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Merrill, S. M., Letourneau, N., Giesbrecht, G. F., Edwards, K., MacIsaac, J. L., Martin, J. W., . . . England-Mason, G. (2024). Sex-Specific Associations between Prenatal Exposure to Di(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate, Epigenetic Age Acceleration, and Susceptibility to Early Childhood Upper Respiratory Infections. Epigenomes, 8(1), Article ID 3.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sex-Specific Associations between Prenatal Exposure to Di(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate, Epigenetic Age Acceleration, and Susceptibility to Early Childhood Upper Respiratory Infections
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2024 (English)In: Epigenomes, ISSN 2075-4655, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 3Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a common plasticizer that can affect immune system development and susceptibility to infection. Aging processes (measured as epigenetic age acceleration (EAA)) may mediate the immune-related effects of prenatal exposure to DEHP. This study’s objective was to examine associations between prenatal DEHP exposure, EAA at three months of age, and the number of upper respiratory infections (URIs) from 12 to 18 months of age using a sample of 69 maternal–child pairs from a Canadian pregnancy cohort. Blood DNA methylation data were generated using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip; EAA was estimated using Horvath’s pan-tissue clock. Robust regressions examined overall and sex-specific associations. Higher prenatal DEHP exposure (B = 6.52, 95% CI = 1.22, 11.81) and increased EAA (B = 2.98, 95% CI = 1.64, 4.32) independently predicted more URIs. In sex-specific analyses, some similar effects were noted for boys, and EAA mediated the association between prenatal DEHP exposure and URIs. In girls, higher prenatal DEHP exposure was associated with decreased EAA, and no mediation was noted. Higher prenatal DEHP exposure may be associated with increased susceptibility to early childhood URIs, particularly in boys, and aging biomarkers such as EAA may be a biological mechanism. Larger cohort studies examining the potential developmental immunotoxicity of phthalates are needed.

Keywords
phthalates, DNA methylation, epigenetic clock, common cold, immunotoxicity
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-228230 (URN)10.3390/epigenomes8010003 (DOI)001191388800001 ()38390895 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85189135018 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2024-04-10 Created: 2024-04-10 Last updated: 2024-04-10Bibliographically approved
Elihn, K., Dalmijn, J., Froment, J., Haland, A., Johansson, J., Karlsson, H. L., . . . Steimer, S. (2023). Air quality impacts of a large waste fire in Stockholm, Sweden. Atmospheric Environment, 315, Article ID 120124.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Air quality impacts of a large waste fire in Stockholm, Sweden
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2023 (English)In: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 315, article id 120124Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Fires in waste facilities are a common occurrence. Since many waste facilities are located adjacent to densely populated areas, these fires could potentially expose large populations to the emitted pollutants. However, at the moment there are only few field studies investigating the impact of waste fire emissions on air quality since the unpredictable nature of these events makes them challenging to capture. This study investigated the impact of a large and persistent un-prescribed fire in a waste storage facility in Stockholm county, Sweden, on the local air quality of two residential areas in close proximity to the fire. In-situ measurements of particulate matter, black carbon and nitrogen oxide concentrations were conducted both during open burning and after the fire was fully covered. In addition, filter samples were collected for offline analysis of organic composition, metal content and toxicity. Strongly increased concentrations of PM10, PM2.5 and black carbon were found during the open burning period, especially when the wind was coming from the direction of the fire. In addition, elevated concentrations of particulate heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were observed in the air during the open burning period. These results show that waste fires can have a strong impact on the air quality of nearby residential areas.

