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Åslund, L., Jernelöv, S., Serlachius, E., Vigerland, S., Wicksell, R. K., Henje, E. & Lekander, M. (2024). Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy for adolescents with insomnia: Feasibility and preliminary efficacy. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 29(3), 1159-1173
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy for adolescents with insomnia: Feasibility and preliminary efficacy
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2024 (English)In: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, ISSN 1359-1045, E-ISSN 1461-7021, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 1159-1173Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background Insomnia is common in adolescents. This study evaluated feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a six-week internet-delivered cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (ICBT-I) in adolescents.

Methods In this uncontrolled pilot study, participants (n = 27, 78% female) completed assessments pre- and post intervention. Data on recruitment, adherence to treatment, treatment activity, satisfaction and credibility was collected to assess feasibility. Self-reported insomnia symptoms, sleep parameters as well as depression, anxiety and daytime function were also assessed.

Results Participants showed good adherence to treatment and found the intervention overall credible and satisfactory. From pre- to post-assessment, statistically significant improvements were found for insomnia symptoms (p < .001; d = 1.02), sleep onset latency (p < .001; d = .39), wake after sleep onset (p = .001; d = .34), sleep efficiency (p < .001; d = .5) and depression (p = .01, d = .37). Changes in scores of total sleep time, generalized anxiety, daytime sleepiness and functional disability were not significant.

Conclusions The present study indicates that ICBT-I is well accepted by adolescents, that insomnia symptoms and sleep parameters can improve following the intervention, and that co-morbid symptoms of depression can be reduced. Due to the limited sample size and the uncontrolled design, the suggested results need to be replicated in well-powered controlled clinical trials.

Keywords
adolescent, digital intervention, cognitive-behavioral therapy, comorbidity, feasibility, insomnia disorder, psychiatric disorders
National Category
Psychiatry
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-223443 (URN)10.1177/13591045231202426 (DOI)001081837900001 ()37699436 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85170836800 (Scopus ID)
Note

This work was supported by the Doctoral School in Health Care Sciences, ALF-agreement and Svenska Läkaresällskapet.

Available from: 2023-10-31 Created: 2023-10-31 Last updated: 2024-07-01Bibliographically approved
Andreasson, A., Tognetti, A., Jones, M., Lekander, M. & Lasselin, J. (2023). Assessing sickness behavior in the French: Validation of the French translation of the sickness questionnaire (SicknessQ) in a non-clinical French population. Brain, Behavior, & Immunity - Health, 34, Article ID 100708.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessing sickness behavior in the French: Validation of the French translation of the sickness questionnaire (SicknessQ) in a non-clinical French population
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2023 (English)In: Brain, Behavior, & Immunity - Health, ISSN 2666-3546, Vol. 34, article id 100708Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Sickness Questionnaire (SicknessQ) is a questionnaire developed to assess symptoms of sickness behavior, including somatic, behavioral, and affective dimensions. To promote cross-cultural assessments of sickness behavior, we aim to expand the use of this questionnaire to other populations and languages. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the French translation of SicknessQ in a French-speaking general population during the COVID-19 pandemic. One hundred and thirty-nine individuals completed the SicknessQ online, along with the construct criteria measures of self-rated health, state anxiety (STAI-S), and depressive symptoms (PHQ-9). The principal component analyses revealed two components: the first component included seven items concerning mood, motivation and experiences of fatigue and pain; the second component included three items concerning somatic sickness symptoms. Higher scores on the total scale and the two component subscales were associated with poorer self-rated health and higher STAI-S and PHQ-9 scores. Since the associations with construct criteria variables were relatively similar between the single- and the two-dimensional solutions, both the total scale and the subscales of the two components of the French SicknessQ can be used in future studies to measure sickness behavior in French-speaking populations.

