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Eyjólfsdóttir, H. S., Peristera, P., Agahi, N., Fritzell, J., Westerlund, H. & Lennartsson, C. (2024). Are trajectories of self-rated health and physical working capacity during the retirement transition predicted by work-related factors and social class?. Work, Aging and Retirement
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Are trajectories of self-rated health and physical working capacity during the retirement transition predicted by work-related factors and social class?
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2024 (English)In: Work, Aging and Retirement, ISSN 2054-4642, E-ISSN 2054-4650Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

We aimed to identify short and long-term trajectories of self-rated health (SRH) and physical working capacity during the retirement transition, and investigate whether work-related factors and social class predict belonging to these trajectories. We used the representative, biennial Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) 2006–2018. We applied group-based trajectory modeling with B-spline smoothers to model trajectories of SRH (n = 2,183) and physical working capacity (n = 2,152) during the retirement transition. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to investigate trajectory belonging by work-related factors and social class. There was a small “honeymoon effect” in SRH for the total sample. We found four trajectories of SRH and five of physical working capacity. The large majority sustained excellent or good SRH and physical working capacity throughout the study period. Almost 6% had Fairly poor SRH and physical working capacity starting from years before retirement, which remained throughout the study period. High job demands, low job control, adverse physical working conditions, and being in manual occupation increased the likelihood of belonging to the trajectory groups Deteriorating or Fairly poor when compared with the Excellent trajectory group for both SRH and physical working capacity. Our findings suggest that for most people health status is already established some years’ preretirement and maintained for years after retirement, except a short improvement in SRH in accordance with a honeymoon effect. In order to improve health and employability, interventions focusing on working environment should be aimed at younger and midlife employees as well as older workers.

Keywords
retirement, socioeconomic differences, job control, job demand, longitudinal study, Sweden, B-spline group-based trajectory models (BGBTM)
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-225543 (URN)10.1093/workar/waad031 (DOI)001139055000001 ()
Available from: 2024-01-17 Created: 2024-01-17 Last updated: 2024-01-17
Raza, A., Partonen, T., Magnusson Hanson, L., Asp, M., Engström, E., Westerlund, H. & Halonen, J. I. (2024). Daylight during winters and symptoms of depression and sleep problems: A within-individual analysis. Environment International, 183, Article ID 108413.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Daylight during winters and symptoms of depression and sleep problems: A within-individual analysis
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2024 (English)In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 183, article id 108413Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: With climate change Northern areas of the globe are expected to have less daylight during winters due to less snow and more cloudiness. While wintertime has been linked to mental health problems, the role of wintertime daylight has been scarcely studied. We examined longitudinal associations for wintertime objective exposure to global radiation and self-reported daylight exposure with symptoms of depression and sleep problems.

Methods: Our analytical sample included 15,619 respondents from three Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Surveys of Health (2012, 2014 and 2016). Objective exposure was global radiation (MJ/m2, November-January and November-February). Subjective exposure was based on self-reported time spent outdoors in daylight (<1 h vs. ≥ 1 h, November-January). Symptoms of depression were evaluated using a six-item subscale of the (Hopkins) Symptom Checklist. Fixed-effects method with conditional logistic regression controlled for time-invariant participant characteristics by design and time-varying covariates were added into models.

Results: One unit increase in the four-month averaged global radiation was associated with lower odds of depressive symptoms (OR 0.69, 95 % CI 0.52–0.91). These findings were confirmed using four-month cumulative exposure (OR 0.91, 95 % CI 0.85–0.98). Individuals reporting ≥ 1 h exposure to daylight during winter months were less likely to report depressive symptoms (OR 0.72, 95 % CI 0.60–0.82) compared to time when their exposure was < 1 h. Higher three-month exposure to global radiation suggested a protective association for sleep problems.

Conclusion: These findings suggest that higher exposure to daylight during winters may contribute to lower likelihood of depression symptoms.