Keywords
Waste fire emissions, Air quality, Air pollutants, Waste facility fires, Particulate matter, Gaseous pollutants
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-226577 (URN)10.1016/j.atmosenv.2023.120124 (DOI)001152920900001 ()2-s2.0-85174675401 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2024-02-14 Created: 2024-02-14 Last updated: 2024-02-14Bibliographically approved
Irvine, N., England-Mason, G., Field, C. J., Letourneau, N., Bell, R. C., Giesbrecht, G. F., . . . APrON Study Team, . (2023). Associations between maternal folate status and choline intake during pregnancy and neurodevelopment at 3–4 years of age in the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study. Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease, 14(3), 402-414
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Associations between maternal folate status and choline intake during pregnancy and neurodevelopment at 3–4 years of age in the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease, ISSN 2040-1744, E-ISSN 2040-1752, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 402-414Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Folate and choline are methyl donor nutrients that may play a role in fetal brain development. Animal studies have reported that prenatal folate and choline supplementation are associated with better cognitive outcomes in offspring and that these nutrients may interact and affect brain development. Human studies that have investigated associations between maternal prenatal folate or choline levels and neurodevelopmental outcomes have reported contradictory findings and no human studies have examined the potential interactive effect of folate and choline on children’s neurodevelopment. During the second trimester of pregnancy, maternal red blood cell folate was measured from blood samples and choline intake was estimated using a 24-h dietary recall in 309 women in the APrON cohort. At 3–5 years of age, their children’s neurodevelopment was assessed using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence – Fourth EditionCND, NEPSY-II language and memory subtests, four behavioral executive function tasks, and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children – Second Edition. Adjusted regressions revealed no associations between maternal folate and choline levels during pregnancy and most of the child outcomes. On the Dimensional Change Card Sort, an executive function task, there was an interaction effect; at high levels of choline intake (i.e., 1 SD above the mean; 223.03 mg/day), higher maternal folate status was associated with decreased odds of receiving a passing score (β = −0.44; 95%CI −0.81, −0.06). In conclusion, maternal folate status and choline intake during the second trimester of pregnancy were not associated with children’s intelligence, language, memory, or motor outcomes at 3–4 years of age; however, their interaction may have an influence children’s executive functions.

Keywords
Folate, choline, neurodevelopment, executive function, APrON
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-216720 (URN)10.1017/S2040174423000041 (DOI)000953602400001 ()36939090 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85151473515 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-04-27 Created: 2023-04-27 Last updated: 2023-10-06Bibliographically approved
Soomro, M. H., England-Mason, G., Liu, J., Reardon, A. J. F., Macdonald, A. M., Kinniburgh, D. W., . . . APrON, S. T. (2023). Associations between the chemical exposome and pregnancy induced hypertension. Environmental Research, 237, Article ID 116838.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Associations between the chemical exposome and pregnancy induced hypertension
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2023 (English)In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 237, article id 116838Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Exposure to environmental chemicals has been linked to an increased risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH). This prospective cohort study examined the associations between PIH and maternal chemical exposure to four classes of chemicals (i.e., phthalates, bisphenols, perfluoroalkyl acids, non-essential metals and trace minerals). Participants included 420 pregnant women from the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) cohort who had data available on diagnosed PIH and environmental chemical exposure. Twelve phthalate metabolites, two bisphenols, eight perfluoroalkyl acids and eleven non-essential metals or trace minerals were quantified in maternal urine or blood samples collected in the second trimester of pregnancy. Associations between the urinary and blood concentrations of these chemicals and PIH were assessed using multiple logistic and LASSO regression analyses in single- and multi-chemical exposure models, respectively. Thirty-five (8.3%) participants were diagnosed with PIH. In single chemical exposure models, two phthalate metabolites, mono-methyl phthalate (MMP) and monoethyl phthalate (MEP), three perfluoroalkyl acids, perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), and one metal, manganese, were associated with increased odds of PIH. The metabolites of di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and the molar sum of these metabolites, as well as antimony, displayed trend associations (p < 0.10). In multi-chemical exposure models using LASSO penalized regressions and double-LASSO regressions, MEP (AOR: 1.43, 95% CI: 1.09–1.88, p = 0.009) and PFNA (AOR: 2.03, 95% CI: 1.01–4.07, p = 0.04) were selected as the chemicals most highly associated with PIH. These findings suggest that maternal levels of phthalates and perfluoroalkyl acids may be associated with the diagnosis on PIH. Future research should consider both individual and multi-chemical exposures when examining predictors of PIH and other maternal cardiometabolic health disorders, such as preeclampsia, eclampsia, HELLP syndrome, and gestational diabetes.

