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Raitasalo, K., Rossow, I., Moan, I. S., Bye, E. K., Svensson, J., Thor, S., . . . Bloomfield, K. (2024). Changes in co-use of alcohol and cannabis among Nordic adolescents in the 21st century: Results from the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs study. Drug and Alcohol Review, 43(3), 616-624
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Changes in co-use of alcohol and cannabis among Nordic adolescents in the 21st century: Results from the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs study
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2024 (English)In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 616-624Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: In the 21st century, there has been a decline in alcohol use among adolescents in most Nordic countries, while trends of cannabis use have diverged. We explore how alcohol and cannabis use, respectively, and co-use of the two substances, have changed among Nordic adolescents. Three hypotheses are used to frame the study: (i) cannabis use has substituted alcohol use; (ii) there has been a parallel decline in both substances; and/or (iii) there has been a ‘hardening’ of users, implying that alcohol users increasingly use cannabis.

Methods: Data from the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs, conducted among 15- to 16-year-olds in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden (N = 74,700, 49% boys), were used to explore trends of past-year alcohol and cannabis use in the period 2003–2019.

Results: The proportion of adolescents reporting alcohol use decreased significantly in all Nordic countries except Denmark. The proportion of those using cannabis only was low (0.0%–0.7%) and stable in all countries. The total number of substance use occasions declined among all adolescents in all countries but Denmark. Among alcohol users, cannabis use became increasingly prevalent in all countries but Denmark.

Discussion and Conclusions: We found no support for the ‘parallel decline hypothesis' in alcohol and cannabis use among Nordic adolescents. Partially in line with the ‘substitution hypothesis’, cannabis use accounted for an increasing proportion of all substance use occasions. Our results suggests that the co-use of alcohol and cannabis has become more common, thus also providing support to the ‘hardening’ hypothesis.

Keywords
alcohol use, cannabis use, co-use, Nordic countries, time trends
National Category
Substance Abuse
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-220202 (URN)10.1111/dar.13672 (DOI)000976801500001 ()37095643 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85153630391 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-08-28 Created: 2023-08-28 Last updated: 2024-04-22Bibliographically approved
Kraus, L., Loy, J. K., Olderbak, S., Trolldal, B., Ramstedt, M., Svensson, J. & Törrönen, J. (2024). Does the decline in Swedish adolescent drinking persist into early adulthood?. Addiction, 119(2), 259-267
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Does the decline in Swedish adolescent drinking persist into early adulthood?
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2024 (English)In: Addiction, ISSN 0965-2140, E-ISSN 1360-0443, Vol. 119, no 2, p. 259-267Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background and aims: Sweden has experienced a substantial decrease in adolescent drinking over the past decades. Whether the reduction persists into early adulthood remains unclear. Using survey data, the present study aimed to determine whether reductions in indicators of alcohol use observed among adolescents remain in early adulthood and whether changes in alcohol intake are consistent among light/moderate and heavy drinkers.

Design: Data from the Swedish monthly Alcohol Monitoring Survey (2001–20) were used to construct five 5-year birth cohorts (1978–82, 1983–87, 1988–92, 1993–97 and 1998–2002).

Setting: Sweden.

Participants: A total of n = 52 847 respondents (48% females) aged 16 and 30 years were included in this study.

Measurements: For both males and females, temporal changes in the prevalence of any drinking, the prevalence of heavy episodic drinking (HED) and total alcohol intake in the past 30 days in centilitres were analysed.

Findings: The prevalence of any drinking in more recent cohorts remained low until young people came into their early (females) and mid- (males) 20s. Male cohorts differed in the prevalence of HED across age, with the later cohorts showing lower odds than earlier cohorts (odds ratios between 0.54 and 0.66). Among females, no systematic differences between cohorts across age could be observed. Later male birth cohorts in light/moderate drinkers had lower alcohol intake than earlier cohorts (correlation coefficients between −0.09 and −0.54). No statistically significant cohort effects were found for male heavy drinkers. Although differences in alcohol intake among females diminished as age increased, the cohorts did not differ systematically in their level of alcohol intake.