Keywords
Daylight, Global radiation, Depression, Climate change, Winter
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-226645 (URN)10.1016/j.envint.2023.108413 (DOI)001152579500001 ()38171042 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85183343806 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2024-02-15 Created: 2024-02-15 Last updated: 2024-02-15Bibliographically approved
Magnusson Hanson, L., Pentti, J., Nordentoft, M., Xu, T., Rugulies, R., Madsen, I. E. H., . . . Kivimaeki, M. (2023). Association of workplace violence and bullying with later suicide risk: a multicohort study and meta-analysis of published data. The Lancet Public Health, 8(7), e494-e503
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Association of workplace violence and bullying with later suicide risk: a multicohort study and meta-analysis of published data
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2023 (English)In: The Lancet Public Health, ISSN 2468-2667, Vol. 8, no 7, p. e494-e503Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Workplace offensive behaviours, such as violence and bullying, have been linked to psychological symptoms, but their potential impact on suicide risk remains unclear. We aimed to assess the association of workplace violence and bullying with the risk of death by suicide and suicide attempt in multiple cohort studies. Methods: In this multicohort study, we used individual-participant data from three prospective studies: the Finnish Public Sector study, the Swedish Work Environment Survey, and the Work Environment and Health in Denmark study. Workplace violence and bullying were self-reported at baseline. Participants were followed up for suicide attempt and death using linkage to national health records. We additionally searched the literature for published prospective studies and pooled our effect estimates with those from published studies. Findings: During 1 803 496 person-years at risk, we recorded 1103 suicide attempts or deaths in participants with data on workplace violence (n=205 048); the corresponding numbers for participants with data on workplace bullying (n=191 783) were 1144 suicide attempts or deaths in 1 960 796 person-years, which included data from one identified published study. Workplace violence was associated with an increased risk of suicide after basic adjustment for age, sex, educational level, and family situation (hazard ratio 1.34 [95% CI 1.15-1.56]) and full adjustment (additional adjustment for job demands, job control, and baseline health problems, 1.25 [1.08-1.47]). Where data on frequency were available, a stronger association was observed among people with frequent exposure to violence (1.75 [1.27-2.42]) than occasional violence (1.27 [1.04-1.56]). Workplace bullying was also associated with an increased suicide risk (1.32 [1.09-1.59]), but the association was attenuated after adjustment for baseline mental health problems (1.16 [0.96-1.41]). Interpretation: Observational data from three Nordic countries suggest that workplace violence is associated with an increased suicide risk, highlighting the importance of effective prevention of violent behaviours at workplaces.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
workplace violence, bullying, suicide risk, meta-analysis
National Category
Health Sciences Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-221311 (URN)10.1016/s2468-2667(23)00096-8 (DOI)001034669500001 ()37393088 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding: Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, Academy of Finland, Finnish Work Environment Fund, and Danish Working Environment Research Fund.

Available from: 2023-09-19 Created: 2023-09-19 Last updated: 2024-01-12Bibliographically approved
Blomqvist, S., Virtanen, M., Westerlund, H. & Magnusson Hanson, L. L. (2023). Associations between COVID-19-related changes in the psychosocial work environment and mental health. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 51(5), 664-672
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Associations between COVID-19-related changes in the psychosocial work environment and mental health
2023 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 51, no 5, p. 664-672Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Individuals' lives have been substantially affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. We aimed to describe changes in psychosocial work environment and mental health and to investigate associations between job insecurity and mental ill-health in relation to changes in other psychosocial work factors, loneliness and financial worries.

Methods: A sub-sample of individuals from the eighth Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health answered a web-based survey in early 2021 about current and pandemic-related changes in health, health behaviours, work and private life. We investigated participants working before the pandemic (N=1231) in relation to standardised measures on depression, anxiety and loneliness, together with psychosocial work factors, in descriptive and logistic regression analyses.

Results: While 9% reached the clinical threshold for depression and 6% for anxiety, more than a third felt more worried, lonelier or in a low mood since the start of the pandemic. Two per cent had been dismissed from their jobs, but 16% experienced workplace downsizings. Conditioning on socio-demographic factors and prior mental-health problems, the 8% experiencing reduced job security during the pandemic had a higher risk of anxiety, but not of depression, compared to employees with unaltered or increased job security. Loneliness and other psychosocial work factors explained more of the association than objective measures of job insecurity and financial worries.