Keywords
Pregnancy, Environmental chemical exposures, Pregnancy -induced hypertension, LASSO regression, APrON study
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-222178 (URN)10.1016/j.envres.2023.116838 (DOI)001063025000001 ()37544468 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85167797896 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-11-15 Created: 2023-11-15 Last updated: 2023-11-15Bibliographically approved
Sepman, H., Malm, L., Peets, P., MacLeod, M., Martin, J. W., Breitholtz, M. & Kruve, A. (2023). Bypassing the Identification: MS2Quant for Concentration Estimations of Chemicals Detected with Nontarget LC-HRMS from MS2 Data. Analytical Chemistry, 95(33), 12329-12338
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bypassing the Identification: MS2Quant for Concentration Estimations of Chemicals Detected with Nontarget LC-HRMS from MS2 Data
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2023 (English)In: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, E-ISSN 1520-6882, Vol. 95, no 33, p. 12329-12338Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Nontarget analysis by liquid chromatography-high-resolutionmass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) is now widely used to detect pollutants in the environment. Shifting away from targeted methods has led to detection of previously unseen chemicals, and assessing the risk posed by these newly detected chemicals is an important challenge. Assessing exposure and toxicity of chemicals detected with nontarget HRMS is highly dependent on the knowledge of the structure of the chemical. However, the majority of features detected in nontarget screening remain unidentified and therefore the risk assessment with conventional tools is hampered. Here, we developed MS2Quant, a machine learning model that enables prediction of concentration from fragmentation(MS2) spectra of detected, but unidentified chemicals. MS2Quant is an xgbTree algorithm-based regression model developed using ionization efficiency data for 1191 unique chemicals that spans 8 orders of magnitude. The ionization efficiency values are predicted from structural fingerprints that can be computed from the SMILES notation of the identified chemicals or from MS2 spectra of unidentified chemicals using SIRIUS+CSI: FingerID software. The root mean square errors of the training and test sets were 0.55(3.5x) and 0.80 (6.3x) log-units, respectively. In comparison, ionization efficiency prediction approaches that depend on assigning an unequivocal structure typically yield errors from 2x to 6x. The MS2Quant quantification model was validated on a set of 39 environmental pollutants and resulted in a mean prediction error of 7.4x, ageometric mean of 4.5x, and a median of 4.0x. For comparison, a model based on PaDEL descriptors that depends on unequivocal structural assignment was developed using the same dataset. The latter approach yielded a comparable mean prediction error of 9.5x, a geometricmean of 5.6x, and a median of 5.2x on the validation set chemicals when the top structural assignment was used as input. This confirms that MS2Quant enables to extract exposure information for unidentified chemicals which, although detected, have thus far been disregarded due to lack of accurate tools for quantification. TheMS2Quant model is available as an R-package in GitHub for improving discovery and monitoring of potentially hazardous environmental pollutants with nontarget screening.

National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-220853 (URN)10.1021/acs.analchem.3c01744 (DOI)001042711000001 ()37548594 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85168386106 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-09-12 Created: 2023-09-12 Last updated: 2023-09-12Bibliographically approved
Sevelsted, A., Pedersen, C.-E. T., Gurdeniz, G., Rasmussen, M. A., Schullehner, J., Sdougkou, K., . . . Bisgaard, H. (2023). Exposures to perfluoroalkyl substances and asthma phenotypes in childhood: an investigation of the COPSAC2010 cohort. EBioMedicine, 94, Article ID 104699.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exposures to perfluoroalkyl substances and asthma phenotypes in childhood: an investigation of the COPSAC2010 cohort
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2023 (English)In: EBioMedicine, E-ISSN 2352-3964, Vol. 94, article id 104699Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background Exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances may affect offspring immune development and thereby increase risk of childhood asthma, but the underlying mechanisms and asthma phenotype affected by such exposure is unknown.

