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Bernhard-Oettel, ClaudiaORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-8683-115X
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Publications (10 of 80) Show all publications
Sousa-Ribeiro, M., Stengård, J., Leineweber, C. & Bernhard-Oettel, C. (2024). Are Trajectories of Preferred Retirement Ages Associated with Health, Work Ability and Effort–Reward Imbalance at Work? Findings from a 6-Year Swedish Longitudinal Study. Work, Aging and Retirement, 10(3), 225-240
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Are Trajectories of Preferred Retirement Ages Associated with Health, Work Ability and Effort–Reward Imbalance at Work? Findings from a 6-Year Swedish Longitudinal Study
2024 (English)In: Work, Aging and Retirement, ISSN 2054-4642, E-ISSN 2054-4650, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 225-240Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Preferred retirement age (PRA) is one key dimension when studying retirement decision-making. However, little is known concerning how PRA develops over the late career years. This study used a person-centered approach to longitudinally investigate trajectories of PRA and how they differ in self-rated health, perceived work ability, and effort–reward imbalance (ERI) at baseline levels and over 6 years. The study used data from four waves (2010, 2012, 2014, and 2016) of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health. The sample consisted of 1,510 individuals aged 50–55 in 2010, who answered to the questionnaire for those in paid work (including self-employment) at the baseline and at least one of the following waves. Results from the latent class growth curve modeling show both within- and between-person variability in PRA over the 6-year span. We found four distinct trajectories, which differed both at the baseline levels and in the patterns of change in PRA: “C1: normative, relatively stable PRA” (42% of all participants); “C2: considerably early, increasing PRA” (6% of the participants); “C3: late, relatively stable PRA” (4% of the participants); and “C4: early, increasing PRA” (49% of the participants). Participants revealed a clear preference for retirement before the age of 65. Trajectories comprising earlier PRA showed poorer self-rated health, poorer work ability, and higher levels of ERI at the baseline and over time. The findings reinforce the importance of healthy work environments that promote work ability and facilitate a balance between efforts and rewards for encouraging longer working lives. 

Keywords
preferred retirement age trajectories, latent class growth curve modeling, work ability, health, effort-reward imbalance
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-216308 (URN)10.1093/workar/waad006 (DOI)000953626800001 ()
Note

This research was funded by a grant from FORTE: Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare (grant number 2014-1662) to the first author. Data collection was funded by The Swedish Research Council (grant numbers 2009-06192, 2013-01645, 2013-01646, and 2015-06013) and the Stockholm Stress Center funded by the Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare (grant number 2009-1758).

Available from: 2023-04-12 Created: 2023-04-12 Last updated: 2024-07-01Bibliographically approved
Eib, C. & Bernhard-Oettel, C. (2024). Entrepreneurial action and eudaimonic well-being in a crisis: Insights from entrepreneurs in Sweden during the COVID-19 pandemic. Economic and Industrial Democracy, 45(2), 335-362
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Entrepreneurial action and eudaimonic well-being in a crisis: Insights from entrepreneurs in Sweden during the COVID-19 pandemic
2024 (English)In: Economic and Industrial Democracy, ISSN 0143-831X, E-ISSN 1461-7099, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 335-362Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Based on transactional stress theory, this article provides an empirical glimpse into how entrepreneurs in Sweden have experienced the COVID-19 pandemic. The authors investigated the impact of two crisis-induced stressors (unpredictability, loneliness) on two aspects of entrepreneurial success (business and personal success) through the indirect effect of eudaimonic well-being. They examined the role of crisis-related entrepreneurial actions (applying for government financial support, engaging in online business activities). Results from a sample of entrepreneurs operating in Sweden in the summer of 2020 revealed that unpredictability and loneliness were negatively related to business and personal success via eudaimonic well-being. Results for the moderating effects of the crisis-related entrepreneurial actions revealed mixed findings. The results provide valuable insights into the mechanisms that tie entrepreneurial stressors and opportunities for action to eudaimonic well-being, and in turn, entrepreneurial success in the early days of the crisis caused by the pandemic.