Conclusions: Reduced job security during the COVID-19 pandemic seems to have increased the risk of anxiety among individuals with a strong labour market attachment, primarily via loneliness and other psychosocial work factors. This illustrates the potentially far-reaching effects of the pandemic on mental health in the working population.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2023
Keywords
COVID-19, psychosocial work environment, work stress, employment insecurity, loneliness, anxiety, depression, psychological distress
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-216331 (URN)10.1177/14034948231160633 (DOI)000956252700001 ()36964650 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85156277452 (Scopus ID)
Note

The study was funded by AFA Insurance (grant number #200400).

Available from: 2023-04-18 Created: 2023-04-18 Last updated: 2024-01-11Bibliographically approved
Blomqvist, S., Alexanderson, K., Vahtera, J., Westerlund, H. & Magnusson Hanson, L. (2023). Downsizing and purchases of psychotropic drugs: A longitudinal study of stayers, changers and unemployed. PLOS ONE, 18(12), Article ID e0295383.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Downsizing and purchases of psychotropic drugs: A longitudinal study of stayers, changers and unemployed
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2023 (English)In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 18, no 12, article id e0295383Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The evidence is insufficient regarding the association between organizational downsizing and employee mental health. Our aim was to analyze trajectories of prescribed sedatives and anxiolytics with a sufficiently long follow-up time to capture anticipation, implementation and adaption to a downsizing event among stayers, changers and those who become unemployed compared to unexposed employees.

Method: Residents in Sweden aged 20-54 years in 2007, with stable employment between 2004 and 2007, were followed between 2005 and 2013 (n = 2,305,795). Employment at a workplace with staff reductions >= 18% between two subsequent years in 2007-2011 (n = 915,461) indicated exposure to, and timing of, downsizing. The unexposed (n = 1,390,334) were randomized into four corresponding sub-cohorts. With generalized estimating equations, we calculated the odds ratios (OR) of purchasing prescribed anxiolytics or sedatives within nine 12-month periods, from four years before to four years after downsizing. In order to investigate whether the groups changed their probability of purchases over time, odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated contrasting the prevalence of purchases during the first and the last 12-month period within four time periods for each exposure group.

Results: The odds of purchasing psychotropic drugs increased more for changers (sedatives OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.05-1.11) and unemployed (anxiolytics OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.03-1.14), compared to unexposed before downsizing, while for stayers purchases increased more than for unexposed during and after downsizing. Among those without previous sickness absence, stayers increased their purchases of psychotropic drugs from the year before the event up to four years after the event.ConclusionThis study indicates that being exposed to downsizing is associated with increased use of sedatives and anxiolytics, before the event among those who leave, but especially thereafter for employees who stay in the organization.

National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-226553 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0295383 (DOI)001121859600027 ()38064436 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85179638583 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2024-02-14 Created: 2024-02-14 Last updated: 2024-02-14Bibliographically approved
Chungkham, H. S., Högnäs, R. S., Head, J., Zaninotto, P. & Westerlund, H. (2023). Estimating Working Life Expectancy: A Comparison of Multistate Models. SAGE Open, 13(2), Article ID 21582440231177270.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Estimating Working Life Expectancy: A Comparison of Multistate Models
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2023 (English)In: SAGE Open, E-ISSN 2158-2440, Vol. 13, no 2, article id 21582440231177270Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Increases in retirement ages make it particularly pressing to better understand how long people will work. Working life expectancy (WLE) is a useful measure for this and the current paper assesses the tools, that is, software packages, available to assess it. We do this using data from the English Longitudinal Survey on Ageing (ELSA, 2003-2018) and multistate models to estimate WLE stratified by sex and socioeconomic status. Men's versus women's WLEs were slightly higher at all ages. Estimates were similar in ELECT and SPACE by both sex and socioeconomic status. WLEs were comparatively higher from IMaCh, ranging from approximately 0.28 to 1.49 years. Life expectancy estimates from IMaCh were also higher compared to SPACE and ELECT. Using multistate models to estimate WLE provides a useful indication of the actual expected length of working life. More research is needed to better understand why estimates from IMaCh differed from ELECT and SPACE.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2023
Keywords
multistate models, aging and the life course, occupation, working life expectancy
National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-218388 (URN)10.1177/21582440231177270 (DOI)000999934700001 ()2-s2.0-85161290017 (Scopus ID)
Note

This study was funded by the Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare (Forte, grant #2019-01321).

