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Publications (10 of 279) Show all publications
Antochi, V. C., Blanco, C., Conrad, J., Emken, T., Joy, A., Mahlstedt, J., . . . Tan, P.-L. (2023). A next-generation liquid xenon observatory for dark matter and neutrino physics. Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics, 50(1), Article ID 013001.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A next-generation liquid xenon observatory for dark matter and neutrino physics
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics, ISSN 0954-3899, E-ISSN 1361-6471, Vol. 50, no 1, article id 013001Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The nature of dark matter and properties of neutrinos are among the most pressing issues in contemporary particle physics. The dual-phase xenon time-projection chamber is the leading technology to cover the available parameter space for weakly interacting massive particles, while featuring extensive sensitivity to many alternative dark matter candidates. These detectors can also study neutrinos through neutrinoless double-beta decay and through a variety of astrophysical sources. A next-generation xenon-based detector will therefore be a true multi-purpose observatory to significantly advance particle physics, nuclear physics, astrophysics, solar physics, and cosmology. This review article presents the science cases for such a detector.

Keywords
dark matter, neutrinoless double-beta decay, neutrinos, supernova, direct detection, astroparticle physics, xenon
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-215894 (URN)10.1088/1361-6471/ac841a (DOI)000928191300001 ()2-s2.0-85145605367 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-03-29 Created: 2023-03-29 Last updated: 2023-03-29Bibliographically approved
Aprile, E., Antochi, V. C., Conrad, J., Rosso, A. G., Joy, A., Mahlstedt, J., . . . Zhu, T. (2023). Detector signal characterization with a Bayesian network in XENONnT. Physical Review D: covering particles, fields, gravitation, and cosmology, 108(1), Article ID 012016.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Detector signal characterization with a Bayesian network in XENONnT
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2023 (English)In: Physical Review D: covering particles, fields, gravitation, and cosmology, ISSN 2470-0010, E-ISSN 2470-0029, Vol. 108, no 1, article id 012016Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We developed a detector signal characterization model based on a Bayesian network trained on the waveform attributes generated by a dual-phase xenon time projection chamber. By performing inference on the model, we produced a quantitative metric of signal characterization and demonstrate that this metric can be used to determine whether a detector signal is sourced from a scintillation or an ionization process. We describe the method and its performance on electronic-recoil (ER) data taken during the first science run of the XENONnT dark matter experiment. We demonstrate the first use of a Bayesian network in a waveform -based analysis of detector signals. This method resulted in a 3% increase in ER event-selection efficiency with a simultaneously effective rejection of events outside of the region of interest. The findings of this analysis are consistent with the previous analysis from XENONnT, namely a background-only fit of the ER data.

National Category
Subatomic Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-223219 (URN)10.1103/PhysRevD.108.012016 (DOI)001056646500002 ()2-s2.0-85166773655 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-12-06 Created: 2023-12-06 Last updated: 2023-12-07Bibliographically approved
Aprile, E., Antochi, V. C., Conrad, J., Rosso, A. G., Joy, A., Mahlstedt, J., . . . Zhu, T. (2023). First Dark Matter Search with Nuclear Recoils from the XENONnT Experiment. Physical Review Letters, 131(4), Article ID 041003.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>First Dark Matter Search with Nuclear Recoils from the XENONnT Experiment
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2023 (English)In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 131, no 4, article id 041003Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We report on the first search for nuclear recoils from dark matter in the form of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) with the XENONnT experiment, which is based on a two-phase time projection chamber with a sensitive liquid xenon mass of 5.9 ton. During the (1.09±0.03)  ton yr exposure used for this search, the intrinsic 85Kr and 222Rn concentrations in the liquid target are reduced to unprecedentedly low levels, giving an electronic recoil background rate of (15.8±1.3)  events/ton yr keV in the region of interest. A blind analysis of nuclear recoil events with energies between 3.3 and 60.5 keV finds no significant excess. This leads to a minimum upper limit on the spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross section of 2.58×10−47  cm2 for a WIMP mass of 28  GeV/c2 at 90% confidence level. Limits for spin-dependent interactions are also provided. Both the limit and the sensitivity for the full range of WIMP masses analyzed here improve on previous results obtained with the XENON1T experiment for the same exposure.

National Category
Subatomic Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-223217 (URN)10.1103/PhysRevLett.131.041003 (DOI)001062122500003 ()37566859 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85166740574 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-12-01 Created: 2023-12-01 Last updated: 2023-12-07Bibliographically approved
Antochi, V. C., Conrad, J., Gallo Rosso, A., Joy, A., Mahlstedt, J. & Tan, P.-L. (2023). Low-energy calibration of XENON1T with an internal 37Ar source. European Physical Journal C, 83(6), Article ID 542.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Low-energy calibration of XENON1T with an internal 37Ar source
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2023 (English)In: European Physical Journal C, ISSN 1434-6044, E-ISSN 1434-6052, Vol. 83, no 6, article id 542Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A low-energy electronic recoil calibration of XENON1T, a dual-phase xenon time projection chamber, with an internal 37Ar source was performed. This calibration source features a 35-day half-life and provides two mono-energetic lines at 2.82 keV and 0.27 keV. The photon yield and electron yield at 2.82 keV are measured to be (32.3±0.3) photons/keV and (40.6±0.5) electrons/keV, respectively, in agreement with other measurements and with NEST predictions. The electron yield at 0.27 keV is also measured and it is (68.0+6.3−3.7) electrons/keV. The 37Ar calibration confirms that the detector is well-understood in the energy region close to the detection threshold, with the 2.82 keV line reconstructed at (2.83±0.02) keV, which further validates the model used to interpret the low-energy electronic recoil excess previously reported by XENON1T. The ability to efficiently remove argon with cryogenic distillation after the calibration proves that 37Ar can be considered as a regular calibration source for multi-tonne xenon detectors.

