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Kraus, L., Loy, J. K., Olderbak, S., Trolldal, B., Ramstedt, M., Svensson, J. & Törrönen, J. (2024). Does the decline in Swedish adolescent drinking persist into early adulthood?. Addiction, 119(2), 259-267
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Does the decline in Swedish adolescent drinking persist into early adulthood?
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2024 (engelsk)Inngår i: Addiction, ISSN 0965-2140, E-ISSN 1360-0443, Vol. 119, nr 2, s. 259-267Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Background and aims: Sweden has experienced a substantial decrease in adolescent drinking over the past decades. Whether the reduction persists into early adulthood remains unclear. Using survey data, the present study aimed to determine whether reductions in indicators of alcohol use observed among adolescents remain in early adulthood and whether changes in alcohol intake are consistent among light/moderate and heavy drinkers.

Design: Data from the Swedish monthly Alcohol Monitoring Survey (2001–20) were used to construct five 5-year birth cohorts (1978–82, 1983–87, 1988–92, 1993–97 and 1998–2002).

Setting: Sweden.

Participants: A total of n = 52 847 respondents (48% females) aged 16 and 30 years were included in this study.

Measurements: For both males and females, temporal changes in the prevalence of any drinking, the prevalence of heavy episodic drinking (HED) and total alcohol intake in the past 30 days in centilitres were analysed.

Findings: The prevalence of any drinking in more recent cohorts remained low until young people came into their early (females) and mid- (males) 20s. Male cohorts differed in the prevalence of HED across age, with the later cohorts showing lower odds than earlier cohorts (odds ratios between 0.54 and 0.66). Among females, no systematic differences between cohorts across age could be observed. Later male birth cohorts in light/moderate drinkers had lower alcohol intake than earlier cohorts (correlation coefficients between −0.09 and −0.54). No statistically significant cohort effects were found for male heavy drinkers. Although differences in alcohol intake among females diminished as age increased, the cohorts did not differ systematically in their level of alcohol intake.

Conclusions: In Sweden, the reduced uptake of drinking in adolescents appears to fade as people move into adulthood. Observed reductions in alcohol intake among light and moderate drinkers appear to persist into adulthood. More recent male cohorts show a lower prevalence rate of heavy episodic drinking.

Emneord
Adolescents, alcohol intake, alcohol use, cohort, heavy episodic drinking, trends, youth drinking
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-222232 (URN)10.1111/add.16342 (DOI)001066322600001 ()37726931 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85171596329 (Scopus ID)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2023-10-11 Laget: 2023-10-11 Sist oppdatert: 2024-02-22bibliografisk kontrollert
Raninen, J., Ramstedt, M., Thor, S. & Törrönen, J. (2024). Mind the gap! Gender differences in alcohol consumption among Swedish ninth graders 1989–2021. Drug and Alcohol Review, 43(3), 596-603
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Mind the gap! Gender differences in alcohol consumption among Swedish ninth graders 1989–2021
2024 (engelsk)Inngår i: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 43, nr 3, s. 596-603Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: To examine gender differences in drinking habits among Swedish ninth graders over the period 1989–2021.

Methods: Annual school surveys with nationally representative samples of ninth-grade students in Sweden covering the period 1989–2021, total sample of 180,538 students. Drinking habits were measured with self-reports of frequency and quantity of use and frequency of heavy episodic drinking. Differences between genders were compared annually and differences were tested using logistic and ordinary least square regression models with cluster robust standard errors.

Results: Small gender differences in the prevalence of alcohol use during the first part of the study period were followed by an increasing gap over the past decade with girls being more likely to drink alcohol than boys. Boys consumed larger amounts of alcohol than girls during the first three decades of the studied period but no gender differences were found in later years. Binge drinking was more prevalent among boys during 1989 to 2000 but no systematic gender difference was found during the past 15 years.

Discussion and Conclusions: There used to be clear gender differences in drinking habits among ninth graders in Sweden with boys drinking more than girls. This gap has narrowed over the past three decades and among contemporary adolescents, no gender differences are found neither in binge drinking nor volume of drinking and the prevalence of drinking is even higher among girls.

