsmotiv i SHM samlingen. Utifrån en kritisk utställningsanalys ges förslag på alternativa designlösningar för de olika utställningsrummen för ljus, färgsättning, rumsplacering, montrar etc.

  • Wallin, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Norén, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Valero, Paola
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    TENSIONS IN THE SWEDISH FRITIDSHEM MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM: A POLICY ENACTMENT PERSPECTIVE2019In: The 10th International Mathematics Education and Society Conference / [ed] Jayasree Subramanian, Hyderabad, 2019, Vol. 10Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2016 the Swedish fritidshem got its own curriculum where mathematics is formally

    introduced. The space where students can experience informal forms of mathematics

    in activities derived out of their own interest risks being slowly transformed into a

    schoolified form of mathematics, steered by teachers and striving for learning

    effectiveness. A policy enactment perspective was used to investigate the material,

    interpretive and discursive dimensions of the enactment process. Based on document

    analysis, observations and interviews in two cases, tensions between two different and

    competing discourses were identified: one driven by student’s interests and one driven

    by teacher’s mathematical agenda. The meaning of fritidshem math will configure in

    the tensions about what counts as desirable forms of mathematical activity in practice.

  • Wallin, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    En demokratibestämmelse i mediestödet – hindrande åtgärd i TF:s mening?2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish state aid to the press (presstödet) aims to ensure diversity in news publishing and advocacy and is considered to fill an important democratic function. However, the technical development has left the aid system obsolete, and plans are under way to replace the system in its current form with a technology neutral aid (mediestöd), addressing news media of all content forms and means of dissemination. A recurring debate in this context has been whether the new aid system is to include a so called “democracy criterion”, requiring publishing companies that receive aid to display “democratic values”. A corresponding rule already exists in the Swedish Radio and Television Act. The legal conditions surrounding such a rule targeting the press are, however, fundamentally different. Above all, it can be questioned whether a democracy criterion would cause the state aid to be considered a preventive action in violation of the Freedom of the Press Act, which forms part of the Swedish constitution. In this thesis, it is argued that so, in fact, would be the case. It is also maintained that arguments relating to the democracy promoting objective of the criterion are of no relevance to the legal analysis.

  • Gierlöff, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Det varumärkesrättsliga förväxlingsriskskyddet för varuformer med funktionella inslag: Varuutstyrselmärket som grund för invändning mot tredje mans EU-varumärkesansökan2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    All three shape marks-exclusions in EUTMR art. 7 e) can be avoided by adding an essential element to a shape, which is not attributable to the conditions set out in the exclusions, such as a distinctive nonfunctional element. A valid shape mark registration gives the rights holder the right to prevent other trade mark registrations of identical or similar signs for identical or similar goods if there exists a likelihood of confusion on the part of the public, as well as to initiate infringement proceedings against anyone who uses such a sign in their line of business. Under the test for likelihood of confusion, it is assessed to what extent the average consumer remembers a distinctive sign, which is not limited to its distinctive elements. Since the average consumer is capable to remember other elements than distinctive elements, only negligible elements are excluded from the average consumer’s overall perception of the sign. Non-distinctive elements are not necessarily deemed negligible, depending on their size and/or position within the mark. So, while functional elements are usually perceived as merely functional or ornamental, and thus non-distinctive, they may still be deemed non-negligible due to their size and/or position within the mark. Case law shows that a likelihood of confusion may therefore follow as a result of two marks only sharing an element deemed non-distinctive on its own. The CJEU has also expressed that the public interest behind the test for likelihood of confusion is to secure the rights holder’s interests and not to secure the competitors’ need for a free access to signs and elements. The need to keep certain signs and elements free is therefore not considered a relevant factor in the test for likelihood of confusion. So, while it may seem logical that a sign, which is registrable only due to incorporating a distinctive element as a part of a complex mark, would have a scope of protection limited only to that distinctive element, case law shows that such a conclusion is not necessarily true. In this thesis it is argued that if the average consumer does not even perceive that a functional element constitutes a part of a complex decorated shape mark, consisting of both e.g. a functional naked shape and the added distinctive element, the functional element is negligible and will not be remembered by the average consumer. But if the average consumer is able to perceive a functional naked shape or element as its own indication of origin, or at least as an element of such a complex mark, its size and position alone in the complex mark could be enough to be able to establish a similarity of signs with another resembling shape, even if the latter lacks the inclusion of the same distinctive element. If the other shape does not deviate enough from the visual appearance of the functional naked shape or element in the registered complex mark, the similarity of the signs could be enough to cause a likelihood of confusion.

  • Koch, Stellan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Swedish Law and Informatics Research Institute.
    Ansvar för personuppgifter i publika blockkedjor: En teknologi förenlig med GDPR?2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    While the Internet provides enormous opportunities within development of communications and database systems it also endangers the processing of personal data unlawfully. With traditional database structure in focus the responsibility and accountability of said processed personal data was somewhat clear as the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) entered the legal framework of the European Union’s member states in May 2018. Blockchain technology being the latest innovation in database structure challenges the applicability of the new regulation by introducing cryptography and a peer-to-peer distributed ledger technology. This thesis is the result of an attempt to analyze the personal data processed in public blockchains, i.e. Bitcoin, and its compliance with certain fundamental data protection rights stipulated in the GDPR such as the right to erasure of personal data.

    Furthermore, in relation to fundamental data protection rights violations are also subjects of accountability. While the new distributed ledger technology vastly increases the difficulty to determine a target for accountability the thesis also considers the traditional view on databases on which the GDPR was built upon. Thus, the thesis aims to further explore the relation between participants on the innovative blockchain and fundamental personal data protection rights in the GDPR.

  • Public defence: 2019-03-01 10:00 Vivi Täckholmsalen (Q-salen), NPQ-huset, Stockholm
    Luijten, Ineke H. N.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Modulators of UCP1-dependent thermogenesis: Glucocorticoids, diet and novel research models2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The activation and recruitment of brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis has been put forward as a promising strategy to reduce the disease burden of obesity and obesity-related diseases. Heat production by BAT can be attributed to the tissue-specific mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). Upon activation, UCP1 uncouples substrate oxidation from ATP production, thereby dissipating energy solely as heat and thus facilitating the ‘wasting’ of energy. To date, cold exposure is the strongest known BAT activator. However, to harness the energy wasting potential of BAT as a weight-reducing agent, the search for alternative factors that alter the activation or recruitment state of BAT is ongoing. The goal of this thesis is to obtain a better understanding of compounds and processes that modulate UCP1-dependent thermogenesis. 

    We investigate glucocorticoids for their potential to alter the UCP1-dependent thermogenic capacity of mice. We provide the novel insight that glucocorticoid supplementation reduces total BAT UCP1 protein levels, but only in mice housed at thermoneutrality. This reduction occurs at the transcriptional level by direct binding of the liganded glucocorticoid receptor to Ucp1regulatory regions. We also demonstrate that the glucocorticoid-induced reduction in BAT thermogenesis does not contribute to the development of glucocorticoid-induced obesity.

    Further, we show that high-fat diet- and cafeteria diet-feeding induces the activation and recruitment of BAT UCP1 protein in the obesity-resistant 129S mouse strain. We demonstrate the importance of this diet-induced modulation of BAT thermogenic capacity by reporting an increased metabolic efficiency in UCP1-ablated mice compared to wild-type mice. 

    We finally present two novel models that can be used for the identification of novel modulators of BAT thermogenesis, namely a brown adipocyte clonal cell line derived from adult human BAT, and a UCP1-luciferase reporter mouse which facilitates real-time tracking of endogenous Ucp1expression. Using these models, we identify the genes Mtus1and Kcnk3, and the compound WWL113, as novel modulators of UCP1-dependent thermogenesis. 

  • Vidal Orup, Vanessa Aurora
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics, Institute of Latin American Studies.
    Pobreza y discriminación:  El caso de las esterilizaciones forzadas en los departamentos de Cusco y Huancavelica durante el periodo comprendido entre el año 1996 al 2000: Información periodística actual desde enero a julio 20182019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [es]

    Durante el gobierno de Alberto Fujimori, se implementó el Plan Nacional de Salud Reproductiva y Planificación Familiar (PNSRPF) entre los años 1996 hasta el 2000, fue entonces cuando alrededor de 300,000 mujeres indígenas quechuahablantes que vivían en condiciones de pobreza o pobreza extrema fueron esterilizadas en contra de su voluntad.  

