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Nilsson, Lars-Göran
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Publikasjoner (10 av 180) Visa alla publikasjoner
Ghisletta, P., Mason, F., von Oertzen, T., Hertzog, C., Nilsson, L.-G. & Lindenberger, U. (2020). On the use of growth models to study normal cognitive aging. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 44(1), 88-96
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>On the use of growth models to study normal cognitive aging
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2020 (engelsk)Inngår i: International Journal of Behavioral Development, ISSN 0165-0254, E-ISSN 1464-0651, Vol. 44, nr 1, s. 88-96Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Growth models (GM) of the mixed-effects and latent curve varieties have become popular methodological tools in lifespan research. One of the major advantages of GM is their flexibility in studying individual differences in change. We scrutinized the change functions of GM used in five years of publications on cognitive aging. Of the 162 publications that we identified, 88% test linear or quadratic polynomials, and fewer than 5% apply functions that are nonlinear in their parameters, such as exponential decline. This apparent bias in favor of polynomial decomposition calls for exploring what conclusions about individual differences in change are likely to be drawn if one applies linear or quadratic GMs to data simulated under a conceptually and empirically plausible model of exponential cognitive decline from adulthood to old age. Hence, we set up a simulation that manipulated the rate of exponential decline, measurement reliability, number of occasions, interval width, and sample size. True rate of decline and interval width influenced results strongly, number of occasions and measurement reliability exerted a moderate effect, and the effects of sample size appeared relatively minor. Critically, our results show that fit statistics generally do not differentiate misspecified linear or quadratic models from the true exponential model. Moreover, power to detect variance in change for the linear and quadratic GMs is low, and estimates of individual differences in level and change can be highly biased by model misspecification. We encourage researchers to also consider plausible nonlinear change functions when studying behavioral development across the lifespan.

Emneord
growth model, long-term change, normal cognitive aging, nonlinear mixed-effects models, longitudinal research designs
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
psykologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-177785 (URN)10.1177/0165025419851576 (DOI)000502476700009 ()
Tilgjengelig fra: 2020-01-20 Laget: 2020-01-20 Sist oppdatert: 2022-02-26bibliografisk kontrollert
Athanasiu, L., Giddaluru, S., Fernandes, C., Christoforou, A., Reinvang, I., Lundervold, A. J., . . . Le Hellard, S. (2017). A genetic association study of CSMD1 and CSMD2 with cognitive function. Brain, behavior, and immunity, 61, 209-216
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>A genetic association study of CSMD1 and CSMD2 with cognitive function
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2017 (engelsk)Inngår i: Brain, behavior, and immunity, ISSN 0889-1591, E-ISSN 1090-2139, Vol. 61, s. 209-216Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

The complement cascade plays a role in synaptic pruning and synaptic plasticity, which seem to be involved in cognitive functions and psychiatric disorders. Genetic variants in the closely related CSMD1 and CSMD2 genes, which are implicated in complement regulation, are associated with schizophrenia. Since patients with schizophrenia often show cognitive impairments, we tested whether variants in CSMD1 and CSMD2 are also associated with cognitive functions per se. We took a discovery-replication approach, using well-characterized Scandinavian cohorts. A total of 1637 SNPs in CSMD1 and 206 SNPs in CSMD2 were tested for association with cognitive functions in the NCNG sample (Norwegian Cognitive NeuroGenetics; n = 670). Replication testing of SNPs with p-value < 0.001 (7 in CSMD1 and 3 in CSMD2) was carried out in the TOP sample (Thematically Organized Psychosis; n =1025) and the BETULA sample (Betula Longitudinal Study on aging, memory and dementia; n = 1742). Finally, we conducted a meta-analysis of these SNPs using all three samples. The previously identified schizophrenia marker in CSMD1 (SNP rs10503253) was also included. The strongest association was observed between the CSMDI SNP rs2740931 and performance in immediate episodic memory (p-value = 5 Chi 10(-6), minor allele A, MAF 0.48-0.49, negative direction of effect). This association reached the study-wide significance level (p <= 1.2 Chi 10(-5)). SNP rs10503253 was not significantly associated with cognitive functions in our samples. In conclusion, we studied n = 3437 individuals and found evidence that a variant in CSMD1 is associated with cognitive function. Additional studies of larger samples with cognitive phenotypes will be needed to further clarify the role of CSMD1 in cognitive phenotypes in health and disease.