Methods In the Danish COPSAC2010 cohort of 738 unselected pregnant women and their children plasma PFOS and PFOA concentrations were semi-quantified by untargeted metabolomics analyses and calibrated using a targeted pipeline in mothers (gestation week 24 and 1 week postpartum) and children (age 1/2 , 11/2 and 6 years). We examined associations between pregnancy and childhood PFOS and PFOA exposure and childhood infections, asthma, allergic sensitization, atopic dermatitis, and lung function measures, and studied potential mechanisms by integrating data on systemic low-grade inflammation (hs-CRP), functional immune responses, and epigenetics.

Findings Higher maternal PFOS and PFOA exposure during pregnancy showed association with a non-atopic asthma phenotype by age 6, a protection against sensitization, and no association with atopic asthma or lung function, or atopic dermatitis. The effect was primarily driven by prenatal exposure. There was no association with infection proneness, low-grade inflammation, altered immune responses or epigenetic changes.

Interpretations Prenatal exposure to PFOS and PFOA, but not childhood exposure, specifically increased the risk of low prevalent non-atopic asthma, whereas there was no effect on atopic asthma, lung function, or atopic dermatitis. 

National Category
Basic Medicine Respiratory Medicine and Allergy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-220856 (URN)10.1016/j.ebiom.2023.104699 (DOI)001039402300001 ()37429082 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85164266438 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-09-12 Created: 2023-09-12 Last updated: 2023-09-12Bibliographically approved
Casas, G., Iriarte, J., D'Agostino, L. A., Roscales, J. L., Martinez-Varela, A., Vila-Costa, M., . . . Dachs, J. (2023). Inputs, amplification and sinks of perfluoroalkyl substances at coastal Antarctica. Environmental Pollution, 338, Article ID 122608.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inputs, amplification and sinks of perfluoroalkyl substances at coastal Antarctica
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2023 (English)In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 338, article id 122608Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The sources, biogeochemical controls and sinks of perfluoroalkyl substances, such as perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), in polar coastal regions are largely unknown. These were evaluated by measuring a large multi-compartment dataset of PFAAs concentrations at coastal Livingston and Deception Islands (maritime Antarctica) during three austral summers. PFAAs were abundant in atmospheric-derived samples (aerosols, rain, snow), consistent with the importance of atmospheric deposition as an input of PFAAs to Antarctica. Such PFAAs deposition was unequivocally demonstrated by the occurrence of PFAAs in small Antarctic lakes. Several lines of evidence supported the relevant amplification of PFAAs concentrations in surface waters driven by snow scavenging of sea-spray aerosol-bound PFAAs followed by snow-melting. For example, vertical profiles showed higher PFAAs concentrations at lower-salinity surface seawaters, and PFAAs concentrations in snow were significantly higher than in seawater. The higher levels of PFAAs at Deception Island than at Livingston Island are consistent with the semi-enclosed nature of the bay. Concentrations of PFOS decreased from 2014 to 2018, consistent with observations in other oceans. The sink of PFAAs due to the biological pump, transfer to the food web, and losses due to sea-spray aerosols alone are unlikely to have driven the decrease in PFOS concentrations. An exploratory assessment of the potential sinks of PFAAs suggests that microbial degradation of perfluoroalkyl sulfonates should be a research priority for the evaluation of PFAAs persistence in the coming decade.

