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Publikationer (10 of 113) Visa alla publikationer
Widgren, M. (2024). Agricultural History. In: Thomas Spear (Ed.), Oxford Bibliographies in African Studies: . Oxford University Press
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Agricultural History
2024 (Engelska)Ingår i: Oxford Bibliographies in African Studies / [ed] Thomas Spear, Oxford University Press , 2024Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

This overview of literature on the agricultural history of sub-Saharan Africa focuses on works that contribute to our understanding of changes in farming systems, crops, and tools. The time period considered here is after the introduction of farming and before colonialism, thus roughly corresponding to 500 to 1900 CE. Agrarian change during this period remains very little studied in comparison with other continents. Many works on African history take their point of departure in a timeless description of precolonial agriculture. Agriculture is then often described on the basis of late 19th- and early-20th-century ethnographic observations, and it is common to assume that little had changed since the introduction of farming. The few works that carry the title “Agrarian history of” or “Agricultural history of” different regions in Africa are, in contrast to similar works covering countries and regions in, for example, Europe and Asia, mainly short papers or pamphlets that focus on either colonial development or sketch a program toward a precolonial agricultural history. The precolonial agricultural history of sub-Saharan Africa is a true interdisciplinary endeavor, and the ideal researcher would have to master Arabic and Portuguese texts, agronomy, palaeobotany, archaeology, linguistics, and oral history. It is to a large extent on the cutting edge between two or more of these specialties that interesting new results have emerged. Works that give a significant empirical contribution to the understanding of agriculture in the period and region under study are included in this article.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Oxford University Press, 2024
Serie
Oxford Bibliographies
Nationell ämneskategori
Kulturgeografi
Forskningsämne
geografi med kulturgeografisk inriktning
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-227093 (URN)10.1093/OBO/9780199846733-0229 (DOI)
Tillgänglig från: 2024-02-29 Skapad: 2024-02-29 Senast uppdaterad: 2024-04-16Bibliografiskt granskad
Maggs, T. & Widgren, M. (2023). Moxomatsi: the organisation of space in a major Bokoni settlement. Southern African Humanities, 36, 61-88
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Moxomatsi: the organisation of space in a major Bokoni settlement
2023 (Engelska)Ingår i: Southern African Humanities, ISSN 1681-5564, Vol. 36, s. 61-88Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

In the archaeological quest towards better understanding the precolonial farming communities of South Africa, Bokoni settlements are doubly important. They represent the only ‘island’ of agricultural intensification in the region. They are also characterised by a wider use of stone in construction than any other such communities. This distinguishing attribute provides us with far greater potential for reconstructing the patterns according to which space was organised in Bokoni, than is possible with other precolonial farming societies. This applies particularly to the larger and more densely built settlements such as Moxomatsi, where intensive use was made of available space. Here we describe the various types of stone-built features and the spatial patterning we can derive from them. Networks of roads and footpaths, together with related features, give us insight into patterns of circulation by people and livestock within the settlement. Circulation routes together with walls, terraces and stone lines contribute to patterns on the ground, which indicate ways in which cultivated land was subdivided and allocated, both adjacent to homesteads and at some distance away. Ways in which groups of homesteads are linked seem to reflect clustering based on kinship, an organisational principle which resonates with ethnographic evidence. Local environmental issues of hydrology, topography, geology, and soils have also played a significant part in how the community used the landscape. 

