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Chen, J., Mittendorfer-Rutz, E., Berg, L., Nørredam, M., Sijbrandij, M. & Klimek, P. (2023). Association of common mental disorders and related multimorbidity with subsequent labor market marginalization among refugee and Swedish-born young adults. Frontiers In Public Health, 11, Article ID 1054261.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Association of common mental disorders and related multimorbidity with subsequent labor market marginalization among refugee and Swedish-born young adults
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2023 (English)In: Frontiers In Public Health, ISSN 2296-2565, Vol. 11, article id 1054261Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Common mental disorders (CMDs), multimorbidity, and refugee status are associated with poor labor market outcome. Little is known about how these factors interact in young adults.

Objective: We aimed to i) investigate whether the association of CMDs and multimorbidity with labor market marginalization (LMM) differs between refugee and Swedish-born young adults and ii) identify diagnostic groups with particularly high risk for LMM.

Methods: This longitudinal registry-based study included individuals aged 20–25 years followed from 2012 to 2016 in Sweden (41,516 refugees and 207,729 age and sex-matched Swedish-born individuals). LMM was defined as granted disability pension (DP) or > 180 days of unemployment (UE). A disease co-occurrence network was constructed for all diagnostic groups from 2009 to 2011 to derive a personalized multimorbidity score for LMM. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios of LMM in refugee and Swedish-born youth as a function of their multimorbidity score. The relative risk (RR, 95% CI) of LMM for refugees with CMDs compared to Swedish-born with CMDs was computed in each diagnostic group.

Results: In total, 5.5% of refugees and 7.2% of Swedish-born with CMDs were granted DP; 22.2 and 9.4%, respectively received UE benefit during follow-up. While both CMDs and multimorbidity independently elevated the risk of DP considerably in Swedish-born, CMDs but not multimorbidity elevated the risk of UE. Regarding UE in refugees, multimorbidity with the presence of CMDs showed stronger estimates. Multimorbidity interacted with refugee status toward UE (p < 0.0001) and with CMDs toward DP (p = 0.0049). Two diagnostic groups that demonstrated particularly high RR of UE were schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders (RR [95% CI]: 3.46 [1.77, 6.75]), and behavioral syndromes (RR [95% CI]: 3.41 [1.90, 6.10]).

Conclusion: To combat LMM, public health measures and intervention strategies need to be tailored to young adults based on their CMDs, multimorbidity, and refugee status.

Keywords
common mental disorders, disability pension, unemployment, refugee, disease network, multimorbidity
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-216915 (URN)10.3389/fpubh.2023.1054261 (DOI)000959022800001 ()37006549 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85151374491 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-05-05 Created: 2023-05-05 Last updated: 2023-05-05Bibliographically approved
Li, B., Brännström Almquist, Y., Liu, C. & Berg, L. (2023). Disentangling the multigenerational transmissions of socioeconomic disadvantages and mental health problems by gender and across lineages: Findings from the Stockholm Birth Cohort Multigenerational Study. SSM - Population Health, 22, Article ID 101357.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Disentangling the multigenerational transmissions of socioeconomic disadvantages and mental health problems by gender and across lineages: Findings from the Stockholm Birth Cohort Multigenerational Study
2023 (English)In: SSM - Population Health, ISSN 2352-8273, Vol. 22, article id 101357Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is a paucity of research examining the patterning of socioeconomic disadvantages and mental health problems across multiple generations. The current study therefore aimed to investigate the interconnected transmissions of socioeconomic disadvantages and mental health problems from grandparents to grandchildren through the parents, as well as the extent to which these transmissions differ according to lineage (i.e., through matrilineal/patrilineal descent) and grandchild gender. Drawing on the Stockholm Birth Cohort Multigenerational Study, the sample included 21,416 unique lineages by grandchild gender centered around cohort members born in 1953 (parental generation) as well as their children (grandchild generation) and their parents (grandparental generation). Based on local and national register data, socioeconomic disadvantages were operationalized as low income, and mental health problems as psychiatric disorders. A series of path models based on structural equation modelling were applied to estimate the associations between low income and psychiatric disorders across generations and for each lineage-gender combination. We found a multigenerational transmission of low income through the patriline to grandchildren. Psychiatric disorders were transmitted through both the patriline and matriline, but only to grandsons. The patriline-grandson transmission of psychiatric disorder partially operated via low income of the fathers. Furthermore, grandparents' psychiatric disorders influenced their children's and grandchildren's income. We conclude that there is evidence of transmissions of socioeconomic disadvantages and mental health problems across three generations, although these transmissions differ by lineage and grandchild gender. Our findings further highlight that grandparents' mental health problems could cast a long shadow on their children's and grandchildren's socioeconomic outcomes, and that socioeconomic disadvantages in the intermediate generation may play an important role for the multigenerational transmission of mental health problems.