Available from: 2023-06-20 Created: 2023-06-20 Last updated: 2024-01-17Bibliographically approved
Stenfors, C. U. D., Stengård, J., Magnusson Hanson, L., Kecklund, G. & Westerlund, H. (2023). Green sleep: Immediate residential greenspace and access to larger green areas are associated with better sleep quality, in a longitudinal population-based cohort. Environmental Research, 234, Article ID 116085.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Green sleep: Immediate residential greenspace and access to larger green areas are associated with better sleep quality, in a longitudinal population-based cohort
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2023 (English)In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 234, article id 116085Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: Sleep is pivotal to health, wellbeing and functioning in daily life, but sleep difficulties are common and may be affected by modifiable qualities in the residential surrounding environment, in terms of greenspace. However, population-based studies on individual-level greenspace and sleep are limited. The objective of the current study was thus to investigate prospective associations between fine-grained individual-level residential greenspace and sleep, and moderating effects of life style (physical activity, work status) and sex, in a nationwide population-based Swedish cohort.

Methods: Participants of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH)-a population-based sample of adults in Sweden-were studied during 2014-2018 (19,375 individuals; 43,062 observations). Residential greenspace land cover, and coherent green area size, were assessed via high resolution geographic information systems, at 50, 100, 300, 500 and 1000 m buffers around residences. Prospective greenspace and sleep associations were assessed via multilevel general linear models, adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic (individual and neighborhood), life style and urban factors.

Results: Higher greenspace availability in the immediate residential surroundings (50 m and 100 m buffer zones) was associated with less sleep difficulties, even after adjustment for confounders. Greenspace effects were generally greater among non-working individuals. Among the physically active, and among non-working, greenspace and green area size further away from home (300, 500 and 1000 m, i.e. dependent on mobility) were also associated with less sleep difficulties.

Conclusions: Residential greenspace in the immediate residential surroundings is associated with significantly less sleep difficulties. Greenspace further away from home was associated with better sleep especially among the physically active, and non-working individuals. The results highlight the importance of greenspace in the immediate residential-surrounding environment for sleep, and the need to integrate health and environmental policies, urban planning and greening.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
environmental policy, greenspace, population studies, public health policy, sleep, sustainable development
National Category
Psychology Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Environmental Sciences; Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-225131 (URN)10.1016/j.envres.2023.116085 (DOI)37207733 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85165470491 (Scopus ID)
Note

This research was supported by research grants from the Swedish Research Council for Sustainable Development, FORMAS (2018–00246), to CUDS. Data was partly utilized from the REWHARD research infrastructure, supported by the Swedish Research Council(2017–00624).

Available from: 2024-01-08 Created: 2024-01-08 Last updated: 2024-01-30Bibliographically approved
Platts, L. G., Sacco, L. B., Hiyoshi, A., Westerlund, H., Cahill, K. E. & König, S. (2023). Job Quality in the Late Career in Sweden, Japan and the United States. Research on Aging, 45(3-4), 259-279
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Job Quality in the Late Career in Sweden, Japan and the United States
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2023 (English)In: Research on Aging, ISSN 0164-0275, E-ISSN 1552-7573, Vol. 45, no 3-4, p. 259-279Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Increasing numbers of older workers continue to work after being eligible to claim a state pension, yet little is known about the quality of these jobs. We examine how psychosocial and physical job quality as well as job satisfaction vary over the late career in three contrasting national settings: Sweden, Japan and the United States. Analyses using random effects modelling drew on data from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (n = 13,936–15,520), Japanese Study of Ageing and Retirement (n = 3704) and the Health and Retirement Study (n = 6239 and 8002). Age was modelled with spline functions in which two knots were placed at ages indicating eligibility for pensions claiming or mandatory retirement. In each country, post-pensionable-age jobs were generally less stressful, freer and more satisfying than jobs held by younger workers, results that held irrespective of gender or education level.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2023
Keywords
post-retirement work, working conditions, working retirees, health and retirement study, international comparative study
National Category
Gerontology, specialising in Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-206315 (URN)10.1177/01640275221075985 (DOI)000950131500001 ()35588492 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85130957817 (Scopus ID)
Note

This work was supported by the Riksbankens Jubileumsfond grant number P18-0463:1.

