Change search
Link to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Publications (10 of 54) Show all publications
Carlsson, J., Åström, T., Östman, C. & Nilsson, U. (2023). Solvent-free automated thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for direct screening of hazardous compounds in consumer textiles. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 415(19), 4675-4687
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Solvent-free automated thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for direct screening of hazardous compounds in consumer textiles
2023 (English)In: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1618-2642, E-ISSN 1618-2650, Vol. 415, no 19, p. 4675-4687Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The global production of textiles utilizes numerous large-volume chemicals that may remain to some extent in the finished garments. Arylamines, quinolines, and halogenated nitrobenzene compounds are possible mutagens, carcinogens and/or skin sensitizers. For prevention, control of clothing and other textiles must be improved, especially those imported from countries without regulations of textile chemicals. An automated analytical methodology with on-line extraction, separation, and detection would largely simplify screening surveys of hazardous chemicals in textiles. Automated thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (ATD-GC/MS) was developed and evaluated as a solvent-free, direct chemical analysis for screening of textiles. It requires a minimum of sample handling with a total run time of 38 min including sample desorption, chromatographic separation, and mass spectrometric detection. For most of the studied compounds, method quantification limit (MQL) was below 5 mu g/g for 5 mg of textile sample, which is sufficiently low for screening and control of quinoline and arylamines regulated by EU. Several chemicals were detected and quantified when the ATD-GC/MS method was applied in a limited pilot screening of synthetic fiber garments. A number of arylamines were detected, where some of the halogenated dinitroanilines were found in concentrations up to 300 mu g/g. This is ten times higher than the concentration limit for similar arylamines listed by the EU REACH regulation. Other chemicals detected in the investigated textiles were several quinolines, benzothiazole, naphthalene, and 3,5-dinitrobromobenzene. Based on the present results, we suggest ATD-GC/MS as a screening method for the control of harmful chemicals in clothing garments and other textiles.

Keywords
ATD-GC/MS, Textiles, Arylamines, Quinoline, Halogenated nitroaromatic compounds, Skin sensitizer
National Category
Biological Sciences Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-221113 (URN)10.1007/s00216-023-04780-x (DOI)001015527200001 ()37338566 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85162231222 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-09-19 Created: 2023-09-19 Last updated: 2024-06-12Bibliographically approved
Clark, E., Nilsson, U., Samaran, Q. & Raison-Peyron, N. (2022). Allergic contact dermatitis from Cannabis sativa (hemp) seed oil. Contact Dermatitis, 87(3), 292-293
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Allergic contact dermatitis from Cannabis sativa (hemp) seed oil
2022 (English)In: Contact Dermatitis, ISSN 0105-1873, E-ISSN 1600-0536, Vol. 87, no 3, p. 292-293Article in journal, Editorial material (Other academic) Published
Keywords
allergic contact dermatitis, Cannabis sativa L, caryophyllene, CAS 89958-21-4, case report, cosmetics, hemp seed oil, plant, terpenes
National Category
Dermatology and Venereal Diseases
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-206330 (URN)10.1111/cod.14142 (DOI)000796873600001 ()35514096 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85130231022 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-06-21 Created: 2022-06-21 Last updated: 2022-09-24Bibliographically approved
Ruiz-Caldas, M.-X., Carlsson, J., Sadiktsis, I., Jaworski, A., Nilsson, U. & Mathew, A. P. (2022). Cellulose Nanocrystals from Postconsumer Cotton and Blended Fabrics: A Study on Their Properties, Chemical Composition, and Process Efficiency. ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, 10(11), 3787-3798
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cellulose Nanocrystals from Postconsumer Cotton and Blended Fabrics: A Study on Their Properties, Chemical Composition, and Process Efficiency
Show others...
2022 (English)In: ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, E-ISSN 2168-0485, Vol. 10, no 11, p. 3787-3798Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

