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Publications (10 of 78) Show all publications
Pang, P. T. H., Dietrich, T., Coughlin, M. W., Bulla, M., Tews, I., Almualla, M., . . . Van Den Broeck, C. (2023). An updated nuclear-physics and multi-messenger astrophysics framework for binary neutron star mergers. Nature Communications, 14(1), Article ID 8352.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An updated nuclear-physics and multi-messenger astrophysics framework for binary neutron star mergers
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2023 (English)In: Nature Communications, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 14, no 1, article id 8352Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The multi-messenger detection of the gravitational-wave signal GW170817, the corresponding kilonova AT2017gfo and the short gamma-ray burst GRB170817A, as well as the observed afterglow has delivered a scientific breakthrough. For an accurate interpretation of all these different messengers, one requires robust theoretical models that describe the emitted gravitational-wave, the electromagnetic emission, and dense matter reliably. In addition, one needs efficient and accurate computational tools to ensure a correct cross-correlation between the models and the observational data. For this purpose, we have developed the Nuclear-physics and Multi-Messenger Astrophysics framework NMMA. The code allows incorporation of nuclear-physics constraints at low densities as well as X-ray and radio observations of isolated neutron stars. In previous works, the NMMA code has allowed us to constrain the equation of state of supranuclear dense matter, to measure the Hubble constant, and to compare dense-matter physics probed in neutron-star mergers and in heavy-ion collisions, and to classify electromagnetic observations and perform model selection. Here, we show an extension of the NMMA code as a first attempt of analyzing the gravitational-wave signal, the kilonova, and the gamma-ray burst afterglow simultaneously. Incorporating all available information, we estimate the radius of a 1.4M neutron star to be R = 11.98+0.35−0.40 km.

National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-226047 (URN)10.1038/s41467-023-43932-6 (DOI)001128854200029 ()38123551 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85180214203 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2024-02-13 Created: 2024-02-13 Last updated: 2024-02-13Bibliographically approved
Harvey, L., Maguire, K., Magee, M. R., Bulla, M., Dhawan, S., Schulze, S., . . . Wold, A. (2023). Early-time spectroscopic modelling of the transitional Type Ia Supernova 2021rhu with tardis. Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 522(3), 4444-4467
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Early-time spectroscopic modelling of the transitional Type Ia Supernova 2021rhu with tardis
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2023 (English)In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 522, no 3, p. 4444-4467Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An open question in SN Ia research is where the boundary lies between 'normal' Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) that are used in cosmological measurements and those that sit off the Phillips relation. We present the spectroscopic modelling of one such '86G-like' transitional SN Ia, SN 2021rhu, that has recently been employed as a local Hubble Constant calibrator using a tip of the red-giant branch measurement. We detail its modelling from -12 d until maximum brightness using the radiative-transfer spectral-synthesis code tardis. Please check and correct this paper accordingly. We base our modelling on literature delayed-detonation and deflagration models of Chandrasekhar mass white dwarfs, as well as the double-detonation models of sub-Chandrasekhar mass white dwarfs. We present a new method for 'projecting' abundance profiles to different density profiles for ease of computation. Due to the small velocity extent and low outer densities of the W7 profile, we find it inadequate to reproduce the evolution of SN 2021rhu as it fails to match the high-velocity calcium components. The host extinction of SN 2021rhu is uncertain but we use modelling with and without an extinction correction to set lower and upper limits on the abundances of individual species. Comparing these limits to literature models we conclude that the spectral evolution of SN 2021rhu is also incompatible with double-detonation scenarios, lying more in line with those resulting from the delayed-detonation mechanism (although there are some discrepancies, in particular a larger titanium abundance in SN 2021rhu compared to the literature). This suggests that SN 2021rhu is likely a lower luminosity, and hence lower temperature, version of a normal SN Ia.