Keywords
Amplification, Antarctica, Coastal, Degradation, Lakes, Long-range transport, Marine bacteria, PFAAs, PFAS, PFOA, PFOS, POPs, Seawater, Snow, Southern ocean
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-222986 (URN)10.1016/j.envpol.2023.122608 (DOI)001154194800001 ()37742857 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85172997323 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-10-27 Created: 2023-10-27 Last updated: 2024-02-13Bibliographically approved
Reardon, A. J. F., Hajihosseini, M., Dinu, I., Field, C. J., Kinniburgh, D. W., MacDonald, A. M., . . . APrON Study, T. A. (2023). Maternal co-exposure to mercury and perfluoroalkyl acid isomers and their associations with child neurodevelopment in a Canadian birth cohort. Environment International, 178, Article ID 108087.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Maternal co-exposure to mercury and perfluoroalkyl acid isomers and their associations with child neurodevelopment in a Canadian birth cohort
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2023 (English)In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 178, article id 108087Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) within the broader class of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are present in human serum as isomer mixtures, but epidemiological studies have yet to address isomer-specific associations with child development and behavior. Objectives: To examine associations between prenatal exposure to 25 PFAAs, including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) isomers, and child neurodevelopment among 490 mother-child pairs in a prospective Canadian birth cohort, the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study. To consider the influence of a classic neurotoxicant, total mercury (THg), based on its likelihood of co-exposure with PFAAs from common dietary sources. Methods: Maternal blood samples were collected in the second trimester and child neurodevelopment was assessed at 2 years of age using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, 3rd Edition (Bayley-III). Linear or curvilinear multiple regression models were used to examine associations between exposures and neurodevelopment outcomes. Results: Select PFAAs were associated with lower Cognitive composite scores, including perfluoroheptanoate (PFHpA) (& beta; = -0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI): -1.7, -0.06) and perfluorododecanoate (PFDoA) (& beta; = -2.0, 95% CI: -3.9, -0.01). Non-linear relationships revealed associations of total PFOS (& beta; = -4.4, 95% CI: -8.3, -0.43), and linear-PFOS (& beta; = -4.0, 95% CI: -7.5, -0.57) and 1m-PFOS (& beta; = -1.8, 95% CI: -3.3, -0.24) isomers with lower Language composite scores. Although there was no effect modification, including THg interaction terms in PFAA models revealed negative associations between perfluorononanoate (PFNA) and Motor (& beta; = -3.3, 95% CI: -6.2, -0.33) and Social-Emotional (& beta; = -3.0, 95% CI: -5.6, -0.40) composite scores. Discussion: These findings reinforce previous reports of adverse effects of maternal PFAA exposure during pregnancy on child neurodevelopment. The unique hazards posed from isomers of PFOS justify isomer-specific analysis in future studies. To control for possible confounding, mercury co-exposure may be considered in studies of PFAAs.

Keywords
Perfluoroalkyl acids, Per, and polyfluoroalkyl substances, Developmental toxicity, Child neurodevelopment, APrON
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-220867 (URN)10.1016/j.envint.2023.108087 (DOI)001043842000001 ()37454627 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85165332703 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-09-12 Created: 2023-09-12 Last updated: 2023-09-12Bibliographically approved
Bonnefille, B., Karlsson, O., Rian, M. B., Raqib, R., Parvez, F., Papazian, S., . . . Martin, J. W. (2023). Nontarget Analysis of Polluted Surface Waters in Bangladesh Using Open Science Workflows. Environmental Science and Technology, 57(17), 6808-6824
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nontarget Analysis of Polluted Surface Waters in Bangladesh Using Open Science Workflows
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2023 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 57, no 17, p. 6808-6824Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Nontarget mass spectrometry has great potential to reveal patterns of water contamination globally through community science, but few studies are conducted in low-income countries, nor with open-source workflows, and few datasets are FAIR (Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, Reusable). Water was collected from urban and rural rivers around Dhaka, Bangladesh, and analyzed by liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry in four ionization modes (electrospray ionization +/-, atmospheric pressure chemical ionization +/-) with data -independent MS2 acquisition. The acquisition strategy was complementary: 19,427 and 7365 features were unique to ESI and APCI, respectively. The complexity of water pollution was revealed by >26,000 unique molecular features resolved by MS-DIAL, among which >20,000 correlated with urban sources in Dhaka. A major wastewater treatment plant was not a dominant pollution source, consistent with major contributions from uncontrolled urban drainage, a result that encourages development of further wastewater infrastructures. Matching of deconvoluted MS2 spectra to public libraries resulted in 62 confident annotations (i.e., Level 1-2a) and allowed semiquantification of 42 analytes including pharmaceuticals, pesticides, and personal care products. In silico structure prediction for the top 100 unknown molecular features associated with an urban source allowed 15 additional chemicals of anthropogenic origin to be annotated (i.e., Level 3). The authentic MS2 spectra were uploaded to MassBank Europe, mass spectral data were openly shared on the MassIVE repository, a tool (i.e., MASST) that could be used for community science environmental surveillance was demonstrated, and current limitations were discussed.

