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Malmrud, S., Falkenberg, H., Lindfors, P., Hellgren, J. & Sverke, M. (2024). Opportunities and Obstacles in Individualized Pay-setting From a Manager Perspective. Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, 14(2)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Opportunities and Obstacles in Individualized Pay-setting From a Manager Perspective
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2024 (English)In: Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, E-ISSN 2245-0157, Vol. 14, no 2Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study explored pay-setting managers’ experiences regarding the individualized pay-setting process. Seven semi-structured group-interviews with pay-setting managers (N = 28) from four private companies in Sweden were conducted. A thematic analysis identified three main themes: 1) Prerequisites for pay-setting, which included conditions for pay-setting work and experiences of these conditions; 2) Assessment and feedback, which included experiences of employee performance assessment and feedback provision; 3) Rewards, which covered experiences of different pay incentives and the relationship between performance and pay. The pay-setting process was considered to include many obstacles as well as a few opportunities. Without proper pre-requisites to assess employee performance, the possibilities to adequately reward performance were experienced as limited, which, in turn, hampered possibilities to justify both the assessment and pay raise. Taken together, this study underscores the conflict between intentions relating to how to carry out a pay-setting process and managers’ difficulties to actually accomplish this.

Keywords
employment, wages, unemployment & rehabilitation, labor market institutions & social partners, organization & management
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-225002 (URN)10.18291/njwls.142492 (DOI)001239666700002 ()
Note

This research forms part of the project “Legitimacy in Pay-setting: A Psychological Perspective on Work-related Pay-setting and Employee-related Pay-setting,” supported by funding from the Confederation of Swedish Enterprise (Ref. No. 313002, PI Sverke). Additional funding came from Stockholm University, Department of Psychology.

Available from: 2024-01-04 Created: 2024-01-04 Last updated: 2024-07-01Bibliographically approved
Sverke, M., Ferré Hernandez, I., Tanimoto, A. S., Hellgren, J. & Näswall, K. (2023). Can unions represent the interests of insecure workers?. In: Nele De Cuyper; Eva Selenko; Martin Euwema; Wilmar Schaufeli (Ed.), Job Insecurity, Precarious Employment and Burnout: Facts and Fables in Work Psychology Research (pp. 105-125). Edward Elgar Publishing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Can unions represent the interests of insecure workers?
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2023 (English)In: Job Insecurity, Precarious Employment and Burnout: Facts and Fables in Work Psychology Research / [ed] Nele De Cuyper; Eva Selenko; Martin Euwema; Wilmar Schaufeli, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2023, p. 105-125Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Insecure work has become increasingly frequent in recent decades. It includes insecure employment contracts (contractual arrangements that deviate from permanent, open-ended contracts) as well as perceived job insecurity (an individual perception that one’s job is at risk). While research on insecure work (contractual and perceived) has identified numerous work-related and health-related outcomes, a limited number of studies have investigated if union membership may be a protective factor. The unionization rate among workers with insecure employment contracts is relatively low, despite these contractual arrangements often being characterized by poor working conditions. This chapter reviews previous research to address the following questions: (1) How do insecure workers view union membership and what are their unionization behaviours (joining and leaving)? (2) Can union membership and support buffer the negative effects of insecure work on work-related and health-related outcomes? (3) How can unions represent the interests of insecure workers?

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Edward Elgar Publishing, 2023
Keywords
job insecurity, non-standard employment, union, temporary employment
National Category
Psychology Social Work
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-223460 (URN)10.4337/9781035315888.00015 (DOI)9781035315871 (ISBN)9781035315888 (ISBN)
Available from: 2023-10-30 Created: 2023-10-30 Last updated: 2023-10-30Bibliographically approved
Nordgren Selar, A., Gagné, M., Hellgren, J., Falkenberg, H. & Sverke, M. (2023). Compensation profiles among private sector employees in Sweden: Differences in work-related and health-related outcomes. Frontiers in Psychology, 14, Article ID 949711.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Compensation profiles among private sector employees in Sweden: Differences in work-related and health-related outcomes
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2023 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 14, article id 949711Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