Available from: 2022-06-22 Created: 2022-06-22 Last updated: 2024-01-13Bibliographically approved
Berthelsen, H., Owen, M. & Westerlund, H. (2023). Leadership, work environment and caries prevention - what is good for the staff, is also good for the patients. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, 81(3), 196-201
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Leadership, work environment and caries prevention - what is good for the staff, is also good for the patients
2023 (English)In: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, E-ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 81, no 3, p. 196-201Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: Dental caries is a health problem that can be prevented. The aim of this study is to analyse if the quality of leadership, in Swedish Public Dental Health clinics, influences the extent to which patients with caries receive preventive care, and if any such effect is mediated through a collaborative work climate, clear role expectations and a low average level of burnout among staff.

Methods: The multilevel cross-sectional design includes work environment data from surveys of 75 general public dental clinics, register-based data on preventive measures provided to 5398 patients who received a dental filling due to a caries diagnosis, and patient demographics. Using a multilevel path analysis with logistic regression, we tested a model with one direct and three indirect pathways, controlling for the potential confounding effect of patient demographic factors.

Results: Leadership quality, as assessed by the staff at the clinic, was associated with increased odds of patients with caries receiving prevention, controlling for patient demographic factors. Leadership quality was also positively related to a collaborative work climate, clear role expectations and a low average level of burnout among staff. Against expectations, however, no indirect effect from leadership quality on prevention through the other work environment factors was found.

Conclusions: In conclusion, the quality of leadership in Swedish Public Dental Health clinics was positively related to a good work environment for staff and to delivery of preventive care to patients experiencing caries.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2023
Keywords
leadership, work environment, caries prevention, COPSOQ, dentistry
National Category
Health Care Service and Management, Health Policy and Services and Health Economy
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-209768 (URN)10.1080/00016357.2022.2111345 (DOI)000841832400001 ()35979905 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85136176116 (Scopus ID)
Note

The study was supported by the Forskningsrådet för hälsa, arbetsliv och välfärd (FORTE) under Grant 2016-00676.

Available from: 2022-10-10 Created: 2022-10-10 Last updated: 2024-01-11Bibliographically approved
Magnusson Hanson, L., Stenfors, C. U. D., Wijkander, M., Blomqvist, S. & Westerlund, H. (2023). Organisatorisk och psykosocial arbetsmiljö på den svenska arbetsmarknaden under coronapandemin: En del av regeringsuppdraget Coronapandemins konsekvenser för arbetsmiljön i Sverige. Myndigheten för arbetsmiljökunskap (MYNAK)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Organisatorisk och psykosocial arbetsmiljö på den svenska arbetsmarknaden under coronapandemin: En del av regeringsuppdraget Coronapandemins konsekvenser för arbetsmiljön i Sverige
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2023 (Swedish)Report (Refereed)
Alternative title[en]
Organizational and Psychosocial Work Environment within the Swedish Labour Market During the Covid-19 Pandemic : Original research report, Swedish Agency for Work Environment Expertise.
Abstract [sv]

Introduktion och syfte med rapporten

Coronapandemin (Covid-19 pandemin) innebar en rad restriktioner och en påföljande ekonomisk kris, som påverkade mångas arbetsliv och privatliv. Det finns emellertid fortfarande få svenska och internationella populationsbaserade studier om arbetsmiljöförändringarna i samband med coronapandemin, som fokuserar på olika sektorer utöver vård-/omsorgssektorn, och som är representativa för den arbetande befolkningen.

Syftet med denna rapport är att undersöka hur upplevelsen bland den arbetande befolkningen i Sverige har förändrats i samband med coronapandemin, vad gäller den organisatoriska och psykosociala arbetsmiljön samt balans mellan arbetet och privatlivet. Syftet är även att undersöka om de eventuella förändringarna inom dessa arbetsmiljöområden skiljer sig åt beroende av bakgrundsfaktorer såsom kön, ålder, utbildningsnivå, socioekonomisk status, yrkesgrupp, samt distansarbete under coronapandemin.

Metod

Urvalet till analyserna i denna rapport är hämtat från den Svenska Longitudinella studien Om Sociala förhållanden, arbetsliv och Hälsa (SLOSH). Denna studie följer ett stort urval av initialt arbetande män och kvinnor ur Sveriges arbetande befolkning vartannat år med frågeformulär. Det genomfördes även en kompletterande webbundersökning i ett urval från SLOSH kallad ”SLOSH-corona” under 2021 (under ”mitten av coronapandemin”) och under 2022 (under ”slutet av coronapandemin”). Den fokuserade på arbetsmiljön, den sociala situationen, samt hälsan och hälsobeteenden i samband med coronapandemin.