Keywords
sickness behavior, questionnaire, French, fatigue, pain, mood
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-225013 (URN)10.1016/j.bbih.2023.100708 (DOI)001118055700001 ()2-s2.0-85177486252 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2020-01606Swedish Research Council, 2021–03184
Available from: 2024-01-04 Created: 2024-01-04 Last updated: 2024-01-16Bibliographically approved
Lindsäter, E., Svärdman, F., Rosquist, P., Wallert, J., Ivanova, E., Lekander, M., . . . Rück, C. (2023). Characterization of exhaustion disorder and identification of outcomes that matter to patients: Qualitative content analysis of a Swedish national online survey. Stress and Health, 39(4), 813-827
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization of exhaustion disorder and identification of outcomes that matter to patients: Qualitative content analysis of a Swedish national online survey
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2023 (English)In: Stress and Health, ISSN 1532-3005, E-ISSN 1532-2998, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 813-827Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Fatigue is a common presenting problem in healthcare settings, often attributed to chronic psychosocial stress. Understanding of fatigue and development of evidence-based treatments is hampered by a lack of consensus regarding diagnostic definitions and outcomes to be measured in clinical trials. This study aimed to map outcome domains of importance to the Swedish diagnosis stress-induced exhaustion disorder (ED; ICD-10, code F43.8 A). An online survey was distributed nationwide in Sweden to individuals who reported to have been diagnosed with ED and to healthcare professionals working with ED patients. To identify outcome domains, participants replied anonymously to four open-ended questions about symptoms and expectations for ED-treatment. Qualitative content analysis was conducted of a randomized subsample of respondents, using a mathematical model to determine data saturation. Six hundred seventy participants (573 with reported ED, 97 healthcare professionals) completed the survey. Qualitative content analysis of answers supplied by 105 randomized participants identified 87 outcomes of importance to ED encompassing physical, cognitive, and emotional symptoms as well as functional disability. Self-rating scales indicated that many ED participants, beyond reporting fatigue, also reported symptoms of moderate to severe depression, anxiety, insomnia, poor self-rated health, and sickness behavior. This study presents a map of outcome domains of importance for ED. Results shed light on the panorama of issues that individuals with ED deal with and can be used as a step to further understand the condition and to reach consensus regarding outcome domains to measure in clinical trials of chronic stress and fatigue. Preregistration: Open Science Framework (osf.io) with DOI https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/4VUAG

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2023
Keywords
core outcomes, exhaustion disorder, fatigue, psychological stress, qualitative analysis
National Category
Psychology Nursing
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-215696 (URN)10.1002/smi.3224 (DOI)000923274500001 ()36645034 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85147264112 (Scopus ID)
Note

This study was funded by the Swedish Research Council (grant numbers 2020–06201 and 2021–06469), by Region Stockholm (FoUI-967372), and by AFA Insurance (190082).

Available from: 2023-03-29 Created: 2023-03-29 Last updated: 2024-01-12Bibliographically approved
Tognetti, A., Thunell, E., Zakrzewska, M., Olofsson, J. K., Lekander, M., Axelsson, J. & Olsson, M. J. (2023). Discriminating between sick and healthy faces based on early sickness cues: an exploratory analysis of sex differences. Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health, 11(1), 386-396
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Discriminating between sick and healthy faces based on early sickness cues: an exploratory analysis of sex differences
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2023 (English)In: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health, E-ISSN 2050-6201, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 386-396Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background and objectives: It has been argued that sex and disease-related traits should influence how observers respond to sensory sickness cues. In fact, there is evidence that humans can detect sensory cues related to infection in others, but lack of power from earlier studies prevents any firm conclusion regarding whether perception of sickness cues is associated with sex and disease-related personality traits. Here, we tested whether women (relative to men), individuals with poorer self-reported health, and who are more sensitive to disgust, vulnerable to disease, and concerned about their health, overestimate the presence of, and/or are better at detecting sickness cues.

Methodology: In a large online study, 343 women and 340 men were instructed to identify the sick faces from a series of sick and healthy photographs of volunteers with an induced acute experimental inflammation. Participants also completed several disease-related questionnaires.