From manufacturing to disposal, the textile industry faces multiple challenges to achieve sustainability and reduce its environmental impact. This work investigates the properties and composition of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) extracted from clothing waste made of cotton fibers. We isolated CNCs from cotton, polyester/cotton, and acrylic/cotton waste fabrics through acid hydrolysis with sulfuric acid. A yield of 51-62 wt S4, ( co tt on basis) was obtained, and nearly all the polyester and acrylic libers contained in the initial fabrics were recovered in a convenient shape that could allow easier recycling. CNCs extracted from the selected fabrics showed high purity, similar structural, physical, and chemical characteristics, and their properties were comparable to those extracted from virgin sources, although their surface chemistry and elemental composition slightly differed. The chemical components in the waste fabrics and the extracted CNCs were evaluated through a nontarget chromatographic-mass spectrometric screening strategy. Both the recycled textiles and the CNCs contained hundreds of compounds common in postconsumer textiles, including some with health and environmental concerns. However, our initial findings show that their concentrations in the CNCs are negligible. Our results provide insights into the challenges associated with the use of cotton waste textiles for the extraction of cellulose nanoparticles, and into the potential applications of the extracted nanomaterials.

Keywords
textile waste, acid hydrolysis, cellulose nanocrystals, nontarget screening, polyester/cotton, acrylic/cotton, Green & Sustainable Science & Technology
National Category
Chemical Sciences Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-204544 (URN)10.1021/acssuschemeng.2c00797 (DOI)000778745000039 ()2-s2.0-85126764053 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-05-10 Created: 2022-05-10 Last updated: 2024-06-12Bibliographically approved
Lim, H., Silvergren, S., Spinicci, S., Rad, F. M., Nilsson, U., Westerholm, R. & Johansson, C. (2022). Contribution of wood burning to exposures of PAHs and oxy-PAHs in Eastern Sweden. Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, 22(17), 11359-11379
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Contribution of wood burning to exposures of PAHs and oxy-PAHs in Eastern Sweden
Show others...
2022 (English)In: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 22, no 17, p. 11359-11379Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A growing trend in developed countries is the use of wood as fuel for domestic heating due to measures taken to reduce the usage of fossil fuels. However, this imposed another issue with the environment and human health. That is, the emission from wood burning contributed to the increased level of atmospheric particulates and the wood smoke caused various respiratory diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of wood burning on the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air PM10 using known wood burning tracers, i.e. levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan from the measurement at the urban background and residential areas in Sweden. A yearly measurement from three residential areas in Sweden showed a clear seasonal variation of PAHs during the cold season mainly from increased domestic heating and meteorology. Together, an increased sugar level assured the wood burning during the same period. The sugar ratio (levoglucosan(mannosan+galactosan)) was a good marker for wood burning source such as the wood type used for domestic heating and garden waste burning. On the Walpurgis Night, the urban background measurement demonstrated a dramatic increase in levoglucosan, benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs) concentrations from the increased wood burning. A significant correlation between levoglucosan and OPAHs was observed suggesting OPAHs to be an indicator of wood burning together with levoglucosan. The levoglucosan tracer method and modelling used in predicting the B[a]P concentration could not fully explain the measured levels in the cold season. The model showed that the local wood source contributed to 98 % of B[a]P emissions in the Stockholm area and 2 % from the local traffic. However, non-local sources were dominating in the urban background (60 %). A further risk assessment estimated that the airborne particulate PAHs caused 13.4 cancer cases per 0.1 million inhabitants in Stockholm County.