Emneord
Complement, Immunity, CSMD1, CSMD2, Schizophrenia, Cognition, Psychiatry, Memory, GWAS
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-142465 (URN)10.1016/j.bbi.2016.11.026 (DOI)000395365900023 ()27890662 (PubMedID)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-05-17 Laget: 2017-05-17 Sist oppdatert: 2022-03-23bibliografisk kontrollert
Ekström, I., Sjölund, S., Nordin, S., Nordin Adolfsson, A., Adolfsson, R., Nilsson, L.-G., . . . Olofsson, J. K. (2017). Smell Loss Predicts Mortality Risk Regardless of Dementia Conversion. Journal of The American Geriatrics Society, 65(6), 1238-1243
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Smell Loss Predicts Mortality Risk Regardless of Dementia Conversion
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2017 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of The American Geriatrics Society, ISSN 0002-8614, E-ISSN 1532-5415, Vol. 65, nr 6, s. 1238-1243Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives

To determine whether dementia could explain the association between poor olfactory performance and mortality risk within a decade-long follow-up period.

Design

Prospective cohort study.

Setting

Betula Study, Umeå, Sweden.

Participants

A population-based sample of adult participants without dementia at baseline aged 40 to 90 (N = 1,774).

Measurements

Olfactory performance using the Scandinavian Odor-Identification Test (SOIT) and self-reported olfactory function; several social, cognitive, and medical risk factors at baseline; and incident dementia during the following decade.

Results

Within the 10-year follow-up, 411 of 1,774 (23.2%) participants had died. In a Cox model, the association between higher SOIT score and lower mortality was significant (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.74 per point interval, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.71-0.77, P < .001). The effect was attenuated, but remained significant, after controlling for age, sex, education, and health-related and cognitive variables (HR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.87-0.97, P = .001). The association between SOIT score and mortality was retained after controlling for dementia conversion before death (HR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.87-0.97, P = .001). Similar results were obtained for self-reported olfactory dysfunction.

Conclusion

Poor odor identification and poor self-reported olfactory function are associated with greater likelihood of future mortality. Dementia does not attenuate the association between olfactory loss and mortality, suggesting that olfactory loss might mark deteriorating health, irrespective of dementia.

Emneord
olfaction disorders, smell, Alzheimer disease, mortality, longitudinal studies
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
psykologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-145242 (URN)10.1111/jgs.14770 (DOI)000403894000021 ()28326534 (PubMedID)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-07-27 Laget: 2017-07-27 Sist oppdatert: 2022-02-28bibliografisk kontrollert
Del Missier, F., Hansson, P., Parker, A. M., Bruine de Bruin, W., Nilsson, L.-G. & Mäntylä, T. (2017). Unraveling the Aging Skein: Disentangling Sensory and Cognitive Predictors of Age-related Differences in Decision Making. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 30(1), 123-139
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Unraveling the Aging Skein: Disentangling Sensory and Cognitive Predictors of Age-related Differences in Decision Making
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2017 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, ISSN 0894-3257, E-ISSN 1099-0771, Vol. 30, nr 1, s. 123-139Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Age-related differences in sensory functioning, processing speed, and working memory have been identified as three significant predictors of the age-related performance decline observed in complex cognitive tasks. Yet, the assessment of their relative predictive capacity and interrelations is still an open issue in decision making and cognitive aging research. Indeed, no previous investigation has examined the relationships of all these three predictors with decision making. In an individual-differences study, we therefore disentangled the relative contribution of sensory functioning, processing speed, and working memory to the prediction of the age-related decline in cognitively demanding judgment and decision-making tasks. Structural equation modeling showed that the age-related decline in working memory plays an important predictive role, even when controlling for sensory functioning, processing speed, and education. Implications for research on decision making and cognitive aging are discussed.