Keywords
entrepreneurs, crisis, Covid-19, Sweden
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-215585 (URN)10.1177/0143831x231154753 (DOI)000937517400001 ()2-s2.0-85148501922 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-03-20 Created: 2023-03-20 Last updated: 2024-05-14Bibliographically approved
Bernhard-Oettel, C., Bergman, L. E., Leineweber, C. & Toivanen, S. (2024). Flourish, fight or flight: health in self-employment over time-associations with individual and business resources. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 97, 263-278
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flourish, fight or flight: health in self-employment over time-associations with individual and business resources
2024 (English)In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 97, p. 263-278Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: Using COR theory to study developments of health and other key resources in self-employed workers in Sweden over 6 years, this study: (1) explored whether the heterogenous group of self-employed workers contained subgroups with different health trajectories, (2) investigated whether these were more typical for certain individuals (with respect to age, gender, sector, education, employment status), and (3) compared the different health trajectories regarding resource development in mental well-being, business resources, employment status, work ability. Method: The study used data from the Swedish longitudinal occupational survey of health (SLOSH) and included participants working as self-employed or combiner (N = 2642). Result: Five trajectories were identified with latent class growth curve model analysis (LCGM). Two health trajectories with (1) very good, respective (2) good stable health (together comprising 78.5% of the participants), (3) one with moderate stable health (14.8%), (4) one with a U-shaped form (1.9%), and (5) one with low, slightly increasing health (4.7%). The first two trajectories flourish: they maintained or increased in all key resources and were more likely to remain self-employed. Trajectories three and five consist of those who fight to maintain or increase their resources. Workers in the U-shaped health trajectory show signs of fight and flight after loss in health and other key resources. Conclusions: Studying subgroups with different resource developments over time was suitable to understand heterogeneity in self-employed workers. It also helped to identify vulnerable groups that may benefit from interventions to preserve their resources.

Keywords
self-employment, self-rated health, business success, longitudinal study, Sweden
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-226544 (URN)10.1007/s00420-023-02041-z (DOI)001147729800001 ()38265496 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85182980922 (Scopus ID)
Note

This research was funded by FORTE, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare Grant Number 2017-01063. The APC was funded by Stockholm University. The SLOSH study was funded by the Swedish Research Council (VR 2009-06192, 2013-01645, 2013-01646, 2015-06013, and as part of the REWHARD consortium by 2017-00624), and the Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare (2009-1758). Open access funding provided by Stockholm University.

Available from: 2024-02-14 Created: 2024-02-14 Last updated: 2024-04-24Bibliographically approved
Fältén, R., Berntson, E. & Bernhard-Oettel, C. (2024). How are organisational conditions related to illegitimate tasks among managers and their subordinates in the public sector? A Swedish study. Work & Stress
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How are organisational conditions related to illegitimate tasks among managers and their subordinates in the public sector? A Swedish study
2024 (English)In: Work & Stress, ISSN 0267-8373, E-ISSN 1464-5335Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Illegitimate tasks violate the norms of what is considered part of the employee's work role and have been found to harm individuals, groups and organisations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between key organisational conditions - span of control, recruitment needs, administrative support and organisational changes - and the prevalence of unnecessary and unreasonable illegitimate tasks experienced by managers and their subordinates. Data were collected from a sample comprising 80 managers and 863 subordinates in a Swedish municipality using questionnaires to assess their perceptions of illegitimate tasks. Organisational conditions were collected from the human resources register in the municipality. Multilevel analysis results reveal a positive association between the size of workgroups and illegitimate tasks; the more subordinates per workgroup, the more unnecessary and unreasonable tasks managers reported and the more unreasonable tasks the subordinates reported. These findings hold practical implications for organisations because they indicate that illegitimate tasks can be reduced by decreasing the number of employees in larger workgroups.