Results: While both men and women could discriminate between sick and healthy individuals above chance level, exploratory analyses revealed that women outperformed men in accuracy and speed of discrimination. Furthermore, we demonstrated that higher disgust sensitivity to body odors is associated with a more liberal decision criterion for categorizing faces as sick.

Conclusion: Our findings give strong support for the human ability to discriminate between sick and healthy individuals based on early facial cues of sickness and suggest that women are significantly, although only slightly, better at this task. If this finding is replicated, future studies should determine whether women’s better performance is related to increased avoidance of sick individuals.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2023
Keywords
sex differences, sickness detection, behavioral immune system, disease-related personality traits, facial cues of sickness
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-224206 (URN)10.1093/emph/eoad032 (DOI)001095978600001 ()37941735 (PubMedID)
Note

The behavioral experiment in the present paper was supported by Swedish Research Council Grants 2016-02742 (MO), 2020-02567 (MO), and 2021-03184 (AT) and Swedish Foundation for Humanities and Social Sciences Grant P12-1017 (MO).

Available from: 2023-12-06 Created: 2023-12-06 Last updated: 2024-01-30Bibliographically approved
Juran, S. A., Tognetti, A., Lundström, J. N., Kumar, L., Stevenson, R. J., Lekander, M. & Olsson, M. J. (2023). Disgusting odors trigger the oral immune system. Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health, 11(1), 8-17
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Disgusting odors trigger the oral immune system
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2023 (English)In: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health, E-ISSN 2050-6201, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 8-17Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Recent research has characterized the behavioral defense against disease. In particular the detection of sickness cues, the adaptive reactions (e.g. avoidance) to these cues and the mediating role of disgust have been the focus. A presumably important but less investigated part of a behavioral defense is the immune system response of the observer of sickness cues. Odors are intimately connected to disease and disgust, and research has shown how olfaction conveys sickness cues in both animals and humans. This study aims to test whether odorous sickness cues (i.e. disgusting odors) can trigger a preparatory immune response in humans. We show that subjective and objective disgust measures, as well as TNFα levels in saliva increased immediately after exposure to disgusting odors in a sample of 36 individuals. Altogether, these results suggest a collaboration between behavioral mechanisms of pathogen avoidance in olfaction, mediated by the emotion of disgust, and mechanisms of pathogen elimination facilitated by inflammatory mediators.

Disgusting stimuli are associated with an increased risk of infection. We here test whether disgusting odors, can trigger an immune response in the oral cavity. The results indicate an increase level of TNFα in the saliva. This supports that disease cues can trigger a preparatory response in the oral cavity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2023
Keywords
immune response, immune system, odors, precipitating factors, saliva, smell perception, disgust
National Category
Neurosciences Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-215465 (URN)10.1093/emph/eoac042 (DOI)000933820200001 ()36789013 (PubMedID)
Note

The research was founded by grants to MJO from The Swedish Research Council (2020-02567).

Available from: 2023-03-15 Created: 2023-03-15 Last updated: 2024-01-12Bibliographically approved
Åslund, L., Andreasson, A., Lekander, M., Henje, E. & Dennhag, I. (2023). Disturbed sleep and patterns of psychiatric symptoms and function in a school-based sample of adolescents. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 28(4), 1524-1535
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Disturbed sleep and patterns of psychiatric symptoms and function in a school-based sample of adolescents
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2023 (English)In: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, ISSN 1359-1045, E-ISSN 1461-7021, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 1524-1535Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background Sleep problems are common in adolescence and often related to psychopathology and impaired functioning. However, most studies have used summative scores, and little is known about how adolescents with disrupted sleep perceive their specific symptoms and dysfunctions. This study explored differences in levels of psychiatric symptoms and functional ability between Swedish adolescents with and without self-reported disturbed sleep in a school-based sample.

