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Faxneld, Per, DocentORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9264-0395
Publikationer (10 of 50) Visa alla publikationer
Faxneld, P. (2014). Satanic Feminism: Lucifer as the Liberator of Woman in Nineteenth-Century Culture. (Doctoral dissertation). Stockholm: Molin & Sorgenfrei
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Satanic Feminism: Lucifer as the Liberator of Woman in Nineteenth-Century Culture
2014 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [sv]

Enligt Bibeln var Eva först med att lyssna till ormen och äta av den förbjudna frukten. Tanken på kvinnan som Satans utvalda är framträdande under stora delar av kristendomens historia. Under 1800-talet kom feminister att börja läsa denna misogyna tradition motvalls. Härigenom blev Lucifer omgestaltad till en kvinnans befriare, och den syndiga Eva förvandlades till en hjältinna. I dessa motmyter fick Satan rollen av en allierad i kampen mot Gud Fader och hans patriarkala prästerskap.

Avhandlingen kartlägger hur sådan “satanistisk feminism” under 1800-talet kommer till uttryck i en rad esoteriska verk, självbiografier, pamfletter och tidskrifter, tidningsartiklar, målningar, skulpturer och till och med sådana konsumtionskulturens artefakter som smycken. Bland individerna som på olika sätt bidrog till diskursen finner vi exempelvis suffragetten Elizabeth Cady Stanton, den könsöverskridande teosofen Madame Blavatsky, författaren och diplomathustrun Aino Kallas, skådespelerskan Sarah Bernhardt, den antiklerikala häxentusiasten Matilda Joslyn Gage, den dekadenta markisinnan Luisa Casati och den luciferianska lesbiska poeten Renée Vivien.

I materialet är särskilt fyra motiv framträdande: 1) omtolkningar av Evas roll i syndafallet som något positivt, 2) häxan som en protofeminist, 3) demonälskaren omstöpt till en befriare, 4) en feminiserad Satan som kontrasteras mot en förtryckande manlig Gud. Ett femte och något mindre centralt motiv är uppfattningar om Lilith, enligt judiska folkliga och esoteriska traditioner Adams rebelliska hustru innan skapelsen av Eva, som den första feministen.

Analysen fokuserar på skärningspunkterna mellan esoterism och den politiska sfären, såväl som den påverkan som ockultism och konst utövat på varandra. Teoretiskt fokus ligger på motläsningar, motdiskurser och motmyter, samt det komplexa samspelet mellan dessa och hegemoniska diskurser som syftade till att demonisera feminismen. Ett nyckeltema i detta sammanhang är inverteringens gränser och paradoxer.

Abstract [en]

According to the Bible, Eve was the first to heed Satan’s advice to eat of the forbidden fruit. The notion of woman as the Devil’s accomplice is prominent throughout the history of Christianity. During the nineteenth century, rebellious females performed counter-readings of this misogynist tradition. Hereby, Lucifer was reconceptualised as a feminist liberator of womankind, and Eve became a heroine. In these reimaginings, Satan is an ally in the struggle against a patriarchy supported by God the Father and his male priests.

This study delineates how such Satanic feminism is expressed in a number of nineteenth-century esoteric works, literary texts, autobiographies, pamphlets and journals, newspaper articles, paintings, sculptures and even artefacts of consumer culture such as jewellery.

In the material, four motifs in particular are prominent: 1) interpretations of Eve’s role in the fall of man as something positive, 2) the witch as a proto-feminist figure, 3) the demon lover as an emancipator, 4) a feminised Satan contrasted with an oppressive male God. A fifth and less central motif is conceptions of Lilith, according to Jewish lore the unruly first wife of Adam, as the first feminist.