Keywords
Illegitimate tasks, unnecessary tasks, unreasonable tasks, organisational conditions, new public management
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-226543 (URN)10.1080/02678373.2024.2309627 (DOI)001150736300001 ()2-s2.0-85183913929 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2024-02-14 Created: 2024-02-14 Last updated: 2024-02-26
Plückelmann, C., Gustafsson Sendén, M., Bernhard-Oettel, C., Leineweber, C. & Sczesny, S. (2024). Women’s and men’s experiences with participative decision-making at workplace and organizational levels. Frontiers in Psychology, 14, Article ID 1240117.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Women’s and men’s experiences with participative decision-making at workplace and organizational levels
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2024 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 14, article id 1240117Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: The concept of participative decision-making (PDM) has been well established as a positive organizational factor, and has recently gained attention as a measure of gender inclusivity in the workplace. However, findings regarding gender differences in the experiences of PDM are inconclusive. This study hypothesized that women perceive themselves as less influential than men at the organizational level rather than at the workplace level. Furthermore, the study explored whether these assumed gender differences depend on the gender typicality of occupational positions and professions. We expected gender differences to be more pronounced for male-typed positions and professions (e.g., leadership, engineer) compared to non-male-typed occupational positions and professions (e.g., non-leadership, nurse).

Methods: Data on experiences with participative decision-making at the workplace and organizational levels were drawn from a large representative Swedish survey (N = 10,500; 60% women).

Results: Results showed that women experienced being less influential than men at the organizational level, whereas the experiences of women and men did not differ at the workplace level. The gender difference at the organizational level was not related to the gender typicality of position and profession.

Discussion: The findings highlight the importance of the inclusion of both women and men in strategic, large-scale decisions for achieving gender equality at work.

Keywords
participative decision-making, gender equality, leadership, gender stereotypes, gender roles
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology) Gender Studies
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-226264 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2023.1240117 (DOI)001161209900001 ()2-s2.0-85184715169 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2024-02-05 Created: 2024-02-05 Last updated: 2024-02-27Bibliographically approved
Stephan, U., Zbierowski, P., Pérez-Luño, A., Wach, D., Wiklund, J., Cabañas, M. A., . . . Zahid, M. M. (2023). Act or Wait-and-See? Adversity, Agility, and Entrepreneur Wellbeing across Countries during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, 47(3), 682-723
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Act or Wait-and-See? Adversity, Agility, and Entrepreneur Wellbeing across Countries during the COVID-19 Pandemic
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2023 (English)In: Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, ISSN 1042-2587, E-ISSN 1540-6520, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 682-723Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

How can entrepreneurs protect their wellbeing during a crisis? Does engaging agility (namely, opportunity agility and planning agility) in response to adversity help entrepreneurs safeguard their wellbeing? Activated by adversity, agility may function as a specific resilience mechanism enabling positive adaption to crisis. We studied 3162 entrepreneurs from 20 countries during the COVID-19 pandemic and found that more severe national lockdowns enhanced firm-level adversity for entrepreneurs and diminished their wellbeing. Moreover, entrepreneurs who combined opportunity agility with planning agility experienced higher wellbeing but planning agility alone lowered wellbeing. Entrepreneur agility offers a new agentic perspective to research on entrepreneur wellbeing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2023
Keywords
entrepreneurship, wellbeing, agility, crisis, life satisfaction, subjective vitality, stress, COVID-19 pandemic, adversity, resilience
National Category
Economics and Business Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-207285 (URN)10.1177/10422587221104820 (DOI)000811511000001 ()2-s2.0-85131757706 (Scopus ID)
Note

In Sweden the study was supported by the Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare (FORTE) Grant no 2017-01063 and Grant no 2019-01311.

Available from: 2022-07-13 Created: 2022-07-13 Last updated: 2024-01-30Bibliographically approved
Bergman, L. E. & Bernhard-Oettel, C. (2023). Entering and exiting self employment – how do they relate to health and well-being?. In: Book of Abstracts (DRAFT): 21st EAWOP Congress: The Future is Now: the changing world of work, Katowice, Poland. Paper presented at The 21st EAWOP Congress: The Future is Now: the changing world of work, Katowice, Poland, 24–27 May, 2023. (pp. 415-416). , Article ID OP260.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Entering and exiting self employment – how do they relate to health and well-being?
2023 (English)In: Book of Abstracts (DRAFT): 21st EAWOP Congress: The Future is Now: the changing world of work, Katowice, Poland, 2023, p. 415-416, article id OP260Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Research goals and motivation: Self-employed workers contribute significantly to our society in terms of economic productivity, job opportunity and innovation. Thus, it is in the interest of our society to support and encourage self employment. It is well documented that self-employed workers – on average – experience higher levels of wellbeing, and less mental health problems than employed workers do. However, self-employed workers are a highly heterogeneous group when it comes to who they are, how they work, and their health status. Thus, averages are not sufficient to inform researchers, policymakers and companies on how to understand the mental health and wellbeing of this group of workers. 