How experiences and perceptions of pay and pay setting relate to employees’ job performance, willingness to remain in the organization, and health has been the subject of much debate. Previous research has typically used a variable-centered approach to investigate associations between different pay-related factors and such outcomes. In contrast, we used latent profile analysis to explore combinations of compensation characteristics (pay level, perceived horizontal pay dispersion, and procedural quality, i.e., transactional leadership and procedural pay-setting justice), combining relevant theories on the subject. Based on a nationally representative sample of private sector employees in Sweden (N = 1,146), our study identified six compensation profiles. Our key findings show, first, that higher levels of pay were generally associated with better performance, lower turnover intention, better self-rated health, and lower work-related exhaustion, especially when combined with perceptions of high procedural quality. Second, in terms of perceived horizontal pay dispersion, the results indicate that pay compression may be associated with beneficial outcomes, particularly when combined with high procedural quality. Third, procedural quality was generally associated with favorable work-related and health-related outcomes, although such positive effects may be contingent upon pay level and perceived horizontal pay dispersion. In conclusion, while pay level, perceptions of horizontal pay dispersion, and procedural quality may all matter for employee outcomes, it is important to consider their combinations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2023
Keywords
compensation, health, organizational justice, leadership, pay, pay dispersion, job performance, turnover
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-216889 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2023.949711 (DOI)000953571100001 ()36925601 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85150071410 (Scopus ID)
Note

This study was financed by a grant to MS from the Confederation of Swedish Enterprise (grant no. 313002).

Available from: 2023-05-15 Created: 2023-05-15 Last updated: 2024-01-12Bibliographically approved
Astvik, W., Welander, J. & Hellgren, J. (2021). A comparative study of how social workers' voice and silence strategies relate to organisational resources, attitudes and well-being at work. Journal of Social Work, 21(2), 206-224
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A comparative study of how social workers' voice and silence strategies relate to organisational resources, attitudes and well-being at work
2021 (English)In: Journal of Social Work, ISSN 1468-0173, E-ISSN 1741-296X, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 206-224Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study sets out to investigate the potential differences between social workers using voice- or silence strategies in their experience of organisational resources, attitudes and health, and whether social workers moving between strategies (voice or silence) over time have a different experience of the same outcomes than those who stay with the same strategy group. The participating social workers (n = 1356) responded to two web-based questionnaires over a one-year period. Findings The results show that voice strategies are related to the experience of more positive organisational resources, more positive attitudes (greater job satisfaction and organisational commitment, but lower intention to exit) and more positive health (greater recovery, but less emotional exhaustion and stress symptoms) than those using silence strategies. The results also show that moving from silence to voice is related to the experience of increased organisational resources, more positive attitudes and more positive health at T2, while those moving from voice to silence reported the opposite. Applications The longitudinal approach applied in this study adds empirical evidence of the relationship between voice/silence and work-related attitudes, as well as health and well-being. The close relationship between organisational resources, employee voice behaviour and related individual outcomes regarding attitudes and health imply that Human Resources (HR) management has a lot to gain by developing and securing a voice-friendly and considerate climate in their organisations.

Keywords
social work, communication, ethics, health, management
National Category
Sociology Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-177477 (URN)10.1177/1468017319890085 (DOI)000499525900001 ()
Available from: 2020-01-20 Created: 2020-01-20 Last updated: 2022-02-26Bibliographically approved
Låstad, L., Sverke, M., Hellgren, J., Richter, A. & Näswall, K. (2021). Anställningsotrygghet och prestation: resultat från en meta-analys. In: Konferensbok FALF 14–16 juni 2021: . Paper presented at Forum för arbetslivsforskning (FALF), digital konferens, 14-16 juni, 2021 (pp. 88-88). Mälardalens högskola
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Anställningsotrygghet och prestation: resultat från en meta-analys
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2021 (Swedish)In: Konferensbok FALF 14–16 juni 2021, Mälardalens högskola , 2021, p. 88-88Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [sv]

Bakgrund: Anställningsotrygghet, det vill säga en oro för att mot den egna viljan förlora jobbet, har visatsig vara kopplat till olika prestationsrelaterade utfall. Antalet studier är dock få med resultatsom pekar åt delvis olika håll. Därför är det angeläget att försöka sammanställa tidigareforskning på ett systematiskt sätt genom en meta-analys.

