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Publications (10 of 25) Show all publications
Sadiktsis, I., de Oliveira Galvão, M. F., Mustafa, M., Toublanc, M., Ünlü Endirlik, B., Silvergren, S., . . . Dreij, K. (2023). A yearlong monitoring campaign of polycyclic aromatic compounds and other air pollutants at three sites in Sweden: Source identification, in vitro toxicity and human health risk assessment. Chemosphere, 332, Article ID 138862.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A yearlong monitoring campaign of polycyclic aromatic compounds and other air pollutants at three sites in Sweden: Source identification, in vitro toxicity and human health risk assessment
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2023 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 332, article id 138862Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Air pollution is a complex mixture of gases and particulate matter (PM) with local and non-local emission sources, resulting in spatiotemporal variability in concentrations and composition, and thus associated health risks. To study this in the greater Stockholm area, a yearlong monitoring campaign with in situ measurements of PM10, PM1, black carbon, NOx, O3, and PM10-sampling was performed. The locations included an Urban and a Rural background site and a Highway site. Chemical analysis of PM10 was performed to quantify monthly levels of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), which together with other air pollution data were used for source apportionment and health risk assessment. Organic extracts from PM10 were tested for oxidative potential in human bronchial epithelial cells. Strong seasonal patterns were found for most air pollutants including PACs, with higher levels during the winter months than summer e.g., highest levels of PM10 were detected in March at the Highway site (33.2 μg/m3) and lowest in May at the Rural site (3.6 μg/m3). In general, air pollutant levels at the sites were in the order Highway > Urban > Rural. Multivariate analysis identified several polar PACs, including 6H-Benzo[cd]pyren-6-one, as possible discriminatory markers for these sites. The main sources of particulate pollution for all sites were vehicle exhaust and biomass burning emissions, although diesel exhaust was an important source at the Highway site. In vitro results agreed with air pollutant levels, with higher oxidative potential from the winter samples. Estimated lung cancer cases were in the order PM10 > NO2 > PACs for all sites, and with less evident seasonal differences than in vitro results. In conclusion, our study presents novel seasonal data for many PACs together with air pollutants more traditionally included in air quality monitoring. Moreover, seasonal differences in air pollutant levels correlated with differences in toxicity in vitro.

Keywords
PM10, Black carbon, Nitrogen oxides, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, Source apportionment, Positive matrix factorization
National Category
Environmental Sciences Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-216932 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2023.138862 (DOI)001006900400001 ()37150457 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85158878663 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2018-00475Swedish Research Council Formas, 2019-00582Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, NV219-19-015
Available from: 2023-05-06 Created: 2023-05-06 Last updated: 2023-09-25Bibliographically approved
Elihn, K., Dalmijn, J., Froment, J., Haland, A., Johansson, J., Karlsson, H. L., . . . Steimer, S. (2023). Air quality impacts of a large waste fire in Stockholm, Sweden. Atmospheric Environment, 315, Article ID 120124.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Air quality impacts of a large waste fire in Stockholm, Sweden
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2023 (English)In: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 315, article id 120124Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Fires in waste facilities are a common occurrence. Since many waste facilities are located adjacent to densely populated areas, these fires could potentially expose large populations to the emitted pollutants. However, at the moment there are only few field studies investigating the impact of waste fire emissions on air quality since the unpredictable nature of these events makes them challenging to capture. This study investigated the impact of a large and persistent un-prescribed fire in a waste storage facility in Stockholm county, Sweden, on the local air quality of two residential areas in close proximity to the fire. In-situ measurements of particulate matter, black carbon and nitrogen oxide concentrations were conducted both during open burning and after the fire was fully covered. In addition, filter samples were collected for offline analysis of organic composition, metal content and toxicity. Strongly increased concentrations of PM10, PM2.5 and black carbon were found during the open burning period, especially when the wind was coming from the direction of the fire. In addition, elevated concentrations of particulate heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were observed in the air during the open burning period. These results show that waste fires can have a strong impact on the air quality of nearby residential areas.

Keywords
Waste fire emissions, Air quality, Air pollutants, Waste facility fires, Particulate matter, Gaseous pollutants
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-226577 (URN)10.1016/j.atmosenv.2023.120124 (DOI)001152920900001 ()2-s2.0-85174675401 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2024-02-14 Created: 2024-02-14 Last updated: 2024-02-14Bibliographically approved
Ruiz-Caldas, M.-X., Carlsson, J., Sadiktsis, I., Jaworski, A., Nilsson, U. & Mathew, A. P. (2022). Cellulose Nanocrystals from Postconsumer Cotton and Blended Fabrics: A Study on Their Properties, Chemical Composition, and Process Efficiency. ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, 10(11), 3787-3798
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cellulose Nanocrystals from Postconsumer Cotton and Blended Fabrics: A Study on Their Properties, Chemical Composition, and Process Efficiency
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2022 (English)In: ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, E-ISSN 2168-0485, Vol. 10, no 11, p. 3787-3798Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

From manufacturing to disposal, the textile industry faces multiple challenges to achieve sustainability and reduce its environmental impact. This work investigates the properties and composition of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) extracted from clothing waste made of cotton fibers. We isolated CNCs from cotton, polyester/cotton, and acrylic/cotton waste fabrics through acid hydrolysis with sulfuric acid. A yield of 51-62 wt S4, ( co tt on basis) was obtained, and nearly all the polyester and acrylic libers contained in the initial fabrics were recovered in a convenient shape that could allow easier recycling. CNCs extracted from the selected fabrics showed high purity, similar structural, physical, and chemical characteristics, and their properties were comparable to those extracted from virgin sources, although their surface chemistry and elemental composition slightly differed. The chemical components in the waste fabrics and the extracted CNCs were evaluated through a nontarget chromatographic-mass spectrometric screening strategy. Both the recycled textiles and the CNCs contained hundreds of compounds common in postconsumer textiles, including some with health and environmental concerns. However, our initial findings show that their concentrations in the CNCs are negligible. Our results provide insights into the challenges associated with the use of cotton waste textiles for the extraction of cellulose nanoparticles, and into the potential applications of the extracted nanomaterials.

