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Babor, T. F., Casswell, S., Graham, K., Huckle, T., Livingston, M., Rehm, J., . . . Sornpaisarn, B. (2023). Alcohol: No Ordinary Commodity - A Summary of the Third Edition. SUCHT, 69(4), 147-162
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Alcohol: No Ordinary Commodity - A Summary of the Third Edition
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2023 (English)In: SUCHT, ISSN 0939-5911, E-ISSN 1664-2856, Vol. 69, no 4, p. 147-162Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background and Aims: This article summarizes the findings and conclusions of the third edition of Alcohol: No Ordinary Commodity. The latest revision of this book is part of a series of monographs designed to provide a critical review of the scientific evidence related to alcohol control policy from a public health perspective. Design: A narrative summary of the contents of the book according to five major issues. Findings: An extensive amount of epidemiological evidence shows that alcohol is a major contributor to the global burden of disease, disability and death in high-, middle- and low-income countries. Trends in alcohol products and marketing are described, indicating that a large part of the global industry has been consolidated into a small number of transnational corporations that are expanding their operations in Asia, Africa and Latin America. The main part of the book is devoted to a review of strategies and interventions designed to prevent or minimize alcohol-related harm. Overall, the most effective strategies to protect public health are taxation that decreases affordability and restrictions on the physical availability of alcohol. A total ban on alcohol marketing is also an effective strategy to reduce consumption. In addition, drink-driving counter-measures, brief interventions with at-risk drinkers and treatment of drinkers with alcohol dependence are effective in preventing harm in high-risk contexts and groups of hazardous drinkers. Conclusion: Alcohol policy is often the product of competing interests, values and ideologies, with the evidence suggesting that the conflicting interests between profit and health mean that working in partnership with the alcohol industry is likely to lead to ineffective policy. Opportunities for implementation of evidence-based alcohol policies that better serve the public good are clearer than ever before as a result of accumulating knowledge on which strategies work best.

Keywords
alcohol, epidemiology, industry, interventions, policy, public health, research
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-221687 (URN)10.1024/0939-5911/a000822 (DOI)001063655500002 ()2-s2.0-85168604016 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-09-27 Created: 2023-09-27 Last updated: 2023-09-27Bibliographically approved
Laslett, A.-M., Room, R., Kuntsche, S., Anderson-Luxford, D., Willoughby, B., Doran, C., . . . Jiang, H. (2023). Alcohol's harm to others in 2021: Who bears the burden?. Addiction, 118(9), 1726-1738
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Alcohol's harm to others in 2021: Who bears the burden?
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2023 (English)In: Addiction, ISSN 0965-2140, E-ISSN 1360-0443, Vol. 118, no 9, p. 1726-1738Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background and aims: Alcohol's harm to others (AHTO) has become a key driver of national and international alcohol policy. This study aimed to produce a contemporary, comprehensive estimate of the correlates and harms from others' drinking in 2021 in Australia.

Design, setting, participants and measurements: Across Australia, 2574 adults (1380 women; 1172 men) were sampled via two cross-sectional survey modes: a random-digit dial mobile phone sample of 1000 people and 1574 people from the Life in Australia™ panel survey. In 2021 participants were asked about harms they had experienced from the drinking of family, friends, co-workers and the public in the past year. Applying combined sample weights from each mode, bivariable and adjusted multivariable logistic regressions were used to analyse differences in rates of AHTO by participant gender, age, residence in rural or metropolitan regions, country of birth, education and employment.

Findings: In 2021, 23.6% reported being negatively affected by strangers' drinking and 21.3% by the drinking of someone they knew, with 34.3% reporting being negatively affected a lot or a little by either; 42.4% of respondents reported specific harms from strangers' drinking. Thus, 48.1% of respondents reported any harm (negative effects or specific harms) from others' drinking. Women, younger people, Australian-born and heavier episodic drinkers reported significantly higher rates of AHTO compared with other respondents. Smaller percentages (7.5%) of participants reported being harmed substantially by others' drinking, including by people they knew (5.8%) or strangers (2.3%). Stratified analyses showed that heavier drinking, furloughed, younger men who were born overseas in English-speaking countries were affected by others' drinking, whereas women were affected regardless of these factors (apart from age).