    El objetivo de este ensayo es analizar desde una perspectiva interseccional, las causas por las que sigue impune el caso de las esterilizaciones forzadas en Perú a pesar de haberse presentado denuncias documentadas, testimonios y registros de víctimas mortales a la Defensoría del Pueblo.  Es importante estudiar este caso dado que, durante la historia del Perú se han cometido muchos abusos contra pueblos indígenas y como veremos se siguen cometiendo en la actualidad.   

    Esta investigación es un estudio cualitativo, basado en recopilación de literatura secundaria y artículos periodísticos que han añadido una visión más actual sobre este emblemático caso de las Anticoncepciones Quirúrgicas Voluntarias ocurridas en los departamentos de Cusco y Huancavelica.  

    Los resultados de esta tesis indican que existen varias hipótesis sobre las causas de impunidad de este caso. Desde la perspectiva interseccional se evidencia en este trabajo que este grupo de mujeres fueron discriminadas por ser indígenas, quechuahablantes, pobres, analfabetas y por provenir de zonas rurales. La Fiscalía del Perú archivó el caso de las Anticoncepciones Quirúrgicas Voluntarias (AQV) por no haber encontrado pruebas suficientes que muestren la responsabilidad del expresidente Alberto Fujimori en los casos de las esterilizaciones forzadas. También, otro motivo es la falta de representantes dentro del gobierno peruano. Así como también, se suma a esto el indulto humanitario y la gracia presidencial otorgados al ex-dictador Alberto Fujimori, que disuelven todos los procesos judiciales pendientes. 

  • Lehfeldt, Fabia Federica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    The Other Side of the Medal: A Case Study of Right-Wing Populist Party Identity in German Newspaper Discourse2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, liberal democratic societies comprise the breeding ground for thriving right-wing populist parties. They share the “fundamental core of ethno-nationalist xenophobia, (…) and anti-political establishment populism” (Rydgren, 2004 p.475). Coeval research has acknowledged the threat that is entailed in the bespoken phenomenon; yet, its account is incomplete. 

    This study follows Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe, in objecting to the individualist and rationalist tenets that inform previous research, to accentuate a neglected lens on the thrive of right-wing populism in Western liberal democracies. Their discourse theoretical frame was herein used as both theory and method, in a discourse analysis of the Alternative für Deutschland’s (AfD) identity in German online newspaper discourse. The empirical material comprised 97 articles from Germany’s most popular national daily newspapers, which reported on the AfD in parliament, an AfD demonstration in Berlin, and the AfD’s youth organisation’s congress throughout April, May and June 2018. Ultimately, the study arrived at the conclusion that the sampled newspaper discourse identified ‘us’, the ‘benevolent democrats’ via the exclusion, and rejection of ‘them’, the ‘wicked right-wing populists’. Since such relation was markedly antagonistic proper, newspaper discourse may be considered to have contributed to the recent thrive of right-wing populism in Germany.

  • Public defence: 2019-02-28 10:00 Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Zguna, Nadezda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Mass-spectrometry based survey of BMAA sources, distribution and transfer2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    β-methylaminoalanine (BMAA) is a neurotoxic non-protein amino acid first isolated from cycad seeds in 1967. It is believed to be connected to neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and is a ubiquitous compound produced by cyanobacteria, diatoms and dinoflagellates. Consequently, elucidating natural production, distribution and routes for human exposure of BMAA are of particular importance. However, the natural function of BMAA and its mechanisms of toxicity have not been fully established yet. The contradictory results about BMAA presence in cyanobacterial cultures and food webs have been reported by different scientific groups, which required the development of more sensitive and reliable analytical methods. 

    This thesis is focused on the analytical chemistry dimension of BMAA research: covering both new method development and novel applications. New analytical methods for BMAA detection and quantification were developed, focusing on improving sensitivity, since BMAA is normally found in natural samples at low concentrations. In Paper I, a new derivatization technique was implemented, which increased sensitivity and selectivity in the analysis of BMAA and its isomers. Subsequently, this developed method was applied to determine the presence of BMAA in fat and oil matrices in Paper II, which is a step towards discovering BMAA forms other than the documented free and protein-bound BMAA species. In Paper III, a method for separation and quantification of L- and D-BMAA stereoisomers in complex biological matrix was developed and applied to determine the enantiomeric composition of BMAA in cycad seed. Studying environmental distribution of BMAA is important to evaluate potential exposure routes and health risks for humans. Part of the work was devoted to broaden assessment on environmental occurrence of BMAA by applying existing robust methodology to new samples, such as commercial seafood in Paper IV and Baltic Sea biota in Paper V. Some of the “overlooked” aspects in the existing BMAA literature (i.e., BMAA chiral analysis, possible BMAA presence in dietary oil supplements and defined food webs) were successfully addressed. 

    Overall, the thesis presents important analytical developments, which can help to further elucidate sources, distribution and transfer of BMAA.

  • Sellgren Gauffin, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Språkbruket i gymnasieskolans matematikböcker: Hinder och möjligheter för en gynnsam utveckling av ett matematiskt tänkande2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many students start upper secondary school with a lack of basic knowledge in mathematics from pri-mary school. The aim of this study is to investigate, analyse, illustrate and compare verbal language use in the introduction parts in two mathematics textbooks for upper secondary school to find out how comprehensible the texts are for readers with limited previous knowledge in mathematics. Previous research has shown that there is a connection between verbal language use in mathematical text prob-lems and students success in solving the problems (e.g. Bergvall, 2016). It has also been illustrated how revised versions of passages in textbooks with respect to the texts coherence highly increased readers possibility to acquire and recall the information (Beck et al., 1991). Based on theoretical per-spectives of learning, reading and comprehension of texts the analysis uses the concepts coherence, cohesion, main and subordinated speech-acts and macro-structures. What has been specifically ana-lysed is the theoretical explanations of fundamental concepts in arithmetic, algebra, percentages, ge-ometry and probability in the textbooks exponent and Matematik 5000. The results illustrate how many of the theoretical explanations in both textbooks lack in comprehensibility as a result of aspects such as massive density of mathematical terms, ambiguous or unclear links between the text units, lack of information about the content’s context and the inclusion of irrelevant facts. The results also show that the authors of the textbook Matematik 5000 seem to have been more engaged than the au-thors of the textbook exponent in the mission to connect new facts with the reader’s previous knowledge although exponent more than Matematik 5000 purports to be adapted for readers with a lack of secondary school knowledge of mathematics. The main conclusion of this study is that close inspection is needed of the learning potentials in textbooks intended for school education.

  • Fuentes Aedo, Oscar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    La risa abunda en la boca de los postmodernistas: Ironía, sátira y parodia en Nocturno de Chile de Roberto Bolaños2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [es]

    En este trabajo se investigará, dentro del contexto de la postmodernidad, las estrategias discursivas presentes en la novela Nocturno de Chile (2000) del autor chileno Roberto Bolaño (1953-2003) y que giran en torno a la ironía o distancia irónica y cómo estas se plasman en sátira y parodia. Esta última, por su importancia como forma ampliamente adoptada por la postmodernidad, reviste un interés especial en nuestro estudio ya que supone una suerte de subversión de las convenciones del arte desde sus adentros, asegurando continuidad y cambio. En la introducción se procurará un acercamiento a una poética de la postmodernidad y al género novelesco de la metaficción historiográfica según los lineamientos de Linda Hutcheon. El análisis parte de esta poética y se complementa con una teoría específica de la parodia, sin desvincularla de la ironía y la sátira. Hemos procurado esquematizar los multifacéticos aspectos del protagonista y la enmarañada red de temas que no pretende, con mucho, ser rígida. Además de la teoría, la postmodernidad exige una aproximación a la praxis del lenguaje en uso, lo que supone una ampliación del marco teórico formalista. Por eso, en nuestro análisis también ponderaremos los comentarios del autor y de los críticos o la academia en orden de contextualizar la producción del texto y facilitar la decodificación. En lo posible, no rehuimos de la discusión que despierta la postmodernidad y presentamos abiertamente algunos de sus aspectos problemáticos, paradojales o contradictorios.

