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Geng, T., Ehrmaier, J., Schalk, O., Richings, G. W., Hansson, T., Worth, G. & Thomas, R. D. (2020). Time-Resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy Studies of Isoxazole and Oxazole. Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 124(20), 3984-3992
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Time-Resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy Studies of Isoxazole and Oxazole
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2020 (English)In: Journal of Physical Chemistry A, ISSN 1089-5639, E-ISSN 1520-5215, Vol. 124, no 20, p. 3984-3992Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The excited state relaxation pathways of isoxazole and oxazole upon excitation with UV-light were investigated by nonadiabatic ab initio dynamics simulations and time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. Excitation of the bright ππ*-state of isoxazole predominantly leads to ring-opening dynamics. Both the initially excited ππ*-state and the dissociative πσ*-state offer a combined barrier-free reaction pathway, such that ring-opening, defined as a distance of more than 2 Å between two neighboring atoms, occurs within 45 fs. For oxazole, in contrast, the excited state dynamics is about twice as slow (85 fs) and the quantum yield for ring-opening is lower. This is caused by a small barrier between the ππ*-state and the πσ*-state along the reaction path, which suppresses direct ring-opening. Theoretical findings are consistent with the measured time-resolved photoelectron spectra, confirming the timescales and the quantum yields for the ring-opening channel. The results indicate that a combination of time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy and excited state dynamics simulations can explain the dominant reaction pathways for this class of molecules. As a general rule, we suggest that the antibonding σ*-orbital located between the oxygen atom and a neighboring atom of a five-membered heterocyclic system provides a driving force for ring-opening reactions, which is modified by the presence and position of additional nitrogen atoms.

National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics Physical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-182120 (URN)10.1021/acs.jpca.9b11788 (DOI)000537424600003 ()
Available from: 2020-05-30 Created: 2020-05-30 Last updated: 2022-03-23Bibliographically approved
Schalk, O., Josefsson, I., Geng, T., Richter, R., Sa'adeh, H., Thomas, R. D. & Mucke, M. (2018). Dissociation kinetics of excited ions: PEPICO measurements of Os-3(CO)(12) - The 7-35 eV single ionization binding energy region. Journal of Chemical Physics, 148(8), Article ID 084301.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dissociation kinetics of excited ions: PEPICO measurements of Os-3(CO)(12) - The 7-35 eV single ionization binding energy region
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Chemical Physics, ISSN 0021-9606, E-ISSN 1089-7690, Vol. 148, no 8, article id 084301Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this article, we study the photoinduced dissociation pathways of a metallocarbonyl, Os-3(CO)(12), in particular the consecutive loss of CO groups. To do so, we performed photoelectron-photoion coincidence (PEPICO) measurements in the single ionization binding energy region from 7 to 35 eV using 45-eV photons. Zero-energy ion appearance energies for the dissociation steps were extracted by modeling the PEPICO data using the statistical adiabatic channel model. Upon ionization to the excited ionic states above 13 eV binding energy, non-statistical behaviorwas observed and assigned to prompt CO loss. Double ionization was found to be dominated by the knockout process with an onset of 20.9 similar to 0.4 eV. The oscillator strength is significantly larger for energies above 26.6 similar to 0.4 eV, corresponding to one electron being ejected from the Os3 center and one from the CO ligands. The cross section for double ionization was found to increase linearly up to 35 eV ionization energy, at which 40% of the generated ions are doubly charged.

Keywords
Materials, Atom photon interactions, Metals, Atomic and molecular physics, Condensed matter properties, Condensed matter physics, Metallurgy, Molecule photon interactions, Isomerization, Molecular spectra
National Category
Chemical Sciences Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-154841 (URN)10.1063/1.5018719 (DOI)000426582700015 ()29495778 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85042683504 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-04-10 Created: 2018-04-10 Last updated: 2022-10-24Bibliographically approved
Glover, W. J., Mori, T., Schuurman, M. S., Boguslavskiy, A. E., Schalk, O., Stolow, A. & Martinez, T. J. (2018). Excited state non-adiabatic dynamics of the smallest polyene, trans 1,3-butadiene. II. Ab initio multiple spawning simulations. Journal of Chemical Physics, 148(16), Article ID 164303.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Excited state non-adiabatic dynamics of the smallest polyene, trans 1,3-butadiene. II. Ab initio multiple spawning simulations
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Chemical Physics, ISSN 0021-9606, E-ISSN 1089-7690, Vol. 148, no 16, article id 164303Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The excited state non-adiabatic dynamics of the smallest polyene, trans 1,3-butadiene (BD), has long been the subject of controversy due to its strong coupling, ultrafast time scales and the difficulties that theory faces in describing the relevant electronic states in a balanced fashion. Here we apply Ab Initio Multiple Spawning (AIMS) using state-averaged complete active space multistate second order perturbation theory [SA-3-CAS(4/4)-MSPT2] which describes both static and dynamic electron correlation effects, providing a balanced description of both the initially prepared bright 1(1)B(u) (pi pi*) state and non-adiabatically coupled dark 2(1)A(g) state of BD. Importantly, AIMS allows for on-the-fly calculations of experimental observables. We validate our approach by directly simulating the time resolved photoelectron-photoion coincidence spectroscopy results presented in Paper I [A. E. Boguslavskiy et al., J. Chem. Phys. 148, 164302 (2018)], demonstrating excellent agreement with experiment. Our simulations reveal that the initial excitation to the 11Bu state rapidly evolves via wavepacket dynamics that follow both bright-and dark-state pathways as well as mixtures of these. In order to test the sensitivity of the AIMS results to the relative ordering of states, we considered two hypothetical scenarios biased toward either the bright B-1(u) or the dark 2(1)A(g) state. In contrast with AIMS/SA-3-CAS(4/4)-MSPT2 simulations, neither of these scenarios yields favorable agreement with experiment. Thus, we conclude that the excited state non-adiabatic dynamics in BD involves both of these ultrafast pathways.