Conclusions: More than one-third of Australian adults appear to have been negatively affected by others' drinking in 2021, with women, younger people and heavier drinkers at greater risk. Substantial harm appears to be more likely to arise from the drinking of people Australians know than from strangers' drinking.

Keywords
Alcohol, family and other relationship effects, harm to others, heavy episodic drinking, household, inequalities, survey
National Category
Substance Abuse
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-216977 (URN)10.1111/add.16205 (DOI)000974969400001 ()37052510 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85153596848 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-05-10 Created: 2023-05-10 Last updated: 2023-08-16Bibliographically approved
Smit, K., Jiang, H., Rockloff, M., Room, R., MacLean, S. & Laslett, A.-M. (2023). Associations Between Heavy Episodic Drinking, Drinking While Gambling, and Risky Gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies (39), 1597-1610
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Associations Between Heavy Episodic Drinking, Drinking While Gambling, and Risky Gambling
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Gambling Studies, ISSN 1050-5350, E-ISSN 1573-3602, no 39, p. 1597-1610Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: Understanding how patterns of drinking are associated with risky gambling in Australia is needed to inform an effective approach to minimise harm. Methods: This cross-sectional questionnaire study reports on 2,704 subsampled participants who completed survey questions about their patterns of drinking. With logistic regressions, we examined whether frequency of heavy episodic drinking (HED) and alcohol use while gambling were associated with risky gambling while controlling for sociodemographic variables. Results: Occasional HED and monthly HED were associated with any gambling (versus no gambling), but frequent HED was not significantly associated with gambling. The opposite pattern was found when predicting risky gambling. Occasional HED (i.e. less than monthly) was not significantly associated, but a higher frequency of HED (at least weekly) was associated with a higher likelihood of risky gambling. Drinking alcohol while gambling was associated with risky gambling, over and above HED. The combination of HED and use of alcohol while gambling appeared to significantly increase the likelihood of risky gambling. Conclusions: The association of HED and alcohol use while gambling with risky gambling highlights the importance of preventing heavy alcohol use among gamblers. The links between these forms of drinking and risky gambling further suggests that individuals who engage in both activities are specifically prone to gambling harm. Policies should therefore discourage alcohol use while gambling for example by prohibiting serving alcohol at reduced prices or to gamblers who show signs of being affected by alcohol and informing individuals of the risks associated with alcohol use while gambling.

Keywords
Risky gambling, Heavy episodic drinking, Alcohol use, Alcohol use while gambling, Public health
National Category
Psychology Substance Abuse
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-221362 (URN)10.1007/s10899-023-10235-w (DOI)001023644400002 ()37402117 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85163847102 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-09-21 Created: 2023-09-21 Last updated: 2023-11-20Bibliographically approved
Karriker-Jaffe, K. J., Blackburn, N., Graham, K., Walker, M. J., Room, R., Wilson, I. M., . . . Laslett, A.-M. -. (2023). Can alcohol policy prevent harms to women and children from men's alcohol consumption? An overview of existing literature and suggested ways forward. International journal of drug policy, 119, Article ID 104148.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Can alcohol policy prevent harms to women and children from men's alcohol consumption? An overview of existing literature and suggested ways forward
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2023 (English)In: International journal of drug policy, ISSN 0955-3959, E-ISSN 1873-4758, Vol. 119, article id 104148Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The World Health Organization's list of cost-effective alcohol control policies is a widely-used resource that highlights strategies to address alcohol-related harms. However, there is more evidence on how recommended policies impact harms to people who drink alcohol-such as physical health problems caused by heavy alcohol use-than on secondhand harms inflicted on someone other than the person drinking alcohol, i.e., alcohol's harms to others. In this essay, we describe evidence of impacts of alcohol policy on harms to women and children resulting from men's alcohol consumption, as well as options for making policies more relevant for reducing intimate partner violence and child abuse. We begin with an overview of harms to women and children resulting from men's alcohol consumption and review cost-effective alcohol policies with potential to reduce these harms based on likely mechanisms of action. Next, we present a rapid review of reviews to describe existing evidence of impacts of these policies on the outcomes of physical violence, sexual violence, and child abuse and neglect. We found little evidence of systematic evaluation of impacts of these important alcohol policies on harms to women and children. Thus, we advocate for increased attention in evaluation research to the impacts of alcohol policies on harms experienced by women and children who are exposed to men who drink alcohol. We also argue for more consideration of a broader range of policies and interventions to reduce these specific types of harm. Finally, we present a conceptual model illustrating how alcohol policies may be supplemented with other interventions specifically tailored to reduce alcohol-related harms commonly experienced by women and children as a result of men's alcohol use.