The analysis focuses on interfaces between esotericism and the political realm, as well as the interdependence of literature and the occult. New light is thus shed on neglected aspects of the intellectual history of feminism, Satanism and revisionary mythmaking. The study is informed by theories concerning counter-readings, counter-discourses and counter-myths, and in particular highlights the complex interplay of such phenomena and the hegemonic discourses that demonised feminism. A key theme in this context is the limits and paradoxes of inversion as a subversive strategy.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Stockholm: Molin & Sorgenfrei, 2014. s. 750
Nyckelord
Satanism, feminism, gender, esotericism, witches, Lilith, theosophy, socialism, homosexuality, gothic, decadence, romanticism, counter-reading, counter-myth
Nationell ämneskategori
Religionshistoria
Forskningsämne
religionshistoria
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-102217 (URN)978-91-87515-04-0 (ISBN)
Disputation
2014-06-13, hörsal 5, hus B, Universitetsvägen 10 B, Stockholm, 13:00 (Svenska)
Opponent
Handledare
Tillgänglig från: 2014-05-22 Skapad: 2014-03-28 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-02-23Bibliografiskt granskad
Faxneld, P. (2013). Assuming the Role of the Demon Woman: Sarah Bernhardt, Luisa Casati, Theda Bara, Rebellious Roleplay and Satanic Feminism. In: : . Paper presented at Evil Women, and the Feminine: 5th Global Conference, Prague, Czech Republic, 18-20 May, 2013.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Assuming the Role of the Demon Woman: Sarah Bernhardt, Luisa Casati, Theda Bara, Rebellious Roleplay and Satanic Feminism
2013 (Engelska)Konferensbidrag, Enbart muntlig presentation (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

The paper treats three individuals (Sarah Bernhardt, the Italian marchioness Luisa Casati and silent film actress Theda Bara) during the years 1880–193. Both onstage and offstage they actively assumed the role of the demon woman, an endavour which to a varying extent also incorporated satanic motifs. They chose—or, in one case, were chosen—to embody the (more or less supernatural) femme fatale, constructed by male authors and artists, and seemingly felt this was enjoyable, empowering or useful for commercial purposes. My analysis attempts to tease out some of the implications this enacting of a sinister stereotype had on an individual level as well as in a broader cultural context.

Bernhardt wore a bat hat and serpent jewelry, at times derided Christianity and even sculpted a self-portrait of herself as Satan or a demon. Casati practiced magic and threw curses, dressed up as Satan in the Garden of Eden, commissioned a mural of herself as Eve consorting with Lucifer, and organized parties with staff in devil costumes. Bara was presented by the Fox publicity department as a real-life demon woman, and in her films played vampiric femme fatales who punished and tormented males. Many of the films had titles where Satan was mentioned, and in one of them she even turned out to literally be the Devil in disguise.

The choice of demonic imagery for these identity games tells us something about exactly what the taboos and limits these women consciously transgressed and mocked were tied up with: conservative Christian values. Embracing demons, satanic serpent motifs, and the macabre thus functioned as a critique of such values, and was one of the registers of symbolic resistance available for rebellious women to draw on at the time. In Bara’s case, the demonic persona was not devised by herself, but is an example which is of more interest because of the audience response to it and what it says about shifts in use of Satan as a marker of female rebellion. Satanism, or flirting with the satanic, is always a language of resistance to conventions, which may be more or less articulate when it comes to specific cultural criticism. The use of Gothic and Satanic symbolism by fiercly independent women would accordingly have resonated with notions in the wider culture, and, with figures as highly public as these using it, must have created echoes far beyond their intimate sphere. It thus strengthened the ties between such symbolism and female emancipation. Taking all this into account, it is reasonable to see these women as participants in the amorphous fin-de-siècle discourse of satanic feminism.

Nyckelord
Sarah Bernhardt, Luisa Casati, Theda Bara, femme fatale, roleplay, identity, feminism, Satanism, Esotericism
Nationell ämneskategori
Religionshistoria
Forskningsämne
religionshistoria
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-99710 (URN)
Konferens
Evil Women, and the Feminine: 5th Global Conference, Prague, Czech Republic, 18-20 May, 2013
Tillgänglig från: 2014-01-16 Skapad: 2014-01-16 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-02-24Bibliografiskt granskad
Faxneld, P. (2013). Baron Jacques och Markisinnan Luisa: dekadenta satanister på Capri i 1900-talets början. In: : . Paper presented at Magi, satanism och onda andar, Medelhavsmuseet, Stockholm, Sverige, 23 oktober, 2013.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Baron Jacques och Markisinnan Luisa: dekadenta satanister på Capri i 1900-talets början
2013 (Svenska)Konferensbidrag, Enbart muntlig presentation (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
Nyckelord
Satanism, dekadens, Capri, Luisa Casati, Jacques d'Adelswärd Fersen, esoterism
Nationell ämneskategori
Religionshistoria
Forskningsämne
religionshistoria
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-99714 (URN)
Konferens
Magi, satanism och onda andar, Medelhavsmuseet, Stockholm, Sverige, 23 oktober, 2013
Tillgänglig från: 2014-01-16 Skapad: 2014-01-16 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-02-24Bibliografiskt granskad
Faxneld, P. (2013). Hysteria, gender and Satanism: The pathologization of devil-worship in nineteenth-century culture. In: : . Paper presented at Western Esotericism and Health, Gothenburg, Sweden, June 26-29, 2013.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Hysteria, gender and Satanism: The pathologization of devil-worship in nineteenth-century culture
2013 (Engelska)Konferensbidrag, Muntlig presentation med publicerat abstract (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