  • Rutström, Linnea
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Los efectos del bagaje multilingüe en la actitud lingüística y en la motivación para adquirir una lengua extranjera2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is dedicated to investigating the potential effects of a multilingual background in: (1) attitudes displayed towards multilingualism in general, and more specifically towards Spanish as a foreign language, (2) the ability to create ideal, multilingual images of one’s self and of one’s self as a Spanish speaker, and (3) the intentional effort of acquiring Spanish as a foreign language. Part of the theoretical framework for this study comes from the ideal self from The L2 motivational self system, provided firstly by Dörnyei (2005), but herein expanded to include the new multilingual paradigm. Utilizing the quantitative method, in this case a survey, we have analyzed answers provided by two groups of Swedish students. One student group has Swedish as their mother tongue while the other has a multilingual background, meaning that they have a different mother tongue. The answers reveal that in this group of participants, the multilingual background has a positive effect on all three of the aspects studied, although in the first aspect concerning attitudes, the differences are less significant. What is most notorious about the study results is that the participants possessing a multilingual background have a greater ability to create not only an ideal, multilingual self but also an ideal Spanish speaking self. This fact highlights the motivational role that multilingualism plays when it comes to acquiring languages and it points out the need to create educational channels that value and encourage multilingualism within the teaching of foreign languages.

  • Högström-Schnee, Linn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Culture and Aesthetics.
    Treading the Timeline: A Study of the Newly Renovated Permanent Art and Design Exhibition at Nationalmuseum, Stockholm2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present study is, to my knowledge, the first investigating the newly renovated and rearranged permanent art and design exhibition at Nationalmuseum, Stockholm: The Timeline. The exhibition presents Western art from 1500 to 1914 and design and portraiture from 1500 until today in a chronological arrangement. In the first chapter of the analysis, the exhibition is compared to previous arrangements of the permanent art exhibition at Nationalmuseum, as well as to historical museological trends. In the second chapter, Carol Duncan’s perspective of the ritual structure is applied in order to explore how the specific design of the exhibition affects visitors and objects, and how mening and narrative is created. The study does not primarily focus on individual objects, but on the general design and structure of the exhibition space. The study concludes that historical references can be found in the current exhibition – mainly to a sensual, intimate, and aesthetic mode of display from the early twentieth century. Some principles which have been dominating in art museums since the mid-twentieth century are challenged, including the isolation of objects; use of vast, empty spaces; division between different object categories; and sparse, single-row hanging. The varied and dynamic hanging of the current exhibition, in contrast to a repetetive one, creates different patterns of movement and object-visitor interactions. Still, the ritual structure of the exhibition works to direct visitor attention and behaviour, conveying an art-historical narrative. Meanings concerning objects’ historical context are fascilitated through the interplay between visual arrangement and textual information.

  • Blixt, Jessica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Culture and Aesthetics.
    Going, going gone...: En berättelse om en bilds resa från gata till salong2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsens ämne berör transformation av bilder i påverkan av olika mekanismer och kontext. Fokus ligger på verket Girl and Balloon (2004), ett gatukonstverk av Banksy. Uppsatsen undersöker verkets omvandling från gatumålning till en perfomanceakt och dess rest Love is in the Bin (2018). Det empiriska materialet består av fotografier samt filmupptagningar, till största del från konstnären själv. Syftet är att försöka tolka underliggande betydelser i de tre verken samt eventuella betydelseförskutningar i transformationen. Det teoretiska perspektivet bygger på Anna Dahlgrens teori om bilders rörelser och presenteras som en social bildbiografi uppbyggd med stöd av en ikonografisk analys enligt Erwin Panofskys metod. Dispositionen består av bakgrundsbeskrivning av konstnären samt analyser av de tre verken.

    Resultatet visar på att de estetiska förändringar som föregår Love is in the Bin (2018) är process från urban väggmålning, till målning på inramad canvas, till målning och ram som  självförstörande installation samt en genom film och fotografi dokumenterad performanceakt. Mekanismer som påverkar transformationen är den institutionella konstvärlden och den kommersiella konstmarknaden och verken tolkas som en reaktion mot detta. Trots estetiska förändringar kvarstår den urbana väggmålningen Girl and Balloons (2004) övergripande betydelse, det vill säga kritik mot institution och bolagskontroll över konst och kultur, samt ställningstagande mot kommersialism och kapitalism.  I de olika verken bär inte motivet den kritiserande betydelsen utan ram, plats och hantering av material är meningsbärare.

  • Sjöberg, Mikaela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Culture and Aesthetics.
    Kronobergsgatan 35: Från brandvägg till utställningsrum2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    I have followed the process of development of Kronobergsgatan 35 as an exhibition room for street art and graffiti in Stockholms public space. By interviewing the curators and analyzing with referens to institutional- and curating theory my aim has been to investigate the surrounding circumstances for said exhibition.

    Stockholm has a history of zero tolerance which makes this exhibition room a rare sight. The curators has, with an educational agenda, wanted to normalize graffiti as an artform but in so doing places the exhibition somewhere between it's subcultural history and the established art institution. The wall is made possible by the contribution of the property owner. I investigate the possible purposes of this investment and how association with culture affiliations could have positive effect on a business profile by obtaining cultural capital. 

    As an exhibition room in public space it works with and in contrast to the official public art of the city. I investigate this relationship between official and unofficial public art and the discussion of a democratic public space.

  • Ermilova, Inna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Lyubartsev, Alexander P.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Cholesterol in phospholipid bilayers: positions and orientations inside membranes with different unsaturation degrees2019In: Soft Matter, ISSN 1744-683X, E-ISSN 1744-6848, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 78-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cholesterol is an essential component of all animal cell membranes and plays an important role in maintaining the membrane structure and physical–chemical properties necessary for correct cell functioning. The presence of cholesterol is believed to be responsible for domain formation (lipid rafts) due to different interactions of cholesterol with saturated and unsaturated lipids. In order to get detailed atomistic insight into the behaviour of cholesterol in bilayers composed of lipids with varying degrees of unsaturation, we have carried out a series of molecular dynamics simulations of saturated and polyunsaturated lipid bilayers with different contents of cholesterol, as well as well-tempered metadynamics simulations with a single cholesterol molecule in these bilayers. From these simulations we have determined distributions of cholesterol across the bilayer, its orientational properties, free energy profiles, and specific interactions of molecular groups able to form hydrogen bonds. Both molecular dynamics and metadynamics simulations showed that the most unsaturated bilayer with 22:6 fatty acid chains shows behaviour which is most different from other lipids. In this bilayer, cholesterol is relatively often found in a “flipped” configuration with the hydroxyl group oriented towards the membrane middle plane. This bilayer has also the highest (least negative) binding free energy among liquid phase bilayers, and the lowest reorientation barrier. Furthermore, cholesterol molecules in this bilayer are often found to form head-to-tail contacts which may lead to specific clustering behaviour. Overall, our simulations support ideas that there can be a subtle interconnection between the contents of highly unsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol, deficiency or excess of each of them is related to many human afflictions and diseases.

  • Zandi, Mounes
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Norberg, Agnes
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Kriskommunikation - Konsten att spela schack utan att se motståndarens pjäser: En kvalitativ fallstudie av Oscar Properties och Aros Bostad i samband med nyproduktionskrisen2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to examine how Crisis Management can be applied when formulating crisis communication, and whether there is a distinct difference in how regular communication is built. This thesis consists of a case study subsidized by two companies in the housing industry, Oscar Properties and Aros Bostad, during the crisis on the housing development market 2018. Four qualitative semi-structured interviews with active experts in crisis communication are carried out with the aim of supporting and developing the analytical basis of the study.

    After completing the study, the authors have compiled and presented a model based on Crisis Management's three different phases and combined it with dimensions from the Expressiveness Quotient-model. The models structure has changed to be circular and defines crises like a cycle. The cycle is carried out without any clear delimitations between the different crisis phases, since the study shows difficulties in distinguishing these. The purpose of a model like this is to remind the organization that they do not operate in a context separate from the outside world but that these factors may affect the organization anyhow.

    An example from this study and the housing development industry is the government's introduction of amortization requirements, an external factor that the organizations had to consider and came to influence the market. Another example of an external factor which is difficult to plan and predict, is media coverage and how it will affect the organization's reputation.

  • Public defence: 2019-02-26 09:00 Room FA32, AlbaNova University Center, Stockholm
    Campanini, Donato
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Thermodynamic characterization of superconducting and magnetic materials using nanocalorimetry2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Measurement of specific heat is a powerful technique for the investigation of novel materials. Superconducting and magnetic systems, in particular, can be thoroughly characterized by studying their electronic contribution to the specific heat. To investigate their behavior in magnetic fields, single crystals need to be used, since the magnetic properties are dependent on the crystalline orientation. Crystal quality is often enhanced when sizes are reduced down to below the 100 μm scale, which is lower than the limit of conventional calorimeters. Nanocalorimetry allows to detect the weak electronic signature in the specific heat for such small samples with a preserved combination of high resolution and good accuracy. This is achieved by miniaturizing the device using microsystems technology and by a proper optimization of the measurement conditions.