National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-209457 (URN)10.5194/acp-22-11359-2022 (DOI)000849846400001 ()
Available from: 2022-09-19 Created: 2022-09-19 Last updated: 2022-09-19Bibliographically approved
Zurita, J., Motwani, H. V., Ilag, L. L., Souliotis, V. L., Kyrtopoulos, S. A., Nilsson, U. & Törnqvist, M. (2022). Detection of Benzo[a]pyrene Diol Epoxide Adducts to Histidine and Lysine in Serum Albumin In Vivo by High-Resolution-Tandem Mass Spectrometry. Toxics, 10(1), Article ID 27.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Detection of Benzo[a]pyrene Diol Epoxide Adducts to Histidine and Lysine in Serum Albumin In Vivo by High-Resolution-Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Show others...
2022 (English)In: Toxics, E-ISSN 2305-6304, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 27Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Electrophilic diol epoxide metabolites are involved in the carcinogenicity of benzo[a]pyrene, one of the widely studied polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The exposure of humans to this PAH can be assessed by measuring stable blood protein adducts, such as to histidine and lysine in serum albumin, from their reactive metabolites. In this respect, measurement of the adducts originating from the genotoxic (+)-anti-benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide is of interest. However, these are difficult to measure at such low levels as are expected in humans generally exposed to benzo[a]pyrene from air pollution and the diet. The analytical methods detecting PAH-biomarkers still suffer from low selectivity and/or detectability to enable generation of data for calculation of in vivo doses of specific stereoisomers, for evaluation of risk factors and assessing risk from exposures to PAH. Here, we suggest an analytical methodology based on high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (MS) to lower the detection limits as well as to increase the selectivity with improvements in both chromatographic separation and mass determination. Method development was performed using serum albumin alkylated in vitro by benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide isomers. The (+)-anti-benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide adducts could be chromatographically resolved by using an HPLC column with a pentafluorophenyl stationary phase. Interferences were further diminished by the high mass accuracy and resolving power of Orbitrap MS. The achieved method detection limit for the (+)-anti-benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide adduct to histidine was approximately 4 amol/mg serum albumin. This adduct as well as the adducts to histidine from (−)-anti- and (+/−)-syn-benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide were quantified in the samples from benzo[a]pyrene-exposed mice. Corresponding adducts to lysine were also quantified. In human serum albumin, the anti-benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide adducts to histidine were detected in only two out of twelve samples and at a level of approximately 0.1 fmol/mg.

Keywords
polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, metabolism, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, protein adducts, human exposure
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences Chemical Sciences Pharmacology and Toxicology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-202029 (URN)10.3390/toxics10010027 (DOI)000746177400001 ()35051069 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2022-02-10 Created: 2022-02-10 Last updated: 2022-02-10Bibliographically approved
Carlsson, J., Åström, T., Östman, C. & Nilsson, U. (2022). Disperse azo dyes, arylamines and halogenated dinitrobenzene compounds in synthetic garments on the Swedish market. Contact Dermatitis, 87(4), 315-324
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Disperse azo dyes, arylamines and halogenated dinitrobenzene compounds in synthetic garments on the Swedish market
2022 (English)In: Contact Dermatitis, ISSN 0105-1873, E-ISSN 1600-0536, Vol. 87, no 4, p. 315-324Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Azobenzene disperse dyes (azo DDs) are well-known as textile allergens, but the knowledge of their occurrence in garments is low. The numerous azo DDs and dye components found in textiles constitute a potential health risk, but only seven azo DDs are included in the European baseline patch test series (EBS).

Objectives: To investigate non-regulated azo DDs and dye components in synthetic garments on the Swedish market.

Methods: High-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and computerized data mining.

Results: Sixty-two azo DDs were detected, with Disperse Red 167:1 occurring in 67%, and 14 other DDs each found in >20% of the garments. Notably, the EBS dyes were less common, three even not detected, while arylamines were frequently detected and exceeded 1 mg/g in several garments. Also, halogenated dinitrobenzenes were identified in 25% of the textiles.

Conclusion: Azo DDs and dye components, in complex compositions and with large variations, occurred frequently in the synthetic garments. The arylamines were shown to occur at much higher levels compared to the azo DDs, suggesting the former constitute a potentially higher health risk. The role of arylamines and halogenated dinitrobenzenes in textile allergy has to be further investigated.