Nyckelord
African Iron Age, precolonial farmers, settlement organisation, Mpumalanga history, Bokoni, Moxomatsi
Nationell ämneskategori
Kulturgeografi
Forskningsämne
kulturgeografi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-219262 (URN)001125030600005 ()
Forskningsfinansiär
Vetenskapsrådet
Tillgänglig från: 2023-07-20 Skapad: 2023-07-20 Senast uppdaterad: 2024-01-16Bibliografiskt granskad
Wei, X., Widgren, M., Li, B., Ye, Y., Fang, X., Zhang, C. & Chen, T. (2021). Dataset of 1 km cropland cover from 1690 to 1999 in Scandinavia. Earth System Science Data, 13(6), 3035-3056
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Dataset of 1 km cropland cover from 1690 to 1999 in Scandinavia
Visa övriga...
2021 (Engelska)Ingår i: Earth System Science Data, ISSN 1866-3508, E-ISSN 1866-3516, Vol. 13, nr 6, s. 3035-3056Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Spatially explicit historical land cover datasets are essential not only for simulations of climate and environmental dynamics but also for projections of future land use, food security, climate, and biodiversity. However, widely used global datasets are developed for continental- to global-scale analysis and simulations. Their accuracy depends on the verification of more regional reconstruction results. This study collects cropland area data of each administrative unit (parish/municipality/county) in Scandinavia from multiple sources. The cropland area data are validated, calibrated, interpolated, and allocated into 1 km×1 km grid cells. Then, we develop a dataset with spatially explicit cropland area from 1690 to 1999. Results indicate that the cropland area increased from 1.82×106 ha to 6.71×106 ha from 1690 to 1950 and then decreased to 5.90×106 ha in 1999. Before 1810, cropland cover expanded in southern Scandinavia and remained stable in northern Scandinavia. From 1810 to 1910, northern Scandinavia experienced slight cropland expansion. The cropland area increased rapidly in the southern part of the study area before changing slightly. After 1950, the cropland areas began to decrease in most regions, especially in eastern Scandinavia. When comparing global datasets with this study, although the total Scandinavia cropland area is in agreement among SAGE (Center for Sustainability and the Global Environment), HYDE (History Database of the Global Environment ) 3.2, PJ (Pongratz Julia), and this study, the spatial patterns show considerable differences, except for in Denmark between HYDE 3.2 and this study. The dataset can be downloaded from https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.926591 (Wei et al., 2021).

Nationell ämneskategori
Kulturgeografi
Forskningsämne
kulturgeografi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-194721 (URN)10.5194/essd-13-3035-2021 (DOI)000669510400001 ()
Tillgänglig från: 2021-06-30 Skapad: 2021-06-30 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-02-25Bibliografiskt granskad
Widgren, M. (2021). Ulf Sporrong. In: Kungl. Vitterhets historie och antikvitets akademiens årsbok 2021: (pp. 47-54). Stockholm: Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademien
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Ulf Sporrong
2021 (Svenska)Ingår i: Kungl. Vitterhets historie och antikvitets akademiens årsbok 2021, Stockholm: Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademien, 2021, s. 47-54Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Stockholm: Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademien, 2021
Serie
Kungl. Vitterhets historie och antikvitets akademiens årsbok, ISSN 0083-6796
Nationell ämneskategori
Kulturgeografi
Forskningsämne
kulturgeografi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-198287 (URN)9789188763273 (ISBN)
Tillgänglig från: 2021-11-03 Skapad: 2021-11-03 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-02-25Bibliografiskt granskad
Tollin, C. & Widgren, M. (2021). Utmarksskiften som ursprunglig kapitalackumulation?. Historisk Tidskrift, 141(4), 712-722
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Utmarksskiften som ursprunglig kapitalackumulation?
2021 (Svenska)Ingår i: Historisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0345-469X, E-ISSN 2002-4827, Vol. 141, nr 4, s. 712-722Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt) Published
Abstract [sv]

För historiska geografer är Erik Hallbergs och Lars Nyströms artikel ”Den ursprungliga kapitalackumulationen på svensk botten” i Historisk Tidskrift 141:1 både välkommen och problematisk. Den är välkommen därför att nya teoretiska perspektiv sätts i arbete i studiet av våra historiska lantmäteriakter och för sin strävan efter en nationell översikt över utmarkskiftena. Den är problematisk därför att författarna inte tagit till sig den tidigare historisk-geografiska forskningen på området och för att författarna inte klargör sin syn på begreppet primitiv ackumulation och hur utmarksskiftena i Sverige skulle kunna belysa den. 