Conclusions: In Sweden, the reduced uptake of drinking in adolescents appears to fade as people move into adulthood. Observed reductions in alcohol intake among light and moderate drinkers appear to persist into adulthood. More recent male cohorts show a lower prevalence rate of heavy episodic drinking.

Keywords
Adolescents, alcohol intake, alcohol use, cohort, heavy episodic drinking, trends, youth drinking
National Category
Substance Abuse
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-222232 (URN)10.1111/add.16342 (DOI)001066322600001 ()37726931 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85171596329 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-10-11 Created: 2023-10-11 Last updated: 2024-02-22Bibliographically approved
Workie, H. M., Wahlström, J., Brolin Låftman, S. & Svensson, J. (2024). Perceived parental alcohol problems and drinking patterns among adolescents in Sweden. Addictive Behaviors Reports, 19, Article ID 100535.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Perceived parental alcohol problems and drinking patterns among adolescents in Sweden
2024 (English)In: Addictive Behaviors Reports, ISSN 2352-8532, Vol. 19, article id 100535Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: For adolescents, parental problem drinking can be regarded as a chronic stressor, negatively affecting their health. There is limited knowledge and a relative lack of empirical evidence on this topic, especially in Sweden. The aim of the current study was to examine perceived parental alcohol problems and the links with psychosomatic complaints among adolescents in Sweden. Methods: Data were obtained from the Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and Other Drugs’ national survey of 2021, collected amongst 9,032 students in grades 9 (~15–16 years) and 11 (~17–18 years). Perceived parental alcohol problems were measured by the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST-6) scale, using a cutoff at ≥ 3. Psychosomatic complaints were captured by a binary measure based on the frequency of headache, stomach ache, feeling depressed or down, difficulties to fall asleep, and sleeping poorly at night. Sociodemographic characteristics included gender, grade, parental education, and parental country of birth. Descriptive analyses with chi2 tests and binary logistic regression analyses were performed. Results: Adolescents with perceived parental alcohol problems had higher odds of reporting psychosomatic complaints compared with adolescents without perceived parental drinking problems, even when adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. Girls, grade 11 students, adolescent with at least one parent born in Sweden, and those without university-educated parents were more likely to report parental alcohol problems. Conclusions: The findings highlight adolescents with perceived parental alcohol problems need support. The school, being an arena where adolescents spend much of their time, may play a vital role in this regard. 

Keywords
Adolescents, Alcohol, Parental drinking problems, CAST-6, Psychosomatic complaints
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-226818 (URN)10.1016/j.abrep.2023.100491 (DOI)
Available from: 2024-02-21 Created: 2024-02-21 Last updated: 2024-02-21Bibliographically approved
Hellman, M., Männistö-Inkinen, V., Nilsson, R. & Svensson, J. (2023). Being good while being bad: How does CSR-communication on the social media serve the gambling industry?. European Journal of Communication, 38(6), 552-570
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Being good while being bad: How does CSR-communication on the social media serve the gambling industry?
2023 (English)In: European Journal of Communication, ISSN 0267-3231, E-ISSN 1460-3705, Vol. 38, no 6, p. 552-570Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Global businesses are known to use their social media accounts for legitimisation aspirations and national market assimilation. Still, we lack empirical tools for identifying the kind of public corporate social responsibility communication (CSRC) that helps along positive branding and social relevance. This is particularly important information in view of whitewashing aspirations by the vice industries. This study develops a content analytical tool for assessing gambling companies’ social media strategies by comparing CSRC by state-owned and licenced gambling operators in Finland and Sweden. The diachronic comparative design allows us to point out how the companies advance along ambitions to communicate responsible gambling (RG), affiliate with public interests, shape the companies’ public role as societal benefactors and normalise gambling as an activity. The concepts of tactical and strategic CSRC help us to expose these communication strategies in view of national policy changes, state control and public opinion.