Syfte: Den här studien syftade till att undersöka hur anställningsotrygghet hänger samman med olikaaspekter av prestation i arbetet, däribland arbetsprestation och medarbetarbeteenden. I detingick också att undersöka faktorer som kan påverka dessa samband, såsom metodrelateradefaktorer samt kontextuella faktorer som speglar vilken typ av välfärdssystem en studiegenomförts i.

Metod: En meta-analys genomfördes på primärstudier som identifierades genom systematisklitteratursökning i för området relevanta databaser

Resultat: Över lag visar resultaten att anställningsotrygghet hänger samman med försämrad prestation iarbetet. Resultaten är jämförbara oberoende av om studiedesignen var tvärsnittlig ellerlongitudinell. Sambandet mellan hög anställningsotrygghet och försämrad prestation framstårsom svagare i välfärdssystem som är förenade med en högre grad av skyddsnät för den enskildaindividen. Även om merparten av resultaten visar på entydiga samband mellananställningsotrygghet och försämrad prestation behövs dock forskning som inkluderar mer avlongitudinella studier i olika välfärdskontexter för att ytterligare klargöra sambandens karaktär.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Mälardalens högskola, 2021
Keywords
Anställningsotrygghet, prestation, meta-analys
National Category
Applied Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-194229 (URN)
Conference
Forum för arbetslivsforskning (FALF), digital konferens, 14-16 juni, 2021
Projects
Nowstars
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2019-01311
Available from: 2021-06-16 Created: 2021-06-16 Last updated: 2022-02-25Bibliographically approved
Tanimoto, A. S., Ferré Hernandez, I., Hellgren, J. & Sverke, M. (2021). Non-standard Employment Contracts: Characteristics and Consequences of New Ways of Working. In: Christian Korunka (Ed.), Flexible Working Practices and Approaches: Psychological and Social Implications (pp. 191-211). Springer Nature
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Non-standard Employment Contracts: Characteristics and Consequences of New Ways of Working
2021 (English)In: Flexible Working Practices and Approaches: Psychological and Social Implications / [ed] Christian Korunka, Springer Nature, 2021, p. 191-211Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Non-standard employment includes a variety of contractual arrangements which deviate from permanent, open-ended, full-time work. There are several types of non-standard work, including project work, seasonal work, on-call work, solo self-employment, and temporary agency work. Non-standard workers are typically younger, have lower levels of education, and are more often women in comparison with standard employees. Despite substantial heterogeneity between different types of non-standard work, and research illustrating that the consequences may vary between contract forms, the overall picture suggests that non-standard employment is associated with more negative work-related, safety-related, and health-related outcomes than standard employment. Findings also suggest that these associations may be influenced by factors related to an individual’s preference for their employment contract or the job specifically. Non-standard employment may have implications for the individual, policy-makers, employers, and unions. There is a need for additional research focusing on disentangling various contractual arrangements and investigating how various types of non-standard workers differ in terms of demographic characteristics, work environment conditions, and consequences.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2021
Keywords
temporary employment, contingent work, flexible work, work-related attitudes, occupational health and safety
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-199420 (URN)10.1007/978-3-030-74128-0_10 (DOI)978-3-030-74127-3 (ISBN)978-3-030-74128-0 (ISBN)
Projects
NOWSTARS
Note

This research was carried out within the NOWSTARS research program, with financial support from the Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare (FORTE Grant No. 2019-01311).

Available from: 2021-12-07 Created: 2021-12-07 Last updated: 2021-12-08Bibliographically approved
Hellgren, J., Ferré Hernandez, I., Tanimoto, A. S. & Sverke, M. (2021). Vad vet vi om fackets roll i ett föränderligt arbetsliv?. In: Konferensbok FALF 14-16 juni 2021: . Paper presented at FALF 2021, Hälsosamt arbetsliv: utopi eller verklighet? Mälardalens högskola, Sverige, 14-16 juni 2021 (pp. 58-58).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vad vet vi om fackets roll i ett föränderligt arbetsliv?
2021 (Swedish)In: Konferensbok FALF 14-16 juni 2021, 2021, p. 58-58Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Bakgrund: Genom att samverka med arbetsgivarparter och organisera yrkesverksamma personer har fackföreningar bidragit till flera förändringar som främjat en positiv utveckling på arbetsmarknaden. Den här utvecklingen inkluderar reglering av arbetstid, semester, sjukfrånvaro och säkerhet i arbetet. Sammantaget har detta fackliga arbete bidragit till att främja en god arbetsmiljö. Likväl finns idag en diskussion kring legitimiteten i fackföreningarsarbete. Den diskussionen utgår från det faktum att den fackliga anslutningsgraden minskat över tid, med lägre anslutningsgrad särskilt bland individer som arbetar deltid, har tidsbegränsade anställningskontrakt eller i övrigt har osäkra anställningsvillkor. Det bidrar till frågor om vilken kunskap som egentligen finns när det gäller fackets roll och attityder till facklig anslutning i ett arbetsliv som i allt högre grad utmärks av osäkra anställningsvillkor.