Keywords
Multigenerational transmission, Socioeconomic conditions, Low income, Mental health, Psychiatric disorders, Longitudinal
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-220444 (URN)10.1016/j.ssmph.2023.101357 (DOI)001003504800001 ()36846629 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85147925974 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-08-30 Created: 2023-08-30 Last updated: 2023-08-30Bibliographically approved
Dunlavy, A., Gauffin, K., Berg, L., De Montgomery, C. J., Europa, R., Eide, K., . . . Hjern, A. (2023). Health outcomes in young adulthood among former child refugees in Denmark, Norway and Sweden: A cross-country comparative study. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 51(3), 330-338
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Health outcomes in young adulthood among former child refugees in Denmark, Norway and Sweden: A cross-country comparative study
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2023 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 51, no 3, p. 330-338Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aims: This study aimed at comparing several health outcomes in young adulthood among child refugees who settled in the different immigration and integration policy contexts of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Methods: The study population included refugees born between 1972 and 1997 who immigrated before the age of 18 and settled in the three Nordic countries during 1986-2005. This population was followed up in national registers during 2006-2015 at ages 18-43 years and was compared with native-born majority populations in the same birth cohorts using sex-stratified and age-adjusted regression analyses. Results: Refugee men in Denmark stood out with a consistent pattern of higher risks for mortality, disability/illness pension, psychiatric care and substance misuse relative to native-born majority Danish men, with risk estimates being higher than comparable estimates observed among refugee men in Norway and Sweden. Refugee men in Sweden and Norway also demonstrated increased risks relative to native-born majority population men for inpatient psychiatric care, and in Sweden also for disability/illness pension. With the exception of increased risk for psychotic disorders, outcomes among refugee women were largely similar to or better than those of native-born majority women in all countries. Conclusions: The observed cross-country differences in health indicators among refugees, and the poorer health outcomes of refugee men in Denmark in particular, may be understood in terms of marked differences in Nordic integration policies. However, female refugees in all three countries had better relative health outcomes than refugee men did, suggesting possible sex differentials that warrant further investigation.

Keywords
Refugee youth, health inequalities, integration policy, mental health
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-197077 (URN)10.1177/14034948211031408 (DOI)000677402200001 ()34304618 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85111083786 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-09-23 Created: 2021-09-23 Last updated: 2023-06-09Bibliographically approved
Juárez, S. P., Honkaniemi, H., Gustafsson, N.-K. & Berg, L. (2023). Is duration of residence a proxy for acculturation? The case of health risk behaviors among international immigrants. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is duration of residence a proxy for acculturation? The case of health risk behaviors among international immigrants
2023 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Aims: Among international immigrants, health changes by duration of residence are commonly interpreted as an expression of acculturation to the receiving country context. This study compares changes in immigrants’ health risk behaviors by duration of residence to changes by acculturation levels, in order to assess whether duration of residence can be regarded as a proxy for acculturation.

Methods: Using data from a previous systematic review, we identified 17 quantitative studies examining changes in alcohol, tobacco and drug use, physical inactivity, and diet by both duration of residence and acculturation level in the same population. We compared the directionality and consistency of these associations through tabulation and vote counting.

Results: The majority of studies reported no or inconsistent changes in health risk behaviors by duration of residence versus by acculturation, including with opposite directionality. Four studies reported significant estimates with consistent directionality, while five reported consistent, non-significant estimates.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that duration of residence should not be used as a proxy for acculturation when studying health risk behaviors among immigrants. Researchers should consider additional time-dependent factors to explain behavioral changes by duration of residence.