Nationell ämneskategori
Kulturgeografi
Forskningsämne
geografi med kulturgeografisk inriktning
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-199336 (URN)
Tillgänglig från: 2021-12-02 Skapad: 2021-12-02 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-05-10Bibliografiskt granskad
Widgren, M. (2020). Gamla markslag kommer tillbaka när Stensjö by blir länets första kulturreservat. Stenmuren (1), 26-29
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Gamla markslag kommer tillbaka när Stensjö by blir länets första kulturreservat
2020 (Svenska)Ingår i: Stenmuren, ISSN 2000-7590, nr 1, s. 26-29Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm)) Published
Nationell ämneskategori
Kulturgeografi
Forskningsämne
kulturgeografi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-179967 (URN)
Tillgänglig från: 2020-03-17 Skapad: 2020-03-17 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-02-26Bibliografiskt granskad
Widgren, M. (2020). Sacred and profane, visual and lived-in: A note on some creative tensions in the landscape. In: Irene Garcia Losquino, Olof Sundqvist, Declan Taggart (Ed.), Making the Profane Sacred in the Viking Age: Essays in Honour of Stefan Brink (pp. 53-60). Turnhout: Brepols
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Sacred and profane, visual and lived-in: A note on some creative tensions in the landscape
2020 (Engelska)Ingår i: Making the Profane Sacred in the Viking Age: Essays in Honour of Stefan Brink / [ed] Irene Garcia Losquino, Olof Sundqvist, Declan Taggart, Turnhout: Brepols , 2020, s. 53-60Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Turnhout: Brepols, 2020
Serie
Medieval Texts and Cultures of Northern Europe, ISSN 1784-2859, E-ISSN 2294-8414 ; 32
Nationell ämneskategori
Kulturgeografi
Forskningsämne
kulturgeografi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-182239 (URN)978-2-503-58604-5 (ISBN)
Tillgänglig från: 2020-06-05 Skapad: 2020-06-05 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-02-26Bibliografiskt granskad
Widgren, M. (2019). Landskapet som kulturminne: Vägval i förvaltningen av Stensjö by. In: Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademiens årsbok: (pp. 99-128). Stockholm: Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademien
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Landskapet som kulturminne: Vägval i förvaltningen av Stensjö by
2019 (Svenska)Ingår i: Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademiens årsbok, Stockholm: Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademien, 2019, s. 99-128Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Stockholm: Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademien, 2019
Serie
Kungl. Vitterhets historie och antikvitetsakademiens årsbok, ISSN 0083-6796 ; 2019
Nationell ämneskategori
Kulturgeografi
Forskningsämne
kulturgeografi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-175616 (URN)9789188763150 (ISBN)
Tillgänglig från: 2019-11-06 Skapad: 2019-11-06 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-02-26Bibliografiskt granskad
Marchant, R., Widgren, M., Pas Schrijver, A. & Wright, D. (2018). Drivers and trajectories of land cover change in East Africa: Human and environmental interactions from 6000 years ago to present. Earth-Science Reviews, 178, 322-378
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Drivers and trajectories of land cover change in East Africa: Human and environmental interactions from 6000 years ago to present
2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Earth-Science Reviews, ISSN 0012-8252, E-ISSN 1872-6828, Vol. 178, s. 322-378Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