    In this thesis, a nanocalorimeter designed for the study of samples with masses from sub-μg  to 100 μg in the temperature range 1-350 K is used for studying three different systems, yielding insights into their physical properties.

    In the magnetocaloric compound Fe2P a deep thermodynamic understanding of the first-order magnetic phase transition at the Curie temperature TC ≈ 217 K is lacking. The nanocalorimeter is used to map the magnetic phase diagram for fields applied parallel and perpendicular to the easy axis of magnetization. Two different phase diagrams are obtained depending on the applied field orientation. The first-order magnetic phase transition is characterized by specific and latent heat, providing a textbook example of thermodynamic properties around such a transition. The results are complemented with a combined nanocalorimetry - x-ray diffraction study and by magnetization measurements.

    The iron-based high-temperature superconductor BaFe2(As1-xPx)2 shows several anomalous physical properties which have been associated to the presence of a quantum critical point. High-resolution specific heat measurements are an important piece of the puzzle in understanding the behavior of this material. The specific heat is measured as a function of phosphorus doping x in the superoptimally substituted range and several superconducting parameters are extracted. An evolution from a single-gap to a two-gap is seen with doping, as well as a decrease of the London penetration depth close to optimum doping, without signs of divergence.

    The superconducting properties are as well investigated in the metastable β phase of gallium. β-Ga is obtained in-situ from the stable α-Ga by increasing the temperature about 10 K above the melting point. This novel method to produce β-Ga allows more reproducible and reliable measurements in comparison to traditional methods. A thorough thermodynamic characterization of the metastable phase is obtained, giving insights into the conditions for a strongly enhanced superconductivity in β-Ga in comparison to α-Ga. β-Ga is found to be a strong-coupling superconductor, with a 2.55 higher density of states at the Fermi energy in comparison to α-Ga.

    These measurements demonstrate how several problems in condensed matter physics can be addressed through nanocalorimetry, which allows mapping various phase diagrams and obtaining fundamental thermodynamic properties on high-quality samples in magnetic fields.

     

  • Svensson, Julia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Culture and Aesthetics.
    A Golden, Dim Dream: Intermedial analys av Sibylla Palmifera och Lady Lilith2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsens ämne berör användningen av intermedialitet för att förmedla ett narrativ i Dante Gabriel Rossettis verk Lady Lilith och Sibylla Palmifera. I uppsatsen undersöks hur Rossetti problematiserar den samtida kvinnosynen. Med intermedialitet menas användningen av två medier i samma verk, i detta fall sonett och måleri. Syftet är att undersöka hur Dante Gabriel Rossetti problematiserade den rådande tudelade synen på kvinnan som antingen ond eller god.

    Den intermediala teorin som används bygger på W.T.J. Mitchells teori om relationen mellan bild och text, vad dessa medier tillför varandra samt skillnaden mellan dem. Genom analyser av både text och måleri undersöks de bägge verkens ikonologi. Dispositionen består av tre avsnitt. Det första avsnittet fungerar som en bakgrund till de övriga två avsnitten. Avsnitt två och tre består av enskilda analyser av de bägge verken med tillhörande texter.

     Resultatet visar att Dante Gabriel Rossetti med dessa verk problematiserar dualiteten i den samtida kvinnosynen. Genom att använda mytologiska kvinnogestalter skapar Rossetti en mer nyanserad bild av synen på kvinnan under den viktorianska epoken. Användningen av sonett och måleri tillsammans fungerar väl i Lady Lilith då verket får en fördjupad inre mening. I dubbelverket Sibylla Palmifera relaterar dock sonett och målning inte lika bra med varandra. 

  • Wall Scherer, Josefine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Ethnology, History of Religions and Gender Studies.
    En granskande granskning av Uppdrag granskning: Om normalisering av rasism och sexism i SVT2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

    This study is based on two reportages from the program Uppdrag granskning that have received a lot of attention in 2018 and have led to the highest number of claims to the Ministry of press, radio and television in Sweden. The main theme of the two reportages is men ́s sexual violence against women, thus approached from two different perspectives. Through using a Critical Discourse Analysis and intersectional theory the thesis examines how different bodies are given different spaces, what kind of feelings they provoke and how identity is constructed. It becomes evident that the perspective and how the perpetrator is described in the program depend on whether or not he is part of norm of whiteness. The study shows that Uppdrag granskning uses its discursive power to effect feelings in a way that normalizes sexism and racism. Through the hegemonic discourse that Uppdrag granskning creates, things that are unthinkable to say today become possible to say tomorrow.

    Keywords: Media, Discourses, Critical Discourse Analysis, Critical Whiteness Studies, Racism, Sexism, Uppdrag granskning

  • Wall Scherer, Josefine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Ethnology, History of Religions and Gender Studies.
    Vem hotar Upplysningen?: Om kunskapsproduktion i SVTs Idévärlden2018Student paper second term, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    ABSTRAKT

    Media har mycket makt och inflytande över människor samt stor frihet i att framställa vissa kroppar på vissa sätt. Tolkningen är alltid vår egen men utan ett kritiskt perspektiv osynliggörs de hegemoniska diskurser som media producerar där generaliseringar och stereotypiseringar används för att bygga upp en viss bild. I debatten om vad som är kunskap blir en kritisk blick viktig för att kunna ifrågasätta kunskapsproduktion. I denna studie granskas, genom diskursanalys som metod, media som kunskapsproducent utifrån ett populärvetenskapligt program med just Upplysningen som tema. Upplysningen, som kan ses som en början till en kritiskt tanketradition anses vara hotad. Den här studien går ut på att försöka förstå vem eller vad som skulle kunna vara hotet och på vilket sätt hotet tar sig uttryck. En slutsats är att genusvetenskapen som vetenskap kan ses som hotet. Att ifrågasätta de manliga upplysningsfilosofernas tankar och idéer samt deras upphöjdhet ses som hotfullt. Förnuft står i kontrast till känslan. Identitetspolitik som bygger på erfarenhet ses som motupplysning där vissa grupper ges tolkningsföreträden och därmed frikort från den förnuftiga argumentationen och samtalet.

    Nyckelord: kunskapsproduktion, upplysningen, genusvetenskap, identitetspolitik

  • Sund, Louise
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Ethnology, History of Religions and Gender Studies.
    Prostitution eller Sexarbete?: En Jämförande Analys av Intedinhora och Fuckförbundet2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The prostitution debate in Sweden is generally divided into two dualistic counterparts; one side that sees prostitution as the worst form of oppression, and the other that wants to acknowledge it as a profession and normalize the perception of sex work. The purpose of this essay is to implement a comparative analysis between two organizations that appear to belong to these two counterparts, Intedinhora (Notyourwhore) and Fuckförbundet (Fuckunion). The method involves a comparative analysis, where the two organizations are set against each other to find similarities and differences. Intersectionality, queer theory and discourse theory are used in the analysis - theories that emphasize the importance of the social, cultural and historical contexts that forms individuals and groups structures. The theories help to explain how the organizations looks at prostitution. In a derivation from the theories I found three key concepts that I applied on the material: power, sexuality and victim. The analysis is divided into these key concepts where similarities and differences are described.

    It appears that the organizations share some similarities, mainly in the view of why some people sell sex and not others. They, lean towards an intersectional understanding of the interaction of power symmetry on people’s lives, where class, race and sexual identity affect what choices a person has. However, they seem to differ greatly in the view of the future of the prostitution industry. Intedinhora belongs to those who want prostitution to cease and acknowledge the Swedish sex law as something good, while Fuckförbundet wants to elevate it as a legitimate profession, annul the law in a way to transform the view on the sex worker as an active agent. To sum up, the debate can be understood as dualistic, although there are some similarities between the two sides, mostly in their emphasis on the importance to look at class, sexual identity and race to describe why some sell sex, and another buy it. Fuckförbundet, however, seems to be more ideological than theoretical in their argument than Intedinhora. 

  • Public defence: 2019-02-25 10:00 FA31, Stockholm
    Morå, Knut Dundas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. OKC.
    Statistical Modelling and Inference for XENON1T2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A great number of astrophysical observations suggests that of the matter in our universe, only a sixth is made up of known matter. The rest, named dark matter, has not been successfully identified. This thesis presents the analysis and statistical inference that was used by the XENON1T collaboration to conduct a search for a particular dark matter candidate; weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs).

     

    XENON1T is a dual-phase time projection chamber that can detect particles scattering in a 2 tonne target of liquid xenon with deposited recoil energies above ~3 keV. This is low enough to observe the elastic recoil between a WIMP and a xenon nucleus for WIMP masses >5 GeV c-2.