Keywords
Corporate social responsibility communication, social media, the global gambling industry, Finland, Sweden
National Category
Communication Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-214521 (URN)10.1177/02673231221145363 (DOI)000899259400001 ()2-s2.0-85144279694 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-02-10 Created: 2023-02-10 Last updated: 2024-01-11Bibliographically approved
Lindeman, M., Männistö-Inkinen, V., Hellman, M., Kankainen, V., Kauppila, E., Svensson, J. & Nilsson, R. (2023). Gambling operators’ social media image creation in Finland and Sweden 2017–2020. Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 40(1), 40-60
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gambling operators’ social media image creation in Finland and Sweden 2017–2020
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2023 (English)In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 40-60Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aim: This is a first audit of how gambling operators in Finland and Sweden address citizens on social media. The study is able to pinpoint some differences between how gambling operators utilise social media in a state monopoly system (Finland) and in a license-based regulatory framework (Sweden). Methods: Curated social media posts from Finland- and Sweden-based accounts in national languages were collected from March 2017, 2018, 2019 and 2020. The data (N = 13,241) consist of posts published on YouTube, Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram. The posts were audited in terms of frequency of posting, content and user engagement. Results/Conclusions: Operators in both countries were, in general, active on their social media accounts, but there was a decline in number of posts between 2017 and 2020. A substantial number of the analysed posts did not visually portray gambling or games. In the Swedish license system, operators seem to present themselves more straightforwardly as gambling companies, whereas in the Finnish monopoly system the image was more tied to a social role of public good doing. Beneficiaries of gambling revenues became less visible in the Finnish data over time. 

Keywords
Finland, gambling marketing, gambling policy, regulation, social media, Sweden
National Category
Sociology Substance Abuse
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-213108 (URN)10.1177/14550725221111317 (DOI)000889618200001 ()2-s2.0-85142682829 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-12-21 Created: 2022-12-21 Last updated: 2023-01-30Bibliographically approved
Wahlström, J., Magnusson, C., Brolin Låftman, S. & Svensson, J. (2023). Parents’ drinking, childhood hangover? Parental alcohol use, subjective health complaints and perceived stress among Swedish adolescents aged 10–18 years. BMC Public Health, 23, Article ID 162.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Parents’ drinking, childhood hangover? Parental alcohol use, subjective health complaints and perceived stress among Swedish adolescents aged 10–18 years
2023 (English)In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 23, article id 162Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background Alcohol abuse is not only harmful to the consumer but may also negatively impact individuals in the drinker’s social environment. Alcohol’s harm to others is vital to consider when calculating the true societal cost of alcohol use. Children of parents who have alcohol use disorder tend to have an elevated risk of negative outcomes regarding, e.g., health, education, and social relationships. Research on the general youth population has established a link between parental drinking and offspring alcohol use. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding other outcomes, such as health. The current study aimed to investigate the associations between parental drinking and children’s psychological and somatic complaints, and perceived stress.

Methods Data were derived from a nationally representative sample, obtained from the 2010 Swedish Level-of-Living survey (LNU). Parents and adolescents (ages 10–18) living in the same households were interviewed independently. The final study sample included 909 adolescents from 629 households. The three outcomes, psychological and somatic complaints and perceived stress, were derived from adolescents’ self-reports. Parents’ selfreports of alcohol use, both frequency and quantity, were used to categorise adolescents as having abstaining, lowconsuming, moderate-drinking, or heavy-drinking parents. Control variables included adolescents’ gender, age, family structure, and household socioeconomic status. Linear and binary logistic regression analyses were performed.

Results Parental heavy drinking was more common among adolescents living in more socioeconomically advantaged households and among adolescents living with two custodial parents or in reconstituted families. Adolescents with heavy-drinking parents reported higher levels of psychological and somatic complaints and had an increased likelihood of reporting stress, compared with those having moderate-drinking parents. These associations remained statistically significant when adjusting for all control variables.

Conclusion The current study’s results show that parental alcohol consumption is associated with poorer offspring adolescent health. Public health policies that aim to reduce parental drinking or provide support to these adolescents may be beneficial. Further studies investigating the health-related outcomes among young people living with heavy-drinking parents in the general population are needed to gain more knowledge about these individuals and to implement adequate public health measures.