Emneord
judgment and decision making, cognitive aging, working memory, processing speed, sensory functioning
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
psykologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-137816 (URN)10.1002/bdm.1926 (DOI)000396497100011 ()
Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-01-11 Laget: 2017-01-11 Sist oppdatert: 2022-02-28bibliografisk kontrollert
Forero, D. A., Herteleer, L., De Zutter, S., Norrback, K.-F., Nilsson, L.-G., Adolfsson, R., . . . Del-Favero, J. (2016). A network of synaptic genes associated with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Schizophrenia Research, 172(1-3), 68-74
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>A network of synaptic genes associated with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder
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2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: Schizophrenia Research, ISSN 0920-9964, E-ISSN 1573-2509, Vol. 172, nr 1-3, s. 68-74Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Identification of novel candidate genes for schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BP), two psychiatric disorders with large epidemiological impacts, is a key research area in neurosciences and psychiatric genetics. Previous evidence from genome-wide studies suggests an important role for genes involved in synaptic plasticity in the risk for SZ and BP. We used a convergent genomics approach, combining different lines of biological evidence, to identify genes involved in the cAMP/PKA/CREB functional pathway that could be novel candidates for BP and SZ: CREB1, CREM, GRIN2C, NPY2R, NF1, PPP3CB and PRKAR1A. These 7 genes were analyzed in a HapMap based association study comprising 48 common SNPs in 486 SZ, 351 BP patients and 514 control individuals recruited from an isolated population in Northern Sweden. Genetic analysis showed significant allelic associations of SNPs in PRKAR1A with SZ and of PPP3CB and PRKAR1A with BP. Our results highlight the feasibility and the importance of convergent genomic data analysis for the identification of candidate genes and our data provide support for the role of common inherited variants in synaptic genes and their involvement in the etiology of BP and SZ.

Emneord
Genomics, Synaptic genes, Psychiatric genetics, Neural plasticity
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-130131 (URN)10.1016/j.schres.2016.02.012 (DOI)000373528100011 ()26899345 (PubMedID)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-05-18 Laget: 2016-05-09 Sist oppdatert: 2022-02-23bibliografisk kontrollert
Stomby, A., Boraxbekk, C.-J., Lundquist, A., Nordin, A., Nilsson, L.-G., Adolfsson, R., . . . Olsson, T. (2016). Higher diurnal salivary cortisol levels are related to smaller prefrontal cortex surface area in elderly men and women. European Journal of Endocrinology, 175(2), 117-126
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Higher diurnal salivary cortisol levels are related to smaller prefrontal cortex surface area in elderly men and women
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2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: European Journal of Endocrinology, ISSN 0804-4643, E-ISSN 1479-683X, Vol. 175, nr 2, s. 117-126Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: Elevated cortisol levels with aging have been associated with atrophy of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC), as well as with impaired cognitive functions in men. However, coexisting diseases have confounded many studies examining these relationships. Studies in women are lacking. Our objective was to test whether salivary cortisol levels were related to morphology of the hippocampus and the PFC, and to cognitive performance.

Design: A cross-sectional study including 200 elderly (55-80 years old) men and women.

Method: We used magnetic resonance imaging, tests of episodic-, semantic-, and working memory, visuospatial ability, and cortisol levels in four saliva samples collected during 1 day.

Results: Area under the curve (AUC) for cortisol levels was negatively related to cortical surface area of the left anterior cingulate gyrus (caudal P < 0.001; rostral P = 0.006), right lateral orbitofrontal cortex (P = 0.004), and right rostral middle frontal gyrus (P = 0.003). In women, there was also a negative relationship with cortical surface area in the left rostral middle frontal gyrus (P = 0.006). No relationship was found between cortisol levels and hippocampal volume.

Conclusion: This study suggests that the structure of the medial PFC is related to cortisol levels in both elderly women and men.