    The results presented in this thesis use 278.8 days of data, with an analysis mass of 1.3 tonne.

     

    XENON1T uses models for backgrounds and signals within this volume to construct a combined likelihood for two science data-taking periods as well as calibration data-sets. Fits to simulated data-sets were used to calibrate and validate the confidence interval construction. In addition, analysis choices were evaluated both to optimize the discovery power and expected sensitivity of the search, and to improve the robustness of the analysis.

     

    No significant excess was observed in the search for a spin-independent WIMP-nucleon interaction for any WIMP masses between 6  GeV c-2 and 104 GeV c-2 for the 1 ton-year exposure. This analysis produced the strongest constraint on the spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross-section so far, with a minimum of 4.1 10-47 cm2  for a 30 GeV c-2 WIMP.

  • Jensen, Kurt Villads
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Medieval Studies.
    HOSPITALLERS IN SCANDINAVIA AND THEIR CONNECTIONS TO  THE MEDITERRANEAN  AFTER THE FALL OF  THE CRUSADER STATES2018In: ENTRE DEUS E O REI.  O mundo das Ordens Militares / [ed] ISABEL CRISTINA F. FERNANDES, MUNICÍPIO DE PALMELA - GEsOS , 2018, p. 755-772Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • Söderström, Jennifer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Bokstavsinlärning – hur går det till?: En komparativ studie av grundlärares bokstavsundervisning2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka och jämföra hur lärare i årskurs 1 utrycker att de undervisar i bokstavsinlärning. Metoden som används är kvalitativa intervjuer med fyra lärare som arbetar i årskurs 1. Under intervjuerna ställdes frågor om upplägget på undervisningen, vilka bokstäver som man börjar med samt vilket läromedel och material som används. Resultatet visade att alla respondenter uttrycker liknande sätt att introducera bokstäverna på och en del moment arbetar respondenterna på liknande sätt. Som exempel läggs det fokus på att lära eleverna ljuda, forma och öva på skrivriktningen samt få igång lästräningen samtidigt. Resultatet visade även att alla respondenter använder samma läromedel, men på olika sätt – vissa har den som en utgångspunkt och andra som en repetitionsuppgift. Det som skiljde lärarna sig emellan var att de uttryckte olika tillvägagångssätt för att undervisa i bokstavsinlärning och hur de granskade elevernas förkunskaper samt deras användning av bedömningsstöd och diagnoser.

  • Ulriksson, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Omprövningsrätten enligt skadeståndslagen i förhållande till rättskraft2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    5 kap. 5 § SkL innebär ett avsteg från rättskraftsinstitutet och inbegriper två rättsliga principer som kolliderar. Principen om full kompensation för den skadelidande och principen om domens orubblighet, där framförallt skadevållaren ska kunna räkna med att när ersättningen är slutreglerad har den fullgjort sina förpliktelser. Naturligtvis blir paragrafen därför motsägelsefull och dess innehåll har fått utvecklas genom praxis.

    Tyngdpunkten i praxis har särskilt legat på vad som omfattas av väsentlighetsrekvisitet i 5 kap. 5 § SkL. Framförallt är det fem domar från högsta domstolen som förtydligar vad som anses vara väsentligt förändrade förhållanden. Sammanfattningsvis har det i dessa domar konstaterats att väsentlighetsrekvisitet är uppfyllt när en ekonomisk kumulativ differens om 10 % uppstått efter att skadeståndersättningen avgjorts slutligt.

    Ett område som dock inte närmare har studerats gällande omprövningsrätten i SkL är vilka förhållanden som kan tas upp till omprövning. Syftet med uppsatsen är att utreda vilka delar av ett skadestånd som kan tas upp till omprövning enligt 5 kap. 5 § SkL. Uppsatsen avser därför att klargöra vilka omständigheter som omfattas av rättskraft och vad som initierar att rättskraften bör frångås inom skadeståndsrätten. Vidare kommer andra juridiska discipliners förhållanden till omprövningsrätten som rättslig företeelse att analyseras för att få ett helhetsperspektiv av vilka motiv som föranleder avsteg från rättskraftsinstitutet.

    För att uppnå syftet utreds förlajnde frågeställning:

    - Är hela skadeståndsfrågan öppen för omprövning i alla delar eller gäller den bara ändrade förhållanden?

  • Public defence: 2019-02-22 10:00 Vivi Täckholmsalen (Q-salen), NPQ-huset, Stockholm
    A. Manneh, Ilana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Supporting Learning and Teaching of Chemistry in the Undergraduate Classroom2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is agreement in research about the need to find better ways of teaching chemistry to enhance students’ understanding. This thesis aims to contribute to the understanding of how we better support teaching and learning of undergraduate chemistry to make it meaningful and intelligible for students from the outset. The thesis is concerned with examining the interactions between student, specific content and teacher in the undergraduate chemistry classroom; that is, the processes making up the three relations of the didactic triangle. The data consists of observations of students and tutors during problem-solving activities in an introductory chemistry course and interviews with graduate students.

    Systematic analyses of the different interactions between the student, the chemistry content, and the tutor are made using the analytical tool of practical epistemology analysis. The main findings of the thesis include detailed insights into how undergraduate chemistry students deal with newly encountered content together with didactic models and concrete suggestions for improved teaching and for supporting continuity and progression in the undergraduate chemistry classroom. Specifically, I show how students deal with the chemistry content through a complex interaction of knowledge, experiences, and purposes on different levels invoked by both students and tutors as they interact with each other. Whether these interactions have a positive or negative effect on students’ learning depends on the nature of knowledge, experiences and purposes that were invoked. Moreover, the tutor sometimes invoked other purposes than the ones related to the task at hand for connecting the activity to the subject matter in general. These purposes were not always made continuous with the activity which resulting in confusion among students. The results from these analyses were used for producing hypotheses and models that could support continuity and progression during the activity. The suggested models aim to make the content more manageable and meaningful to students, enabling connections to other experiences and purposes, and helping teachers and tutors to analyze and reflect on their teaching. Moreover, a purpose- and activity-based progression is suggested that gives attention to purposes in chemistry education other than providing explanations of chemical phenomena. The aim of this ‘progression in action’ is to engage students in activities were they can see the meaning of chemical concepts and ideas through their use to accomplish different chemical tasks. A general conclusion is that detailed knowledge about the processes of teaching and learning is important for providing adequate support to both undergraduate students and university teachers in the chemistry classroom.

  • Public defence: 2019-02-22 10:00 William-Olssonsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Stockholm
    Leiva, Alejandro
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Three Faces of Diversity Rhetoric: Managerialization, marketing and ambiguity2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past decades, the language of diversity management has spread from the US to many parts of the world, including Sweden, where it emerged in the mid 1990’s. Consisting of three papers, this thesis contributes to the field of critical diversity studies by examining the multifaceted character of diversity rhetoric among Swedish diversity consultants. A central point of debate in previous research has been the relationship between, on one hand, diversity management rhetoric, and on the other hand, equal opportunities and antidiscrimination law. Scholars suggest that Scandinavian and Swedish “diversity” are strongly associated with ideals of equality, antidiscrimination and corporate social responsibility. This thesis gives nuance to this picture by focusing on the views of consultants.

    Paper 1 tries to answer this question: Do Swedish diversity consultants managerialize antidiscrimination law? Research on the US and the UK asserts a conflict between legal equality and the instrumental rhetoric of diversity management. However, studies on continental Europe and Scandinavia tend to posit diversity rhetoric as linked to ethnicity and tempered by legal and social equality. Building on interviews with diversity consultants, this paper shows that their diversity constructions conform to the managerialization thesis. 

    Paper 2 argues that diversity’s three common rhetorical moves—its broad scope, its business case, and its dissociation from legal frames—are more open to interpretation than typically portrayed in the critical diversity research. While scholars tend to interpret this rhetoric as managerial dilution of legal and equality ideals, findings indicate that consultants may use the same rhetorical moves to incorporate an equality logic and extend legal ideas beyond the limits of the law. These interpretative discrepancies are conceptualized as ambiguity—i.e., the same rhetorical moves may support more than one interpretation.

    Paper 3 examines the ongoing institutional work of diversity consultants as they rhetorically try to build a business case for “ethnic marketing” in Sweden. Extant literature suggests that ethnic marketing relies on making differences between “them” (ethnic minority consumers) and “us” (majority consumers). This paper asserts that while making differences is crucial when creating “ethnic” consumers (“different from us”), another rhetorical strategy, “making similarities,” is used to construct already otherized people as “consumers” (“similar to us”). Further, findings show that Sweden’s lack of official statistics on ethnicity and general reluctance towards highlighting ethnicity may function as institutional obstacles that hamper the legitimacy and spread of ethnic marketing.