Workers enter and exit self employment all the time as business opportunities occur, need of an income arises, innovations are created, and businesses fail. However, little is known about the mechanisms behind these career transitions beyond economic factors. Is the decision to start a business related to wellbeing, and how? How many self-employed workers are thriving over time, both when it comes to wellbeing and their business? Who is struggling and experiencing mental health problems, and is this related to exiting self employment? Questions like these currently go unanswered. 

Theoretical background: This study is mainly exploratory, but mental health problems, wellbeing and how it develops and how it relates to entering and exiting self employment can be related work environment. The effort-reward imbalance model (ERI) has proven to be a good framework to understand health developments, and is adapted and used in this study as theoretical framework. 

Method: Latent transition analysis (LTA) is used to consider both the longitudinal aspect and the heterogeneity of the group of self-employed workers, in a unique and novel way. We investigate what profiles of mental health and wellbeing exist among self-employed workers, how common they are, and how the workers transition between these profiles over time. Further, we study how the profiles and transitions between them relate to entrepreneurial entrance and exit, work environment factors (ERI) and background variables (i.e., age and gender). 

We use data from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) The current study is based on participants who responded to the 5 th -7 th wave of SLOSH conducted in 2014 (response rate 53%), 2016 (response rate 51%) and 2018 (response rate 48%). In this study, we use respondents who were self-employed at any of the three time points (N=2327). 

Results: Results of all statistical analyses will be available when the conference takes place. Preliminary findings of factor analysis show that all scales have adequate fit and factor loadings. Based on previous research we expect to find at least one profile of relatively good mental health and wellbeing, as well as profiles with less advantageous mental health. We also expect that work environment factors are linked to health profiles such that better health is found in workers with less ERI. ERI, a well-documented theoretic model, is used to validate the health and wellbeing profiles. Probably, exits out of or entrance into self employment is related to changes in health and work environment. Mechanisms, the number of transitions, and the temporal order will be explored in our study. 

Limitations: The limitations of this study lie in the exploratory nature of the analysis, and more studies will be needed to further validate any found profiles. 

Relevance to congress theme: This study is relevant to the first theme of the congress: Careers and the labour market. Specifically, career transitions and employee mobility. With regard to the UN SDG, our study addresses good health and wellbeing and decent work and economic growth. 

Conclusions: Exact conclusions will depend on the findings, but the study is one of the first to focus on health profiles of self-employed workers, and ways in which these workers’ mental health and wellbeing changes in relation to ERI and decisions to change employment. The results will yield a better understanding of how self-employed workers thrive or struggle, and how to identify the ones that struggle. This will also help to discuss potential possibilities to create better circumstances or preventive tools to shape decent work and sustainability of careers that involve self employment.

