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Publications (10 of 99) Show all publications
Ebinghaus, R., Barbaro, E., Bengtson Nash, S., de Avila, C., de Wit, C. A., Dulio, V., . . . Xie, Z. (2023). Berlin statement on legacy and emerging contaminants in polar regions. Chemosphere, 327, Article ID 138530.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Berlin statement on legacy and emerging contaminants in polar regions
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2023 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 327, article id 138530Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Polar regions should be given greater consideration with respect to the monitoring, risk assessment, and management of potentially harmful chemicals, consistent with requirements of the precautionary principle. Protecting the vulnerable polar environments requires (i) raising political and public awareness and (ii) restricting and preventing global emissions of harmful chemicals at their sources. The Berlin Statement is the outcome of an international workshop with representatives of the European Commission, the Arctic Council, the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting, the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), environmental specimen banks, and data centers, as well as scientists from various international research institutions. The statement addresses urgent chemical pollution issues in the polar regions and provides recommendations for improving screening, monitoring, risk assessment, research cooperation, and open data sharing to provide environmental policy makers and chemicals management decision-makers with relevant and reliable contaminant data to better protect the polar environments. The consensus reached at the workshop can be summarized in just two words: “Act now!”

Specifically, “Act now!” to reduce the presence and impact of anthropogenic chemical pollution in polar regions by.

•Establishing participatory co-development frameworks in a permanent multi-disciplinary platform for Arctic-Antarctic collaborations and establishing exchanges between the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program (AMAP) of the Arctic Council and the Antarctic Monitoring and Assessment Program (AnMAP) of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) to increase the visibility and exchange of contaminant data and to support the development of harmonized monitoring programs.

•Integrating environmental specimen banking, innovative screening approaches and archiving systems, to provide opportunities for improved assessment of contaminants to protect polar regions.

Keywords
Polar regions, Contamination, Legacy pollutants, Chemicals of emerging concern (CECs), Arctic, Antarctica
National Category
Environmental Sciences Environmental Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-217316 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2023.138530 (DOI)000984336600001 ()37001758 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85151518276 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-05-23 Created: 2023-05-23 Last updated: 2023-05-23Bibliographically approved
Spaan, K. M., Yuan, B., Plassmann, M., Benskin, J. P. & de Wit, C. A. (2023). Characterizing the Organohalogen Iceberg: Extractable, Multihalogen Mass Balance Determination in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant Sludge. Environmental Science and Technology, 57(25), 9309-9320
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterizing the Organohalogen Iceberg: Extractable, Multihalogen Mass Balance Determination in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant Sludge
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2023 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 57, no 25, p. 9309-9320Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The large number and diversity of organohalogen compounds(OHCs)occurring in the environment poses a grand challenge to analyticalchemists. Since no single targeted method can identify and quantifyall OHCs, the size of the OHC iceberg may be underestimated.We sought to address this problem in municipal wastewater treatmentplant (WWTP) sludge by quantifying the unidentified fraction of theOHC iceberg using targeted analyses of major OHCs together with measurementsof total and extractable (organo)halogen (TX and EOX, respectively;where X = F, Cl, or Br). In addition to extensive method validationvia spike/recovery and combustion efficiency experiments, TX and/orEOX were determined in reference materials (BCR-461 and NIST SRMs2585 and 2781) for the first time. Application of the method to WWTPsludge revealed that chlorinated paraffins (CPs) accounted for most(similar to 92%) of the EOCl, while brominated flame retardants and per-and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) accounted for only 54% of theEOBr and 2% of the EOF, respectively. Moreover, unidentified EOF innonpolar CP extracts points to the existence of organofluorine(s)with physical-chemical properties unlike those of target PFAS.This study represents the first multihalogen mass balance in WWTPsludge and offers a novel approach to prioritization of sample extractsfor follow-up investigation. A multihalogenmass balance experiment in WWTP sludge revealedhigh levels of unidentified organofluorine and organobromine. Organochlorinewas characterized mainly by chlorinated paraffins.