  • Public defence: 2019-02-22 09:30 P216. NPQ-huset, Stockholm
    Caputo, Andrea
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Genomic and morphological diversity of marine planktonic diatom-diazotroph associations: a continuum of integration and diversification through geological time2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Symbioses between eukaryotes and nitrogen (N2)-fixing cyanobacteria (or diazotrophs) are quite common in the plankton community. A few genera of diatoms (Bacillariophyceae) such as Rhizosolenia, Hemiaulus and Chaetoceros are well known to form symbioses with the heterocystous diazotrophic cyanobacteria Richelia intracellularis and Calothrix rhizosoleniae. The latter are also called diatom-diazotroph associations, or DDAs. Up to now, the prokaryotic partners have been morphologically and genetically characterized, and the phylogenetic reconstruction of the well conserved nifH gene (encodes for the nitrogenase enzyme) placed the symbionts in 3 clusters based on their host-specificity, i.e. het-1 (Rhizosolenia-R. intracellularis), het-2 (Hemiaulus-R. intracellularis), and het-3 (Chaetoceros-C- rhizosoleniae). Conversely, the diatom-hosts, major representative of the phytoplankton community and crucial contributors to the carbon (C) biogeochemical cycle, have been understudied.

    The first aim of this thesis was to genetically and morphologically characterize the diatom-hosts, and to reconstruct the evolutionary background of the partnerships and the symbiont integration in the host. The molecular-clock analysis reconstruction showed the ancient appearance of the DDAs, and the traits characterizing the ancestors. In addition, diatom-hosts bearing internal symbionts (with more eroded draft genomes) appeared earlier than diatom-hosts with external symbionts. Finally a blast survey highlighted a broader distribution of the DDAs than expected.

    The second aim of this thesis was to compare genetic and physiological characteristics of the DDAs symbionts with the other eukaryote-diazotroph symbiosis, i.e. prymnesiophyte-UCYN-A (or Candidatus Atelocyanobacterium thalassa). The genome comparison highlighted more genes for transporters in het-3 (external symbiont) and in the UCYN-A based symbiosis, suggesting that symbiont location might be relevant also for metabolic exchanges and interactions with the host and/or environment. Moreover, a summary of methodological biases that brought to an underestimation of the DDAs is reported.

    The third aim of this thesis was to determine the distribution of the DDAs in the South Pacific Ocean using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) approach and to outline the environmental drivers of such distribution. Among the het-groups, het-1 was the most abundant/detected and co-occurred with the other 2 symbiotic strains, all responding similarly to the influence of abiotic factors, such as temperature and salinity (positive and negative correlation, respectively). Globally, Trichodesmium dominated the qPCR detections, followed by UCYN-B. UCYN-A phylotypes (A-1, A-2) were detected without their proposed hosts, for which new oligonucleotides were designed. The latter suggested a facultative symbiosis. Finally, microscopy observations of the het-groups highlighted a discrepancy with the qPCR counts (i.e. the former were several order of magnitudes lower), leading to the idea of developing a new approach to quantify the DDAs.  

    The fourth aim of this thesis was to develop highly specific in situ hybridization assays (CARD-FISH) to determine the presence of alternative life-stages and/or free-living partners. The new assays were applied to samples collected in the South China Sea and compared with abundance estimates from qPCR assays for the 3 symbiotic strains. Free-living cells were indeed detected along the transect, mainly at deeper depths. Free-living symbionts had two morphotypes: trichomes and single-cells. The latter were interpreted as temporary life-stages. Consistent co-occurrence of the 3 het-groups was also found in the SCS and application of a SEM model predicted positive interactions between the het groups. We interpreted the positive interaction as absence of intra-specific competition, and consistent with the previous study, temperature and salinity were predicted as major drivers of the DDAs distribution.

  • Public defence: 2019-02-22 13:30 Vivi Täckholmsalen (Q-salen), Stockholm
    Neethiraj, Ramprasad
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Advances in studying the role of genetic divergence and recombination in adaptation in non-model species2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the role of genetic divergence and recombination in adaptation is crucial to understanding the evolutionary potential of species since they can directly affect the levels of genetic variation present within populations or species. Genetic variation in the functional parts of the genome such as exons or regulatory regions is the raw material for evolution, because natural selection can only operate on phenotypic variation already present in the population. When natural selection acts on a phenotype, it usually results in reduction in the levels of genetic variation at the causal loci, and the surrounding linked loci, due to recombination dynamics (i.e. linkage); the degree to which natural selection influences the genetic differentiation in the linked regions depends on the local recombination rates.

    Studies investigating the role of genetic divergence and recombination are common in model species such as Drosophila melanogaster. Only recently have genomic tools allowed us to start investigating their role in shaping genetic variation in non-model species. This thesis adds to the growing research in that domain. In this thesis, I have asked a diverse set of questions to understand the role of genetic divergence and recombination in adaptation in non-model species, with a focus on Lepidoptera.

    First, how do we identify causal genetic variation causing adaptive phenotypes? This question is fundamental to evolutionary biology and addressing it requires a well-assembled genome, the generation of which is a cost, labor, and time intensive task. In paper I, I present a tool, MESPA, that stitches together exonic sequences in fragmented assemblies to produce high-quality gene models. These high-quality gene models can be used by researchers in the downstream analyses, providing genomic insights for a fraction of cost of a high quality genome. 

    Second, what does the pattern of recombination rate look like in chromosomes that lack centromeres (i.e.holocentric chromosomes)? In paper II, I compare the recombination landscape and the patterns of nucleotide diversity in three Lepidotera with holocentric chromosomes, Pieris napi, Bombyx mandarina, and Bombyx mori, with a monocentric species. Our results show that on average these three Lepidoptera have high rates of recombination across the vast majority of their genome. Our results also suggest that given similar effective population sizes, these species are likely to harbor more genetic diversity compared to monocentric species, which has important evolutionary consequences for these species.

    Third, what is the potential for parallelism at the genetic level in convergent melanic phenotypes? In paper III, I investigated the genetic basis of the female-limited melanic phenotype in the green-veined white (Pieris napi) butterfly, and found a 20kb region, approximately 50kb from the gene cortex, associated with this trait. This gene has been implicated in melanic phenotypes in other Lepidoptera that diverged from Pieris approximately 100my, indicating very high predictability for this trait.

    Finally, what is the role of cis-regulatory variation in local adaptation? In paper IV, I analyzed the relationship between allele specific expression (ASE) and genetic divergence (FST) in the F1 hybrids of Pieris napi napi and Pieris napi adalwinda. I show that intersecting results from ASE with FST is a powerful approach to identify genes involved in local adaptation.

  • Anker-Hansen, Jens
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education. Skolverket.
    Andrée, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    In Pursuit of Authenticity in Science Education2019In: NorDiNa: Nordic Studies in Science Education, ISSN 1504-4556, E-ISSN 1894-1257, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 498-510Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a systematic review of how authenticity is used in science education research and discusses the implications these uses have for the design of science education classroom practices. Authenticity has been discussed in education for decades. However, the authenticity of science education not only concerns the design of educational activities, but also the content of what is being taught. This article reviews research articles published in 2013 and 2014, in the three highest ranking journals in science education, regarding how authenticity is framed in science education. The findings suggest that the uses vary greatly from referring to externally defined practices to student relevance. The findings are discussed with the notions of cultural and personal authenticity to suggest important aspects involved with designing science classroom activities authentic to the different references. Based on the review, we have developed a strategy for balancing authenticity in science education classroom practices between cultural and personal authenticity.

  • Karlström, Matti
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Hamza, Karim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Preservice Science Teachers’ Opportunities for Learning Through Reflection When Planning a Microteaching Unit2019In: Journal of Science Teacher Education, ISSN 1046-560X, E-ISSN 1573-1847, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 44-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although microteaching is a common approach to engaging preservice teachers in reflection on teaching in on-campus courses, this reflection is usually carried out as a separate part. We examined how preservice middle school science teachers reflected amid planning a 20-min microteaching unit on sustainable development. Six groups of preservice teachers were video recorded and their conversations transcribed. We used practical epistemology analysis to analyze moments of reflection in these conversations. The preservice science teachers recurrently engaged in reflection in the course of their planning, which led to changes in perspective concerning important aspects of how to plan teaching that may be considered central for preservice science teachers to learn during their teacher education. Preservice teachers’ reflection was related to the openness of the task, as they had to make decisions about many different aspects of their teaching. Even aspects that are not on the table in a real-world setting, for instance having the possibility of deciding on the age of the target students, led to productive reflection and opportunities for learning. Our results contribute to increased awareness of the possibilities of microteaching for facilitating learning during planning. This may provide science teacher educators with better possibilities of supporting their preservice science teachers’ reflective practice.