In turn-of-the-century France, the ongoing battle between the Catholic Church (which had traditionally been in charge of caring for the insane) and the developing discipline of psychiatry gave rise to lively debates concerning the nature of demonic possession and witchcraft. Psychiatrists claimed such phenomena, in past eras as well as in contemporary times, could be explained as expressions of hysterical conditions. Some Catholics, on the other hand, saw hysteria as a sign of demonic activity. Hysteria and the demonic were in turn used all over Europe to stigmatize feminists, who in conservative discourses were frequently metaphorically described as shrieking, hysterical witches or even, literally or implicitly, in league with Satan.

The sulfurous connotations of feminism were given support by some feminists, like Matilda Joslyn Gage (1826–1898), describing medieval witchcraft as a form of laudably anti- patriarchal Satanism – but fiercely denying witches were hysterics, in order to reject the negative stereotyping of feminists as mentally ill or aberrant. When a woman expressed sympathy for the Devil, as for example the radical individualist feminist Mary MacLane (1881–1929) did in an autobiographical book in 1902, male reviewers predictably held her up as hysterical and mentally ill, thus attempting to dismiss her subversive ideas and Satanic cultural critique as proof of a pathological condition.

Other men, like the Berlin-based Decadent Satanist Stanislaw Przybyszewski (1868–1927), took a different stance, and celebrated what others called degeneration, evil and hysteria. To him, all this was essential for the evolution of the species. He affirmed the connection between Satan, women and hysterical, ecstatic states of mind, but elevated Satan to a patron of progress in science and art.

The paper explores the conflation of Satanism and the medical diagnosis of hysteria in nineteenth century culture, and attempts to tease out some of the gendered implications the bringing together of the two had at the time.

Nyckelord
Hysteria, Huysmans, Charcot, Esotericism, Satanism, Occultism, Feminism, Gender
Nationell ämneskategori
Religionshistoria
Forskningsämne
religionshistoria
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-99713 (URN)
Konferens
Western Esotericism and Health, Gothenburg, Sweden, June 26-29, 2013
Tillgänglig från: 2014-01-16 Skapad: 2014-01-16 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-02-24Bibliografiskt granskad
Faxneld, P. (2013). "In Communication With the Powers of Darkness": Satanism in Turn-of-the-century Denmark, and Its Use as a Legitimating Device in Present-day Esotericism. In: Henrik Bogdan and Gordan Djurdjevic (Ed.), Occultism in a Global Perspective: . Durham: Acumen Publishing
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>"In Communication With the Powers of Darkness": Satanism in Turn-of-the-century Denmark, and Its Use as a Legitimating Device in Present-day Esotericism
2013 (Engelska)Ingår i: Occultism in a Global Perspective / [ed] Henrik Bogdan and Gordan Djurdjevic, Durham: Acumen Publishing, 2013Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Durham: Acumen Publishing, 2013
Serie
Approaches to New Religions
Nyckelord
Occultism, Esotericism, Satanism, Denmark, Legitimation, Tradition, Freemasonry
Nationell ämneskategori
Religionshistoria
Forskningsämne
religionshistoria
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-99708 (URN)1844657167 (ISBN)9781844657162 (ISBN)
Tillgänglig från: 2014-01-16 Skapad: 2014-01-16 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-02-24Bibliografiskt granskad
Faxneld, P. (2013). "Intuitive, receptive, dark": Negotiations of femininity in the contemporary Satanic and Left-hand Path milieu. International Journal for the Study of New Religions, 4(2), 201-230
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>"Intuitive, receptive, dark": Negotiations of femininity in the contemporary Satanic and Left-hand Path milieu
2013 (Engelska)Ingår i: International Journal for the Study of New Religions, ISSN 2041-9511, E-ISSN 2041-952X, Vol. 4, nr 2, s. 201-230Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

The article discusses some of the debates over the construction of gender taking place in the satanic and Left-hand Path (LHP) milieu, in particular the different varieties of upvaluing of “the feminine.” This includes disputes over what the term feminism entails, what the best strategies for women to gain more power are, and if “feminine” is an essence that can be contrasted with a fixed “masculine.”