Syfte: Mot bakgrund av det syftade den här systematiska litteraturöversikten till att sammanställa aktuell forskning om facket och anställda med olika typer av osäkra och tillfälliga anställningar. Mer specifikt var fokus riktat mot att undersöka attityder till facket och facklig anslutningsgrad bland anställda med otrygga anställningar, i vilken utsträckning fackligt medlemskap kan utgöra ett skydd mot otrygga anställningsvillkor, vad fackligt medlemskap kan betyda för arbetsrelaterade attityder och beteenden samt olika aspekter av hälsa samt hur fackliga organisationer arbetar för att rekrytera personer med atypiska anställningskontrakt.

Metod: Tidigare studier identifierades genom systematisk litteratursökning i för området relevanta databaser med avgränsning till litteratur publicerad från 2010 och framåt. Dessa bedömes sedan av oberoende bedömare som relevanta eller irrelevanta för frågeställningen. Slutligen sammanställdes resultat för olika delområden.

Resultat: Över lag visar resultaten att medlemskap i facket kan ha en stödjande funktion för individer med osäkra anställningsvillkor och för dem som upplever otrygghet, men att benägenheten att organisera sig fackligt är lägre bland anställda med otrygga anställningar jämfört med anställda med mer typiska anställningskontrakt. I linje med vad som konstaterats i tidigare studier är kunskapen fortfarande begränsad kring attityder till facket och kopplingar till olika arbets- och hälsorelaterade aspekter, inte minst hos de grupper som innehar olika former av tidsbegränsade och osäkra anställningar. Det motiverar ytterligare empiriska studier som fokuserar på olika aspekter av fackets roll i ett föränderligt arbetsliv där det finns en större variation i olika typer av anställningsformer.

Keywords
FALF, Nowstars, facket
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-194425 (URN)
Conference
FALF 2021, Hälsosamt arbetsliv: utopi eller verklighet? Mälardalens högskola, Sverige, 14-16 juni 2021
Note

Arbetet och konferensmedverkan finansierades av det Forte-finansierade forskningsprogrammet Nowstars (Forte dnr: 2019-01311) och Stockholms universitet.

Available from: 2021-06-21 Created: 2021-06-21 Last updated: 2022-02-25Bibliographically approved
Nordgren Selar, A., Falkenberg, H., Hellgren, J., Gagné, M. & Sverke, M. (2020). “It’s [Not] All ‘Bout the Money”: How do Performance-based Pay and Support of Psychological Needs Variables Relate to Job Performance?. Scandinavian Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 5(1), 1-14, Article ID 9.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>“It’s [Not] All ‘Bout the Money”: How do Performance-based Pay and Support of Psychological Needs Variables Relate to Job Performance?
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2020 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, E-ISSN 2002-2867, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 1-14, article id 9Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The use of performance-based pay is increasing rapidly, but empirical evidence on how and why it relates to job performance, as well as its relative strategical importance, remains unclear. The present study examined the relative importance of performance-based pay variables and support of psychological needs variables for task and contextual performance in a sample of 582 white-collar employees in Sweden. Multiple regression results, based on survey and register data, showed that the instrumentality of the pay system related to lower levels of task and contextual performance. However, supplementary relative weight analysis (RWA) showed that, in relative terms, instrumentality of the pay system was of minor importance for performance. Performance-based pay-raise amount was positively related to contextual performance but not predictive of task performance. Procedural pay-setting justice was unrelated to both outcomes. Among the support of psychological needs variables, feedback and job autonomy had positive associations with both outcomes while social support from colleagues was not predictive of performance. Considering the explained variance (16–17%), the performance-based pay variables combined accounted for up to a third (12.6–29.2%) while support of psychological needs variables accounted for more than half of the explained variance (56.1–68.1%) in task and contextual performance. The results indicate that organizations would benefit from putting support of psychological needs to the forefront of their motivational strategies as a complement to administrating complex compensation systems.