  • Lavett Lagerström, Malin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Piqueras, Jesús
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Palm, Ola
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Planning for learning progressions with the didactical model organizing purposes: a study in context-based science teaching2018In: NorDiNa: Nordic Studies in Science Education, ISSN 1504-4556, E-ISSN 1894-1257, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 317-330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last years the didactical model organizing purposes has provided important insights about how teachers work with moment-to-moment learning progressions in science teaching. In the present study, organizing purposes were used to plan a lesson within a context-based unit in Biology, in which the Ebola disease was the overarching context. The lesson was planned in two parts. In the first part, the students worked with a model that simulated the spread of Ebola; in the second part, the model was discussed and compared with the real disease. The analysis of the enacted lesson shows that the students’ experiences from the model were effectively used by the teacher to establish a learning progression towards the learning goals. This was done by eliciting questions, comparisons between the model and real diseases, and recalling specific situations that allowed students to use everyday experiences and scientific concepts. Moreover, by maintaining focus in the context of the unit, the teacher through these actions, constantly directed the lesson towards the learning goals.

  • Dudas, Cecilia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Rundgren, Carl-Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Lundegård, Iann
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Didactic modelling of complex sustainability issues in chemistry education2018In: NorDiNa: Nordic Studies in Science Education, ISSN 1504-4556, E-ISSN 1894-1257, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 267-284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To meet future challenges regarding sustainability issues, science education needs to address how to educate scientifically literate and responsible citizens. One aspect of this is how to draw students’ attention to the complexity in sustainability issues. Therefore, this study analyses how complexity can become visible in students’ deliberations. The study has been conducted as an in-situ study at two upper secondary schools. The data was analysed using Practical Epistemological Analysis (PEA) and Deliberative Educational Questions (DEQ). The results show that four different kinds of considerations were used to visualise complexity. Those considerations regarded facts and values in relation to known and unknown facts. The considerations were used to develop a didactic model. Design principles were also developed, which together with the model can support teachers in didactic analyses regarding complex sustainability issues in chemistry education. Furthermore, the study shows that chemistry education can contribute to development of Bildung and democratic citizenship.

  • Johnson, Hanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Narrative Perspective in a Wordless Graphic Novel: Shaun Tan's The Arrival2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In a narrative the narrator tells the story, and the focalizer is a character through whose eyes the story is seen. The narrator is thus the one who speaks, whilst the focalizer is silent. The identification of these two narratological features is made with the help of verbal cues such as personal pronouns for instance. Determining the narrator and the focalizer can sometimes be challenging due to ambiguous cues in the analyzed text, as well as narratological aspects which at times can be difficult to distinguish from each other. Determining the narrator and the focalizer in graphic narratives (comics) with no narrative voice, or which completely lack words, must be done with the help of pictorial cues instead. In this thesis, Shaun Tan’s wordless graphic narrative The Arrival is used in order to show how the narrator and the focalizer can be determined by combining pictorial cues with the reader’s general knowledge of storytelling as well as his or her experiences from real life scenarios. To analyze narratological features in The Arrival, I employ terminology from comics studies, literary and film narratology. My analysis shows that determining the narrator and the focalizer in narratives lacking explicit narrative voice is possible by using only pictorial cues.

  • Jonsson, Ida
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Petticoats or Miniskirts: A Comparative Analysis of Feminine Narration in Pride and Prejudice and Bridget Jones's Diary 2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Both Pride and Prejudice (Jane Austen) and Bridget Jones’s Diary (Helen Fielding) have been thoroughly examined by literary critics. When discussed from a feminist perspective, critics are ambiguous as some claim that the novels work against feminist values rather than the reverse. This essay aims to add to the existing discussion, with focus on narration, specifically the narrative authority heroines Elizabeth and Bridget claim. Thus, it is situated within feminist narratology, examining the discourse of the narrative rather than the story. Analysis is conducted with Alison Case’s concept feminine narration, where women traditionally have been narrative witnesses without authority. Through acts of plotting and preaching, authority is claimed by which the narrator can control the meaning the reader is meant to derive from the narrative. I argue that Elizabeth and Bridget both assert narrative authority throughout their stories, thus breaking gendered conventions by claiming agency in traditionally male positions. Additionally, the comparative analysis enables discussion on “Chick lit” literary status, which has been questioned by critics.

                Analysis shows that both Elizabeth and Bridget assert narrative authority throughout their stories, by acts of plotting and preaching. Often, both heroines meet male characters attempting to usurp narrative authority by assuming the role of master-narrator, a figure who traditionally possesses more authority. By avoiding these attempts, Elizabeth and Bridget escape the position as narrative witnesses and claim authority, thus directing the readers towards the intended meaning of respective narratives. Furthermore, the comparative analysis opens up for a broader discussion of issues women have faced, and continue to face, throughout time.

  • Mole, Richard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Julmust, Must or Christmas Cola?: Translation Strategies for Words for Culture Specific Items in Two Translations of Liza Marklund’s 'Sprängaren2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Research within translation characterises cultural references as being problematic for translators, meaning they must choose between different translation strategies as to how to transfer these references into the translated text. These strategies are often described in general terms according to how closely oriented they are to the target-culture or source-culture, known as domestication or foreignisation. Translation of literature into English is minimal in world terms and there is seemingly a lack of statistically comparable data concerning the translation of cultural references. This study investigates and compares translation strategies of words denoting cultural references in two translations of the 1998 Swedish Nordic Noir novel Sprängaren by Liza Marklund. The methodology in the study is based on descriptive translation studies, and a categorisation model for types of cultural references is used, as well as an adapted taxonomy model for evaluating translation strategies. Issues addressed are: what types of strategies are used; whether strategies change between translations; how the second translation stands in relation to the retranslation hypothesis and whether any general translation norms are apparent. Results show that a wide variety of translation strategies are used for different types of cultural references, with subtle differences in strategies used in each translation. However, both translations appear to be more domestication-oriented with little overall movement towards to the source culture, as the retranslation hypothesis suggests.

  • Grafström, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Centre for Organizational Research (SCORE).
    Windell, Karolina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Centre for Organizational Research (SCORE).
    Självgenererande nyhetsjournalistik: När åsikter blir nyheter2019Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här rapporten analyserar vi nyhetsflödet kring Nya Tiders medverkan på Bok- och biblioteksmässan i Göteborg 2016. Tidningens medverkan fick stor uppmärksamhet i både traditionella och sociala medier. Den omfattande nyhetsbevakningen väcker frågor om hur nyheter skapas och hur de hålls vid liv. När blir egentligen en händelse till en nyhet? Syftet med rapporten är därför att skapa förståelse för hur en nyhet konstrueras och hur den hålls vid liv över tid. Vi är särskilt intresserade av att förstå hur olika aktörers samspel – informationsutbyte – påverkar förutsättningarna för hur en nyhet överlever. Vi använder ett institutionellt organisationsteoretiskt perspektiv för att förstå hur normer som styr nyhetsjournalistikens innehåll och format reproduceras och förändras i utbytet mellan aktörer på det nyhetsproducerande fältet. Vår analys visar att bevakningen initialt i hög grad följde förväntade och etablerade normer för nyhetsproduktion till att över tid i högre grad vara motiverat och pådrivet av åsiktsmaterial i form av ledare, krönikor och olika typer av debatter med journalister. Nyhetsflödet kom därigenom att präglas av principen att vad andra journalisterna har att säga om det inträffade betraktades som en nyhet i sig; en utveckling som vi förstår som en självgenererande nyhetsspiral. Dels får händelsen sprängkraft av att sakfrågan relaterar till ytterst centrala principer för det journalistiska fältet – yttrandefrihetens gränser – det vill säga vem som ska och bör samt under vilka förhållanden uttrycka sig i det offentliga rummet. Dels drivs nyheten fram av att journalister får kommentera, analysera och uttrycka sina åsikter om det är rätt eller fel att Nya Tider medverkar på Bok- och biblioteksmässan och att det innehållet anses vara stoff till fortsatt nyhetsproduktion. Studien väcker frågor om vad som händer när åsiktsinnehåll blir i centrum för och motiverar att en nyhetsberättelse drivs framåt – en utveckling som kan tänkas stärkas i takt med att det journalistiska nyhetstempot ökar och resurserna minskar. 