Keywords
techniques: spectroscopic, transients: supernovae
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-229851 (URN)10.1093/mnras/stad1226 (DOI)000993852500007 ()2-s2.0-85159861327 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2024-05-31 Created: 2024-05-31 Last updated: 2024-05-31Bibliographically approved
Shrestha, M., Bulla, M., Nativi, L., Markin, I., Rosswog, S. & Dietrich, T. (2023). Impact of jets on kilonova photometric and polarimetric emission from binary neutron star mergers. Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 523(2), 2990-3000
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of jets on kilonova photometric and polarimetric emission from binary neutron star mergers
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2023 (English)In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 523, no 2, p. 2990-3000Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A merger of binary neutron stars creates heavy unstable elements whose radioactive decay produces a thermal emission known as a kilonova. In this paper, we predict the photometric and polarimetric behaviour of this emission by performing 3D Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulations. In particular, we choose three hydrodynamical models for merger ejecta, two including jets with different luminosities and one without a jet structure, to help decipher the impact of jets on the light curve and polarimetric behaviour. In terms of photometry, we find distinct colour evolutions across the three models. Models without a jet show the highest variation in light curves for different viewing angles. In contrast to previous studies, we find models with a jet to produce fainter kilonovae when viewed from orientations close to the jet axis, compared to a model without a jet. In terms of polarimetry, we predict relatively low levels (similar to 0.3-0.4 per cent) at all orientations that, however, remain non-negligible until a few days after the merger and longer than previously found. Despite the low levels, we find that the presence of a jet enhances the degree of polarization at wavelengths ranging from 0.25 to 2.5 mu m, an effect that is found to increase with the jet luminosity. Thus, future photometric and polarimetric campaigns should observe kilonovae in blue and red filters for a few days after the merger to help constrain the properties of the ejecta (e.g. composition) and jet.

Keywords
gravitational waves, radiative transfer, techniques: photometric, techniques: polarimetric -(transients:) neutron star mergers
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-229854 (URN)10.1093/mnras/stad1583 (DOI)001023507200011 ()2-s2.0-85162148496 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2024-05-31 Created: 2024-05-31 Last updated: 2024-05-31Bibliographically approved
Neuweiler, A., Dietrich, T., Bulla, M., Chaurasia, S. V., Rosswog, S. & Ujevic, M. (2023). Long-term simulations of dynamical ejecta: Homologous expansion and kilonova properties. Physical Review D: covering particles, fields, gravitation, and cosmology, 107(2), Article ID 023016.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Long-term simulations of dynamical ejecta: Homologous expansion and kilonova properties
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2023 (English)In: Physical Review D: covering particles, fields, gravitation, and cosmology, ISSN 2470-0010, E-ISSN 2470-0029, Vol. 107, no 2, article id 023016Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Accurate numerical-relativity simulations are essential to study the rich phenomenology of binary neutron star systems. In this work, we focus on the material that is dynamically ejected during the merger process and on the kilonova transient it produces. Typically, radiative transfer simulations of kilonova light curves from ejecta make the assumption of homologous expansion, but this condition might not always be met at the end of usually very short numerical-relativity simulations. In this article, we adjust the infrastructure of the bam code to enable longer simulations of the dynamical ejecta with the aim of investigating when the condition of homologous expansion is satisfied. In fact, we observe that the deviations from a perfect homologous expansion are about ≲ 30% at roughly 100 ms after the merger. While the calculation of the kilonova light curves is affected by the resolution as well as our method of simplifying the ejecta simulation, these deviations from the homologous expansion also bias the results. We determine this influence by extracting the ejecta data for different reference times and use them as input to radiative transfer simulations. Our results show that the light curves for extraction times later than 80 ms after the merger deviate by ≲ 0.4  mag and are mostly consistent with numerical noise. Accordingly, deviations from the homologous expansion for the dynamical ejecta component are negligible from ∼ 80  ms for the purpose of kilonova modeling.