Notions of gender polarity as necessary for magical practice or cosmic balance are given special attention, as are borrowings from feminist terminology (e.g. “patriar- chy”) by figures that are far from feminist in orientation. Aside from tex- tual sources, the article draws on communication with 44 informants.    

Three basic approaches to gender can be discerned in the milieu:  1) Gender as an insignificant category, 2) Gender as a natural polarity, 3) Gender as false consciousness. Of these, number two is the most common, while number one is quite seldom seen—gender is a major issue, one way or another. Femininity is frequently discussed by both men and women, while masculinity is a less popular topic. Femininity, then, is a particularly contested matter in the milieu.

Overall, the dominant view of gender is that the two sexes should be strictly dichotomized. The article concludes that with some exceptions most organizations in the milieu are numerically dominated by men. However, some important groups have periodically been led by women, and there are several female key producers of ideology. The partly reactionary views concerning gender issues held by some female leaders indicate that female leadership does not necessitate that a conventional feminism would permeate the organization. Further, it is difficult to see any absolute correlation between female leadership and upvaluing of the feminine in mythology. Moreover, the article demonstrates, such upvaluing does not in itself always signify an underlying ideology of political feminism.

Nyckelord
Satanism, Left-hand Path, gender, Feminism, women, Essentialism, Constructionism, Occultism, Esotericism
Nationell ämneskategori
Humaniora Filosofi, etik och religion Religionshistoria
Forskningsämne
religionshistoria
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-99705 (URN)10.1558/ijsnr.v4i2.201 (DOI)
Tillgänglig från: 2014-01-16 Skapad: 2014-01-16 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-02-24Bibliografiskt granskad
Faxneld, P. (2013). Secret Lineages and De Facto Satanists: Anton LaVey's Use of Esoteric Tradition. In: Egil Asprem; Kennet Granholm (Ed.), Contemporary Esotericism: (pp. 72-90). Sheffield, UK & Bristol, US: Equinox Publishing
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Secret Lineages and De Facto Satanists: Anton LaVey's Use of Esoteric Tradition
2013 (Engelska)Ingår i: Contemporary Esotericism / [ed] Egil Asprem; Kennet Granholm, Sheffield, UK & Bristol, US: Equinox Publishing, 2013, s. 72-90Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

The chapter investigates how Anton LaVey constructs a Satanic tradition in his texts, and to what use he puts it. It presents an interpretation of this based on LaVey’s overall ontology and view of religious and esoteric phenomena. LaVey both utilizes historical predecessors in a way that is common within Western esotercism in general, and breaks with this common usage. Discarding most of the old esoteric and Satanic material as ineffectual and outdated, he paradoxically still emerges as dependent on it. The chapter argues that the prime function of tradition for LaVey is not legitimization, as perhaps would be expected. Rather, he seems to deem tradition most useful for bringing about certain psychological effects in a framework where one practises the ‘willing suspension of disbelief’ in a limited context, playfully creating the right atmosphere for Satanic activities. The mechanics of tradition are thus openly displayed and consciously utilized as mood‐creating spectacle for purely instrumental purposes. Hence, LaVey’s references to secret lineages should not be considered a counterfeiting of tradition, since he is quite openly playing with the psychological effects of (a more or less fictitious) tradition, and inviting others to take part in this game.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Sheffield, UK & Bristol, US: Equinox Publishing, 2013
Nyckelord
Satanism, Tradition, Anton LaVey, Church of Satan, Legitimation
Nationell ämneskategori
Religionshistoria
Forskningsämne
religionshistoria
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-84758 (URN)10.4324/9781315728650-4 (DOI)978-1-908049-32-2 (ISBN)
Tillgänglig från: 2013-01-01 Skapad: 2013-01-01 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-09-09Bibliografiskt granskad
Faxneld, P. (2013). The Devil is Red: Socialist Satanism in the Nineteenth Century. Numen, 60(5-6), 528-558
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>The Devil is Red: Socialist Satanism in the Nineteenth Century
2013 (Engelska)Ingår i: Numen, ISSN 0029-5973, E-ISSN 1568-5276, Vol. 60, nr 5-6, s. 528-558Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