Emneord
alcohol, change, gender, Sweden, youth
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-221384 (URN)10.1111/dar.13718 (DOI)001024743500001 ()37434384 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85164772835 (Scopus ID)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2023-09-20 Laget: 2023-09-20 Sist oppdatert: 2024-04-22bibliografisk kontrollert
Ramstedt, M., Raninen, J., Larm, P. & Livingston, M. (2023). Children with problem-drinking parents in a Swedish national sample: is the risk of harm related to the severity of parental problem drinking? . European Journal of Public Health, 33(2), 312-316
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Children with problem-drinking parents in a Swedish national sample: is the risk of harm related to the severity of parental problem drinking? 
2023 (engelsk)Inngår i: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 33, nr 2, s. 312-316Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The aim of this paper is to examine the link between severity in exposure to parental problem drinking in a Swedish national population sample of children aged 15–16 years. Specifically, we assessed whether the risk of poor health, poor relationships and a problematic school situation increase with severity in exposure to parental problem drinking.

Methods: National population survey from 2017 with a representative sample of 5 576 adolescents born in 2001. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). A short version of The Children of Alcoholics Screening Test, CAST-6, was used to identify children with problem-drinking parents. Health status, social relations and school situation were assessed by well-established measures.

Results: The risk of having poor health, poor school performance and poor social relations increased with severity of parental problem drinking. The risk was lowest among children least severely affected (Crude models ranged from OR: 1.2, 95% CI 1.0–1.4 to OR: 2.2, 95% CI 1.8–2.6) and highest among children most severely affected (Crude models ranges from OR: 1.7, 95% CI 1.3–2.1 to OR: 6.6, 95% CI 5.1–8.6). The risk became lower when adjusting for gender and socioeconomic position but were still higher compared to children without problem-drinking parents.

Conclusions: Appropriate screening and intervention programs are necessary for children with problem-drinking parents especially when exposure is severe but also at mild forms of exposure.

HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-215436 (URN)10.1093/eurpub/ckad022 (DOI)000933942900001 ()36794630 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85151574397 (Scopus ID)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2023-03-17 Laget: 2023-03-17 Sist oppdatert: 2023-04-20bibliografisk kontrollert
Andersson, F., Sundin, E., Magnusson, C., Ramstedt, M. & Galanti, M. R. (2023). Prevalence of cannabis use among young adults in Sweden comparing randomized response technique with a traditional survey. Addiction, 118(9), 1801-1810
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Prevalence of cannabis use among young adults in Sweden comparing randomized response technique with a traditional survey
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2023 (engelsk)Inngår i: Addiction, ISSN 0965-2140, E-ISSN 1360-0443, Vol. 118, nr 9, s. 1801-1810Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Background and Aims: The prevalence of cannabis use based on self-reports is likely to be underestimated in population surveys, especially in contexts where its use is a criminal offence. Indirect survey methods ask sensitive questions ensuring that answers cannot be identified with an individual respondent, therefore potentially resulting in more reliable estimates. We aimed to measure whether the indirect survey method ‘randomized response technique’ (RRT) increased response rate and/or increased disclosure of cannabis use among young adults compared with a traditional survey.

Design: We conducted two parallel nation-wide surveys during the spring and the summer of 2021. The first survey was a traditional questionnaire-based one (focusing on substance use and gambling). The second survey applied an indirect survey method known as ‘the cross-wise model’ to questions related to cannabis use. The two surveys employed identical procedures (e.g. invitations, reminders and wording of the questions)

Setting and Participants: The participants were young adults (aged 18–29 years) living in Sweden. The traditional survey had 1200 respondents (56.9% women) and the indirect survey had 2951 respondents (53.6% women).

Measurements: In both surveys, cannabis use was assessed according to three time-frames: life-time use; use during the past year; and use during the past 30 days.

Findings: The estimated prevalence of cannabis use was two- to threefold higher on all measures when estimated using the indirect survey method compared with the traditional survey: use during life-time (43.2 versus 27.3%); during the past year (19.2 versus 10.4%); and during the past 30 days (13.2 versus 3.7%). The discrepancy was larger among males and individuals with an education shorter than 10 years, who were unemployed, and who were born in non-European countries.

Conclusions: Indirect survey methods may provide more accurate estimates than traditional surveys on prevalence of self-reported cannabis use.