Denna rapport använder uppgifter från SLOSH-datainsamlingarna under våren 2018 (före coronapandemin), under våren 2020 (”i början av corona­ pandemin”), samt från SLOSH-corona 2021 och 2022. Det gäller uppgifter från totalt 1 345 individer som har deltagit i både SLOSH 2018 och 2020, samt som har arbetat både före coronapandemin och vid något av insamlingstillfällena under coronapandemin. De svarande i urvalet är representativa för hela Sverige och den svenska arbetsmarknaden. Men de bestod bland annat av en något större andel kvinnor än män, samt av en övervägande andel medelålders eller äldre personer i arbetslivet, gifta eller sammanboende personer, personer med en universitetsutbildning, samt tjänstemän. Frågeformulären innehöll uppgifter om en rad arbetsmiljöfaktorer som indelats i kategorierna; den organisatoriska arbetsmiljön, krav och resurser, den sociala arbetsmiljön, samt balans mellan arbete och privatliv.

Eventuella förändringar över tid undersöktes i huvudsak genom regressionsanalyser. Dessa jämförde svaren på frågorna från någon av de insamlingar som gjordes under coronapandemin, med svaren på samma frågor från insamlingarna före coronapandemin. De svarande rapporterade själva för några faktorer, om de upplevde en förändring jämfört med före coronapandemin. Resultaten består därmed av både beskrivande och analytisk statistik samt tester av om de eventuella arbetsmiljöförändringarna över tid skilde sig åt beroende av ett antal bakgrundsfaktorer, samt på grund av om arbete skett från en ordinarie arbetsplats eller på distans/hemifrån.

Resultat

Organisatorisk arbetsmiljö

Jämfört med före coronapandemin, så visade de övergripande analyserna i hela urvalet främst på:

  • en betydligt högre andel som arbetade på distans/hemifrån under coronapandemin.
  • en lägre andel som jobbade långa arbetstider (mer än 40 timmar per vecka) under coronapandemin.
  • att en relativt stor andel upplevde att arbetsuppgifterna ökade, och framför allt från början till mitten av coronapandemin.

Förändringar i den organisatoriska arbetsmiljön skilde sig främst åt beroende på aspekter som utbildning och socioekonomi. Exempelvis så ökade förekomsten av distansarbete tydligare bland högutbildade personer och tjänstemän. Förekomsten av långa arbetstider minskade samtidigt mer markant i dessa grupper. Förekomsten av långa arbetstider ökade däremot i stället bland personer med yrken som fokuserar på vården/omsorgen och andra kontaktyrken.

Krav och resurser

Jämfört med före coronapandemin, visade de övergripande analyserna främst på:

  • något lägre nivåer av psykologiska krav i arbetet under coronapandemin.
  • något högre nivåer av kontroll/beslutsutrymme i arbetet under coronapandemin.
  • en lägre andel med spänt arbete (höga psykologiska krav och en låg kontroll/ett lågt beslutsutrymme) under coronapandemin.
  • att en relativt stor andel upplevde en ökad arbetsmängd och en psykisk arbetsbelastning (vilket skulle kunna handla om en anpassning och en hantering av sina känslor i olika arbetssituationer) under coronapandemin.
  • marginellt högre nivåer av anställningsotrygghet, men endast under början av coronapandemin.

En ökning av anställningsotryggheten var tydligare bland personer med yrken som fokuserar på materiell tillverkning i början av pandemin (såsom yrken inom byggverksamhet och tillverkning, maskinell tillverkning och transport, lantbruk, trädgård, skogsbruk, samt fiske). En ökad arbetsmängd och en psykisk arbetsbelastning var tydligast bland kvinnor och personer som arbetar inom yrken med fokus på vården/omsorgen och grundskolan/barnomsorgen. De med yrken inom vården/omsorgen, upplevde emellertid även att beslutsutrymmet ökat i en större utsträckning. Det var även de personer som hade arbetet på sin ordinarie arbetsplats under coronapandemin som i en högre grad upplevde att arbetsmängden och den psykiska arbetsbelastningen hade ökat. De personer som delvis eller mestadels arbetade på distans/hemifrån upplevde en ökad kontroll/ett ökat beslutsutrymme i en högre grad, samt ett ökat inflytande.