Keywords
EOX, CIC, PFAS, chlorinated paraffins, brominated flame retardants, sewage sludge
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-229557 (URN)10.1021/acs.est.3c01212 (DOI)001004321900001 ()37306662 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2024-05-24 Created: 2024-05-24 Last updated: 2024-05-24Bibliographically approved
Tao, F., Sjöström, Y., de Wit, C. A., Hagström, K. & Hagberg, J. (2023). Organohalogenated flame retardants and organophosphate esters from home and preschool dust in Sweden: Pollution characteristics, indoor sources and intake assessment. Science of the Total Environment, 896, Article ID 165198.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Organohalogenated flame retardants and organophosphate esters from home and preschool dust in Sweden: Pollution characteristics, indoor sources and intake assessment
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2023 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 896, article id 165198Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study analysed settled dust samples in Sweden to assess children's combined exposure to 39 organohalogenated flame retardants (HFRs) and 11 organophosphate esters (OPEs) from homes and preschools. >94 % of the targeted compounds were present in dust, indicating widespread use of HFRs and OPEs in Swedish homes and preschools. Dust ingestion was the primary exposure pathway for most analytes, except BDE-209 and DBDPE, where dermal contact was predominant. Children's estimated intakes of ∑emerging HFRs and ∑legacy HFRs from homes were 1–4 times higher than from preschools, highlighting higher exposure risk for HFRs in homes compared to preschools. In a worst-case scenario, intakes of tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) were 6 and 94 times lower than the reference dose for children in Sweden, indicating a potential concern if exposure from other routes like inhalation and diet is as high. The study also found significant positive correlations between dust concentrations of some PBDEs and emerging HFRs and the total number of foam mattresses and beds/m2, the number of foam-containing sofas/m2, and the number of TVs/m2 in the microenvironment, indicating these products as the main source of those compounds. Additionally, younger preschool building ages were found to be linked to higher ΣOPE concentrations in preschool dust, suggesting higher ΣOPE exposure. The comparison with earlier Swedish studies indicates decreasing dust concentrations for some banned and restricted legacy HFRs and OPEs but increasing trends for several emerging HFRs and several unrestricted OPEs. Therefore, the study concludes that emerging HFRs and OPEs are replacing legacy HFRs in products and building materials in homes and preschools, possibly leading to increased exposure of children.

Keywords
Organohalogenated flame retardants, Organophosphate esters, Dust ingestion, Dermal contact, Estimated intake, Site characteristics
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-221205 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2023.165198 (DOI)001037732900001 ()37391153 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85163844513 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-09-21 Created: 2023-09-21 Last updated: 2023-09-21Bibliographically approved
Spaan, K. M., Seilitz, F., Plassmann, M. M., de Wit, C. A. & Benskin, J. P. (2023). Pharmaceuticals Account for a Significant Proportion of the Extractable Organic Fluorine in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant Sludge. Environmental Science and Technology Letters, 10(4), 328-336
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pharmaceuticals Account for a Significant Proportion of the Extractable Organic Fluorine in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant Sludge
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2023 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology Letters, E-ISSN 2328-8930, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 328-336Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Fluorine mass balance studies have shown that monomeric per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) with perfluoroalkyl chain lengths of ∼5–14 carbon atoms (i.e., “conventional” PFAS) account for a fraction (∼2%) of the extractable organic fluorine (EOF) in municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) sludge. The identity of the remaining EOF has thus far been unclear but may be partly attributable to fluorine-containing pharmaceuticals and pesticides used throughout society. To test this hypothesis, we applied high resolution mass spectrometry-based suspect screening to samples of municipal WWTP sludge which had been previously subjected to a fluorine mass balance. Sixteen pharmaceutical substances (including transformation products [TPs]), one pesticide, and thirteen conventional PFAS were confirmed at confidence levels 1–4 and (semi)quantified, revealing concentrations ranging from 0.07 to 155 ng/g dw. Notably, eight pharmaceutical substances did not meet the OECD definition of PFAS. When converted to fluorine equivalents, the newly detected organofluorine substances increased the percentage of known EOF from ∼2% to ∼27%, of which ∼22% was attributed to pharmaceutical and pesticide substances, with the greatest contributions from ticagrelor TP (4.0%), ezetimibe (3.9%), and bicalutamide (3.5%). These data highlight the importance of considering both unconventional and non-PFAS organofluorine substances in addition to conventional PFAS when closing the organofluorine mass balance in WWTP sludge.

