Endre søk
Link to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Publikasjoner (10 av 143) Visa alla publikasjoner
Wilson, M. C., Medzihorsky, J., Maerz, S. F., Lindenfors, P., Edgell, A. B., Boese, V. A. & Lindberg, S. I. (2023). Episodes of liberalization in autocracies: a new approach to quantitatively studying democratization. Political Science Research and Methods, 11(3), 501-520
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Episodes of liberalization in autocracies: a new approach to quantitatively studying democratization
Vise andre…
2023 (engelsk)Inngår i: Political Science Research and Methods, ISSN 2049-8470, E-ISSN 2049-8489, Vol. 11, nr 3, s. 501-520Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper introduces a new approach to the quantitative study of democratization. Building on the comparative case-study and large-N literature, it outlines an episode approach that identifies the discrete beginning of a period of political liberalization, traces its progression, and classifies episodes as successful versus different types of failing outcomes, thus avoiding potentially fallacious assumptions of unit homogeneity. We provide a description and analysis of all 383 liberalization episodes from 1900 to 2019, offering new insights on democratic “waves”. We also demonstrate the value of this approach by showing that while several established covariates are valuable for predicting the ultimate outcomes, none explain the onset of a period of liberalization.

Emneord
Comparative politics, political institutions
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-206891 (URN)10.1017/psrm.2022.11 (DOI)000811455600001 ()
Tilgjengelig fra: 2022-06-29 Laget: 2022-06-29 Sist oppdatert: 2024-03-26bibliografisk kontrollert
Lind, J., Lindenfors, P. & Wartel, A. (2021). Why we dispute ‘Dunbar’s number’ – the claim humans can only maintain 150 friendships [Letter to the editor]. The Conversation
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Why we dispute ‘Dunbar’s number’ – the claim humans can only maintain 150 friendships
2021 (engelsk)Inngår i: The Conversation, E-ISSN 2201-5639Artikkel i tidsskrift, Letter (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm)) Published
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-194513 (URN)
Merknad

Published 2021-06-23

Tilgjengelig fra: 2021-06-23 Laget: 2021-06-23 Sist oppdatert: 2022-02-25bibliografisk kontrollert
Leroi, A. M., Lambert, B., Mauch, M., Papadopoulou, M., Ananiadou, S., Lindberg, S. & Lindenfors, P. (2020). On revolutions. Palgrave Communications, 6, Article ID 4.
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>On revolutions
Vise andre…
2020 (engelsk)Inngår i: Palgrave Communications, E-ISSN 2055-1045, Vol. 6, artikkel-id 4Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Sometimes the normal course of events is disrupted by a particularly swift and profound change. Historians have often referred to such changes as revolutions, and, though they have identified many of them, they have rarely supported their claims with statistical evidence. Here, we present a method to identify revolutions based on a measure of multivariate rate of change called Foote novelty. We define revolutions as those periods of time when the value of this measure is, by a non-parametric test, shown to significantly exceed the background rate. Our method also identifies conservative periods when the rate of change is unusually low. We apply it to several quantitative data sets that capture long-term political, social and cultural changes and, in some of them, identify revolutions - both well known and not. Our method is general and can be applied to any phenomenon captured by multivariate time series data of sufficient quality.

HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-180489 (URN)10.1057/s41599-019-0371-1 (DOI)000514123700004 ()
Tilgjengelig fra: 2020-04-02 Laget: 2020-04-02 Sist oppdatert: 2022-06-27bibliografisk kontrollert
Lindenfors, P. (2019). Det kulturella djuret: om människans evolution och tänkandets utveckling. Stockholm: Ordfront förlag
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Det kulturella djuret: om människans evolution och tänkandets utveckling
2019 (svensk)Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [sv]

För några miljoner år sedan tillverkade våra förfäder de första stenverktygen. Sedan hände märkligt lite på två och en halv miljoner år. Det är först de senaste tusentals åren som den teknologiska utvecklingen tagit ett rejält språng. Vi har skapat städer, skrivit symfonier, byggt månraketer, internet och Nya Söderstadion samtidigt som höjdpunkten på den kulturella utvecklingen i övriga djurriket fortfarande är att använda två stenar för att knäcka nötter. Vad var det som hände?