Keywords
high-resolution mass spectrometry, nontarget analysis, electrospray ionization, atmospheric pressure chemical ionization, orbitrap, organic micropollutants, South Asia, water pollution
National Category
Environmental Engineering Earth and Related Environmental Sciences Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-230436 (URN)10.1021/acs.est.2c08200 (DOI)000979817300001 ()37083417 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85154063038 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2024-06-10 Created: 2024-06-10 Last updated: 2024-06-10Bibliographically approved
Dewapriya, P., Nilsson, S., Gorji, S. G., O'Brien, J. W., Bräunig, J., Ramos, M. J., . . . Thomas, K. V. (2023). Novel Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances Discovered in Cattle Exposed to AFFF-Impacted Groundwater. Environmental Science and Technology, 57(36), 13635-13645
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Novel Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances Discovered in Cattle Exposed to AFFF-Impacted Groundwater
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2023 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 57, no 36, p. 13635-13645Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The leaching of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from Australian firefighting training grounds has resulted in extensive contamination of groundwater and nearby farmlands. Humans, farm animals, and wildlife in these areas may have been exposed to complex mixtures of PFASs from aqueous film-forming foams (AFFFs). This study aimed to identify PFAS classes in pooled whole blood (n = 4) and serum (n = 4) from cattle exposed to AFFF-impacted groundwater and potentially discover new PFASs in blood. Thirty PFASs were identified at various levels of confidence (levels 1a–5a), including three novel compounds: (i) perfluorohexanesulfonamido 2-hydroxypropanoic acid (FHxSA-HOPrA), (ii) methyl((perfluorohexyl)sulfonyl)sulfuramidous acid, and (iii) methyl((perfluorooctyl)sulfonyl)sulfuramidous acid, belonging to two different classes. Biotransformation intermediate, perfluorohexanesulfonamido propanoic acid (FHxSA-PrA), hitherto unreported in biological samples, was detected in both whole blood and serum. Furthermore, perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides, including perfluoropropane sulfonamide (FPrSA), perfluorobutane sulfonamide (FBSA), and perfluorohexane sulfonamide (FHxSA) were predominantly detected in whole blood, suggesting that these accumulate in the cell fraction of blood. The suspect screening revealed several fluoroalkyl chain-substituted PFAS. The results suggest that targeting only the major PFASs in the plasma or serum of AFFF-exposed mammals likely underestimates the toxicological risks associated with exposure. Future studies of AFFF-exposed populations should include whole-blood analysis with high-resolution mass spectrometry to understand the true extent of PFAS exposure. 

Keywords
high-resolution mass spectrometry, non-target analysis, whole blood, PFASs, precursor, biotransformation intermediate, sulfonamides
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-221726 (URN)10.1021/acs.est.3c03852 (DOI)001060957700001 ()37648245 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85170717413 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-09-28 Created: 2023-09-28 Last updated: 2024-01-15Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-6265-4294

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