Emneord
Cannabis, complex surveys, Epidemiology, prevalence, randomized response technique, young adults
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-220197 (URN)10.1111/add.16219 (DOI)000985039800001 ()37132063 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85158924095 (Scopus ID)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2023-08-28 Laget: 2023-08-28 Sist oppdatert: 2023-08-28bibliografisk kontrollert
Raninen, J., Livingston, M., Ramstedt, M., Zetterqvist, M., Larm, P. & Svensson, J. (2022). 17 Is the New 15: Changing Alcohol Consumption among Swedish Youth. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(3), Article ID 1645.
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>17 Is the New 15: Changing Alcohol Consumption among Swedish Youth
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2022 (engelsk)Inngår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 19, nr 3, artikkel-id 1645Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

To examine and compare trends in drinking prevalence in nationally representative samples of Swedish 9th and 11th grade students between 2000 and 2018. A further aim is to compare drinking behaviours in the two age groups during years with similar drinking prevalence. Data were drawn from annual surveys of a nationally representative sample of students in year 9 (15–16 years old) and year 11 (17–18 years old). The data covered 19 years for year 9 and 16 years for year 11. Two reference years where the prevalence of drinking was similar were extracted for further comparison, 2018 for year 11 (n = 4878) and 2005 for year 9 (n = 5423). The reference years were compared with regard to the volume of drinking, heavy episodic drinking, having had an accident and quarrelling while drunk. The prevalence of drinking declined in both age groups during the study period. The rate of decline was somewhat higher among year 9 students. In 2018, the prevalence of drinking was the same for year 11 students as it was for year 9 students in 2005. The volume of drinking was lower among year 11 students in 2018 than year 9 students in 2005. No differences were observed for heavy episodic drinking. The decline in drinking has caused a displacement of consumption so that today’s 17–18-year-olds have a similar drinking behaviour to what 15–16-year-olds had in 2005.

Emneord
alcohol, youth, survey, Sweden, age of onset
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-202619 (URN)10.3390/ijerph19031645 (DOI)000756297900001 ()35162666 (PubMedID)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2022-03-09 Laget: 2022-03-09 Sist oppdatert: 2022-03-09bibliografisk kontrollert
Ramstedt, M., Raninen, J. & Larm, P. (2022). Are changes in parenting related to the decline in youth drinking? Evidence from a comparison of Sweden and Denmark. Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 39(2), 124-133
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Are changes in parenting related to the decline in youth drinking? Evidence from a comparison of Sweden and Denmark
2022 (engelsk)Inngår i: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 39, nr 2, s. 124-133Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: The aim of this study was to replicate earlier studies suggesting that changes in parenting have contributed to the recent decline in youth drinking by comparing parenting in a country experiencing a sharp decline in youth drinking (Sweden) with a country with only a small decline (Denmark). Data and analysis: Data stem from self-reported information from 15–16-year-old children in the Swedish and Danish subsamples of ESPAD. Youth drinking was measured by prevalence and frequency of drinking over the past year. Parenting was measured in terms of the extent the child reported that: (1) parents’ attitudes towards offspring drinking are restrictive, (2) parents set up general rules for what their children are allowed to do, and (3) parents have high level of knowledge about where and with whom their children spend time. The association between these indicators of parenting and youth drinking was first estimated with logistic regressions. Second, changes in parenting between 1999 and 2015 were compared between Denmark and Sweden across the study period. Results: Restrictive parental attitudes were associated with a lower likelihood of past-year drinking and frequent drinking in both Sweden and Denmark. This attitude was more common in Sweden, where it also became more prevalent between 2003 and 2015 in contrast to in Denmark. The association between strict parental rule-setting and youth drinking was weak in both countries. A high parental knowledge of the child's whereabouts was linked to a lower likelihood of past-year drinking in Sweden and a lower frequency of drinking in both countries. Parental knowledge of offspring's whereabouts did not develop differently in Sweden and Denmark, with a high and stable proportion in both countries. Conclusion: More restrictive parental attitudes towards youth drinking may have contributed to the decline in youth drinking, whereas the importance of general parental rule-setting and parental knowledge of offspring's whereabouts was not supported.