Keywords
Spectroscopy, Photoionization, Molecular dynamics, Electronic structure calculations, Dark states, Potential energy surfaces, Radioactive decay, Chemical compounds
National Category
Chemical Sciences Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-156657 (URN)10.1063/1.5018130 (DOI)000431291900014 ()29716209 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85045997398 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-06-04 Created: 2018-06-04 Last updated: 2022-10-24Bibliographically approved
Schalk, O., Geng, T., Hansson, T. & Thomas, R. D. (2018). The ring-opening channel and the influence of Rydberg states on the excited state dynamics of furan and its derivatives. Journal of Chemical Physics, 149(8), Article ID 084303.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The ring-opening channel and the influence of Rydberg states on the excited state dynamics of furan and its derivatives
2018 (English)In: Journal of Chemical Physics, ISSN 0021-9606, E-ISSN 1089-7690, Vol. 149, no 8, article id 084303Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

One important relaxation pathway for photo-excited five-membered heterocyclic organic molecules is ring-opening via a dissociative pi sigma* state. In this study, we investigate the influence of this pathway in furan and several hydrogenated and methylated derivatives by combining time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy with time-dependent density functional theory and coupled cluster calculations. We find strong experimental evidence that the ring-opening channel is the major relaxation channel in furan, 2,3-dihydrofuran, and 2-methylfuran (2-MF). In 2,5-dimethylfuran (25-DMF), however, we observe that the molecules relax either via a pi 3s Rydberg state or through a direct return to the ground state by undergoing ring-puckering motions. From the supporting calculations, for 2-MF and 25-DMF, we predict that there is strong mixing between the pi sigma* state and the pi 3s Rydberg state along the ring opening pathway. However, in 25-DMF, no crossing between the pi sigma*/pi 3s state and the initially excited pi pi* state can be found along the ring opening coordinate, effectively blocking this channel.

Keywords
Time-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, Photoelectron spectra, Coupled-cluster methods, Time dependent density functional theory, Chemical compounds and components, Chemical bonding, Chemical elements, Rydberg states, Correlation-consistent basis sets, Potential energy surfaces
National Category
Chemical Sciences Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-161137 (URN)10.1063/1.5024655 (DOI)000444035800027 ()30193494 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85052830649 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-10-24 Created: 2018-10-24 Last updated: 2022-10-26Bibliographically approved
Schalk, O., Townsend, D., Wolf, T. J. A., Holland, D. M. P., Boguslavskiy, A. E., Szori, M. & Stolow, A. (2018). Time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of nitrobenzene and its aldehydes. Chemical Physics Letters, 691, 379-387
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of nitrobenzene and its aldehydes
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2018 (English)In: Chemical Physics Letters, ISSN 0009-2614, E-ISSN 1873-4448, Vol. 691, p. 379-387Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We report the first femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy study of 2-, 3-and 4-nitrobenzaldehyde (NBA) and nitrobenzene (NBE) in the gas phase upon excitation at 200 nm. In 3- and 4-NBA, the dynamics follow fast intersystem crossing within 1-2 picoseconds. In 2-NBA and NBE, the dynamics are faster (similar to 0.5 ps). 2-NBA undergoes hydrogen transfer similar to solution phase dynamics. NBE either releases NO2 in the excited state or converts internally back to the ground state. We discuss why these channels are suppressed in the other nitrobenzaldehydes.