Keywords
Emigrants and immigrants, health risk behaviors, acculturation, socioeconomic factors
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Public Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-221751 (URN)10.1177/14034948231199534 (DOI)001068159300001 ()2-s2.0-85171541835 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Studies of Migration and Social Determinants of Health (SMASH)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2016-07128Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2021-00271Swedish Research Council, 2018-01825
Available from: 2023-09-29 Created: 2023-09-29 Last updated: 2023-10-10
Liu, C., Grotta, A., Hiyoshi, A., Berg, L., Wall-Wieler, E., Martikainen, P. & Rostila, M. (2023). Parental death and initiation of antidepressant treatment in surviving children and youth: a national register-based matched cohort study. eClinicalMedicine, 60, Article ID 102032.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Parental death and initiation of antidepressant treatment in surviving children and youth: a national register-based matched cohort study
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2023 (English)In: eClinicalMedicine, ISSN 2589-5370, Vol. 60, article id 102032Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background Population-based longitudinal studies on bereaved children and youth’s mental health care use are scarce and few have assessed the role of surviving parents’ mental health status.

Methods Using register data of individuals born in Sweden in 1992–1999, we performed a matched cohort study(n = 117,518) on the association between parental death and subsequent initiation of antidepressant treatment among individuals bereaved at ages 7–24 years. We used flexible parametric survival models to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) over time after bereavement, adjusting for individual and parental factors. We further examined if the association varied by age at loss, sex, parental sociodemographic factors, cause of death, and the surviving parents’psychiatric care.

Findings The bereaved were more likely to initiate antidepressants treatment than the nonbereaved matched individuals during follow-up (incidence rate per 1000 person years 27.5 [26.5–28.5] vs. 18.2 [17.9–18.6]). The HRs peaked in the first year after bereavement and remained higher than the nonbereaved individuals until the end of the follow-up. The average HR over the 12 years of follow-up was 1.48 (95% confidence interval [1.39–1.58]) for father’s death and 1.33 [1.22–1.46] for mother’s death. The HRs were particularly high when the surviving parents received psychiatric care before bereavement (2.11 [1.89–2.56] for father’s death; 2.14 [1.79–2.56] for mother’s death) or treated for anxiety or depression after bereavement (1.80 [1.67–1.94]; 1.82 [1.59–2.07]).

Interpretation The risk of initiating antidepressant treatment was the highest in the first year after parental death and remained elevated over the next decade. The risk was particularly high among individuals with surviving parentsaffected by psychiatric morbidity.

Keywords
Parental death, Bereavement, Antidepressant, Depression, Anxiety, Children and youth
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-223469 (URN)10.1016/j.eclinm.2023.102032 (DOI)2-s2.0-85161330860 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2019–01236EU, European Research CouncilAcademy of Finland, 308247Academy of Finland, 352543-352572Swedish Research Council, 2017–03266Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2019–01236EU, European Research CouncilAcademy of Finland, 308247Academy of Finland, 352543-352572Swedish Research Council, 2017–03266
Available from: 2023-10-30 Created: 2023-10-30 Last updated: 2023-10-31Bibliographically approved
Grotta, A., Liu, C., Hiyoshi, A., Berg, L., Kawachi, I., Saarela, J. & Rostila, M. (2023). Suicide Around the Anniversary of a Parent’s Death in Sweden. JAMA Network Open, 6(4), Article ID e236951.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Suicide Around the Anniversary of a Parent’s Death in Sweden
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2023 (English)In: JAMA Network Open, E-ISSN 2574-3805, Vol. 6, no 4, article id e236951Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Importance  Bereavement following parental death experienced in adulthood may be associated with suicide over many years, but this risk has received scant attention.

Objective  To investigate whether the risk of suicide increases among adult children around the anniversary of a parent’s death.

Design, Setting, and Participants  This case-crossover study used Swedish register-based longitudinal data from 1990 to 2016, based on the entire national population. Participants included all adults aged 18 to 65 years who experienced parental death and subsequently died by suicide. Conditional logistic regression was used to quantify the association between the anniversary (or preanniversary and postanniversary periods) and suicide, controlling for time-invariant confounding. All analyses were stratified by sex of the offspring. The analyses were also stratified by the sex of the deceased parent, time since parental death, age, and marital status. Data analyses were performed in June 2022.

Exposures  Anniversary of a parent’s death (or preanniversary and postanniversary periods).

Main Outcomes and Measures  Suicide.

Results  Of 7694 individuals who died by suicide (76% intentional self-harm), 2255 (29%) were women, and the median (IQR) age at suicide was 55 (47-62) years. There was evidence of an anniversary reaction among women, with a 67% increase in the odds of suicide when exposed to the period from the anniversary to 2 days after the anniversary, compared with when not being exposed (odds ratio [OR], 1.67; 95% CI, 1.07-2.62). The risk was particularly pronounced among maternally bereaved women (OR, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.20-4.40) and women who were never married (OR, 2.08; 95% CI, 0.99-4.37), although the latter was not statistically significant. An increased risk of suicide from the day before up to the anniversary was observed among women bereaved between the ages of 18 and 34 years (OR, 3.46; 95% CI, 1.14-10.56) and between the ages of 50 and 65 years (OR, 2.53; 95% CI, 1.04-6.15). Men had an attenuated suicide risk for the period from the day before up to the anniversary (OR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.36-0.92).