Keywords
arylamines, clothing, contact allergy, disperse azo dyes, halogenated dinitrobenzenes, screening, textile dye mix
National Category
Respiratory Medicine and Allergy Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-206850 (URN)10.1111/cod.14163 (DOI)000809815200001 ()35611449 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85131535325 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-07-01 Created: 2022-07-01 Last updated: 2024-06-12Bibliographically approved
Carlsson, J., Iadaresta, F., Eklund, J., Avagyan, R., Östman, C. & Nilsson, U. (2021). Suspect and non-target screening of chemicals in clothing textiles by reversed-phase liquid chromatography/hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 414(3), 1403-1413
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Suspect and non-target screening of chemicals in clothing textiles by reversed-phase liquid chromatography/hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry
Show others...
2021 (English)In: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1618-2642, E-ISSN 1618-2650, Vol. 414, no 3, p. 1403-1413Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The global manufacturing of clothing is usually composed of multistep processes, which include a large number of chemicals. However, there is generally no information regarding the chemical content remaining in the finished clothes. Clothes in close and prolonged skin contact may thus be a significant source of daily human exposure to hazardous compounds depending on their ability to migrate from the textiles and be absorbed by the skin. In the present study, twenty-four imported garments on the Swedish market were investigated with respect to their content of organic compounds, using a screening workflow. Reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization/high-resolution mass spectrometry was used for both suspect and non-target screening. The most frequently detected compound was benzothiazole followed by quinoline. Nitroanilines with suspected mutagenic and possible skin sensitization properties, and quinoline, a carcinogenic compound, were among the compounds occurring at the highest concentrations. In some garments, the level of quinoline was estimated to be close to or higher than 50,000 ng/g, the limit set by the REACH regulation. Other detected compounds were acridine, benzotriazoles, benzothiazoles, phthalates, nitrophenols, and organophosphates. Several of the identified compounds have logP and molecular weight values enabling skin uptake. This pilot study indicates which chemicals and compound classes should be prioritized for future quantitative surveys and control of the chemical content in clothing as well as research on skin transfer, skin absorption, and systemic exposure. The results also show that the current control and prevention from chemicals in imported garments on the Swedish market is insufficient.

Keywords
Textile chemicals, Suspect screening, Non-target screening, LC/MS, High-resolution MS, Orbitrap MS
National Category
Chemical Sciences Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-199511 (URN)10.1007/s00216-021-03766-x (DOI)000719180700001 ()34786606 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2021-12-13 Created: 2021-12-13 Last updated: 2022-01-25Bibliographically approved
Karlberg, A.-T., Albadr, M.-H. & Nilsson, U. (2021). Tracing colophonium in consumer products. Contact Dermatitis, 85(6), 671-678
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tracing colophonium in consumer products
2021 (English)In: Contact Dermatitis, ISSN 0105-1873, E-ISSN 1600-0536, Vol. 85, no 6, p. 671-678Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Colophonium (rosin) can cause allergic contact dermatitis, mainly due to autoxidation of abietic acid (AbA). Products containing >= 0.1% colophonium should be labeled with EUH208 - Contains rosin; colophony. May produce an allergic reaction. How should this be measured?

Objective: To compare the results from different strategies for estimating colophonium levels in consumer products: (a) from AbA, and (b) the sum of all major resin acids. To investigate the ratio of 7-oxodehydroabietic acid (7-O-DeA)/AbA as indication of autoxidation.

Methods: Resin acids were extracted from consumer products, derivatized, and then separated by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS).

Results: Resin acids were detected in 9 of 15 products. No product contained colophonium >= 0.1%. Estimation based on AbA resulted in underestimation of the colophonium levels in four of nine products. For three products, the obtained levels from this strategy were only one of two compared to when estimating from the sum of all resin acids. The ratio 7-O-DeA/AbA varied from 74% to 1.4%.

Conclusions: We propose to measure colophonium based on the sum of all detectable major resin acids, including 7-O-DeA. The ratio of 7-O-DeA/AbA should be used as a marker of autoxidation, indicating an increased risk of sensitization. The presented analytical method is simple to use and suitable for further screening studies.