Keywords
Organofluorine mass balance, EOF, PFAS, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, suspect screening, HRMS, sewage sludge
National Category
Environmental Engineering Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-217099 (URN)10.1021/acs.estlett.3c00108 (DOI)000965822900001 ()2-s2.0-85151389617 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-05-24 Created: 2023-05-24 Last updated: 2023-05-24Bibliographically approved
Yuan, B., Småstuen Haug, L., Tay, J. H., Padilla-Sánchez, J. A., Papadopoulou, E. & de Wit, C. A. (2022). Dietary Intake Contributed the Most to Chlorinated Paraffin Body Burden in a Norwegian Cohort. Environmental Science and Technology, 56(23), 17080-17089
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dietary Intake Contributed the Most to Chlorinated Paraffin Body Burden in a Norwegian Cohort
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2022 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 56, no 23, p. 17080-17089Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Determining the major human exposure pathways is a prerequisite for the development of effective management strategies for environmental pollutants such as chlorinated paraffins (CPs). As a first step, the internal and external exposure to CPs were quantified for a well-defined human cohort. CPs in participants’ plasma and diet samples were analyzed in the present study, and previous results on paired air, dust, and hand wipe samples were used for the total exposure assessment. Both one compartment pharmacokinetic modeling and forensic fingerprinting indicate that dietary intake contributed the most to body burden of CPs in this cohort, contributing a median of 60–88% of the total daily intakes. The contribution from dust ingestion and dermal exposure was greater for the intake of long-chain CPs (LCCPs) than short-chain CPs (SCCPs), while the contribution from inhalation was greater for the intake of SCCPs than medium-chain CPs (MCCPs) and LCCPs. Significantly higher concentrations of SCCPs and MCCPs were observed in diets containing butter and eggs, respectively (p < 0.05). Additionally, other exposure sources were correlated to plasma levels of CPs, including residence construction parameters such as the construction year (p < 0.05). This human exposure to CPs is not a local case. From a global perspective, there are major knowledge gaps in biomonitoring and exposure data for CPs from regions other than China and European countries.

Keywords
human exposure, cohort study, chlorinated paraffins, plasma, external exposure pathways, dietary intake
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-212581 (URN)10.1021/acs.est.2c04998 (DOI)000893416400001 ()36378808 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85142153874 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-12-16 Created: 2022-12-16 Last updated: 2023-01-17Bibliographically approved
Yuan, B., Rüdel, H., de Wit, C. A. & Koschorreck, J. (2022). Identifying emerging environmental concerns from long-chain chlorinated paraffins towards German ecosystems. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 424, Article ID 127607.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Identifying emerging environmental concerns from long-chain chlorinated paraffins towards German ecosystems
2022 (English)In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 424, article id 127607Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Germany is one of several major European producers of chlorinated paraffins (CPs). This study showed that not only the legacy short-chain products (SCCPs, C10-13), but also the current-use medium- and long-chain products (MCCPs, C14-17; LCCPs, C 17) as well as the very-short-chain impurities (vSCCPs, C<10) are ubiquitous in the 72 samples collected from the coastal, terrestrial, and freshwater ecosystems across the country. The concentrations of LCCPs surpassed those of the other CPs in 40% of the biota samples. Archived bream samples collected downstream of a CP-manufacturing factory showed decreasing temporal trends of (v)SCCPs and relatively constant levels of MCCPs from 1995 to 2019; however, the overall levels of LCCPs have increased by 290%, reflecting the impact of chemical regulation policies on changes in CP production. A visualization algorithm was developed for integrating CP results from various matrices to illustrate spatial tendencies of CP pollution. Higher levels of (v)SCCPs were indicated in the former West Germany region, while MCCP and LCCP concentrations did not seem to differ between former East and West Germany, suggesting relatively equal production and use of these chemicals after the German Reunification. The results provide an early warning signal of environmental concerns from LCCPs on the eve of their booming global production and use.