National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-225073 (URN)10.1140/epjc/s10052-023-11512-z (DOI)001068182400004 ()2-s2.0-85163608131 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2024-01-09 Created: 2024-01-09 Last updated: 2024-01-09Bibliographically approved
Aprile, E., Antochi, V. C., Conrad, J., Rosso, A. G., Joy, A., Mahlstedt, J., . . . Zhu, T. (2023). Search for events in XENON1T associated with gravitational waves. Physical Review D: covering particles, fields, gravitation, and cosmology, 108(7), Article ID 072015.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Search for events in XENON1T associated with gravitational waves
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2023 (English)In: Physical Review D: covering particles, fields, gravitation, and cosmology, ISSN 2470-0010, E-ISSN 2470-0029, Vol. 108, no 7, article id 072015Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We perform a blind search for particle signals in the XENON1T dark matter detector that occur close in time to gravitational-wave signals in the LIGO and Virgo observatories. No particle signal is observed in the nuclear recoil and electronic recoil channels within ±500 seconds of observations of the gravitational-wave signals GW170104, GW170729, GW170817, GW170818, and GW170823. We use this null result to constrain monoenergetic neutrinos and axion-like particles emitted in the closest coalescence GW170817, a binary neutron star merger. We set new upper limits on the fluence (time-integrated flux) of coincident neutrinos down to 17 keV at the 90% confidence level. Furthermore, we constrain the product of the coincident fluence and cross section of axion-like particles to be less than 10−29  cm2/cm2 in the [5.5–210] keV energy range at the 90% confidence level.

National Category
Subatomic Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-225370 (URN)10.1103/PhysRevD.108.072015 (DOI)001102758000001 ()2-s2.0-85178303107 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2024-01-22 Created: 2024-01-22 Last updated: 2024-01-22Bibliographically approved
Millar, A. J., Anlage, S. M., Balafendiev, R., Belov, P., van Bibber, K., Conrad, J., . . . Wooten, M. (2023). Searching for dark matter with plasma haloscopes. Physical Review D: covering particles, fields, gravitation, and cosmology, 107(5), Article ID 055013.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Searching for dark matter with plasma haloscopes
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2023 (English)In: Physical Review D: covering particles, fields, gravitation, and cosmology, ISSN 2470-0010, E-ISSN 2470-0029, Vol. 107, no 5, article id 055013Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We summarize the recent progress of the Axion Longitudinal Plasma Haloscope (ALPHA) Consortium, a new experimental collaboration to build a plasma haloscope to search for axions and dark photons. The plasma haloscope is a novel method for the detection of the resonant conversion of light dark matter to photons. ALPHA will be sensitive to QCD axions over almost a decade of parameter space, potentially discovering dark matter and resolving the strong CP problem. Unlike traditional cavity haloscopes, which are generally limited in volume by the Compton wavelength of the dark matter, plasma haloscopes use a wire metamaterial to create a tuneable artificial plasma frequency, decoupling the wavelength of light from the Compton wavelength and allowing for much stronger signals. We develop the theoretical foundations of plasma haloscopes and discuss recent experimental progress. Finally, we outline a baseline design for ALPHA and show that a full-scale experiment could discover QCD axions over almost a decade of parameter space.

National Category
Subatomic Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-216705 (URN)10.1103/PhysRevD.107.055013 (DOI)000957695500003 ()2-s2.0-85150927217 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-05-05 Created: 2023-05-05 Last updated: 2023-05-05Bibliographically approved
Aprile, E., Conrad, J., Rosso, A. G., Joy, A., Mahlstedt, J., Tan, P.-L. & Zhu, T. (2023). Searching for Heavy Dark Matter near the Planck Mass with XENON1T. Physical Review Letters, 130(26), Article ID 261002.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Searching for Heavy Dark Matter near the Planck Mass with XENON1T
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2023 (English)In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 130, no 26, article id 261002Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Multiple viable theoretical models predict heavy dark matter particles with a mass close to the Planck mass, a range relatively unexplored by current experimental measurements. We use 219.4 days of data collected with the XENON1T experiment to conduct a blind search for signals from multiply interacting massive particles (MIMPs). Their unique track signature allows a targeted analysis with only 0.05 expected background events from muons. Following unblinding, we observe no signal candidate events. This Letter places strong constraints on spin-independent interactions of dark matter particles with a mass between 1 x 1012 and 2 x 1017 GeV/c2. In addition, we present the first exclusion limits on spin-dependent MIMP-neutron and MIMP-proton cross sections for dark matter particles with masses close to the Planck scale.