National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-215881 (URN)10.1103/PhysRevD.107.023016 (DOI)000925057300002 ()2-s2.0-85147166674 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-03-30 Created: 2023-03-30 Last updated: 2023-03-30Bibliographically approved
Charalampopoulos, P., Bulla, M., Bonnerot, C. & Leloudas, G. (2023). Modeling continuum polarization levels of tidal disruption events based on the collision-induced outflow model. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 670, Article ID A150.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modeling continuum polarization levels of tidal disruption events based on the collision-induced outflow model
2023 (English)In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 670, article id A150Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Tidal disruption events (TDEs) have been observed in the optical and ultraviolet (UV) for more than a decade, but the underlying emission mechanism still remains a puzzle. It has been suggested that viewing angle effects could potentially explain their large photometric and spectroscopic diversity. Polarization is indeed sensitive to the viewing angle and the first polarimetry studies of TDEs are now available, calling for a theoretical interpretation. In this study, we model the continuum polarization levels of TDEs using the three-dimensional (3D) Monte Carlo radiative transfer code POSSIS and the collision-induced outflow (CIO) TDE emission scenario, where unbound shocked gas originating from a debris stream intersection point offset from the black hole (BH), reprocesses the hard emission from the accretion flow into UV and optical bands. We explore two different cases of peak mass fallback rates Ṁp (∼ 3 M⊙ yr−1 and ∼ 0.3 M yr−1) while varying the following geometrical parameters: the distance Rint from the BH to the intersection point where the stellar debris stream self intersects; the radius of the photosphere around the BH Rph, on the surface of which the optical and UV photons are generated; and the opening angle Δθ that defines the fraction of the surface of the photosphere on which the photons are generated (anisotropic emission). For the high mass fallback rate case, we find for every viewing angle polarization levels below one (P < 1%) and P < 0.5% for ten out of 12 simulations. The absolute value of polarization reaches its maximum (Pmax) for equatorial viewing angles. For the low mass fallback rate case, the model can produce a wide range of polarization levels for different viewing angles and configurations. The maximum value predicted is P ≈ 8.8% and Pmax is reached for intermediate viewing angles. We find that the polarization strongly depends on (i) the optical depths at the central regions (between the emitting photosphere and the intersection point) set by the different Ṁp values and (ii) the viewing angle. With time, there is a drop in densities and optical depths leading to a general increase in polarization values and Pmax, although the opposite trend can be observed for specific viewing angles. Increasing the distance Rint between the intersection point and the BH seems to generally favor higher polarization levels. Finally, by comparing our model predictions to polarization observations of a few TDEs, we attempt to constrain their observed viewing angles and we show that multi-epoch polarimetric observations can become a key factor in constraining the viewing angle of TDEs.

Keywords
black hole physics, polarization, radiative transfer, methods: numerical, Galaxy: nucleus
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-220242 (URN)10.1051/0004-6361/202245014 (DOI)000981621400011 ()2-s2.0-85148666627 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-08-23 Created: 2023-08-23 Last updated: 2023-08-23Bibliographically approved
Yang (杨轶), Y., Baade, D., Hoeflich, P., Wang, L., Cikota, A., Chen, T.-W., . . . Wang, X. (2023). The interaction of supernova 2018evt with a substantial amount of circumstellar matter – An SN 1997cy-like event. Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 519(2), 1618-1647
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The interaction of supernova 2018evt with a substantial amount of circumstellar matter – An SN 1997cy-like event
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2023 (English)In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 519, no 2, p. 1618-1647Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A rare class of supernovae (SNe) is characterized by strong interaction between the ejecta and several solar masses of circumstellar matter (CSM) as evidenced by strong Balmer-line emission. Within the first few weeks after the explosion, they may display spectral features similar to overluminous Type Ia SNe, while at later phase their observation properties exhibit remarkable similarities with some extreme case of Type IIn SNe that show strong Balmer lines years after the explosion. We present polarimetric observations of SN 2018evt obtained by the ESO Very Large Telescope from 172 to 219 d after the estimated time of peak luminosity to study the geometry of the CSM. The non-zero continuum polarization decreases over time, suggesting that the mass-loss of the progenitor star is aspherical. The prominent H α emission can be decomposed into a broad, time-evolving component and an intermediate-width, static component. The former shows polarized signals, and it is likely to arise from a cold dense shell (CDS) within the region between the forward and reverse shocks. The latter is significantly unpolarized, and it is likely to arise from shocked, fragmented gas clouds in the H-rich CSM. We infer that SN 2018evt exploded inside a massive and aspherical circumstellar cloud. The symmetry axes of the CSM and the SN appear to be similar. SN 2018evt shows observational properties common to events that display strong interaction between the ejecta and CSM, implying that they share similar circumstellar configurations. Our preliminary estimate also suggests that the circumstellar environment of SN 2018evt has been significantly enriched at a rate of ∼0.1 M yr−1 over a period of >100 yr. 