Keywords
Alcohol policy, Intimate partner violence, Child abuse and neglect
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-221364 (URN)10.1016/j.drugpo.2023.104148 (DOI)001052278500001 ()37540918 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85166637709 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-09-20 Created: 2023-09-20 Last updated: 2023-09-20Bibliographically approved
Torney, A., Room, R. & Callinan, S. (2023). Cask wine: Describing drinking patterns associated with Australia's cheapest alcohol. Drug and Alcohol Review, 42(6), 1322-1331
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cask wine: Describing drinking patterns associated with Australia's cheapest alcohol
2023 (English)In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 42, no 6, p. 1322-1331Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: In Australia, cask wine is the cheapest alcoholic beverage available, offering the lowest price per standard drink. Despite this, there is little research on the contextual correlates of cask wine consumption. Therefore, the current study aims to describe how cask wine consumption has changed over the last decade. Then, through comparisons between cask and bottled wine, how prices, typical drinking locations, and patterns of consumption differ between the beverages.

Methods: Cross-sectional data was drawn from two sources. Four waves of the National Drug Strategy Household Survey were used (2010, 2013, 2016 and 2019) in order to examine consumption trends over time. The International Alcohol Control study (2013) in Australia was additionally used to explore pricing and consumption trends in greater detail.

Results: Cask wine was considerably cheaper than other forms of wine at $0.54 per standard drink (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.45–0.62, p < 0.05). Consumption trends associated with cask wine differed from that of bottled wine, being consumed almost entirely at home and in significantly greater quantity (standard drinks per day 7.8, 95% CI 6.25–9.26, p < 0.05). Among the heaviest drinkers, 13% (95% CI 7.2–18.8, p < 0.05) consumed cask wine as their main drink, compared to 5% (95% CI 3.76–6.24, p < 0.05) consuming bottled wine.

Conclusions: Cask wine drinkers are disproportionately more likely to consume higher amounts of alcohol, paying less per drink doing so compared to bottled wine drinkers. As all cask wine purchases were under $1.30, a minimum unit price may largely affect cask wine purchases, applying to a far smaller proportion of bottled wine.

Keywords
alcohol, cask wine, pricing, taxation
National Category
Substance Abuse
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-220463 (URN)10.1111/dar.13684 (DOI)000994297400001 ()37224066 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85160075811 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-08-29 Created: 2023-08-29 Last updated: 2023-10-06Bibliographically approved
Rehm, J., Lange, S., Gobiņa, I., Janik-Koncewicz, K., Miščikienė, L., Reile, R., . . . Štelemėkas, M. (2023). Classifying alcohol control policies enacted between 2000 and 2020 in Poland and the Baltic countries to model potential impact. Addiction, 118(3), 449-458
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Classifying alcohol control policies enacted between 2000 and 2020 in Poland and the Baltic countries to model potential impact
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2023 (English)In: Addiction, ISSN 0965-2140, E-ISSN 1360-0443, Vol. 118, no 3, p. 449-458Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aims: The study's aim is to identify and classify the most important alcohol control policies in the Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania) and Poland between 2000 and 2020.

Methods: Policy analysis of Baltic countries and Poland, predicting potential policy impact on alcohol consumption, all-cause mortality and alcohol-attributable hospitalizations was discussed.

Results: All Baltic countries implemented stringent availability restrictions on off-premises trading hours and different degrees of taxation increases to reduce the affordability of alcoholic beverages, as well as various degrees of bans on alcohol marketing. In contrast, Poland implemented few excise taxation increases or availability restrictions and, in fact, reduced stipulations on prior marketing bans.