Keywords
chemical analysis, colophonium, consumer products, regulation, resin acids, rosin [CASno. 8050-09-7]
National Category
Dermatology and Venereal Diseases
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-196874 (URN)10.1111/cod.13944 (DOI)000682772600001 ()34291483 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2021-09-17 Created: 2021-09-17 Last updated: 2022-02-25Bibliographically approved
Bennike, N. H., Palangi, L., Bråred Christensson, J., Nilsson, U., Zachariae, C., Johansen, J. D. & Hagvall, L. (2019). Allergic contact dermatitis caused by hydroperoxides of limonene and dose-response relationship-A repeated open application test (ROAT) study. Contact Dermatitis, 80(4), 208-216
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Allergic contact dermatitis caused by hydroperoxides of limonene and dose-response relationship-A repeated open application test (ROAT) study
Show others...
2019 (English)In: Contact Dermatitis, ISSN 0105-1873, E-ISSN 1600-0536, Vol. 80, no 4, p. 208-216Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Contact allergy to oxidized limonene, with hydroperoxides of limonene (Lim-OOHs) as the main allergens, is common. However, high proportions of weak positive and doubtful patch test reactions have been reported. Objectives: To determine the clinical relevance, elicitation threshold and dose-response relationship of Lim-OOHs in individuals with a positive or doubtful patch test reaction to standard Lim-OOHs 0.3% pet. Methods: A multicentre 3-week double-blind vehicle-controlled repeated open application test (ROAT) study with a simulated fine fragrance containing Lim-OOHs at 1260, 420 and 140 ppm, equal to a dose/area per application of Lim-OOHs of 3.0, 0.99 and 0.33 mu g/cm(2), was performed. Results: Among 11 subjects allergic to Lim-OOHs, 11 (100%), 7 (64%), and 3 (27%), respectively, reacted to the applied doses. No reactions were seen in 17 healthy controls exposed to the highest dose. This difference in reactivity was statistically significant (P < 0.0001). Among 13 subjects with doubtful patch test reactions to Lim-OOHs, two (15%) had positive ROAT reactions to the highest Lim-OOH dose applied (P = 0.36 as compared with controls). Conclusions: Contact allergy to Lim-OOHs is of clinical relevance in patients with positive patch test reactions. A doubtful patch test reaction to Lim-OOHs 0.3% pet. can be of clinical relevance.

Keywords
allergic contact dermatitis, clinical relevance, contact allergy, dose-response relationship, fragrance substance, limonene hydroperoxides, oxidized limonene, ROAT
National Category
Dermatology and Venereal Diseases Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-168597 (URN)10.1111/cod.13168 (DOI)000461882500002 ()30378136 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-05-14 Created: 2019-05-14 Last updated: 2022-02-26Bibliographically approved
Mashayekhy Rad, F., Zurita, J., Gilles, P., Rutgeerts, L. A. J., Nilsson, U., Ilag, L. L. & Leck, C. (2019). Measurements of Atmospheric Proteinaceous Aerosol in the Arctic Using a Selective UHPLC/ESI-MS/MS Strategy. Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry, 30(1), 161-173
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measurements of Atmospheric Proteinaceous Aerosol in the Arctic Using a Selective UHPLC/ESI-MS/MS Strategy
Show others...
2019 (English)In: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry, ISSN 1044-0305, E-ISSN 1879-1123, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 161-173Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this article, an analytical methodology to investigate the proteinaceous content in atmospheric size-resolved aerosols collected at the Zeppelin observatory (79 °N, 12 °E) at Ny Ålesund, Svalbard, from September to December 2015, is proposed. Quantitative determination was performed after acidic hydrolysis using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography in reversed-phase mode coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Chromatographic separation, as well as specificity in the identification, was achieved by derivatization of the amino acids with N-butyl nicotinic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester prior to the analysis. The chromatographic run was performed within 11 min and instrumental levels of detection (LODs) were between 0.2 and 8.1 pg injected on the column, except for arginine which exhibited an LOD of 37 pg. Corresponding method LODs were between 0.01 and 1.9 fmol/m3, based on the average air sampling volume of 57 m3. The sum of free amino acids and hydrolyzed polyamino acids was shown to vary within 6–2914 and 0.02–1417 pmol/m3 for particles in sizes < 2 and 2–10 μm in equivalent aerodynamic diameter, respectively. Leucine, alanine, and valine were the most abundant among the amino acids in both aerosol size fractions. In an attempt to elucidate source areas of the collected aerosols, 5- to 10-day 3D backward trajectories reaching the sampling station were calculated. Overall, the method described here provides a first time estimate of the proteinaceous content, that is, the sum of free and polyamino acids, in size-resolved aerosols collected in the Arctic.

Keywords
Proteins, Amino acids, Arctic aerosols, LC/MS, Fixed-charge derivatization
National Category
Analytical Chemistry Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences
Research subject
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-155614 (URN)10.1007/s13361-018-2009-8 (DOI)000454913600019 ()
Available from: 2018-04-25 Created: 2018-04-25 Last updated: 2022-02-26Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-2981-3617

Search in DiVA

Show all publications