Emneord
comparative study, Denmark, parenting, Sweden, youth drinking
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-201894 (URN)10.1177/14550725211057638 (DOI)000748810300001 ()2-s2.0-85130756712 (Scopus ID)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2022-02-09 Laget: 2022-02-09 Sist oppdatert: 2022-08-17bibliografisk kontrollert
Ramstedt, M., Raninen, J., Larm, P. & Livingston, M. (2022). Children with problem drinking parents in Sweden: Prevalence and risk of adverse consequences in a national cohort born in 2001. Drug and Alcohol Review, 41(3), 625-632
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Children with problem drinking parents in Sweden: Prevalence and risk of adverse consequences in a national cohort born in 2001
2022 (engelsk)Inngår i: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 41, nr 3, s. 625-632Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction. To estimate the prevalence of children with problem drinking parents in Sweden and the extent to which they have an elevated risk of poor health, social relationships and school situation in comparison with other children. Methods. Survey with a nationally representative sample of Swedish youth aged 15-16 years (n = 5576) was conducted in 2017. A short version of The Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST-6) was used to identify children with problem drinking parents. Health status, social relations and school situation were measured by well-established measures. Overall prevalences for girls and boys were presented as well as relative risks (RR) of harm for children with problem drinking parents compared with other children. Results. A total of 13.1% of the sample had at least one problem drinking parent during adolescence according to CAST-6-a higher proportion of girls (15.4%) than boys (10.8%). This group had an elevated risk of poor general health as well psychosomatic problems compared with other children (RR 1.2-1.9). They were also more likely to use medication for depression, sleeping difficulties and anxiety (RR 2.2-2.6). Their social relations were also worse especially with their father (RR 3.1) and they had more problems at school (RR 2.6). Discussion and Conclusions. The risk of problems related to parental drinking goes beyond the most severe cases where parents have been in treatment for their alcohol problem. This is important knowledge since the majority of problem drinkers never seek treatment and the major part of parental problem drinking is found in population samples.

Emneord
children with problem drinking parent, adverse consequence, population study, Sweden
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-200027 (URN)10.1111/dar.13406 (DOI)000717316200001 ()34766395 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85118882431 (Scopus ID)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2021-12-21 Laget: 2021-12-21 Sist oppdatert: 2023-03-14bibliografisk kontrollert
Fugelstad, A., Ågren, G., Ramstedt, M., Thiblin, I. & Hjelmström, P. (2022). Oxycodone-related deaths in Sweden 2006-2018. Drug And Alcohol Dependence, 234, Article ID 109402.
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Oxycodone-related deaths in Sweden 2006-2018
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2022 (engelsk)Inngår i: Drug And Alcohol Dependence, ISSN 0376-8716, E-ISSN 1879-0046, Vol. 234, artikkel-id 109402Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Aim: To identify and characterize oxycodone related deaths in Sweden from 2006 to 2018 and to compare them to other opioid-related deaths.

Methods: To assess the factors contributing to the deaths, we used multinomial logistic regression to compare oxycodone-related deaths extracted from all forensic autopsy examinations and toxicology cases in the age groups 15-34 (reference group), 35-54 and 55-74 with regard to sex, presence of benzodiazepines and alcohol at the time of death, prescription of oxycodone, benzodiazepines and antidepressants, previous substance use related (SUD) treatment, and manner of death. The oxycodone related deaths were compared with deaths with presence of other opioids.

Result: We identified 575 oxycodone-related deaths, and the rate increased during the study period from 0.10 to 1.12 per 100,000 in parallel with an increase of oxycodone prescriptions from 3.17 to 30.33 per 1000. Oxycodone-related deaths amounted to 10.0% of all opioid-related deaths. The deaths occurred mainly in older patients previously being prescribed oxycodone. Benzodiazepines were present at the time of death in 403 (70%) and alcohol in 259 (45%). Prescriptions of any opioid for pain (61%), oxycodone (50%), benzodiazepines (67%) and antidepressants (55%) were common. Only 15% had received treatment for SUD during the last year.

Conclusion: Oxycodone-related deaths increased in Sweden between 2006 and 2018 in parallel to an increase in oxycodone prescriptions. The increase occurred mainly in older patients being prescribed oxycodone for pain. There might be specific interventions needed to avoid oxycodone-related deaths compared to other opioidrelated deaths associated with illicit opioid use.