Conclusions: This classification of alcohol control policies in the Baltic countries and Poland provides a basis for future modeling of the impact of implementing effective alcohol control policies (Baltic countries), as well as the effects of loosening such policies (Poland).

Keywords
Affordability, alcohol control policies, availability, classification, hospitalizations, marketing restriction, mortality, opening hours, taxation
National Category
Substance Abuse Health Care Service and Management, Health Policy and Services and Health Economy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-214511 (URN)10.1111/add.16102 (DOI)000905575000001 ()36471145 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85145235738 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-02-06 Created: 2023-02-06 Last updated: 2023-02-06Bibliographically approved
Törrönen, J., Månsson, J., Samuelsson, E., Roumeliotis, F., Kraus, L. & Room, R. (2023). Following the changes in young people’s drinking practices before and during the pandemic with a qualitative longitudinal interview material. Journal of Youth Studies, 1-19
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Following the changes in young people’s drinking practices before and during the pandemic with a qualitative longitudinal interview material
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Youth Studies, ISSN 1367-6261, E-ISSN 1469-9680, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The paper analyses how the Covid-19 pandemic affected young people’s alcohol-related assemblages, trajectories of becoming and identity claims in Sweden. The data is based on longitudinal qualitative interviews among heavy and moderate drinking young people (n=23; age range 15–24 years). The participants were interviewed two to three times before the Covid-19 pandemic and once at the end of it, between 2017 and 2021. The analysis draws on actor-network theory and narrative positioning approach. The analysis demonstrates how the lockdown produced trajectories of becoming boring, normal, stress-free, self-caring, self-confident and shielded. In these trajectories, drinking was positioned into relations that either increased young people’s capacities for well-being or decreased them. Due to the lockdown, some participants learnt to be moved by relations that contributed to replace drinking with competing activities, while others experienced that the lockdown made drinking a more attractive activity, turning it into a collective force that helped them to overcome isolation. The results show how drinking is a heterogeneous activity which may increase or decrease young people’s capacities for well-being, depending on what kinds of assemblages and trajectories of becoming it is embedded in.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2023
Keywords
Covid-19, qualitative longitudinal data, actor-network theory, narrative positioning theory, trajectories of becoming, identity claims
National Category
Sociology Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Sociology; Child and Youth Studies; Public Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-224048 (URN)10.1080/13676261.2023.2283508 (DOI)001103715100001 ()2-s2.0-85177032512 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2016-00313Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2020-00457
Available from: 2023-11-27 Created: 2023-11-27 Last updated: 2023-12-19
Mugavin, J., Room, R., Callinan, S. & MacLean, S. (2023). How do people drink alcohol at a low-risk level?. Health Sociology Review, 32(3), 311-326
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How do people drink alcohol at a low-risk level?
2023 (English)In: Health Sociology Review, ISSN 1446-1242, E-ISSN 1839-3551, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 311-326Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Reducing the risks associated with drinking is an ongoing public health goal. Approximately two-fifths of Australian adults consume alcohol within low-risk guidelines, yet little is known about their drinking patterns or practices. In this paper, we use social practice theory to consider low-risk drinking at home as a routinised social practice with material, meaning and competence dimensions. We analysed open-text survey responses from 252 Australian adults (30–65, 89% female) who were considered low-risk drinkers. A low-risk drinking occasion was typically closely linked to other practices such as eating dinner or connecting with family or friends. Drinking alcohol, even in small amounts, was associated with enjoyment. Being attuned to bodily sensations and applying some self-imposed rules were competencies that allowed low-risk drinkers to avoid intoxication. Low-risk drinking practices entail some elements that can inform health promotion, including encouraging efforts to limit drinking to times of the day (e.g. during meals) and to attend to bodily feelings of sufficiency. The study also shows how low-risk drinking is entangled with gendered and age-related norms about drinking, and facilitated by rarely being in ‘intoxigenic’ environments. These factors are imbricated with individual decisions in our respondents’ capacity to consume alcohol moderately. 