Keywords
Long-chain chlorinated paraffins, Bioaccumulation, Temporal trends, German, Ecosystems
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-199663 (URN)10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.127607 (DOI)000719919500004 ()34768030 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2021-12-15 Created: 2021-12-15 Last updated: 2022-02-25Bibliographically approved
de Wit, C. A., Vorkamp, K. & Muir, D. (2022). Influence of climate change on persistent organic pollutants and chemicals of emerging concern in the Arctic: state of knowledge and recommendations for future research. Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, 24(10), 1530-1543
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of climate change on persistent organic pollutants and chemicals of emerging concern in the Arctic: state of knowledge and recommendations for future research
2022 (English)In: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, Vol. 24, no 10, p. 1530-1543Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have accumulated in polar environments as a result of long-range transport from urban/industrial and agricultural source regions in the mid-latitudes. Climate change has been recognized as a factor capable of influencing POP levels and trends in the Arctic, but little empirical data have been available previously. A growing number of recent studies have now addressed the consequences of climate change for the fate of Arctic contaminants, as reviewed and assessed by the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP). For example, correlations between POP temporal trends in air or biota and climate indices, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation Index, have been found. Besides the climate indices, temperature, precipitation and sea-ice were identified as important climate parameters influencing POP levels in the Arctic environment. However, the physical changes are interlinked with complex ecological changes, including new species habitats and predator/prey relationships, resulting in a vast diversity of processes directly or indirectly affecting levels and trends of POPs. The reviews in this themed issue illustrate that the complexity of physical, chemical, and biological processes, and the rapid developments with regard to both climate change and chemical contamination, require greater interdisciplinary scientific exchange and collaboration. While some climate and biological parameters have been linked to POP levels in the Arctic, mechanisms underlying these correlations are usually not understood and need more work. Going forward there is a need for a stronger collaborative approach to understanding these processes due to high uncertainties and the incremental process of increasing knowledge of these chemicals. There is also a need to support and encourage community-based studies and the co-production of knowledge, including the utilization of Indigenous Knowledge, for interpreting trends of POPs in light of climate change.

National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-202604 (URN)10.1039/d1em00531f (DOI)000755896000001 ()35171167 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2022-03-10 Created: 2022-03-10 Last updated: 2022-10-27Bibliographically approved
Vorkamp, K., Carlsson, P., Corsolini, S., de Wit, C. A., Dietz, R., Gribble, M. O., . . . Muir, D. C. G. (2022). Influences of climate change on long-term time series of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Arctic and Antarctic biota. Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, 24(10), 1643-1660
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influences of climate change on long-term time series of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Arctic and Antarctic biota
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2022 (English)In: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, Vol. 24, no 10, p. 1643-1660Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Time series of contaminants in the Arctic are an important instrument to detect emerging issues and to monitor the effectiveness of chemicals regulation, based on the assumption of a direct reflection of changes in primary emissions. Climate change has the potential to influence these time trends, through direct physical and chemical processes and/or changes in ecosystems. This study was part of an assessment of the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), analysing potential links between changes in climate-related physical and biological variables and time trends of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Arctic biota, with some additional information from the Antarctic. Several correlative relationships were identified between POP temporal trends in freshwater and marine biota and physical climate parameters such as oscillation indices, sea-ice coverage, temperature and precipitation, although the mechanisms behind these observations remain poorly understood. Biological data indicate changes in the diet and trophic level of some species, especially seabirds and polar bears, with consequences for their POP exposure. Studies from the Antarctic highlight increased POP availability after iceberg calving. Including physical and/or biological parameters in the POP time trend analysis has led to small deviations in some declining trends, but did generally not change the overall direction of the trend. In addition, regional and temporary perturbations occurred. Effects on POP time trends appear to have been more pronounced in recent years and to show time lags, suggesting that climate-related effects on the long time series might be gaining importance.