  • Murholm, Mariella
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Eriksson, Linn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Psykologiska kontrakt och HR-yrkesverksammas karriär-förväntningar: En kvalitativ studie om upplevelsen av brutna psykologiska kontrakt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Vad beror det på att vissa anställda erbjuds karriärmöjligheter och andra typer av utvecklingsmöjligheter av sin arbetsgivare på en arbetsplats och andra inte? Att en anställd söker en tjänst internt och besitter en lång erfarenhet eller högre utbildning men en nyligen anställd som nyligen börjat får jobbet, eller att en anställd helt plötsligt inte får stanna kvar på sin arbetsplats utan rimlig förklaring? Dessa händelser är exempel av situationer som uppstår dagligen inom olika organisationer och arbetsplatser, där anställda och arbetsgivare har olika uppfattningar om vilka förväntningar och löften de har gentemot varandra. Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka dessa komplexa förväntningar närmare med utgångspunkt i teoretiska antaganden om så kallade psykologiska kontrakt (även kallad informella och osynliga kontrakt). Dessa kontrakt är motsatsen till formella skriftliga kontrakt där titel, befattning och lön framgår. Psykologiska kontrakt handlar om vilka outtalade löften, åtaganden och förväntningar som finns mellan arbetsgivare och anställd, vad man tror att man är överens om men som forskningen visar att vi oftast inte är. Vad får det för konsekvenser när de psykologiska kontrakten bryts?

    Psykologiska kontrakt finns i alla relationer, mellan familjemedlemmar, inom vänskapsrelationer, på arbetsplatsen osv. I denna studie fokuserar vi på att undersöka de psykologiska kontrakten ur en arbetstagares synvinkel gällande karriärutveckling och utvecklingsmöjligheter hen upplever sig ha på sin nuvarande, eller hade på en tidigare arbetsgivare. Med hjälp det teoretiska ramverket kring psykologiska kontrakt som utgångspunkt genomfördes åtta kvalitativa intervjuer med yrkesverksamma tjänstemän inom Human Resources (HR). Resultaten visar att flera av respondenterna har haft erfarenheter utav brutna psykologiska kontrakt genom arbetslivet, på både låg och hög nivå. Det visar sig även att våra respondenter har väldigt liknande åsikter om hur deras karriärutveckling leds i första hand personligen av dem själva som högst ansvariga men att det även måste ske med en känsla av trygghet till chefen och dess stöd i en växelverkan. Att chefen håller det hen lovar och att den anställde känner sig rättvis behandlad framhölls av respondenterna som mycket betydelsefullt för deras välbefinnande.

  • Järverot, Eira
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Varufierade vänner: En studie av tre karriärböcker om influencerskap och deras framställning av relationen mellan följare och influencer2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna uppsats undersöks influenceryrket utifrån de tre karriärböckerna Hej, jag heter Mirza och jag är influencer (av Mirza Bico), Yrke: Influencer (av Linda Hörnfeldt) och Digital passion (av Frida Boisen) vars författare själva på olika sätt jobbar med sina sociala medier. Studien bygger på tidigare forskning som gett uttryck för kändisskapet på sociala medier som utmärkande av både närhet till följare och förhållningssättet till sig själv som en vara. Uppsatsens syfte är att undersöka upprätthållande av den närhet till följare, som visats i tidigare forskning, parallellt med tillgodoseendet av det ekonomiska intresset i att de säljer reklamutrymme på sina sociala medier – vilket får följarna att framstå som kunder. Böckerna analyseras utifrån ett marxistiskt teoretiskt ramverk, med grunden i Georg Lukács teorier och begreppen reifikation och varufiering. Reifikation innebär en anpassning efter kapitalistiska samhällets strukturer och relationer, vilket tar sig uttryck i den borgerliga människans medvetande. Varufiering syftar till processen som gör saker, arbetskraft eller personer till varor.

    Studien visar att den upplevda närheten som beskrivs till följarna tycks upprätthållas genom objektivering av personliga egenskaper, till att fylla funktionen att få följarna att återvända till kanalen. Den kalkylerbarhet av egenskaperna som framstår i beskrivningarna av relationen liknar en anpassning efter den rationalisering som Lukács menar utmärker det kapitalistiska produktionssättet. Relationen tycks varufieras då företag köper utrymme för att marknadsföra produkter för influencerns följare. Det tycks dock som att en influencer samtidigt behöver förhålla sig till krav på öppenhet och ärlighet gentemot följarna, vilka uttrycks i böckerna, vilket jag tolkar som följarnas önskan efter någonting genuint mänskligt och icke-reifierat. Det ekonomiska intresset tycks tätt sammantvinnat med upprätthållandet av vad som framstår som en nära relation, och ställer krav den marknadsföring som görs att framstå som uppriktig. För att uppnå detta tycks en influencers hela liv reifieras till en arena för det personliga varumärket. Detta kan även ses som ett absurt uttryck av vad C.S Cremin kallar det post-ironiska tillståndet, där kapitalismens kultur inkorporeras i personen.

  • Hjerten Njem, Li
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Manneheimer, Jakob
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Fotboll som integrationsarena2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Premat, Christophe
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    La francophonie, entre littérature et politique2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The presentation will focus on the impact of the institutional discourse produced by the organization of Francophonie on the aesthetical canon of “littérature francophone”. In the first part of the seminar, there will be a comparison between the history of Francophonie and the history of littérature francophone, the analysis of key actors such as Léopold Sédar Senghor who mixed political discourse with literary comments before dealing with the difference between francodoxie and francophonie. The main focus is on the ideological discourse on French language.

  • von Peltzer, Elise
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies.
    La actitud hacia el aprendizaje del léxico en la enseñanza de ELE: Un estudio sobre las actitudes de alumnos y profesores en el bachillerato2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [es]

    El presente estudio sobre la enseñanza de español como lengua extranjera (ELE) intenta establecer qué actitud tienen los profesores y los alumnos hacia la adquisición del léxico y si esta actitud afecta la enseñanza. 

    En el aprendizaje de las lenguas, el conocimiento léxico es una parte fundamental y, por eso, los objetivos principales de este trabajo han sido evaluar qué opinan los informantes sobre dicha materia. Dos grupos de nivel 3 (Steg 3), en total 40 alumnos, han compartido su opinión a través de un cuestionario. El cuestionario nos permitió evaluar la actitud individual de cada alumno y al mismo tiempo establecer motivaciones u otros factores que podían afectar la adquisición en la sala de clase.

    Considerando que los profesores en la sala de ELE muchas veces son los únicos representantes del idioma, también se investigó cómo ellos motivan a los alumnos a aprender palabras, es decir, cómo influyen en la actitud hacia la materia. Asimismo, los dos profesores formaron parte de una entrevista y reflexionaron cómo su propia actitud hacia el léxico afecta la implementación de la materia en clase. 

    Los resultados de la investigación mostraron algunas diferencias entre los profesores y sus alumnos. Así se confirmaron nuestra hipótesis sobre el rol significativo del profesor en la sala de ELE, y que, de cierto modo, la actitud que se genera hacia el léxico del español depende de la actitud del mismo profesor.

  • Östergren, Olof
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Martikainen, Pekka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). University of Helsinki, Finland; The Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Germany.
    Tarkiainen, Lasse
    Elstad, Jon Ivar
    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik
    Contribution of smoking and alcohol consumption to income differences in life expectancy: evidence using Danish, Finnish, Norwegian and Swedish register data2019In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Despite being comparatively egalitarian welfare states, the Nordic countries have not been successful in reducing health inequalities. Previous studies have suggested that smoking and alcohol contribute to this pattern. Few studies have focused on variations in alcohol-related and smoking-related mortality within the Nordic countries. We assess the contribution of smoking and alcohol to differences in life expectancy between countries and between income quintiles within countries.

    Methods We collected data from registers in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden comprising men and women aged 25–79 years during 1995–2007. Estimations of alcohol-related mortality were based on underlying and contributory causes of death on individual death certificates, and smoking-related mortality was based on an indirect method that used lung cancer mortality as an indicator for the population-level impact of smoking on mortality.

    Results About 40%–70% of the between-country differences in life expectancy in the Nordic countries can be attributed to smoking and alcohol. Alcohol-related and smoking-related mortality also made substantial contributions to income differences in life expectancy within countries. The magnitude of the contributions were about 30% in Norway, Sweden and among Finnish women to around 50% among Finnish men and in Denmark.

    Conclusions Smoking and alcohol consumption make substantial contributions to both between-country differences in mortality among the Nordic countries and within-country differences in mortality by income. The size of these contributions vary by country and sex.