Keywords
Low-risk, social practice theory, home, qualitative, alcohol
National Category
Substance Abuse
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-220224 (URN)10.1080/14461242.2023.2209090 (DOI)000985233900001 ()37162256 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85159051061 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-08-24 Created: 2023-08-24 Last updated: 2024-01-12Bibliographically approved
O'Brien, P., Dwyer, R., Gleeson, D., Cook, M. & Room, R. (2023). Influencing the global governance of alcohol: Alcohol industry views in submissions to the WHO consultation for the Alcohol Action Plan 2022-2030. International journal of drug policy, 119, Article ID 104115.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influencing the global governance of alcohol: Alcohol industry views in submissions to the WHO consultation for the Alcohol Action Plan 2022-2030
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2023 (English)In: International journal of drug policy, ISSN 0955-3959, E-ISSN 1873-4758, Vol. 119, article id 104115Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

In 2020, the Secretariat of the World Health Organization (WHO) conducted an open consultation, with public submissions, for the purpose of developing an Alcohol Action Plan to strengthen implementation of the WHO's 2010 Global Strategy to Reduce the Harmful Use of Alcohol. The consultation process and public submissions provided an opportunity to critically examine alcohol industry perspectives and arguments in relation to the global governance of alcohol.

Methods

48 alcohol industry submissions to the WHO's 2020 consultation were included for analysis. Directed content analysis was used to examine the policy positions and arguments made by industry actors. Thematic analysis was employed to further explore the framing of industry arguments.

Results

In framing their arguments, alcohol industry actors positioned themselves as important stakeholders in policy debates; differentiated normal drinking from consumption that merits intervention; argued that alcohol policy should be made at the national, rather than global, level; and supported industry self-regulation or co regulation rather than cost-effective public health measures to prevent harms from alcohol.

Conclusion

The alcohol industry's submissions to the WHO's 2020 consultation could be seen as efforts to stymie improvements in the global governance of alcohol, and repeats several framing strategies that the industry has used in other forums, both national and global. However, their arguments appear to have had little traction in the creation of the Alcohol Action Plan. Changes from the Working Document to the adopted Action Plan show little acceptance by WHO of industry arguments.

Keywords
Alcohol, Alcohol industry, World Health Organization, Global governance, Conflicts of interest, Commercial determinants of health
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-221262 (URN)10.1016/j.drugpo.2023.104115 (DOI)001053265400001 ()37549594 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85166948979 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-09-25 Created: 2023-09-25 Last updated: 2023-09-25Bibliographically approved
Van der Kruk, S., Harrison, N. J., Bartram, A., Newton, S., Miller, C., Room, R., . . . Bowden, J. (2023). Prevalence of parental supply of alcohol to minors: a systematic review. Health Promotion International, 38(5), Article ID daad111.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prevalence of parental supply of alcohol to minors: a systematic review
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2023 (English)In: Health Promotion International, ISSN 0957-4824, E-ISSN 1460-2245, Vol. 38, no 5, article id daad111Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Parental supply of alcohol to minors (i.e. those under the legal drinking age) is often perceived by parents as protective against harms from drinking, despite evidence linking it with adverse alcohol-related outcomes. This systematic review describes the prevalence of parental supply of alcohol, as reported in the international literature. The review was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42020218754). We searched seven online databases (Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Scopus, Web of Science and Public Health Database) and grey literature from January 2011 to December 2022 and assessed the risk of bias with the JBI Critical Appraisal Checklist. Among 58 articles included in narrative synthesis from 29 unique datasets, there was substantial variation in the definition and measurement of parental supply of alcohol. Overall prevalence rates ranged from 7.0 to 60.0% for minor-report samples, and from 24.0 to 48.0% for parent-report samples. Data indicate that parental supply prevalence is generally proportionately higher for older minors or later-stage students, for girls, and has increased over time among minors who report drinking. Literature on the prevalence of parental supply of alcohol is robust in quantity but inconsistent in quality and reported prevalence. Greater consistency in defining and measuring parental supply is needed to better inform health promotion initiatives aimed at increasing parents’ awareness. 

Keywords
adolescent, alcohol, parental supply, prevalence data, systematic review
National Category
Substance Abuse
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-226715 (URN)10.1093/heapro/daad111 (DOI)001144895000003 ()37758201 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85174628467 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2024-02-16 Created: 2024-02-16 Last updated: 2024-02-16Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-5618-385x

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