Keywords
self employment, wellbeing, mental health
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-218888 (URN)
Conference
The 21st EAWOP Congress: The Future is Now: the changing world of work, Katowice, Poland, 24–27 May, 2023.
Available from: 2023-06-26 Created: 2023-06-26 Last updated: 2023-06-27Bibliographically approved
Byström, M., Wood, I., Bernhard-Oettel, C. & Hau, S. (2023). Narrated Experiences of Sexual and Gender Minority Refugees: Resilience in the Context of Hardship from Pre- to Post-Migration. Nordic Journal of Migration Research, 13(1), Article ID 3.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Narrated Experiences of Sexual and Gender Minority Refugees: Resilience in the Context of Hardship from Pre- to Post-Migration
2023 (English)In: Nordic Journal of Migration Research, E-ISSN 1799-649X, Vol. 13, no 1, article id 3Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Refugees from sexual and gender minorities (SGMs) face particular hardships, which demand adaptive responses. This pilot study explored SGM refugees’ experiences of resilience within the context of hardship from pre- to post-migration. Eleven semi-structured interviews with SGM refugees who had migrated to Sweden were analysed using thematic analysis. Four themes were identified: (1) Concealing Identity in Response to Pervasive Oppression, (2) Living in Suspension, (3) External Sources of Support and (4) Strength from Within. Respondents reported utilising limited external resources and employing considerable internal resources in order to navigate and survive in the face of hardships that carried over and shifted across time. A more nuanced understanding of the connections between resilience and hardship is needed to inform post-migration reception practices and service provision in order to facilitate resilience in SGM refugees.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Helsinki University Press, 2023
Keywords
sexual minorities, gender minorities, SOGI, LGBT, refugees, asylum seekers, Sweden
National Category
Other Social Sciences Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-215806 (URN)10.33134/njmr.364 (DOI)000936177800003 ()
Available from: 2023-03-29 Created: 2023-03-29 Last updated: 2024-01-17Bibliographically approved
Peristera, P., Stengård, J., Eib, C., Bernhard-Oettel, C. & Leineweber, C. (2023). Organizational injustice and sickness absence: The moderating role of locked-in status. SSM - Population Health, 23, Article ID 101427.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Organizational injustice and sickness absence: The moderating role of locked-in status
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2023 (English)In: SSM - Population Health, ISSN 2352-8273, Vol. 23, article id 101427Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Organizational injustice is known to negatively affect employees' health and to increase the risk for sickness absence. The negative health effects are also known to be more pronounced in uncontrollable, strain increasing, situations at the workplace. This study tests whether locked-in status, i.e., being stuck in a non-preferred workplace, modifies the associations between injustice perceptions and frequent (>= 2 times/yr) and long (>= 8 days/yr) sickness absence. The sample contained 2631 permanent employees from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health in 2018 and 2020. Multigroup structural equation modelling was used to compare the proposed relationships between employees who are locked-in in their workplace and employees who are not. We found a positive association between higher overall organizational injustice and long sickness absence two years later, with the association being stronger for the locked-in group. Also, higher injustice was associated with more frequent sickness absence, but only for those not being locked-in.

Employees being locked-in seem to have higher risk of long-term sickness absence which might indicate more serious health problems. Employees not being locked-in more often take short sickness absence, which could indicate a coping behaviour to handle high strain. This study adds knowledge to the role of locked-in status as a moderator in the much-studied relationship between organizational justice and health as well as to the multiple reasons underlying sickness absence.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
organizational overall (in)justice, frequent and short sickness absence, duration of sickness absence, locked-in status, longitudinal SEM models
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-220910 (URN)10.1016/j.ssmph.2023.101427 (DOI)001055159400001 ()37215400 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85159306608 (Scopus ID)
Note

The study was funded by Swedish Research Council for Health, Working life and Welfare (Forte, grant number 2017-0259) and utilised data from the REWHARD consortium supported by the Swedish Research Council (VR; grant number 2017-00624).

Available from: 2023-09-18 Created: 2023-09-18 Last updated: 2024-01-12Bibliographically approved
Plückelmann, C., Gustafsson Sendén, M., Bernhard-Oettel, C., Leineweber, C. & Sczesny, S. (2023). Women´s and men´s experiences with participative decision making at workplace and organisational levels. In: : . Paper presented at 5th G-VERSITY European Training Network Workshop, Nijmegen , The Netherlands, 17-21 April, 2023..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Women´s and men´s experiences with participative decision making at workplace and organisational levels
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2023 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Participative decision-making (PDM) refers to the involvement of both employees and managers in decision-making processes, allowing them to provide input on work-related or organizational matters. Evaluating gender equality in decision-making power is important for organizations, as it impacts various work-related outcomes.This study examined gender differences in PDM in Swedish organizations. In this study, the focus was on direct PDM at the workplace and organizational levels.The study involved a large nationally representative survey in Sweden with 10,500 participants from different types of occupations. The results revealed that women perceived themselves to be less influential at the organizational level, while no gender differences were found at the individual workplace level.

Keywords
gender equality, participative decision making
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-219200 (URN)
Conference
5th G-VERSITY European Training Network Workshop, Nijmegen , The Netherlands, 17-21 April, 2023.
Available from: 2023-07-14 Created: 2023-07-14 Last updated: 2024-01-08Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-8683-115X

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