Emneord
Epidemiology, Fatal poisoning, Mortality, Oxycodone, Prescription opioids
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-205237 (URN)10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2022.109402 (DOI)000792895400012 ()35306392 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85126568779 (Scopus ID)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2022-06-02 Laget: 2022-06-02 Sist oppdatert: 2022-06-02bibliografisk kontrollert
Raninen, J., Livingston, M., Landberg, J. & Ramstedt, M. (2022). To drink or not to drink: A study of the association between rates of non-drinkers and per drinker mean alcohol consumption in the Swedish general population. Drug and Alcohol Review, 41(6), 1475-1483
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>To drink or not to drink: A study of the association between rates of non-drinkers and per drinker mean alcohol consumption in the Swedish general population
2022 (engelsk)Inngår i: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 41, nr 6, s. 1475-1483Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: Understanding how the mean consumption per drinker and rates of non-drinking interplay to form overall per capita alcohol consumption is imperative for our understanding of population drinking. The aim of the present study is to examine the association between rates of non-drinkers and per drinker mean alcohol consumption in the Swedish adult population and for different percentiles of drinkers.

Methods: Data came from a monthly telephone survey of drinking habits in the Swedish adult population between 2002 and 2013. Alcohol consumption and non-drinking during the last 30 days were measured by beverage-specific quantity-frequency questions. Regression models estimated the association between the rate of non-drinkers and per drinker volume on annual data. Auto-regressive integrated moving average time-series models estimated the association on monthly data.

Results: A significant (P < 0.01) negative association (−0.849) was found between the rate of non-drinkers and per drinker mean volume on annual data. A unit increase in non-drinking was associated with a decline of 0.85 cl of pure alcohol among drinkers. This finding was mirrored across all percentiles of consumption. The semi-log models found that a 1% unit increase in the rate of non-drinkers was followed by a 2% reduction in per drinker mean consumption. Auto-regressive integrated moving average time-series models verified these results.

Discussion and Conclusions: There is a significant association between the proportion of non-drinkers and the amount of drinking among drinkers. The theory of collectivity of drinking cultures should also include the non-drinking part of the population. 

Emneord
alcohol, collectivity, drinker, non-drinker, survey
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-206305 (URN)10.1111/dar.13501 (DOI)000807255600001 ()35673799 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85131317171 (Scopus ID)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2022-06-27 Laget: 2022-06-27 Sist oppdatert: 2022-09-24bibliografisk kontrollert
Gripe, I., Danielsson, A.-K., Karlsson, P., Thor, S. & Ramstedt, M. (2021). Are the well‐off youth in Sweden more likely to use cannabis?. Drug and Alcohol Review, 40(1), 126-134
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Are the well‐off youth in Sweden more likely to use cannabis?
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2021 (engelsk)Inngår i: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 40, nr 1, s. 126-134Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction and Aims. Results from previous research are inconsistent regarding the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and cannabis use among adolescents. Since there are risks associated with cannabis use, a social gradient in cannabis use may contribute to reproducing socioeconomic differences in life opportunities. The aim of this study was to assess the association between childhood SES and cannabis use among youth in Sweden. Design and Methods. We used repeated cross‐sectional data from three waves (2014–2016) of the Swedish national school survey among 11th graders. The analysis encompassed 9497 individuals in 668 school classes. Childhood SES was measured through parents' highest education, as reported by the students. Cannabis use was measured in terms of lifetime use and frequency of use. Data were analysed using multi‐level mixed‐effects Poisson regression. Results. Adolescents with at least 1 parent with university/college education had 17% (incidence rate ratio 1.17, confidence interval 1.05, 1.30) higher risk of lifetime use of cannabis compared with those whose parents had no university/college education, adjusting for sex, SES of the school environment, academic orientation, truancy, risk assessment and parental permissiveness. Among life‐time users of cannabis, risk for frequent cannabis use was 28% (incidence rate ratio 0.72, confidence interval 0.53, 0.97) lower for those with at least 1 parent with university or college education. Discussion and Conclusions. Childhood SES, in terms of parental education, was associated with cannabis use among Swedish adolescents. Adolescents from families with lower SES were less likely to ever try cannabis, but at higher risk for frequent use.

Emneord
cannabis, socioeconomic status, adolescents, multi-level analysis
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
socialt arbete
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-183919 (URN)10.1111/dar.13139 (DOI)000557662000001 ()
Tilgjengelig fra: 2020-08-11 Laget: 2020-08-11 Sist oppdatert: 2022-02-26bibliografisk kontrollert
Organisasjoner
Identifikatorer
ORCID-id: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-8783-116x