Methods Swedish adolescents (n = 618, mean age 15.7+/-1.9yrs) answered the PROMIS pediatric measures for fatigue, anxiety, depression, pain interference, anger, physical activity and peer and family relationships. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess differences between respondents with and without disturbed sleep.

Results Disturbed sleep was associated with higher levels of symptoms of fatigue, anxiety, depression, anger and pain interference, as well as lower functional abilities in terms of physical activity and peer- and family relationships. Adolescents reporting disturbed sleep generally displayed a pattern of impaired executive functioning, internal emotional distress and school- and sleep related worry and dysfunction, as compared to physical disability, aggressive behavior, stress and generalized worry.

Conclusions The present study adds to the understanding of how disturbed sleep and specific psychiatric symptoms and functional ability are interrelated, which may also have clinical implications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2023
Keywords
adolescent, sleep problems, psychiatric disorders, comorbidity, functional disability, PROMIS, physical activity, peer relationship, family relationship
National Category
Psychology Psychiatry
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-212689 (URN)10.1177/13591045221125479 (DOI)001075202700022 ()36167489 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85139166298 (Scopus ID)
Note

The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: Svenska Sällskapet för Medicinsk Forskning (S253341) and Forskningsrådet om Hälsa, Arbetsliv och Välfärd (350-2012-303).

Available from: 2022-12-13 Created: 2022-12-13 Last updated: 2024-01-31Bibliographically approved
Gordon, A. R., Lundström, J. N., Kimball, B. A., Karshikoff, B., Sorjonen, K., Axelsson, J., . . . Olsson, M. J. (2023). Human scent as a first-line defense against disease. Scientific Reports, 13(1), Article ID 16709.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Human scent as a first-line defense against disease
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2023 (English)In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 13, no 1, article id 16709Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Individuals may have a different body odor, when they are sick compared to healthy. In the non-human animal literature, olfactory cues have been shown to predict avoidance of sick individuals. We tested whether the mere experimental activation of the innate immune system in healthy human individuals can make an individuals' body odor be perceived as more aversive (intense, unpleasant, and disgusting). Following an endotoxin injection (lipopolysaccharide; 0.6 ng/kg) that creates a transient systemic inflammation, individuals smelled more unpleasant compared to a placebo group (saline injection). Behavioral and chemical analyses of the body odor samples suggest that the volatile components of samples from sick individuals changed qualitatively rather than quantitatively. Our findings support the hypothesis that odor cues of inflammation in axillary sweat are detectable just a few hours after experimental activation of the innate immune system. As such, they may trigger behavioral avoidance, hence constituting a first line of defense against pathogens of infected conspecifics.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2023
Keywords
human scent, first-line defense, disease, olfactory cues
National Category
Neurosciences
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-223785 (URN)10.1038/s41598-023-43145-3 (DOI)001083919900012 ()37794120 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85173732154 (Scopus ID)
Note

This study was supported by grants from the Swedish Research Council (2012-1125, 2016-02742, 2020-02567) and Bank of Sweden Tercentenary Foundation (P12-1017), awarded to MJO).