Social arbetsmiljö

Jämfört med före coronapandemin, visade de övergripande analyserna främst på:

  • en lägre nivå av ett socialt stöd i arbetet under slutet av coronapandemin.
  • att en relativt hög andel deltagare upplevde ökade konflikter med andra (t.ex. patienter, kunder, elever, passagerare) under coronapandemin.
  • att en relativt hög andel deltagare upplevde en försämrad stämning och ett försämrat samarbete på arbetsplatsen under coronapandemin.

Socialt stöd hade minskat speciellt för vården och omsorgspersonalen, samt bland de personer som hade jobbat på sin ordinarie arbetsplats under coronapandemin. Ökade konflikter med andra var även tydligast bland de som jobbat på sin ordinarie arbetsplats under coronapandemin. En försämrad stämning på arbetsplatsen var tydligast bland de personer som jobbade inom yrken med ett fokus på grundskolan och barnomsorgen, samt inom andra kontaktyrken och bland högutbildade. Det var tydligare med en försämrad sammanhållning och ett försämrat samarbete på arbetsplatsen bland högutbildade personer och tjänstemän, samt bland de som arbetat på distans/hemifrån.

Balans mellan arbete och privatliv

Att arbetssituationen under coronapandemin påverkade privatlivet på ett positivt sätt var en vanligare upplevelse än att det hade en negativ påverkan. Det var även vanligare med en upplevelse av att privatlivet påverkade arbetssituationen på ett positivt sätt, än på ett negativt.

Det var vanligare bland de som arbetat på distans under coronapandemin, att arbetssituationen påverkade privatlivet på ett positivt sätt, eller att privatlivet påverkade arbetssituationen på ett positivt sätt. För de personer som hade yrken fokuserade inom vården/omsorgen och inom grundskolan/barnomsorgen var det vanligare med en upplevelse av att arbetssituationen påverkade privatlivet på ett negativt sätt.

Slutsatser

Resultaten från dessa analyser tyder på flera förändringar inom den organisatoriska arbetsmiljön, i samband med coronapandemin. Det gäller främsten generell ökning av distansarbete, och en generell minskning av arbetstider. Resultaten var mindre tydliga vad gäller krav och resurser i arbetet. De psykologiska kraven minskade något, medan kontroll/beslutsutrymme ökade något. Det innebar en lägre andel deltagare med spänt arbete under pandemin, vilket kan tyda på en generell förbättring av balans mellan denna typ av krav och resurser. Det fanns samtidigt indikationer på en ökning av vissa typer av krav åtminstone för vissa grupper på arbetsmarknaden, till exempel vad gäller arbetsmängden och den psykiska arbetsbelastningen. Resultaten tyder vidare på en generell försämring i den sociala arbetsmiljön, och en relativt god balans mellan arbetet och privatlivet. Det finns emellertid betydande skillnader framför allt beroende av yrkesgrupper och distansarbete. Resultaten tyder exempelvis på en ökning av vissa typer av krav, och en försämring av vissa typer av sociala arbetsmiljöfaktorer bland de som arbetat inom hälso-/ sjukvårds- och utbildningssektorn, samt bland de som arbetat på sin ordinarie arbetsplats. Vidare så tyder resultaten på en relativt god balans mellan arbetet och privatlivet, men på en försämring av andra sociala arbetsmiljöfaktorer bland högutbildade personer och tjänstemän, samt bland de som arbetat på distans/hemifrån.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Myndigheten för arbetsmiljökunskap (MYNAK), 2023. p. 68
Keywords
organisatorisk arbetsmiljö, psykosocial arbetsmiljö, svensk arbetsmarknad, coronapandemin
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-225153 (URN)978-91-89747-04-3 (ISBN)
Available from: 2024-01-09 Created: 2024-01-09 Last updated: 2024-01-12Bibliographically approved
Projects
Mental health in adolescence and the paths ahead. An ecological life course approach to mental health trajectories into adulthood [2012-37_Formas]; Umeå University
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-8806-5698

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