Emneord
salivary cortisol, prefrontal cortex surface area
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
psykologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-133385 (URN)10.1530/EJE-16-0352 (DOI)000380067200010 ()27190207 (PubMedID)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-09-09 Laget: 2016-09-06 Sist oppdatert: 2022-02-23bibliografisk kontrollert
Olofsson, J. K., Josefsson, M., Ekström, I., Wilson, D., Nyberg, L., Nordin, S., . . . Larsson, M. (2016). Long-term episodic memory decline is associated with olfactory deficits only in carriers of ApoE-є4. Neuropsychologia, 85, 1-9
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Long-term episodic memory decline is associated with olfactory deficits only in carriers of ApoE-є4
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2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 85, s. 1-9Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

The ɛ4 allele of the Apolipoprotein E gene is a genetic risk factor for late-onset dementia of the Alzheimers' type (DAT), which is characterized by loss of both episodic memoryand olfactory functions. Little is known about the possible role of ɛ4 in the association between ongoing episodic memory decline and olfactory deficits in the general population, but such information is relevant in determining the relevance of olfaction as a marker of DAT risk. The present study was based on a large, population-based sample (n=1087, aged 45–90 years, of which 324 were ɛ4-carriers). Episodic memory change rates were established using data collected every 5 years for a 10–20 year interval leading up to an olfactory assessment using the Scandinavian Odor Identification Test at the last wave of data collection. Participants were classified according to whether or not their episodic memory ability declined more rapidly than the age-typical norm (by >1SD). Our main result is that only in ɛ4-carriers was episodic memory decline associated with odor identification impairment. In individuals without ɛ4, odor identification was unrelated to episodic memory decline status. Follow-up analyses indicated that this moderation by ɛ4 was due to the olfactory nature of the identification test, and that the effect was not caused by 63 individuals with dementia. Our results suggest that the ɛ4 determines the functional association between ongoing episodic memory decline and olfaction. These findings are consistent with the notion that ɛ4-carriers with DAT, compared to non-carriers, display a cortical atrophy pattern that is more focused on mediotemporal lobe regions supporting olfactory and episodic memory functions. Olfactory and memory assessments might provide complementary information on mediotemporal atrophy prior to clinical dementia onset, but the ɛ4 should be considered when using olfactory assessment as an early-stage indicator.

Emneord
dementia, Alzheimer disease, olfactory perception, memory, aging, mild cognitive impairment
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
psykologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-130568 (URN)10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2016.03.004 (DOI)000376546400001 ()
Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-05-26 Laget: 2016-05-26 Sist oppdatert: 2022-02-23bibliografisk kontrollert
Larsson, M., Ekström, I., Sjölund, S., Nordin, S., Nordin Adolfsson, A., Adolfsson, R., . . . Olofsson, J. K. (2016). Loss of Olfactory Function Predicts Mortality Irrespective of Dementia Conversion: 10-year follow-up of an age-varied sample. Paper presented at 17th International Symposium on Olfaction and Taste (ISOT2016), Yokohama, Japan, June 5-9, 2016. Chemical Senses, 41(9), e111-e288
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Loss of Olfactory Function Predicts Mortality Irrespective of Dementia Conversion: 10-year follow-up of an age-varied sample
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2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 41, nr 9, s. e111-e288Artikkel i tidsskrift, Meeting abstract (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

The objective of this study was to examine the association between performance in odor identification and future mortality in a community cohort of adults aged between 40 and 90 years. We assessed olfactory performance with a 13-item-version of the Scandinavian Odor Identification Test (SOIT). The results showed that during follow-up (mean=9.4 years, standard deviation=2.23), 411 of 1774 (23.2%) participants died. In a Cox model, the association between higher SOIT score and mortality was highly significant (hazard ratio [HR]=0.74, per point interval, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.71–0.77, p<0.001). The effect was attenuated, but remained significant after controlling for age, sex, education, and health and cognitive variables that were also associated with an increased risk of mortality (HR=0.92, 95% CI=0.87–0.97, p=0.001). Controlling for dementia conversion prior to death did not attenuate the association between SOIT score and mortality (HR=0.92, 95% CI=0.87–0.97, p=0.001). Similar results were obtained for olfactory sensitivity as assessed by self-report. Overall, the present findings show that poor odor identification performance is associated with an increased likelihood of future mortality in middle-aged and older adults, after controlling for social, cognitive, and medical risk factors. Most importantly, controlling for the development of dementia did not attenuate the association between odor identification and mortality, suggesting that olfactory decline might mark deteriorating health also irrespective of dementia.