Available from: 2023-11-15 Created: 2023-11-15 Last updated: 2024-05-22Bibliographically approved
Tognetti, A., Williams, M. N., Lybert, N., Lekander, M., Axelsson, J. & Olsson, M. J. (2023). Humans can detect axillary odor cues of an acute respiratory infection in others. Evolution medicine and public health, 11(1), 219-228
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Humans can detect axillary odor cues of an acute respiratory infection in others
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2023 (English)In: Evolution medicine and public health, ISSN 2050-6201, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 219-228Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background and objectives Body odor conveys information about health status to conspecifics and influences approach-avoidance behaviors in animals. Experiments that induce sickness in otherwise healthy individuals suggest that humans too can detect sensory cues to infection in others. Here, we investigated whether individuals could detect through smell a naturally occurring acute respiratory infection in others and whether sickness severity, measured via body temperature and sickness symptoms, was associated with the accuracy of detection. Methodology Body odor samples were collected from 20 donors, once while healthy and once while sick with an acute respiratory infection. Using a double-blind, two-alternative forced-choice method, 80 raters were instructed to identify the sick body odor from paired sick and healthy samples (i.e. 20 pairs). Results Sickness detection was significantly above chance, although the magnitude of the effect was low (56.7%). Raters' sex and disgust sensitivity were not associated with the accuracy of sickness detection. However, we find some indication that greater change in donor body temperature, but not sickness symptoms, between sick and healthy conditions improved sickness detection accuracy. Conclusion and implications Our findings suggest that humans can detect individuals with an acute respiratory infection through smell, albeit only slightly better than chance. Humans, similar to other animals, are likely able to use sickness odor cues to guide adaptive behaviors that decrease the risk of contagion, such as social avoidance. Further studies should determine how well humans can detect specific infections through body odor, such as Covid-19, and how multisensory cues to infection are used simultaneously. Lay Summary Researchers suggest humans evolved the ability to detect sickness in others, facilitating behavioral responses to reduce contagion risk, such as the avoidance of sick individuals. Our study suggests that humans can distinguish healthy from sick individuals with a naturally occurring respiratory infection by smelling body odors, but with limited accuracy.

Keywords
body odor, health status, approach-avoidance behaviors, induced sickness, respiratory infection
National Category
Other Medical Sciences not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-222239 (URN)10.1093/emph/eoad016 (DOI)001020032600001 ()2-s2.0-85165346899 (Scopus ID)
Note

The behavioral experiment in the present article was supported by Swedish Research Council Grants 2016-02742 (M.O.), 2020-02567 (M.O.) and 2021-03184 (A.T.), Swedish Foundation for Humanities and Social Sciences Grant P12-1017 (M.O.) and the Stockholm Stress Center (J.A. and M.L.).

Available from: 2023-10-11 Created: 2023-10-11 Last updated: 2024-01-30Bibliographically approved
Karshikoff, B., Wåhlén, K., Åström, J., Lekander, M., Holmström, L. & Wicksell, R. K. (2023). Inflammatory Blood Signature Related to Common Psychological Comorbidity in Chronic Pain. Biomedicines, 11(3), Article ID 713.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inflammatory Blood Signature Related to Common Psychological Comorbidity in Chronic Pain
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2023 (English)In: Biomedicines, E-ISSN 2227-9059, Vol. 11, no 3, article id 713Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Chronic pain is characterized by high psychological comorbidity, and diagnoses are symptom-based due to a lack of clear pathophysiological factors and valid biomarkers. We investigate if inflammatory blood biomarker signatures are associated with pain intensity and psychological comorbidity in a mixed chronic pain population. Eighty-one patients (72% women) with chronic pain (>6 months) were included. Patient reported outcomes were collected, and blood was analyzed with the Proseek Multiplex Olink Inflammation Panel (Bioscience Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden), resulting in 77 inflammatory markers included for multivariate data analysis. Three subgroups of chronic pain patients were identified using an unsupervised principal component analysis. No difference between the subgroups was seen in pain intensity, but differences were seen in mental health and inflammatory profiles. Ten inflammatory proteins were significantly associated with anxiety and depression (using the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale (GAD-7) and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9): STAMBP, SIRT2, AXIN1, CASP-8, ADA, IL-7, CD40, CXCL1, CXCL5, and CD244. No markers were related to pain intensity. Fifteen proteins could differentiate between patients with moderate/high (GAD-7/PHQ-9 > 10) or mild/no (GAD-7/PHQ-9 < 10) psychological comorbidity. This study further contributes to the increasing knowledge of the importance of inflammation in chronic pain conditions and indicates that specific inflammatory proteins may be related to psychological comorbidity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2023
Keywords
biomarkers, cytokines, inflammation, chronic pain, psychological comorbidity, pain intensity, depression, anxiety
National Category
Psychiatry Cell and Molecular Biology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-216326 (URN)10.3390/biomedicines11030713 (DOI)000954569600001 ()36979692 (PubMedID)
Note