Keywords
NO2 release, Intersystem crossing, Internal conversion, Excited state hydrogen transfer
National Category
Chemical Sciences Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-152491 (URN)10.1016/j.cplett.2017.11.011 (DOI)000418590200064 ()2-s2.0-85036460871 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-02-08 Created: 2018-02-08 Last updated: 2022-10-27Bibliographically approved
Schalk, O., Larsen, M. A., Skov, A. B., Liisberg, M. B., Geng, T., Sølling, T. I. & Thomas, R. D. (2018). Time-Resolved Photoelectron Studies of Thiophene and 2,5-Dimethylthiophene. Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 122(45), 8809-8818
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Time-Resolved Photoelectron Studies of Thiophene and 2,5-Dimethylthiophene
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Physical Chemistry A, ISSN 1089-5639, E-ISSN 1520-5215, Vol. 122, no 45, p. 8809-8818Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The photoinduced dynamics of thiophene and 2,S-dimethylthiophene (2,5-DMT) were investigated upon excitation at 200 and 255 nm (2,5-DMT only) using time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy and compared with results from ab initio coupled cluster calculations. For thiophene, depopulation of the initially excited B 2 (pi(3)pi(4)*) state to the lower-lying A(1) (pi(3)pi(4)*) state occurs within 25 +/- 20 fs, with a subsequent bifurcation into a ring-puckering channel and a ring-opening channel with lifetimes of 80 +/- 20 and 450 +/- 50 fs, respectively. For 2,5-DMT, the dynamics following excitation at 200 nm is described by a monoexponential decay with a time constant of 120 +/- 20 fs, while that following excitation at 255 nm is best fit by a biexponential decay with time constants of 115 +/- 20 fs and 15 +/- 3 ps, respectively. The fast signal observed after excitation of 2,5-DMT is assigned to the ring-opening channel, which is favored with respect to thiophene due to a lower excited-state barrier along the ring-opening coordinate and an increased inertia toward the ring-puckering channel. Coupled cluster calculations have been undertaken to compare the relaxation dynamics of thiophene to thiazole and isothiazole. For the latter two molecules, we find a strong gradient along the ring-opening coordinate in the Franck-Condon region of the initially populated pi pi* state and predict that ring-opening is the dominating relaxation channel after photoexcitation. We use the extracted information for a comparison of the thiophene dynamics with the light-induced processes observed in other five-membered heterocyclic molecules.

National Category
Chemical Sciences Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-162749 (URN)10.1021/acs.jpca.8b06728 (DOI)000451101200001 ()30354137 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85056642313 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-01-04 Created: 2019-01-04 Last updated: 2022-10-27Bibliographically approved
Schalk, O. & Boguslavskiy, A. E. (2017). Anisotropy in Time-Resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy in the Gas Phase. Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 121(50), 9612-9618
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Anisotropy in Time-Resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy in the Gas Phase
2017 (English)In: Journal of Physical Chemistry A, ISSN 1089-5639, E-ISSN 1520-5215, Vol. 121, no 50, p. 9612-9618Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Transient absorption anisotropy is a well-established technique in time-resolved liquid phase spectroscopy. Here, we show how the technique is applied in the gas phase for time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy and what type of additional information can be obtained as compared to other techniques. We exemplify its use by presenting results on rotational revivals in pyrazine after excitation at 324 nm and provide new insights into two recent experiments: (i) the difference between Rydberg and valence state excitation after one- and two photon absorption in butadiene and (ii) excitation to the two lowest lying vibronic modes of the degenerate pi 3p Rydberg state in 1-azabicyclo[2.2.0]octane. Going forward, we expect the technique to be used on a regular basis, especially with the advent of high harmonic probe sources and liquid beam setups where other techniques to extract polarization-dependent information such as velocity map imaging cannot easily be applied.

National Category
Chemical Sciences Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-152499 (URN)10.1021/acs.jpca.7b10490 (DOI)000418783900006 ()29190096 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85039053887 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-02-07 Created: 2018-02-07 Last updated: 2022-10-19Bibliographically approved
Geng, T., Schalk, O., Neville, S. P., Hansson, T. & Thomas, R. D. (2017). Dynamics in higher lying excited states: Valence to Rydberg transitions in the relaxation paths of pyrrole and methylated derivatives. Journal of Chemical Physics, 146(14), Article ID 144307.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dynamics in higher lying excited states: Valence to Rydberg transitions in the relaxation paths of pyrrole and methylated derivatives
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2017 (English)In: Journal of Chemical Physics, ISSN 0021-9606, E-ISSN 1089-7690, Vol. 146, no 14, article id 144307Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The involvement of intermediate Rydberg states in the relaxation dynamics of small organic molecules which, after excitation to the valence manifold, also return to the valence manifold is rarely observed. We report here that such a transiently populated Rydberg state may offer the possibility to modify the outcome of a photochemical reaction. In a time resolved photoelectron study on pyrrole and its methylated derivatives, N-methyl pyrrole and 2,5-dimethyl pyrrole, 6.2 eV photons (200 nm) are used to excite these molecules into a bright pi pi* state. In each case, a pi 3p-Rydberg state, either the B-1(pi 3p(y)) or the A(2)(pi 3p(z)) state, is populated within 20-50 fs after excitation. The wavepacket then proceeds to the lower lying A(2)(pi sigma*) state within a further 20 fs, at which point two competing reaction channels can be accessed: prompt N-H (N-CH3) bond cleavage or return to the ground state via a conical intersection accessed after ring puckering, the latter of which is predicted to require an additional 100-160 fs depending on the molecule.