Keywords
Parental drinking, Parental alcohol use, Youth, Psychological complaints, Somatic complaints, Stress
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Research subject
Sociology; Public Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-214149 (URN)10.1186/s12889-023-15097-w (DOI)000922373600007 ()36694162 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85146786786 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-01-24 Created: 2023-01-24 Last updated: 2023-08-28Bibliographically approved
Syed, N. R., Wahlström, J., Brolin Låftman, S. & Svensson, J. (2023). Perceived parental alcohol problems and psychosomatic complaints among adolescents in Sweden. Addictive Behaviors Reports, Article ID 100491.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Perceived parental alcohol problems and psychosomatic complaints among adolescents in Sweden
2023 (English)In: Addictive Behaviors Reports, ISSN 2352-8532, article id 100491Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction

For adolescents, parental problem drinking can be regarded as a chronic stressor, negatively affecting their health. There is limited knowledge and a relative lack of empirical evidence on this topic, especially in Sweden. The aim of the current study was to examine perceived parental alcohol problems and the links with psychosomatic complaints among adolescents in Sweden.

Methods

Data were obtained from the Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and Other Drugs’ national survey of 2021, collected amongst 9,032 students in grades 9 (∼15–16 years) and 11 (∼17–18 years). Perceived parental alcohol problems were measured by the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST-6) scale, using a cutoff at ≥ 3. Psychosomatic complaints were captured by a binary measure based on the frequency of headache, stomach ache, feeling depressed or down, difficulties to fall asleep, and sleeping poorly at night. Sociodemographic characteristics included gender, grade, parental education, and parental country of birth. Descriptive analyses with chi2 tests and binary logistic regression analyses were performed.

Results

Adolescents with perceived parental alcohol problems had higher odds of reporting psychosomatic complaints compared with adolescents without perceived parental drinking problems, even when adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. Girls, grade 11 students, adolescent with at least one parent born in Sweden, and those without university-educated parents were more likely to report parental alcohol problems.

Conclusions

The findings highlight adolescents with perceived parental alcohol problems need support. The school, being an arena where adolescents spend much of their time, may play a vital role in this regard.

Keywords
Adolescents, Alcohol, Parental drinking problems, CAST-6, Psychosomatic complaints
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Public Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-216775 (URN)10.1016/j.abrep.2023.100491 (DOI)
Available from: 2023-04-27 Created: 2023-04-27 Last updated: 2023-04-27Bibliographically approved
Wahlström, J., Modin, B., Svensson, J., Löfstedt, P. & Brolin Låftman, S. (2023). There’s a tear in my beer: Bullying victimisation and young teenage drinking in Sweden. Children and youth services review, 154, Article ID 107123.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>There’s a tear in my beer: Bullying victimisation and young teenage drinking in Sweden
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2023 (English)In: Children and youth services review, ISSN 0190-7409, E-ISSN 1873-7765, Vol. 154, article id 107123Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Victims of bullying are at an increased risk not only of developing adverse mental health, but also of engaging in health risk behaviours. One way in which adolescents may cope with the health-related consequences of bullying victimisation is through substance use such as alcohol and narcotics, as posited by the self-medication hypothesis. Indeed, previous research has found a link between traditional (face-to-face) bullying victimisation and alcohol use among adolescents, albeit with some inconsistencies. However, studies examining both traditional bullying and cyberbullying among youth often report an association only between cyberbullying victimisation and drinking. The current study seeks to add to this field of research by analysing the predictive capacity of traditional and cyberbullying victimisation for youth drinking whilst also adjusting for bullying perpetration and sociodemographic characteristics. In the analyses, we distinguished between occasional and frequent victimisation, and performed separate investigations of how specific types of traditional bullying and cyberbullying victimisation are related to youth drinking. Data were obtained from the Swedish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey, with pooled cross-sectional information from 2013/14 and 2017/18 collected among 13- and 15-year-old students (n =7126). Any alcohol use and drunkenness during the past 30 days were used as dependent variables. The respondents were categorised as non-victims, occasional victims, and frequent victims of traditional and cyberbullying, respectively. Binary logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the associations between bullying victimisation and youth drinking. The results showed that 21.2% of students reported that they had been bullied at least once or twice in the past months, either as victims of traditional bullying only (8.3%), cyberbullying only (7.8%), or both (5.1%). When both types of bullying victimisation were mutually adjusted for, only cyberbullying remained significantly associated with an increased risk of drinking. However, when specific types of face-to-face bullying victimisation were analysed, several statistically significant associations with youth drinking were found, even when controlling for cyberbullying victimisation. Associations with any alcohol use and drunkenness were overall very similar. To conclude, this study corroborates previous research which has shown youth drinking to be more consistently related with cyberbullying victimisation than with traditional bullying victimisation. The study also extends previous knowledge by showing that the association between traditional bullying victimisation and youth drinking differs depending on the operationalisation of victimisation. Future research might benefit from examining this more thoroughly. The findings highlight that interventions targeting bullying and its effects should consider both face-to-face and online victimisation. 