I Det kulturella djuret får du ta del av den senaste forskningen om hjärnan, inlärning och den informationshantering som är unik för människan, och med vilken vi förändrat både världen och oss själva. På vägen får du också lära dig en hel del om övriga djurriket: Är kråkor verkligen smartare än femåringar? Har encelliga toffeldjur ett minne? Och vad är likheten mellan en myrstack och en mänsklig hjärna? Framför allt får du lära dig allt om den biologiska och kulturella evolution som gjort oss till dem vi är idag.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Stockholm: Ordfront förlag, 2019
Emneord
beteenden, medvetandet, memetik, evolution
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-215030 (URN)9789177750734 (ISBN)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2023-02-23 Laget: 2023-02-23 Sist oppdatert: 2023-02-24bibliografisk kontrollert
Lindenfors, P. (2019). Divine Placebo: Health and the Evolution of Religion. Human Ecology, 47(2), 157-163
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Divine Placebo: Health and the Evolution of Religion
2019 (engelsk)Inngår i: Human Ecology, ISSN 0300-7839, E-ISSN 1572-9915, Vol. 47, nr 2, s. 157-163Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, I draw on knowledge from several disciplines to explicate the potential evolutionary significance of health effects of religiosity. I present three main observations. First, traditional methods of religious healers seldom rely on active remedies, but instead focus on lifestyle changes or spiritual healing practices that best can be described as placebo methods. Second, actual health effects of religiosity are thus mainly traceable to effects from a regulated lifestyle, social support networks, or placebo effects. Third, there are clear parallels between religious healing practices and currently identified methods that induce placebo effects. Physiological mechanisms identified to lie behind placebo effects activate the body's own coping strategies and healing responses. In combination, lifestyle, social support networks, and placebo effects thus produce both actual and perceived health effects of religiosity. This may have played an important role in the evolution and diffusion of religion through two main pathways. First, any real positive health effects of religiosity would have provided a direct biological advantage. Second, any perceived health effects, both positive and negative, would further have provided a unique selling point for religiosity' per se. Actual and perceived health effects of religiosity may therefore have played an underestimated role during the evolution of religiosity through both biological and cultural pathways.

Emneord
Evolution, Cultural evolution, Health, Placebo, Religiosity, Social support networks, Lifestyle
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-170222 (URN)10.1007/s10745-019-0066-7 (DOI)000468110800001 ()
Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-06-28 Laget: 2019-06-28 Sist oppdatert: 2022-02-26bibliografisk kontrollert
Lindenfors, P., Krusell, J. & Lindberg, S. I. (2019). Sequential Requisites Analysis: A New Method for Analyzing Sequential Relationships in Ordinal Data. Social Science Quarterly, 100(3), 838-856
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Sequential Requisites Analysis: A New Method for Analyzing Sequential Relationships in Ordinal Data
2019 (engelsk)Inngår i: Social Science Quarterly, ISSN 0038-4941, E-ISSN 1540-6237, Vol. 100, nr 3, s. 838-856Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: This article presents a new method inspired by evolutionary biology for analyzing longer sequences of requisites for the emergence of particular outcome variables across numerous combinations of ordinal variables in social science analysis.

Methods: The approach is a sorting algorithm through repeated pairwise investigations of states in a set of variables and identifying what states in the variables occur before states in all other variables. We illustrate the proposed method by analyzing a set of variables from version 7.1 of the V-Dem data set (Coppedge etal. 2017. Varieties of Democracy (V-Dem) Project; Pemstein etal. 2017. University of Gothenburg, Varieties of Democracy Institute: Working Paper No. 21). With a large set of indicators measured over many years, the method makes it possible to identify and compare long, complex sequences across many variables.

Results: This affords an opportunity, for example, to disentangle the sequential requisites of failing and successful sequences in democratization, or if requisites are different during different time periods.

Conclusions: For policy purposes, this is instrumental: Which components of democracy occur earlier and which later? Which components of democracy are therefore the ideal targets for democracy promotion at different stages?

HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-170144 (URN)10.1111/ssqu.12588 (DOI)000467860700022 ()31068735 (PubMedID)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-06-26 Laget: 2019-06-26 Sist oppdatert: 2022-03-23bibliografisk kontrollert
Wartel, A., Lindenfors, P. & Lind, J. (2019). Whatever you want: Inconsistent results are the rule, not the exception, in the study of primate brain evolution. PLOS ONE, 14(7), Article ID e0218655.
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Whatever you want: Inconsistent results are the rule, not the exception, in the study of primate brain evolution
2019 (engelsk)Inngår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, nr 7, artikkel-id e0218655Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Primate brains differ in size and architecture. Hypotheses to explain this variation are numerous and many tests have been carried out. However, after body size has been accounted for there is little left to explain. The proposed explanatory variables for the residual variation are many and covary, both with each other and with body size. Further, the data sets used in analyses have been small, especially in light of the many proposed predictors. Here we report the complete list of models that results from exhaustively combining six commonly used predictors of brain and neocortex size. This provides an overview of how the output from standard statistical analyses changes when the inclusion of different predictors is altered. By using both the most commonly tested brain data set and the inclusion of new data we show that the choice of included variables fundamentally changes the conclusions as to what drives primate brain evolution. Our analyses thus reveal why studies have had troubles replicating earlier results and instead have come to such different conclusions. Although our results are somewhat disheartening, they highlight the importance of scientific rigor when trying to answer difficult questions. It is our position that there is currently no empirical justification to highlight any particular hypotheses, of those adaptive hypotheses we have examined here, as the main determinant of primate brain evolution.

HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-175128 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0218655 (DOI)000484974100009 ()31329603 (PubMedID)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-10-18 Laget: 2019-10-18 Sist oppdatert: 2022-03-23bibliografisk kontrollert
Milham, M. P., Ai, L., Koo, B., Xu, T., Amiez, C., Balezeau, F., . . . Schroeder, C. E. (2018). An Open Resource for Non-human Primate Imaging. Neuron, 100(1), 61-74
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>An Open Resource for Non-human Primate Imaging
Vise andre…
2018 (engelsk)Inngår i: Neuron, ISSN 0896-6273, E-ISSN 1097-4199, Vol. 100, nr 1, s. 61-74Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Non-human primate neuroimaging is a rapidly growing area of research that promises to transform and scale translational and cross-species comparative neuroscience. Unfortunately, the technological and methodological advances of the past two decades have outpaced the accrual of data, which is particularly challenging given the relatively few centers that have the necessary facilities and capabilities. The PRIMatE Data Exchange (PRIME-DE) addresses this challenge by aggregating independently acquired non-human primate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) datasets and openly sharing them via the International Neuroimaging Data-sharing Initiative (INDI). Here, we present the rationale, design, and procedures for the PRIME-DE consortium, as well as the initial release, consisting of 25 independent data collections aggregated across 22 sites (total = 217 non-human primates). We also outline the unique pitfalls and challenges that should be considered in the analysis of non-human primate MRI datasets, including providing automated quality assessment of the contributed datasets.

HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-161974 (URN)10.1016/j.neuron.2018.08.039 (DOI)000446862000011 ()30269990 (PubMedID)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2018-11-21 Laget: 2018-11-21 Sist oppdatert: 2022-03-23bibliografisk kontrollert
Lindenfors, P., Jansson, F., Yi-ting, W. & Lindberg, S. (2018). Investigating Sequences in Ordinal Data: A New Approach With Adapted Evolutionary Models. Political Science Research and Methods, 6(3), 449-466
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Investigating Sequences in Ordinal Data: A New Approach With Adapted Evolutionary Models
2018 (engelsk)Inngår i: Political Science Research and Methods, ISSN 2049-8470, E-ISSN 2049-8489, Vol. 6, nr 3, s. 449-466Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a new approach for studying temporal sequences across ordinal variables. It involves three complementary approaches (frequency tables, transitional graphs, and dependency tables), as well as an established adaptation based on Bayesian dynamical systems, inferring a general system of change. The frequency tables count pairs of values in two variables and transitional graphs depict changes, showing which variable tends to attain high values first. The dependency tables investigate which values of one variable are prerequisites for values in another, as a more direct test of causal hypotheses. We illustrate the proposed approaches by analyzing the V-Dem dataset, and show that changes in electoral democracy are preceded by changes in freedom of expression and access to alternative information.

HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
statsvetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-155035 (URN)10.1017/psrm.2018.9 (DOI)000431289200003 ()
Tilgjengelig fra: 2018-04-10 Laget: 2018-04-10 Sist oppdatert: 2022-03-23bibliografisk kontrollert
Navarrete, A. F., Blezer, E. L. A., Pagnotta, M., de Viet, E. S. M., Todorov, O. S., Lindenfors, P., . . . Reader, S. M. (2018). Primate Brain Anatomy: New Volumetric MRI Measurements for Neuroanatomical Studies. Brain, behavior, and evolution, 91(2), 109-117
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Primate Brain Anatomy: New Volumetric MRI Measurements for Neuroanatomical Studies
Vise andre…
2018 (engelsk)Inngår i: Brain, behavior, and evolution, ISSN 0006-8977, E-ISSN 1421-9743, Vol. 91, nr 2, s. 109-117Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Since the publication of the primate brain volumetric dataset of Stephan and colleagues in the early 1980s, no major new comparative datasets covering multiple brain regions and a large number of primate species have become available. However, technological and other advances in the last two decades, particularly magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the creation of institutions devoted to the collection and preservation of rare brain specimens, provide opportunities to rectify this situation. Here, we present a new dataset including brain region volumetric measurements of 39 species, including 20 species not previously available in the literature, with measurements of 16 brain areas. These volumes were extracted from MRI of 46 brains of 38 species from the Netherlands Institute of Neuroscience Primate Brain Bank, scanned at high resolution with a 9.4-T scanner, plus a further 7 donated MRI of 4 primate species. Partial measurements were made on an additional 8 brains of 5 species. We make the dataset and MRI scans available online in the hope that they will be of value to researchers conducting comparative studies of primate evolution.

Emneord
Primates, Brain architecture, Brain volume, Neocortex, Isocortex, Magnetic resonance imaging, Cognitive evolution, Comparative neuroanatomy
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-159194 (URN)10.1159/000488136 (DOI)000438557800005 ()29894995 (PubMedID)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2018-08-22 Laget: 2018-08-22 Sist oppdatert: 2022-03-23bibliografisk kontrollert
Organisasjoner
Identifikatorer
ORCID-id: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3245-0850