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Cornelissen, Gerard
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Hilber, I., Mayer, P., Gouliarmou, V., Hale, S. E., Cornelissen, G., Schmidt, H.-P. & Bucheli, T. D. (2017). Bioavailability and bioaccessibility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from (post-pyrolytically treated) biochars. Paper presented at BFR Symposium, Beijing, Peoples Republic of China, April 22-24, 2015. Chemosphere, 174, 700-707
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Bioavailability and bioaccessibility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from (post-pyrolytically treated) biochars
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2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 174, s. 700-707Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Bioaccessibility data of PAHs from biochar produced under real world conditions is scarce and the influence of feedstock and various post-pyrolysis treatments common in agriculture, such as co composting or lacto-fermentation to produce silage fodder, on their bioavailability and bioaccessibility has hardly been studied. The total (C-total), and freely dissolved (i.e., bioavailable) concentrations (C-free) of the sum of 16 US EPA PAHs of 43 biochar samples produced and treated in such ways ranged from 0.4 to almost 2000 mg/kg, and from 12 to 81 ng/L, respectively, which resulted in very high biochar-water partition coefficients (4.2 < log K-D < 8.8 L/kg) for individual PAHs. Thirty three samples were incubated in contaminant traps that combined a diffusive carrier and a sorptive sink. Incubations yielded samples only containing desorption-resistant PAHs (C-res). The desorption resistant PAH fraction was dominant, since only eight out of 33 biochar samples showed statistically significant bioaccessible fractions (f(bioaccessible) = 1 - C-res/C-total). Bioavailability correlated positively with C-total/surface area. Other relationships of bioavailability and accessibility with the investigated post-pyrolysis processes or elemental composition could not be found. PAH exposure was very limited (low C-free, high C-res) for all samples with low to moderate C-total whereas higher exposure was determined in some biochars with C-total > 10 mg/kg.

Nyckelord
Organic pollutants, Agricultural practice, Biochar as feed additive, Biochar mixtures, Post-processing
Nationell ämneskategori
Geovetenskap och miljövetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-142365 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.02.014 (DOI)000397076000075 ()28199946 (PubMedID)
Konferens
BFR Symposium, Beijing, Peoples Republic of China, April 22-24, 2015
Tillgänglig från: 2017-05-05 Skapad: 2017-05-05 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-02-28Bibliografiskt granskad
Abel, S., Nybom, I., Maenpaa, K., Hale, S. E., Cornelissen, G. & Akkanen, J. (2017). Mixing and capping techniques for activated carbon based sediment remediation Efficiency and adverse effects for Lumbriculus variegatus. Water Research, 114, 104-112
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Mixing and capping techniques for activated carbon based sediment remediation Efficiency and adverse effects for Lumbriculus variegatus
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2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 114, s. 104-112Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Activated carbon (AC) has been proven to be highly effective for the in-situ remediation of sediments contaminated with a wide range of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs). However, adverse biological effects, especially to benthic organisms, can accompany this promising remediation potential. In this study, we compare both the remediation potential and the biological effects of several AC materials for two application methods: mixing with sediment (MIX) at doses of 0.1 and 1.0% based on sediment dw and thin layer capping (TLC) with 0.6 and 1.2 kg AC/m(2). Significant dose dependent reductions in PCB bioaccumulation in Lumbriculus variegatus of 35-93% in MIX treatments were observed. Contaminant uptake in TLC treatments was reduced by up to 78% and differences between the two applied doses were small. Correspondingly, significant adverse effects were observed for L. variegatus whenever AC was present in the sediment. The lowest application dose of 0.1% AC in the MIX system reduced L variegatus growth, and 1.0% AC led to a net loss of organism biomass. All TLC treatments let to a loss of biomass in the test organism. Furthermore, mortality was observed with 1.2 kg ACim(2) doses of pure AC for the TLC treatment. The addition of clay (Kaolinite) to the TLC treatments prevented mortality, but did not decrease the loss in biomass. While TLC treatments pose a less laborious alternative for AC amendments in the field, the results of this study show that it has lower remediation potential and could be more harmful to the benthic fauna.