AFA Insurance (R.K.W.) grant number 140350, Swedish Research Council (B.K.) Grant number 2017-00489, Swedish Society of Medicine (B.K.) Grant number SLS-691251, Heart-Lung Foundation (B.K.) Grant number 20190110, Sweden-America Foundation (B.K.), Fulbright Sweden (B.K.), Stockholm County Council ALF (J.Å.), and Medical Unit Medical Psychology at the Karolinska University Hospital (J.Å.).

Available from: 2023-04-12 Created: 2023-04-12 Last updated: 2024-01-12Bibliographically approved
Balter, L. J. T., Li, X., Schwieler, L., Erhardt, S., Axelsson, J., Olsson, M. J., . . . Lekander, M. (2023). Lipopolysaccharide-induced changes in the kynurenine pathway and symptoms of sickness behavior in humans. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 153, Article ID 106110.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lipopolysaccharide-induced changes in the kynurenine pathway and symptoms of sickness behavior in humans
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2023 (English)In: Psychoneuroendocrinology, ISSN 0306-4530, E-ISSN 1873-3360, Vol. 153, article id 106110Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Metabolites of the kynurenine pathway are hypothesized to be implicated in inflammation-associated depression, but there is a lack of experimental studies in humans assessing the kinetics of kynurenine metabolites in relation to experimentally-induced sickness. The aim of the present study was to assess changes in the kynurenine pathway and to explore its relation to symptoms of sickness behavior during an acute experimental immune challenge.

This double-blind placebo-controlled randomized cross-over study included 22 healthy human participants (n = 21 both sessions, Mage = 23.4, SD = 3.6, nine women) who received an intravenous injection of 2.0 ng/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and saline (placebo) on two different occasions in a randomized order. Blood samples (0 h, 1 h, 1.5 h, 2 h, 3 h, 4 h, 5 h, 7 h post-injection) were analyzed for kynurenine metabolites and inflammatory cytokines. The intensity of symptoms of sickness behavior was assessed using the 10-item Sickness Questionnaire at 0 h, 1.5 h, 3 h, 5 h, and 7 h post-injection.

LPS induced significantly lower concentrations of plasma tryptophan (at 2 h, 4 h, 5 h, and 7 h post-injection), kynurenine (at 2 h, 3 h, 4 h, and 5 h post-injection), nicotinamide (at 4 h, 5 h, and 7 h post-injection), and higher levels for quinolinic acid at 5 h post-injection as compared to placebo. LPS did not affect kynurenic acid, 3-hydroxykynurenine, and picolinic acid. The development of the sickness symptoms was largely similar across items, with the highest levels around 1.5–3 h post-injection. Changes in plasma levels of kynurenine metabolites seem to coincide rather than precede or follow changes in subjective sickness. Exploratory analyses indicate that higher Sickness Questionnaire total scores at 1.5–5 h post-injection were correlated with lower kynurenic acid and nicotinamide levels.

These results lend further support for LPS-induced changes in the kynurenine pathway, but may not, as interpreted from blood levels, causally link to LPS-induced acute symptoms of sickness behavior. Future research may consider a larger sample to further scrutinize the role of the kynurenine pathway in the sickness response.

Keywords
kynurenine pathway, lipopolysaccharides, sickness behavior, depression, tryptophan
National Category
Neurosciences Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-217359 (URN)10.1016/j.psyneuen.2023.106110 (DOI)000984120700001 ()37075653 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85152415270 (Scopus ID)
Note

This work was supported by Swedish Research Council Grants to MJO [2012-1125 and 2016-02742].

Available from: 2023-05-29 Created: 2023-05-29 Last updated: 2024-01-11Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3998-1494

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