National Category
Subatomic Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-223218 (URN)10.1103/PhysRevLett.130.261002 (DOI)001058033400011 ()37450817 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85164537137 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-12-01 Created: 2023-12-01 Last updated: 2023-12-07Bibliographically approved
Rosso, A. G., Algeri, S. & Conrad, J. (2023). Sequential hypothesis testing for axion haloscopes. Physical Review D: covering particles, fields, gravitation, and cosmology, 108(2), Article ID 023003.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sequential hypothesis testing for axion haloscopes
2023 (English)In: Physical Review D: covering particles, fields, gravitation, and cosmology, ISSN 2470-0010, E-ISSN 2470-0029, Vol. 108, no 2, article id 023003Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The goal of this paper is to introduce a novel likelihood-based inferential framework for axion haloscopes that is valid under the commonly applied rescanning protocol. The proposed method enjoys short data acquisition times and simple tuning of the detector configuration. Local statistical significance and power are computed analytically, avoiding the need for burdensome simulations. Adequate corrections for the look-elsewhere effect are also discussed. The performance of our inferential strategy is compared with that of a simple method that exploits the geometric probability of rescan. Finally, we exemplify the method with an application to a HAYSTAC-type axion haloscope.

National Category
Probability Theory and Statistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-221705 (URN)10.1103/PhysRevD.108.023003 (DOI)001057944800003 ()2-s2.0-85164970234 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-09-28 Created: 2023-09-28 Last updated: 2023-09-28Bibliographically approved
Aprile, E., Abe, K., Agostini, F., Ahmed Maouloud, S., Alfonsi, M., Althueser, L., . . . Zhu, T. (2022). An approximate likelihood for nuclear recoil searches with XENON1T data. European Physical Journal C, 82(11), Article ID 989.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An approximate likelihood for nuclear recoil searches with XENON1T data
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2022 (English)In: European Physical Journal C, ISSN 1434-6044, E-ISSN 1434-6052, Vol. 82, no 11, article id 989Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The XENON collaboration has published stringent limits on specific dark matter – nucleon recoil spectra from dark matter recoiling on the liquid xenon detector target. In this paper, we present an approximate likelihood for the XENON1T 1 t-year nuclear recoil search applicable to any nuclear recoil spectrum. Alongside this paper, we publish data and code to compute upper limits using the method we present. The approximate likelihood is constructed in bins of reconstructed energy, profiled along the signal expectation in each bin. This approach can be used to compute an approximate likelihood and therefore most statistical results for any nuclear recoil spectrum. Computing approximate results with this method is approximately three orders of magnitude faster than the likelihood used in the original publications of XENON1T, where limits were set for specific families of recoil spectra. Using this same method, we include toy Monte Carlo simulation-derived binwise likelihoods for the upcoming XENONnT experiment that can similarly be used to assess the sensitivity to arbitrary nuclear recoil signatures in its eventual 20 t-year exposure.

National Category
Subatomic Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-211756 (URN)10.1140/epjc/s10052-022-10913-w (DOI)000878749900001 ()2-s2.0-85141197849 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-11-25 Created: 2022-11-25 Last updated: 2022-11-25Bibliographically approved
Aprile, E., Abe, K., Agostini, F., Maouloud, S. A., Alfonsi, M., Althueser, L., . . . Zhu, T. (2022). Application and modeling of an online distillation method to reduce krypton and argon in XENON1T. Progress of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, 2022(5), Article ID 053H01.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Application and modeling of an online distillation method to reduce krypton and argon in XENON1T
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2022 (English)In: Progress of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, E-ISSN 2050-3911, Vol. 2022, no 5, article id 053H01Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A novel online distillation technique was developed for the XENON1T dark matter experiment to reduce intrinsic background components more volatile than xenon, such as krypton or argon, while the detector was operating. The method is based on a continuous purification of the gaseous volume of the detector system using the XENON1T cryogenic distillation column. A krypton-in-xenon concentration of (360 +/- 60) ppq was achieved. It is the lowest concentration measured in the fiducial volume of an operating dark matter detector to date. A model was developed and fitted to the data to describe the krypton evolution in the liquid and gas volumes of the detector system for several operation modes over the time span of 550 days, including the commissioning and science runs of XENON1T. The online distillation was also successfully applied to remove Ar-37 after its injection for a low-energy calibration in XENON1T. This makes the usage of Ar-37 as a regular calibration source possible in the future. The online distillation can be applied to next-generation liquid xenon time projection chamber experiments to remove krypton prior to, or during, any science run. The model developed here allows further optimization of the distillation strategy for future large-scale detectors.

National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-207108 (URN)10.1093/ptep/ptac074 (DOI)000804415100002 ()
Available from: 2022-07-06 Created: 2022-07-06 Last updated: 2023-02-02Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9984-4411

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