Nyckelord
Sediment remediation, PCB Bioaccumulation, Thin layer capping, Activated carbon, Adverse effects
Nationell ämneskategori
Naturresursteknik Geovetenskap och miljövetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-142371 (URN)10.1016/j.watres.2017.02.025 (DOI)000397695800011 ()28229948 (PubMedID)
Tillgänglig från: 2017-05-04 Skapad: 2017-05-04 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-02-28Bibliografiskt granskad
Hilber, I., Bastos, A. C., Loureiro, S., Soja, G., Marsz, A., Cornelissen, G. & Bucheli, T. D. (2017). THE DIFFERENT FACES OF BIOCHAR: CONTAMINATION RISK VERSUS REMEDIATION TOOL. Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management, 25(2), 86-104
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>THE DIFFERENT FACES OF BIOCHAR: CONTAMINATION RISK VERSUS REMEDIATION TOOL
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2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management, ISSN 1648-6897, E-ISSN 1822-4199, Vol. 25, nr 2, s. 86-104Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

This article reviews the different aspects of biochar as source and sink of organic and inorganic contaminants. Biochar can contain organic contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or heavy metals. As the distribution coefficients of the biochar especially for contaminants are high, the freely dissolved concentrations are low and with that also the bioavailability. The link between biochar's inherent contaminants and toxicity to soil meso- and macro-fauna remains unclear, with data being often contradictory and influenced by feedstock and pyrolysis conditions. The biochar's potential to remediate contaminated soils has mainly been addressed in lab studies, but rarely in the field. This far, results have been contradicting. Many studies reported successful immobilization of contaminants but some not. In summary, the ambivalent face of the biochar with regard to contaminants prevails. In future, long term field studies are needed to properly address the sustainability of biochar in this respect.

Nyckelord
biochar inherent organic and inorganic contaminants, bioavailability, bioaccessibility, ecotoxicity, environmental risks
Nationell ämneskategori
Geovetenskap och miljövetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-145284 (URN)10.3846/16486897.2016.1254089 (DOI)000404721000002 ()
Tillgänglig från: 2017-07-25 Skapad: 2017-07-25 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-03-23Bibliografiskt granskad
Obia, A., Borresen, T., Martinsen, V., Cornelissen, G. & Mulder, J. (2017). Vertical and lateral transport of biochar in light-textured tropical soils. Soil & Tillage Research, 165, 34-40
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Vertical and lateral transport of biochar in light-textured tropical soils
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2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Soil & Tillage Research, ISSN 0167-1987, E-ISSN 1879-3444, Vol. 165, s. 34-40Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Field experiments were conducted in Arenosols (loamy fine sand) and Acrisols (sandy loam) in Zambia to quantify vertical and lateral transport of biochar (BC) using the BC and soil C-13 isotope signatures and total organic carbon contents. There were three experimental treatments composing of no BC, <= 0.5 and 0.5-1 mm BCs each with three replicates arranged in completely randomized design. The applied BCs were made from rice husk, except 0.5-1 mm BC in sandy loam, which was from maize cob. One year after mixing BC homogeneously in the 0-5 cm surface layer, soil down to 20 cm depth was sampled. The downward migration of BC was significant down to 8 cm depth in sandy loam and down to 6 cm in loamy fine sand. Below these depths, there was no significant difference in BC amounts between the BC amended and the reference plots. There was a general tendency for greater downward migration for the <= 0.5 mm than for 0.5-1 mm BC. Total BC recovery at 0-5 cm depth in the BC-treated soils amounted to 45-66% of the total applied amount of BC. As only 10-20% was recovered in the deeper soil layers, 24-45% of the applied BC could not be accounted for in the soil profile. Although, decomposition and downward migration to below 20 cm depth may contribute to the loss of BC from the surface soil, much can be attributed to lateral transfer through erosion. This is the first study that explicitly focuses on the theme of BC dispersion and shows that in Arenosols and Acrisols of the tropics, the downward migration of BC is limited.

Nyckelord
Biochar particle size, Biochar C-13 isotope, Biochar transport in soil
Nationell ämneskategori
Geovetenskap och miljövetenskap Miljö- och naturvårdsvetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-136244 (URN)10.1016/j.still.2016.07.016 (DOI)000385901200005 ()
Tillgänglig från: 2016-12-08 Skapad: 2016-12-01 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-02-28Bibliografiskt granskad
Cornelissen, G., Schaanning, M., Gunnarsson, J. S. & Eek, E. (2016). A large-scale field trial of thin-layer capping of PCDD/F-contaminated sediments: Sediment-to-water fluxes up to 5 years post-amendment. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, 12(2), 216-221
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>A large-scale field trial of thin-layer capping of PCDD/F-contaminated sediments: Sediment-to-water fluxes up to 5 years post-amendment
2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, ISSN 1551-3777, E-ISSN 1551-3793, Vol. 12, nr 2, s. 216-221Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