Keywords
polarization, circumstellar matter, supernovae: individual (SN2018evt)
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-215789 (URN)10.1093/mnras/stac3477 (DOI)000913810500002 ()
Available from: 2023-03-31 Created: 2023-03-31 Last updated: 2023-03-31Bibliographically approved
Bruch, R. J., Gal-Yam, A., Yaron, O., Chen, P., Strotjohann, N. L., Irani, I., . . . Yan, L. (2023). The Prevalence and Influence of Circumstellar Material around Hydrogen-rich Supernova Progenitors. Astrophysical Journal, 952(2), Article ID 119.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Prevalence and Influence of Circumstellar Material around Hydrogen-rich Supernova Progenitors
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2023 (English)In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 952, no 2, article id 119Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Narrow transient emission lines (flash-ionization features) in early supernova (SN) spectra trace the presence of circumstellar material (CSM) around the massive progenitor stars of core-collapse SNe. The lines disappear within days after the SN explosion, suggesting that this material is spatially confined, and originates from enhanced mass loss shortly (months to a few years) prior to the explosion. We performed a systematic survey of H-rich (Type II) SNe discovered within less than 2 days from the explosion during the first phase of the Zwicky Transient Facility survey (2018–2020), finding 30 events for which a first spectrum was obtained within <2 days from the explosion. The measured fraction of events showing flash-ionization features (>36% at the 95% confidence level) confirms that elevated mass loss in massive stars prior to SN explosion is common. We find that SNe II showing flash-ionization features are not significantly brighter, nor bluer, nor more slowly rising than those without. This implies that CSM interaction does not contribute significantly to their early continuum emission, and that the CSM is likely optically thin. We measured the persistence duration of flash-ionization emission and find that most SNe show flash features for ≈5 days. Rarer events, with persistence timescales >10 days, are brighter and rise longer, suggesting these may be intermediate between regular SNe II and strongly interacting SNe IIn.

National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-221092 (URN)10.3847/1538-4357/acd8be (DOI)001033420500001 ()2-s2.0-85166109292 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-09-18 Created: 2023-09-18 Last updated: 2023-09-18Bibliographically approved
Andreoni, I., Sagués Carracedo, A., Schulze, S., Sollerman, J., Bulla, M., Kool, E. C. & Zhang, J. (2022). A very luminous jet from the disruption of a star by a massive black hole. Nature, 612(7940), 430-434
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A very luminous jet from the disruption of a star by a massive black hole
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2022 (English)In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 612, no 7940, p. 430-434Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Tidal disruption events (TDEs) are bursts of electromagnetic energy that are released when supermassive black holes at the centres of galaxies violently disrupt a star that passes too close1. TDEs provide a window through which to study accretion onto supermassive black holes; in some rare cases, this accretion leads to launching of a relativistic jet2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9, but the necessary conditions are not fully understood. The best-studied jetted TDE so far is Swift J1644+57, which was discovered in γ-rays, but was too obscured by dust to be seen at optical wavelengths. Here we report the optical detection of AT2022cmc, a rapidly fading source at cosmological distance (redshift z = 1.19325) the unique light curve of which transitioned into a luminous plateau within days. Observations of a bright counterpart at other wavelengths, including X-ray, submillimetre and radio, supports the interpretation of AT2022cmc as a jetted TDE containing a synchrotron ‘afterglow’, probably launched by a supermassive black hole with spin greater than approximately 0.3. Using four years of Zwicky Transient Facility10 survey data, we calculate a rate of 0.02+0.04−0.01 Gpc−3 yr−1 for on-axis jetted TDEs on the basis of the luminous, fast-fading red component, thus providing a measurement complementary to the rates derived from X-ray and radio observations11. Correcting for the beaming angle effects, this rate confirms that approximately 1 per cent of TDEs have relativistic jets. Optical surveys can use AT2022cmc as a prototype to unveil a population of jetted TDEs.