During the nineteenth century, socialists all over the Western world employed Satan as a symbol of the workers’ emancipation from capitalist tyranny and the toppling of the Christian Church, which they perceived as a protector of this oppressive system. Starting with the English Romantics at the end of the eighteenth century, European radicals developed a discourse of symbolic Satanism, which was put to use by major names in socialism like Godwin, Proudhon, and Bakunin. This shock tactic became especially widespread in turn-of-the-century Sweden, and accordingly the article focuses on the many examples of explicit socialist Satanism in that country. They are contextualized by showing the parallels to, among other things, use of Lucifer as a positive symbol in the realm of alternative spirituality, specifically the Theosophical Society. A number of reasons for why Satan gained such popularity among socialists are suggested, and the sometimes blurry line separating the rhetoric of symbolic Satanism from actual religious writing is scrutinized.

Nyckelord
Satanism, Satan, socialism, anarchism, Romanticism, Sweden
Nationell ämneskategori
Religionshistoria
Forskningsämne
religionshistoria
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-99709 (URN)10.1163/15685276-12341294 (DOI)000344077400003 ()
Tillgänglig från: 2014-01-16 Skapad: 2014-01-16 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-02-24Bibliografiskt granskad
Faxneld, P. & Aa. Petersen, J. (Eds.). (2013). The Devil’s Party: Satanism in Modernity. New York: Oxford University Press
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>The Devil’s Party: Satanism in Modernity
2013 (Engelska)Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

Recent years have seen a significant shift in the study of new religious movements. In Satanism studies, interest has moved to anthropological and historical work on groups and inviduals. Self-declared Satanism, especially as a religion with cultural production and consumption, history, and organization, has largely been neglected by academia. This volume, focused on modern Satanism as a practiced religion of life-style, attempts to reverse that trend with 12 cutting-edge essays from the emerging field of Satanism studies. Topics covered range from early literary Satanists like Blake and Shelley, to the Californian Church of Satan of the 1960s, to the radical developments that have taken place in the Satanic milieu in recent decades. The contributors analyze such phenomena as conversion to Satanism, connections between Satanism and political violence, 19th-century decadent Satanism, transgression, conspiracy theory, and the construction of Satanic scripture. A wide array of methods are employed to shed light on the Devil's disciples: statistical surveys, anthropological field studies, philological examination of The Satanic Bible, contextual analysis of literary texts, careful scrutiny of obscure historical records, and close readings of key Satanic writings. The book will be an invaluable resource for everyone interested in Satanism as a philosophical or religious position of alterity rather than as an imagined other. 

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
New York: Oxford University Press, 2013. s. 289
Nyckelord
Satanism, Satan, Devil, Western Esotericism, Occultism, New Religions, Literature, Satanism, Satan, Djävulen, Västerländsk esoterism, ockultism, nya religioner, skönlitteratur
Nationell ämneskategori
Religionshistoria
Forskningsämne
religionshistoria
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-84736 (URN)10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199779239.001.0001 (DOI)2-s2.0-84898028373 (Scopus ID)978-0-19-977924-6 (ISBN)
Tillgänglig från: 2012-12-31 Skapad: 2012-12-31 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-09-26Bibliografiskt granskad
Faxneld, P. (2013). The Question of History: Precursors and Currents. In: Per Faxneld, Jesper Aa. Petersen (Ed.), The Devil’s Party: Satanism in Modernity (pp. 19-22). New York: Oxford University Press
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>The Question of History: Precursors and Currents
2013 (Engelska)Ingår i: The Devil’s Party: Satanism in Modernity / [ed] Per Faxneld, Jesper Aa. Petersen, New York: Oxford University Press, 2013, s. 19-22Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
New York: Oxford University Press, 2013
Nyckelord
Satanism, Occultism, Western Esotericism, Folklore, Romanticism, Literature
Nationell ämneskategori
Filosofi, etik och religion
Forskningsämne
religionshistoria
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-84742 (URN)978-0-19-977923-9 (ISBN)
Tillgänglig från: 2012-12-31 Skapad: 2012-12-31 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-02-24Bibliografiskt granskad
Projekt
Den förbisedda maskulina sidan av new age: "Österländsk" kampsportsandlighet [2022-02594_VR]; Södertörns högskola
Organisationer
Identifikatorer
ORCID-id: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9264-0395

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