The longer-term effect (3-5 y) of thin-layer capping on in situ sediment-to-surface water fluxes was monitored in a large-scale field experiment in the polychlorinated dibenzodioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) contaminated Grenlandfjords, Norway (4 trial plots of 10000 to 40000 m(2) at 30 to 100 m water depth). Active caps (designed thickness 2.5 cm) were established in 2 fjords, consisting of dredged clean clay amended with powdered activated carbon (PAC) from anthracite. These active caps were compared to 2 nonactive caps in one of the fjords (designed thickness 5 cm) consisting of either clay only (i.e., without PAC) or crushed limestone. Sediment-to-water PCDD/F fluxes were measured in situ using diffusion chambers. An earlier study showed that during the first 2 years after thin-layer capping, flux reductions relative to noncapped reference fields were more extensive at the fields capped with nonactive caps (70%-90%) than at the ones with PAC-containing caps (50%-60%). However, the present work shows that between 3 and 5 years after thin-layer capping, this trend was reversed and cap effectiveness in reducing fluxes was increasing to 80% to 90% for the PAC caps, whereas cap effectiveness of the nonactive caps decreased to 20% to 60%. The increasing effectiveness over time of PAC-containing active caps is explained by a combination of slow sediment-to-PAC mass transfer of PCDD/Fs and bioturbation by benthic organisms. The decreasing effectiveness of nonactive limestone and clay caps is explained by deposition of contaminated particles on top of the caps. The present field data indicate that the capping efficiency of thin active caps (i.e., enriched with PAC) can improve over time as a result of slow diffusive PCDD/F transfer from sediment to PAC particles and better mixing of the PAC by bioturbation. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:216-221.

Nyckelord
Activated carbon, PCDD, Fs, Remediation, Sediment-to-water fluxes, Thin-layer capping
Nationell ämneskategori
Geovetenskap och miljövetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-130122 (URN)10.1002/ieam.1665 (DOI)000373396900002 ()26012529 (PubMedID)
Tillgänglig från: 2016-05-19 Skapad: 2016-05-09 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-02-23Bibliografiskt granskad
Hale, S. E., Arp, H. P., Kupryianchyk, D. & Cornelissen, G. (2016). A synthesis of parameters related to the binding of neutral organic compounds to charcoal. Chemosphere, 144, 65-74
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>A synthesis of parameters related to the binding of neutral organic compounds to charcoal
2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 144, s. 65-74Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

The sorption strength of neutral organic compounds to charcoal, also called biochar was reviewed and related to charcoal and compound properties. From 29 studies, 507 individual Freundlich sorption.coefficients were compiled that covered the sorption strength of 107 organic contaminants. These sorption coefficients were converted into charcoal-water distribution coefficients (K-D) at aqueous concentrations of 1 ng/L, 1 mu g/L and 1 mg/L. Reported log K-D values at 1 mu g/L varied from 0.38 to 8.25 across all data. Variation was also observed within the compound classes; pesticides, herbicides and insecticides, PAHs, phthalates, halogenated organics, small organics, alcohols and PCBs. Five commonly reported variables; charcoal production temperature T, surface area SA, H/C and 0/C ratios and organic compound octanolwater partitioning coefficient, were correlated with K-D values using single and multiple-parameter linear regressions. The sorption strength of organic compounds to charcoals increased with increasing charcoal production temperature T, charcoal SA and organic pollutant octanol-water partitioning coefficient and decreased with increasing charcoal O/C ratio and charcoal H/C ratio. T was found to be correlated with SA (r(2) = 0.66) and O/C (r(2) = 0.50), particularly for charcoals produced from wood feedstocks (r2 = 0.73 and 0.80, respectively). The resulting regression: log K-D = (0.18 +/- 0.06) log K-ow + (5.74 +/- 1.40) log T + (0.85 +/- 0.15) log SA + (1.60 +/- 0.29) log OC + (-0.89 +/- 0.20) log HC + (-13.20 +/- 3.69), r(2) = 0.60, root mean squared error = 0.95, n = 151 was obtained for all variables. This information can be used as an initial screening to identify charcoals for contaminated soil and sediment remediation.