East African landscapes today are the result of the cumulative effects of climate and land-use change over millennial timescales. In this review, we compile archaeological and palaeoenvironmental data from East Africa to document land-cover change, and environmental, subsistence and land-use transitions, over the past 6000 years. Throughout East Africa there have been a series of relatively rapid and high-magnitude environmental shifts characterised by changing hydrological budgets during the mid- to late Holocene. For example, pronounced environmental shifts that manifested as a marked change in the rainfall amount or seasonality and subsequent hydrological budget throughout East Africa occurred around 4000, 800 and 300 radiocarbon years before present (yr BP). The past 6000 years have also seen numerous shifts in human interactions with East African ecologies. From the mid-Holocene, land use has both diversified and increased exponentially, this has been associated with the arrival of new subsistence systems, crops, migrants and technologies, all giving rise to a sequence of significant phases of land-cover change. The first large-scale human influences began to occur around 4000 yr BP, associated with the introduction of domesticated livestock and the expansion of pastoral communities. The first widespread and intensive forest clearances were associated with the arrival of iron-using early farming communities around 2500 yr BP, particularly in productive and easily-cleared mid-altitudinal areas. Extensive and pervasive land-cover change has been associated with population growth, immigration and movement of people. The expansion of trading routes between the interior and the coast, starting around 1300 years ago and intensifying in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries CE, was one such process. These caravan routes possibly acted as conduits for spreading New World crops such as maize (Zea mays), tobacco (Nicotiana spp.) and tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum), although the processes and timings of their introductions remains poorly documented. The introduction of southeast Asian domesticates, especially banana (Musa spp.), rice (Oryza spp.), taro (Colocasia esculenta), and chicken (Gallus gallus), via transoceanic biological transfers around and across the Indian Ocean, from at least around 1300 yr BP, and potentially significantly earlier, also had profound social and ecological consequences across parts of the region.

Through an interdisciplinary synthesis of information and metadatasets, we explore the different drivers and directions of changes in land-cover, and the associated environmental histories and interactions with various cultures, technologies, and subsistence strategies through time and across space in East Africa. This review suggests topics for targeted future research that focus on areas and/or time periods where our understanding of the interactions between people, the environment and land-cover change are most contentious and/or poorly resolved. The review also offers a perspective on how knowledge of regional land-use change can be used to inform and provide perspectives on contemporary issues such as climate and ecosystem change models, conservation strategies, and the achievement of nature-based solutions for development purposes.

Nationell ämneskategori
Kulturgeografi
Forskningsämne
geografi med kulturgeografisk inriktning
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-153997 (URN)10.1016/j.earscirev.2017.12.010 (DOI)000430774000014 ()
Tillgänglig från: 2018-03-11 Skapad: 2018-03-11 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-02-28Bibliografiskt granskad
Bergius, M., Benjaminsen, T. A. & Widgren, M. (2018). Green economy, Scandinavian investments and agricultural modernization in Tanzania. The Journal of Peasant Studies, 45(4), 825-852
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Green economy, Scandinavian investments and agricultural modernization in Tanzania
2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: The Journal of Peasant Studies, ISSN 0306-6150, E-ISSN 1743-9361, Vol. 45, nr 4, s. 825-852Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

‘Green economy’ is a broad concept open to different interpretations, definitions and practices ranging from the greening of current neoliberal economies to radical transformations of these economies. In Africa, one emerging and powerful idea in the implementation of the green economy seems to be to use a green agenda to further strengthen development as modernization through capital-intensive land investments. This has again reinvigorated old debates about large-scale versus smallholder agriculture. Influential actors justify large-scale ‘green’ investments by the urgency for economic development as well as to offset carbon emissions and other environmental impacts. In this contribution, we discuss the case of the Southern Agricultural Growth Corridor of Tanzania (SAGCOT) to give examples of how the green economy may materialize in Africa. SAGCOT is presented by the Tanzanian government as well as investors and donors as a leading African example of an ‘investment blueprint’ and as a laboratory to test green growth combining profitable farming with the safeguard of ecosystem services. In particular, we discuss three Scandinavian investments within SAGCOT, their social implications and their discursive representations through the public debates that these investments have generated in Scandinavia.

Nyckelord
green economy, agricultural modernization, Scandinavian investments, SAGCOT, Tanzania
Nationell ämneskategori
Kulturgeografi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-140053 (URN)10.1080/03066150.2016.1260554 (DOI)000429995200007 ()
Tillgänglig från: 2017-02-25 Skapad: 2017-02-25 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-02-28Bibliografiskt granskad
Organisationer
Identifikatorer
ORCID-id: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-3322-7848

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