National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-223471 (URN)10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.6951 (DOI)37040117 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85152244415 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-10-30 Created: 2023-10-30 Last updated: 2023-10-31Bibliographically approved
Berg, L., Landberg, J. & Thern, E. (2023). Using repeated measures to study the contribution of alcohol consumption and smoking to the social gradient in all‐cause mortality: Results from the Stockholm Public Health Cohort. Drug and Alcohol Review, 42(7), 1850-1859
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using repeated measures to study the contribution of alcohol consumption and smoking to the social gradient in all‐cause mortality: Results from the Stockholm Public Health Cohort
2023 (English)In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 42, no 7, p. 1850-1859Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: The social gradient in consumption behaviours has been suggestedto partly explain health inequalities. The majority of previous studies have onlyincluded baseline measurements and not considered potential changes in behav-iours over time. The study aimed to investigate the contribution of alcohol con-sumption and smoking to the social gradient in mortality and to assess whetherthe use of repeated measurements results in larger attenuations of the main asso-ciation compared to using single baseline assessments.

Methods: Longitudinal survey data from the population-based Stockholm PublicHealth Cohort from 2006 to 2014 was linked to register data on mortality until2018 for 13,688 individuals and analysed through Cox regression.

Results: Low socioeconomic position (SEP) was associated with increased mortal-ity compared with high SEP; hazard ratios 1.56 (95% CI 1.30–1.88) for occupa-tional status and 1.77 (95% CI 1.49–2.11) for education, after adjustment fordemographic characteristics. Using repeated measurements, alcohol consumptionand smoking explained 44% of the association between occupational status andall-cause mortality. Comparing repeated and baseline measures, the percentageattenuation due to alcohol consumption increased from 11% to 18%, whereas itremained similar for smoking (25–23%).

Discussion and Conclusions: Smoking and alcohol consumption explained alarge part of the association between SEP and mortality. Comparing results fromtime-fixed and time-varying models, there was an increase in overall percentageattenuation that was mainly due to the increased proportion explained by alcoholconsumption. Repeated measurements provide a better estimation of the contri-bution of alcohol consumption, but not smoking, for the association between SEPand mortality.

Keywords
alcohol drinking, mortality, repeated measurements, smoking, socioeconomic position
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-223062 (URN)10.1111/dar.13759 (DOI)001085504900001 ()37830637 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85174073012 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2017‐01769
Available from: 2023-10-17 Created: 2023-10-17 Last updated: 2024-01-16Bibliographically approved
Juárez, S. P., Honkaniemi, H., Gustafsson, N.-K., Rostila, M. & Berg, L. (2022). Health Risk Behaviours by Immigrants’ Duration of Residence: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. International Journal of Public Health, 67, Article ID 1604437.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Health Risk Behaviours by Immigrants’ Duration of Residence: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
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2022 (English)In: International Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1661-8556, E-ISSN 1661-8564, Vol. 67, article id 1604437Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: The aim was to systematically review and synthesise international evidence on changes in health risk behaviours by immigrants’ duration of residence.

Methods: We searched literature databases for peer-reviewed quantitative studies published from 2000 to 2019, examining alcohol, drug and tobacco use; physical inactivity; and dietary habits by duration of residence.

Results: Narrative synthesis indicated that immigrants tend to adopt health risk behaviours with longer residence in North America, with larger variation in effect sizes and directionality in other contexts. Random-effects meta-analyses examining the pooled effect across all receiving countries and immigrant groups showed lower odds of smoking (OR 0.54, 0.46–0.63, I2 = 68.7%) and alcohol use (OR 0.61, 0.47–0.75, I2 = 93.5%) and higher odds of physical inactivity (OR 1.71, 1.40–2.02, I2 = 99.1%) among immigrants than natives, but did not provide support for a universal trend by duration of residence.