National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-215888 (URN)10.1038/s41586-022-05465-8 (DOI)000936400900029 ()36450988 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85143175488 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-03-30 Created: 2023-03-30 Last updated: 2024-05-30Bibliographically approved
Leloudas, G., Bulla, M., Cikota, A., Dai, L., Thomsen, L. L., Maund, J. R., . . . Ramirez-Ruiz, E. (2022). An asymmetric electron-scattering photosphere around optical tidal disruption events. Nature Astronomy, 6(10), 1193-1202
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An asymmetric electron-scattering photosphere around optical tidal disruption events
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2022 (English)In: Nature Astronomy, E-ISSN 2397-3366, Vol. 6, no 10, p. 1193-1202Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A star crossing the tidal radius of a supermassive black hole will be spectacularly ripped apart with an accompanying burst of radiation. A few tens of such tidal disruption events have now been identified in optical wavelengths, but the exact origin of the strong optical emission remains inconclusive. Here we report polarimetric observations of three tidal disruption events. The continuum polarization appears independent of wavelength, while emission lines are partially depolarized. These signatures are consistent with photons being scattered and polarized in an envelope of free electrons. An almost axisymmetric photosphere viewed from different angles is in broad agreement with the data, but there is also evidence for deviations from axial symmetry before the peak of the flare and significant time evolution at early times, compatible with the rapid formation of an accretion disk. By combining a super-Eddington accretion model with a radiative transfer code, we simulate the polarization degree as a function of disk mass and viewing angle and we show that the predicted levels are compatible with the observations for extended reprocessing envelopes of similar to 1,000 gravitational radii. Spectropolarimetry therefore constitutes a new observational test for tidal disruption event models, and opens an important new line of exploration in the study of tidal disruption events.

National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-210737 (URN)10.1038/s41550-022-01767-z (DOI)000863153200003 ()2-s2.0-85139082281 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-10-26 Created: 2022-10-26 Last updated: 2022-10-26Bibliographically approved
Chu, M. R., Cikota, A., Baade, D., Patat, F., Filippenko, A. V., Wheeler, J. C., . . . Wang, L. (2022). An imaging polarimetry survey of Type Ia supernovae: are peculiar extinction and polarization properties produced by circumstellar or interstellar matter?. Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 509(4), 6028-6046
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An imaging polarimetry survey of Type Ia supernovae: are peculiar extinction and polarization properties produced by circumstellar or interstellar matter?
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2022 (English)In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 509, no 4, p. 6028-6046Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Some highly reddened Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) display low total-to-selective extinction ratios (RV ≲ 2) in comparison to that of typical Milky Way dust (RV ≈ 3.3), and polarization curves that rise steeply to blue wavelengths, with peak polarization values at short wavelengths (⁠λmax<0.4μ) in comparison to the typical Galactic values (⁠λmax≈0.55μ m). Understanding the source of these properties could provide insight into the progenitor systems of SNe Ia. We aim to determine whether they are the result of the host galaxy’s interstellar dust or circumstellar dust. This is accomplished by analysing the continuum polarization of 66 SNe Ia in dust-rich spiral galaxies and 13 SNe Ia in dust-poor elliptical galaxies as a function of normalized galactocentric distance. We find that there is a general trend of SNe Ia in spiral galaxies displaying increased polarization values when located closer to the host galaxies’ centre, while SNe Ia in elliptical host galaxies display low polarization. Furthermore, all highly polarized SNe Ia in spiral host galaxies display polarization curves rising toward blue wavelengths, while no evidence of such polarization properties is shown in elliptical host galaxies. This indicates that the source of the peculiar polarization curves is likely the result of interstellar material as opposed to circumstellar material. The peculiar polarization and extinction properties observed toward some SNe Ia may be explained by the radiative torque disruption mechanism induced by the SN or the interstellar radiation field.

Keywords
polarization, supernovae: general, ISM: general
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-205195 (URN)10.1093/mnras/stab3392 (DOI)000833030600016 ()
Available from: 2022-06-09 Created: 2022-06-09 Last updated: 2022-08-23Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-8255-5127

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