Keywords
performance pay, rewards, expectancy theory, self-determination theory, performance, needs
National Category
Psychology Applied Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-185225 (URN)10.16993/sjwop.107 (DOI)
Available from: 2020-09-18 Created: 2020-09-18 Last updated: 2024-03-13Bibliographically approved
Malmrud, S., Falkenberg, H., Eib, C., Hellgren, J. & Sverke, M. (2020). Just What I See? Implications of Congruence Between Supervisors’ and Employees’ Perceptions of Pay Justice for Employees’ Work-Related Attitudes and Behaviors. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, Article ID 2069.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Just What I See? Implications of Congruence Between Supervisors’ and Employees’ Perceptions of Pay Justice for Employees’ Work-Related Attitudes and Behaviors
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2020 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 11, article id 2069Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Perceiving a pay system as just has been suggested to be a precondition for individualized pay to have a motivating effect for employees. Supervisors’ enacted justice is central for understanding the effects that pay setting can have on employee attitudes and behavior. Yet, enacted justice has received little research attention, in regard to both organizational justice and pay-related topics. This study examines the effects of employees’ perceived pay justice and supervisors’ enacted justice, as well as the degree of congruence, on employees’ work-related attitudes and behaviors. Questionnaire data from employees (N = 566) matched with data from their pay-setting supervisors (N = 208), employed in a Swedish manufacturing company, were analyzed. Results of polynomial regression with response surface analysis show that employees’ perceptions of pay justice were important for their work-related attitudes and behaviors and that supervisor–employee congruence regarding pay justice was positively related to employees’ attitudes and behavior, particularly when the ratings concerned high levels of justice. The results not only highlight the importance of developing a pay system that is perceived as just by employees but also emphasize the importance of reaching a congruence between supervisors’ and employees’ perceptions of high fairness, as this has positive implications for employees’ attitudes and behaviors.

Keywords
organizational justice, justice enactment, pay justice, perceptual congruence, performance-based pay, work attitudes, job performance
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-184952 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2020.02069 (DOI)000574400500001 ()
Available from: 2020-09-10 Created: 2020-09-10 Last updated: 2022-02-25Bibliographically approved
Sverke, M., Låstad, L., Hellgren, J., Richter, A. & Näswall, K. (2019). A Meta-Analysis of Job Insecurity and Employee Performance: Testing Temporal Aspects, Rating Source, Welfare Regime, and Union Density as Moderators. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(14), Article ID 2536.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Meta-Analysis of Job Insecurity and Employee Performance: Testing Temporal Aspects, Rating Source, Welfare Regime, and Union Density as Moderators
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2019 (English)In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 14, article id 2536Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Previous research has shown that job insecurity is linked to a range of performance outcomes, but the number of studies exploring this relationship is still limited and the results are somewhat mixed. The first aim of this study was to meta-analytically investigate how job insecurity is related to task performance, contextual performance, counterproductive work behavior, creativity, and safety compliance. The second aim was to test two method-related factors ( cross-sectional vs. longitudinal associations and self-vs. supervisor-ratings of performance) and two macro-level indicators of social protection ( social welfare regime and union density) as moderators of these associations. The results show that job insecurity was generally associated with impaired employee performance. These findings were generally similar both cross-sectionally and longitudinally and irrespective of rater. Overall, the associations between job insecurity and negative performance outcomes were weaker in welfare regimes characterized by strong social protection, whereas the results concerning union density produced mixed results. A majority of the findings confirmed the negative associations between job insecurity and types of employee performance, but future research is needed to elaborate on the effects of temporal aspects, differences between ratings sources, and further indicators of social protection in different cultural settings in the context of job insecurity.

Keywords
job insecurity, job performance, contextual performance, counterproductive work behavior, creativity, safety compliance, supervisor ratings, longitudinal, union density, welfare regime
National Category
Psychology Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-173033 (URN)10.3390/ijerph16142536 (DOI)000480659300089 ()31315198 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-10-02 Created: 2019-10-02 Last updated: 2022-03-23Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-0713-4824

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