Nyckelord
Charcoal, Biochar, Sorption, Surface area, Temperature, Hydrophobicity, Elemental composition
Nationell ämneskategori
Geovetenskap och miljövetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-126876 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.08.047 (DOI)000367774400010 ()26347927 (PubMedID)
Tillgänglig från: 2016-02-22 Skapad: 2016-02-16 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-02-23Bibliografiskt granskad
Okkenhaug, G., Grasshorn Gebhardt, K.-A., Amstaetter, K., Lassen Bue, H., Herzel, H., Mariussen, E., . . . Mulder, J. (2016). Antimony (Sb) and lead (Pb) in contaminated shooting range soils: Sb and Pb mobility and immobilization by iron based sorbents, a field study. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 307, 336-343
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Antimony (Sb) and lead (Pb) in contaminated shooting range soils: Sb and Pb mobility and immobilization by iron based sorbents, a field study
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2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 307, s. 336-343Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Small-arm shooting ranges often receive a significant input of lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and antimony (Sb) from ammunition. The goal of the present study was to investigate the mobility, distribution and speciation of Pb and Sb pollution under field conditions in both untreated and sorbent-amended shooting range soil. Elevated Sb (19-349 mu g L-1) and Pb (7-1495 mu g Pb L-1) concentrations in the porewater of untreated soil over the four-year test period indicated a long-term Sb and Pb source to the adjacent environment in the absence of remedial measures. Mixing ferric oxyhydroxide powder (CFH-12) (2%) together with limestone (1%) into the soil resulted in an average decrease of Sb and Pb porewater concentrations of 66% and 97%, respectively. A similar reduction was achieved by adding 2% zerovalent iron (Fe) to the soil. The remediation effect was stable over the four-year experimental period indicating no remobilization. Water- and 1 M NH4NO3-extractable levels of Sb and Pb in field soil samples indicated significant immobilization by both treatments (89-90% for Sb and 89-99% for Pb). Results from sequential extraction analysis indicate fixation of Sb and Pb in less accessible fractions like amorphous iron oxides or even more crystalline and residual mineral phases, respectively. This work shows that amendment with Fe-based sorbents can be an effective method to reduce the mobility of metals both in cationic and anionic form in polluted shooting range soil.

Nyckelord
Shooting range soil, Antimony, Lead, Soil amendment, Field test, Porewater
Nationell ämneskategori
Naturresursteknik Samhällsbyggnadsteknik Geovetenskap och miljövetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-130644 (URN)10.1016/j.jhazmat.2016.01.005 (DOI)000374803500037 ()26799225 (PubMedID)
Tillgänglig från: 2016-06-02 Skapad: 2016-05-27 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-02-23Bibliografiskt granskad
Smebye, A., Ailing, V., Vogt, R. D., Gadmar, T. C., Mulder, J., Cornelissen, G. & Hale, S. E. (2016). Biochar amendment to soil changes dissolved organic matter content and composition. Chemosphere, 142, 100-105
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Biochar amendment to soil changes dissolved organic matter content and composition
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2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 142, s. 100-105Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Amendments of biochar, a product of pyrolysis of biomass, have been shown to increase fertility of acidic soils by enhancing soil properties such as pH, cation-exchange-capacity and water-holding-capacity. These parameters are important in the context of natural organic matter contained in soils, of which dissolved organic matter (DOM) is the mobile and most bioavailable fraction. The effect of biochar on the content and composition of DOM in soils has received little research attention. This study focuses on the effects of amendments of two different biochars to an acidic acrisol and a pH-neutral brown soil. A batch experiment showed that mixing biochar with the acrisols at a 10 wt.% dose increased the pH from 4.9 to 8.7, and this resulted in a 15-fold increase in the dissolved organic carbon concentration (from 4.5 to 69 mg L-1). The pH-increase followed the same trend as the release of DOM in the experiment, causing higher DOM solubility and desorption of DOM from mineral sites. The binding to biochar of several well-characterised reference DOM materials was also investigated and results showed a higher sorption of aliphatic DOM to biochar than aromatic DOM, with DOM-water partitioning coefficients (Kd-values) ranging from 0.2 to 590 L kg(-1). A size exclusion occurring in biochar's micropores, could result in a higher sorption of smaller aliphatic DOM molecules than larger aromatic ones. These findings indicate that biochar could increase the leaching of DOM from soil, as well as change the DOM composition towards molecules with a larger size and higher aromaticity.