National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-210689 (URN)10.1039/d2em00134a (DOI)000864272900001 ()36196982 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2022-11-09 Created: 2022-11-09 Last updated: 2022-11-09Bibliographically approved
Persson, L., Carney Almroth, B. M., Collins, C. D., Cornell, S. E., de Wit, C. A., Diamond, M. L., . . . Zwicky Hauschild, M. (2022). Outside the Safe Operating Space of the Planetary Boundary for Novel Entities. Environmental Science and Technology, 56(3), 1510-1521
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Outside the Safe Operating Space of the Planetary Boundary for Novel Entities
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2022 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 56, no 3, p. 1510-1521Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We submit that the safe operating space of the planetary boundary of novel entities is exceeded since annual production and releases are increasing at a pace that outstrips the global capacity for assessment and monitoring. The novel entities boundary in the planetary boundaries framework refers to entities that are novel in a geological sense and that could have large-scale impacts that threaten the integrity of Earth system processes. We review the scientific literature relevant to quantifying the boundary for novel entities and highlight plastic pollution as a particular aspect of high concern. An impact pathway from production of novel entities to impacts on Earth system processes is presented. We define and apply three criteria for assessment of the suitability of control variables for the boundary: feasibility, relevance, and comprehensiveness. We propose several complementary control variables to capture the complexity of this boundary, while acknowledging major data limitations. We conclude that humanity is currently operating outside the planetary boundary based on the weight-of-evidence for several of these control variables. The increasing rate of production and releases of larger volumes and higher numbers of novel entities with diverse risk potentials exceed societies’ ability to conduct safety related assessments and monitoring. We recommend taking urgent action to reduce the harm associated with exceeding the boundary by reducing the production and releases of novel entities, noting that even so, the persistence of many novel entities and/or their associated effects will continue to pose a threat. 

Keywords
chemical pollution, plastic pollution, unknown planetary boundary threats, Earth system impacts, cap on emissions, chemicals management capacity
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-204935 (URN)10.1021/acs.est.1c04158 (DOI)000754891000008 ()35038861 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85123855865 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-05-24 Created: 2022-05-24 Last updated: 2022-07-05Bibliographically approved
Boyi, J. O., Stokholm, I., Hillmann, M., Søndergaard, J., Persson, S., de Wit, C. A., . . . Kristina, L. (2022). Relationships between gene transcription and contaminant concentrations in Baltic ringed seals: A comparison between tissue matrices. Aquatic Toxicology, 242, Article ID 106035.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Relationships between gene transcription and contaminant concentrations in Baltic ringed seals: A comparison between tissue matrices
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2022 (English)In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 242, article id 106035Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Ringed seals (Pusa hispida) are slowly recovering in the eastern and northern parts of the Baltic Sea after years of hunting pressure and contaminant exposure. Still, consequences of anthropogenic activities such as contaminant exposure and increasing temperatures are stressors that continue to have deleterious effects on their habitat and health. Transcription profiles of seven health-related genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism, endocrine disruption and stress were evaluated in blood, blubber, and liver of Baltic ringed seals in a multi-tissue approach. Selected persistent organic pollutants and total mercury concentrations were measured in blubber and liver, and muscle and liver of these animals, respectively. Concentrations of contaminants varied across tissues on a lipid weight basis but not with sex. mRNA transcript levels for all seven target genes did not vary between sexes or age classes. Transcript levels of thyroid hormone receptor alpha (TR alpha), retinoic acid receptor alpha (RAR alpha) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) correlated with levels of persistent organic pollutants. TR alpha transcript levels also correlated positively with mercury concentrations in the liver. Of the three tissues assessed in this multi-tissue approach, blubber showed highest transcription levels of aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT), thyroid stimulating hormone receptor beta (TSH beta), oestrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPAR alpha). The wide range of genes expressed highlights the value of minimally invasive sampling (e.g. biopsies) for assessing health endpoints in free-ranging marine wildlife and the importance of identifying optimal matrices for targeted gene expression studies. This gene transcript profile study has provided baseline information on transcript levels of biomarkers for early on-set health effects in ringed seals and will be a useful guide to assess the impacts of environmental change in Baltic pinnipeds for conservation and management.

Keywords
Pusa hispida, Ecotoxicology, Wildlife health, mRNA transcript, Multi-tissue, Persistent organic pollutants
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-200412 (URN)10.1016/j.aquatox.2021.106035 (DOI)000728557800003 ()34856463 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2022-01-05 Created: 2022-01-05 Last updated: 2022-02-25Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-8497-2699

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