National Category
Chemical Sciences Physical Sciences
Research subject
Chemical Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-143588 (URN)10.1063/1.4979681 (DOI)000399078700017 ()28411588 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85017597283 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-05-31 Created: 2017-05-31 Last updated: 2022-10-19Bibliographically approved
Oesterling, S., Schalk, O., Geng, T., Thomas, R. D., Hansson, T. & de Vivie-Riedle, R. (2017). Substituent effects on the relaxation dynamics of furan, furfural and β-furfural: a combined theoretical and experimental approach. Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, 19, 2025-2035
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Substituent effects on the relaxation dynamics of furan, furfural and β-furfural: a combined theoretical and experimental approach
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2017 (English)In: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, ISSN 1463-9076, E-ISSN 1463-9084, Vol. 19, p. 2025-2035Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

For the series furan, furfural and β-furfural we investigated the effect of substituents and their positioning on the photoinduced relaxation dynamics in a combined theoretical and experimental approach. Using time resolved photoelectron spectroscopy with a high intensity probe pulse, we can, for the first time, follow the whole deactivation process of furan through a two photon probe signal. Using the extended 2-electron 2-orbital model [Nenov et al., J. Chem. Phys., 2011, 135, 034304] we explain the formation of one central conical intersection and predict the influence of the aldehyde group of the derivatives on its geometry. This, as well as the relaxation mechanisms from photoexcitation to the final outcome was investigated using a variety of theoretical methods. Complete active space self consistent field was used for on-the-fly calculations while complete active space perturbation theory and coupled cluster theory were used to accurately describe critical configurations. Experiment and theory show the relaxation dynamics of furfural and β-furfural to be slowed down, and together they disclose an additional deactivation pathway, which is attributed to the nO lonepair state introduced with the aldehyde group.

National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Research subject
Chemical Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-140474 (URN)10.1039/C6CP06240G (DOI)000394426400036 ()28009022 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85025127608 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-03-08 Created: 2017-03-08 Last updated: 2022-10-20Bibliographically approved
Schalk, O., Geng, T., Thompson, T., Baluyot, N., Thomas, R. D., Tapavicza, E. & Hansson, T. (2016). Cyclohexadiene Revisited: A Time-Resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy and ab Initio Study. Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 120(15), 2320-2329
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cyclohexadiene Revisited: A Time-Resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy and ab Initio Study
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2016 (English)In: Journal of Physical Chemistry A, ISSN 1089-5639, E-ISSN 1520-5215, Vol. 120, no 15, p. 2320-2329Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We have reinvestigated the excited state dynamics of cyclohexa-1,3-diene (CHD) with time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy and fewest switches surface hopping molecular dynamics based on linear response time dependent density functional theory after excitation to the lowest lying pi pi* (1B) state. The combination of both theory and experiment revealed several new results: First, the dynamics progress on one single excited state surface. After an incubation time of 35 +/- 10 fs on the excited state, the dynamics proceed to the ground state in an additional 60 +/- 10 fs, either via a conrotatory ring-opening to hexatriene or back to the CHD ground state. Moreover, ring-opening predominantly occurs when the wavepacket crosses the region of strong nonadiabatic coupling with a positive velocity in the bond alternation coordinate. After 100 fs, trajectories remaining in the excited state must return to the CHD ground state. This extra time delay induces a revival of the photoelectron signal and is an experimental confirmation of the previously formulated model of two parallel reaction channels with distinct time constants. Finally, our simulations suggest that after the initially formed cis-Z-cis HT rotamer the trans-Z-trans isomer is formed, before the thermodynamical equilibrium of three possible rotamers is reached after 1 ps.

National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Research subject
Chemical Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-130867 (URN)10.1021/acs.jpca.5b10928 (DOI)000374811400006 ()27018427 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84966263962 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-06-08 Created: 2016-06-07 Last updated: 2022-10-17Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-3863-9454

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