Emneord
olfactory function, mortality, dementia, follow-up
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
psykologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-137925 (URN)10.1093/chemse/bjw091 (DOI)
Konferanse
17th International Symposium on Olfaction and Taste (ISOT2016), Yokohama, Japan, June 5-9, 2016
Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-01-13 Laget: 2017-01-13 Sist oppdatert: 2022-02-28bibliografisk kontrollert
Del Missier, F., Mäntylä, T., Hansson, P., Bruine de Bruin, W., Parker, A. M. & Nilsson, L.-G. (2016). Predictors of Decision Making Across the Adult Life-Span: An Individual-Differences Study. In: : . Paper presented at International Meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Granada, Spain, May 5-8, 2016 (pp. 156-156).
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Predictors of Decision Making Across the Adult Life-Span: An Individual-Differences Study
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2016 (engelsk)Konferansepaper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

Age-related decline in complex cognitive tasks has been explained by changes in sensory functioning, processing speed, and working memory. However, there is still no agreement on the relative importance of these factors, and their relative role in decision making has not been investigated. In an individual-difference study on a population-based Swedish sample of adults (N = 563, age range 30-89), we disentangled the contribution of sensory decline, processing speed, and working memory measures to age-related changes in three cognitively-demanding decision-making tasks of the Adult Decision-Making Competence Battery (Resistance to Framing, Applying Decision Rules, Under/Overconfidence). Structural equation modeling showed that working memory is a significant predictor even when the influence of sensory variables, processing speed, and education (as a control for cohort effects) is taken into account. Moreover, the effects of sensory functioning and processing speed on decision making were mediated by working memory. These findings indicate that the age-related decline in complex decision-making tasks may not be entirely explained by changes in lower-level processes, highlighting the functional role of working memory processes.

Emneord
decision making, predictors, adult life-span, individual differences
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
psykologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-138883 (URN)
Konferanse
International Meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Granada, Spain, May 5-8, 2016
Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-01-27 Laget: 2017-01-27 Sist oppdatert: 2022-02-28bibliografisk kontrollert
Kubik, V., Olofsson, J. K., Nilsson, L.-G. & Jönsson, F. U. (2016). Putting action memory to the test: Testing affects subsequent restudy but not long-term forgetting of action events. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 28(2), 209-219
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Putting action memory to the test: Testing affects subsequent restudy but not long-term forgetting of action events
2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592X, Vol. 28, nr 2, s. 209-219Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Testing memory typically enhances subsequent re-encoding of information (“indirect” testing effect) and, as compared to restudy, it also benefits later long-term retention (“direct” testing effect). We investigated the effect of testing on subsequent restudy and 1-week retention of action events (e.g. “water the plant”). In addition, we investigated if the type of recall practice (noun-cued vs. verb-cued) moderates these testing benefits. The results showed an indirect testing effect that increased following noun-cued recall of verbs as compared to verb-cued recall of nouns. In contrast, a direct testing effect on the forgetting rate of performed actions was not reliably observed, neither for noun- nor verb-cued recall. Thus, to the extent that this study successfully dissociated direct and indirect testing-based enhancements, they seem to be differentially effective for performed actions, and may rely on partially different mechanisms.

Emneord
memory for actions, recalltype, indirect testing effect, direct testing effect, enactment
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
psykologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-127602 (URN)10.1080/20445911.2015.1111378 (DOI)000369871700007 ()
Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-03-08 Laget: 2016-03-08 Sist oppdatert: 2022-02-23bibliografisk kontrollert
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