Conclusion: Findings suggest that duration of residence could serve as an effective instrument to monitor immigrants’ health changes. However, differences in receiving country contex

National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-208079 (URN)10.3389/ijph.2022.1604437 (DOI)000842008500001 ()35990194 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85136517804 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and WelfareSwedish Research Council
Available from: 2022-08-18 Created: 2022-08-18 Last updated: 2022-09-13Bibliographically approved
de Montgomery, C. J., Norredam, M., Krasnik, A., Holm Petersen, J., Björkenstam, E., Berg, L., . . . Mittendorfer-Rutz, E. (2022). Labour market marginalisation in young refugees and their majority peers in Denmark and Sweden: The role of common mental disorders and secondary school completion. PLOS ONE, 17(2), Article ID e0263450.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Labour market marginalisation in young refugees and their majority peers in Denmark and Sweden: The role of common mental disorders and secondary school completion
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2022 (English)In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 17, no 2, article id e0263450Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

Due to the circumstances of their early lives, young refugees are at risk of experiencing adverse labour market and health outcomes. The post-settlement environment is thought to play a decisive role in determining how this vulnerability plays out. This study compared trends in labour market marginalisation in young refugees and their majority peers during early adulthood in two national contexts, Denmark and Sweden, and explored the mediating role of common mental disorders and secondary school completions.

Methods

Using registry data, 13,390/45,687 refugees were included in Denmark/Sweden and 1:5 matched to majority peers. Inequalities in labour market marginalisation were investigated during 2012-2015 in each country using linear probability models and mediation analysis. Country trends were standardised to account for differences in observed population characteristics.

Results

The risk of marginalisation was 2.1-2.3 times higher among young refugees compared with their majority peers, but the risk decreased with age in Sweden and increased in Denmark for refugees. Birth-cohort differences drove the increase in Denmark, while trends were consistent across birth-cohorts in Sweden. Differences in population characteristics did not contribute to country differences. Common mental disorders did not mediate the inequality in either country, but secondary school completions did (77-85% of associations eliminated).

Conclusions

The findings document both the vulnerability of young refugees to labour market marginalisation and the variability in this vulnerability across post-settlement contexts. While the contrast in policy climates in Denmark and Sweden sharpened over time, the risk of marginalisation appeared more similar in younger cohorts, pointing to the importance of factors other than national immigration and integration policies. Institutional efforts to assist young refugees through secondary education are likely to have long-lasting consequences for their socio-economic trajectories.

National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-205245 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0263450 (DOI)000795889700024 ()35171929 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85124774579 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-06-01 Created: 2022-06-01 Last updated: 2022-06-01Bibliographically approved
Berg, L., de Montgomery, E., Brendler-Lindquist, M., Mittendorfer-Rutz, E. & Hjern, A. (2022). Parental post-traumatic stress and psychiatric care utilisation among refugee adolescents. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 31(12), 1953-1962
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Parental post-traumatic stress and psychiatric care utilisation among refugee adolescents
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2022 (English)In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 31, no 12, p. 1953-1962Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Parental psychiatric morbidity related to experiences of war and trauma has been associated with adverse psychological outcomes for children. The aim of this study was to investigate parental post-traumatic stress in relation to psychiatric care utilization among children of refugees with particular attention on the child's own refugee status, sex of both child and parents, and specific psychiatric diagnoses. This was a register study in a population of 16 143 adolescents from refugee families in Stockholm County born 1995-2000 and followed between 2011 and 2017 (11-18 years old). Parental post-traumatic stress, identified in three levels of care, was analysed in relation to child and adolescent psychiatric care use. Cox regression analysis was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusted for duration of residence and demographic and socioeconomic variables. Having a mother with post-traumatic stress was associated with higher psychiatric care utilization, with adjusted HR 2.44 (95% CI 1.90-3.14) among foreign-born refugee children and HR 1.77 (1.33-2.36) among Swedish-born children with refugee parents, with particularly high risks for children with less than five years of residence (HR 4.03; 2.29-7.10) and for diagnoses of anxiety and depression (HR 2.71; 2.11-3.48). Having a father with post-traumatic stress was not associated with increased HRs of psychiatric care utilization. Similar results were seen for boys and girls. Treatment for post-traumatic stress should be made available in refugee reception programmes. These programmes should use a family approach that targets both parents and children.

Keywords
Refugees, Parental post-traumatic stress, Intergenerational trauma, Psychiatric care, Adolescents
National Category
Psychology Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-195820 (URN)10.1007/s00787-021-01827-1 (DOI)000663516400001 ()34146175 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85108420766 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-08-31 Created: 2021-08-31 Last updated: 2022-11-18Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-8707-180x

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