Nyckelord
Biochar, Dissolved organic matter, Sorption, Soil amendment, Acrisol
Nationell ämneskategori
Geovetenskap och miljövetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-125643 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.04.087 (DOI)000365368400015 ()25980657 (PubMedID)
Tillgänglig från: 2016-01-19 Skapad: 2016-01-15 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-02-23Bibliografiskt granskad
Enell, A., Lundstedt, S., Arp, H. P., Josefsson, S., Cornelissen, G., Wik, O. & Berggren Kleja, D. (2016). Combining Leaching and Passive Sampling To Measure the Mobility and Distribution between Porewater, DOC, and Colloids of Native Oxy-PAHs, N-PACs, and PAHs in Historically Contaminated Soil. Environmental Science and Technology, 50(21), 11797-11805
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Combining Leaching and Passive Sampling To Measure the Mobility and Distribution between Porewater, DOC, and Colloids of Native Oxy-PAHs, N-PACs, and PAHs in Historically Contaminated Soil
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2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 50, nr 21, s. 11797-11805Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Different methods to quantify soil porewater concentrations of contaminants will provide different types of information. Passive sampling measurements give freely dissolved porewater concentrations (C-pw,C-free), while leaching tests provide information on the mobile concentration (C-pw,C-leach), including contaminants associated with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particles/colloids in the porewater. This study presents a novel combination of these two measurements, to study the sorption and mobility of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) to DOC and particulate organic carbon (POC) in 10 historically contaminated soils. The PACs investigated were polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), oxygenated-PAHs, and nitrogen containing heterocyclic PACs. Observed C-pw,C-leach was up to 5 orders of magnitude higher than C-pw,C-free; implying large biases when C-pw,C-leach is used to assess bioavailability or soil partitioning. Sorption of PACs to DOC and POC was important for the mobility of compounds with log K-OW > 4. Average DOC/water-partitioning coefficients (K-DOC) correlated well with KOW (log K-DOC = 0.89 x log K-OW +1.03 (r(2) = 0.89)). This relationship is likely more accurate for historically contaminated soils than previously published data, which suffer from artifacts caused by problems in measuring C-pw,C-free correctly or not using historically contaminated soils. POC/water-partitioning coefficients (K-POC) were orders of magnitude larger than corresponding K-DOC, suggesting sorption to mobile particles/colloids is the dominant mechanism for PAC mobility.

Nationell ämneskategori
Naturresursteknik Geovetenskap och miljövetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-137745 (URN)10.1021/acs.est.6b02774 (DOI)000386991100042 ()27696834 (PubMedID)
Tillgänglig från: 2017-01-13 Skapad: 2017-01-10 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-02-28Bibliografiskt granskad
Kerré, B., Bravo, C. T., Leifeld, J., Cornelissen, G. & Smolders, E. (2016). Historical soil amendment with charcoal increases sequestration of non-charcoal carbon: a comparison among methods of black carbon quantification. European Journal of Soil Science, 67(3), 324-331
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Historical soil amendment with charcoal increases sequestration of non-charcoal carbon: a comparison among methods of black carbon quantification
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2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: European Journal of Soil Science, ISSN 1351-0754, E-ISSN 1365-2389, Vol. 67, nr 3, s. 324-331Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

We have shown previously that soil with historical (>150 years) applications of charcoal had larger recent (C4-maize derived) carbon content than adjacent soil; however, we could not determine whether there was an effect on older, C3-plant-derived, soil organic carbon (SOC). Therefore, we assessed the effect of historical additions of charcoal on the sequestration of recent and older SOC with a combination of delta C-13 analysis and different quantification techniques for black carbon (BC): dichromate oxidation (Cr2O7), chemo-thermal oxidation (CTO-285) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Topsoils cropped with maize (Zea mays) under former charcoal production sites (N = 12) were identified in the field as black spots and had a larger (3.5%, P < 0.05) percentage of organic carbon (OC) contents than adjacent soil outside these spots (2.0%). The charcoal content varied with the detection technique used as follows: CTO-285 > DSC > Cr2O7. Black spots contained 1.6-1.7 times more (P < 0.05) maize-derived OC content than adjacent soil, irrespective of the BC quantification technique. The content of non-charcoal OC was 1.0-1.4 times larger in black spots than in adjacent soil, but differences were significant only for the Cr2O7 method. Soil physicochemical fractionation showed that at charcoal production sites more OC was recovered in the particulate organic matter and silt and clay fractions. The delta C-13 analysis suggested that additional maize-OC in black spots was in the physically more protected silt and clay fraction. Overall, this study shows that historical charcoal amendment in soil enhances the accumulation of recent maize-derived OC in a temperate climate without replacing the older C stocks.

Nationell ämneskategori
Lantbruksvetenskap, skogsbruk och fiske
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-135073 (URN)10.1111/ejss.12338 (DOI)000384745600009 ()
Tillgänglig från: 2016-11-23 Skapad: 2016-10-31 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-02-28Bibliografiskt granskad
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