Keywords
Bullying, Cyberbullying, Victimization, Alcohol use, Drunkenness, Adolescents
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-220682 (URN)10.1016/j.childyouth.2023.107123 (DOI)001076258900001 ()2-s2.0-85170578317 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-09-05 Created: 2023-09-05 Last updated: 2024-05-24Bibliographically approved
Raninen, J., Livingston, M., Ramstedt, M., Zetterqvist, M., Larm, P. & Svensson, J. (2022). 17 Is the New 15: Changing Alcohol Consumption among Swedish Youth. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(3), Article ID 1645.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>17 Is the New 15: Changing Alcohol Consumption among Swedish Youth
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2022 (English)In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 19, no 3, article id 1645Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To examine and compare trends in drinking prevalence in nationally representative samples of Swedish 9th and 11th grade students between 2000 and 2018. A further aim is to compare drinking behaviours in the two age groups during years with similar drinking prevalence. Data were drawn from annual surveys of a nationally representative sample of students in year 9 (15–16 years old) and year 11 (17–18 years old). The data covered 19 years for year 9 and 16 years for year 11. Two reference years where the prevalence of drinking was similar were extracted for further comparison, 2018 for year 11 (n = 4878) and 2005 for year 9 (n = 5423). The reference years were compared with regard to the volume of drinking, heavy episodic drinking, having had an accident and quarrelling while drunk. The prevalence of drinking declined in both age groups during the study period. The rate of decline was somewhat higher among year 9 students. In 2018, the prevalence of drinking was the same for year 11 students as it was for year 9 students in 2005. The volume of drinking was lower among year 11 students in 2018 than year 9 students in 2005. No differences were observed for heavy episodic drinking. The decline in drinking has caused a displacement of consumption so that today’s 17–18-year-olds have a similar drinking behaviour to what 15–16-year-olds had in 2005.

Keywords
alcohol, youth, survey, Sweden, age of onset
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-202619 (URN)10.3390/ijerph19031645 (DOI)000756297900001 ()35162666 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2022-03-09 Created: 2022-03-09 Last updated: 2022-03-09Bibliographically approved
Raninen, J., Livingston, M., Holmes, J., Svensson, J. & Larm, P. (2022). Declining youth drinking: A matter of faith?. Drug and Alcohol Review, 41(4), 721-723
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Declining youth drinking: A matter of faith?
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2022 (English)In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 721-723Article in journal, Editorial material (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

Youth drinking has declined in many high-income countries for two decades. This development is still largely unexplained. Developing evidence and extending our understanding as to the mechanisms behind these changes is imperative for advising governments and policy makers on how to support and maintain the trends. Given the international scope of the trends, comparative studies have been suggested for improving our understanding of the development. In this commentary, we explore the patterns observed across several waves of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs between 1999 and 2019, and how these match-up with the World Values Survey. We found that the declines in youth drinking are limited to a smaller number of countries and that in Europe these are all found in two groups from the World Values Survey, protestant Europe and English-speaking countries. If the declines in youth drinking are systematic and limited to a smaller number of countries, this challenges some of the hypothesised drivers of this development, but can also help guide future research.

Keywords
alcohol, change, European School survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs, youth, adolescent, drinking behavior, epidemiology, Europe, human, income, school, underage drinking, Alcohol Drinking, Humans, Schools
National Category
Substance Abuse Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-208717 (URN)10.1111/dar.13411 (DOI)000724337700001 ()34856025 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85120328319 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-09-08 Created: 2022-09-08 Last updated: 2022-09-08Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-1679-3506

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