Keywords
textile waste, acid hydrolysis, cellulose nanocrystals, nontarget screening, polyester/cotton, acrylic/cotton, Green & Sustainable Science & Technology
National Category
Chemical Sciences Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-204544 (URN)10.1021/acssuschemeng.2c00797 (DOI)000778745000039 ()2-s2.0-85126764053 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-05-10 Created: 2022-05-10 Last updated: 2022-05-10Bibliographically approved
Ekner, H., Dreij, K. & Sadiktsis, I. (2022). Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in commercial olive oils by HPLC/GC/MS – Occurrence, composition and sources. Food Control, 132, Article ID 108528.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in commercial olive oils by HPLC/GC/MS – Occurrence, composition and sources
2022 (English)In: Food Control, ISSN 0956-7135, E-ISSN 1873-7129, Vol. 132, article id 108528Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a large class of organic compounds produced from incomplete combustion. Many PAHs are mutagenic and some are carcinogenic and pose a health risk to humans. Dietary intake of PAHs is a major route of exposure, where fats and edible oils are important contributors to overall dietary PAH exposure. Composed of hundreds of individual compounds as a complex mixture, only 16 PAHs are typically monitored in food and the environment.

In this present study we analyzed 16 commercial olive oil samples from different countries of origin and type (virgin or refined oil) for their content of 45 PAHs using a high-performance liquid chromatograph coupled to a gas chromatograph with a mass spectrometric detector. The content of the 45 PAHs varied between 9.17–94.7 μg/kg (median: 30.1 μg/kg) in the different olive oil samples. Only one sample didn't meet the regulatory threshold levels for PAHs.

The compositional profile of PAHs across the olive oil samples showed a high abundance of PAHs of lower molecular weights, and a large contribution of alkylated PAHs regardless of olive oil type. Direct contact with diesel exhaust emissions from mechanical harvesters has previously shown to affect PAH levels in olive oils. Using diagnostic PAH ratios, biomass/coal combustion and/or petroleum/fossil fuel combustion were indicated as important sources. Source apportionment by positive matrix factorization revealed diesel exhaust emission and biomass combustion as the two major sources of PAHs followed by traffic emissions. This suggests that air quality may have a considerable impact on pollution levels in olive oils and thus indirectly affect dietary exposure.

Keywords
polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs, olive oils, edible oils, positive matrix 51 factorization
National Category
Analytical Chemistry Other Chemistry Topics
Research subject
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-196200 (URN)10.1016/j.foodcont.2021.108528 (DOI)000709512800009 ()
Available from: 2021-09-02 Created: 2021-09-02 Last updated: 2021-12-14Bibliographically approved
Felipe de Oliveira Galvão, M., Sadiktsis, I., Marques Pedro, T. & Dreij, K. (2022). Determination of whole mixture-based potency factors for cancer risk assessment of complex environmental mixtures by in vitro testing of standard reference materials. Environment International, 166, Article ID 107345.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Determination of whole mixture-based potency factors for cancer risk assessment of complex environmental mixtures by in vitro testing of standard reference materials
2022 (English)In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 166, article id 107345Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Whole mixture-based testing using in vitro new approach methodologies (NAMs) has been suggested to facilitate the hazard and risk assessment of complex environmental mixtures. Previous studies have shown that phosphorylation of DNA damage signaling proteins checkpoint kinase 1 (pChk1) and histone 2AX (γH2AX) are sensitive markers that can be used for estimating carcinogenicity potencies in vitro. Here, and with the aim to better validate the applicability, in vitro-based Mixture Potency Factors (MPFs) of Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) from environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-containing mixtures were determined and compared to published mutagenicity and tumorigenicity data. Also, genotoxicity was assessed by a flow cytometry-based micronucleus (MN) assay which showed that only benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and coal tar SRM (SRM1597a) caused dose-dependent increases of MN formation, while extracts of diesel particulate matter (SRM1650b), diesel particulate extract (SRM1975), and urban dust (SRM1649b) did not. However, a dose-dependent activation of DNA damage signaling was observed for all PAHs and SRMs. The results demonstrated that all SRMs were more potent than B[a]P, at B[a]P-equivalent concentrations, to induce pChk1 and γH2AX, and that western blot was more sensitive than the In-Cell Western assay in detecting their activation in response to these complex mixtures. Relative MPFs, based on dose–response modelling of pChk1 and γH2AX, ranged 113 – 5270 for the SRMs, indicating several orders of magnitude higher genotoxic potential than B[a]P. Moreover, these MPFs were in good agreement with potency values based on published data from Salmonella mutagenicity and in vivo carcinogenicity studies. In conclusion, these comparisons further validate the feasibility of applying in vitro NAMs, such as whole-mixture based MPFs, in cancer risk assessment of complex mixtures.

Keywords
Standard reference material, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, Mixture potency factors, DNA damage signaling, Cancer risk assessment
National Category
Pharmacology and Toxicology
Research subject
Toxicology; Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-206381 (URN)10.1016/j.envint.2022.107345 (DOI)000836802300005 ()35717713 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85132580413 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2019-00582Swedish Research Council Formas, 2018-00475Cancer and Allergy Foundation, 10132
Available from: 2022-06-13 Created: 2022-06-13 Last updated: 2022-09-13Bibliographically approved
Papazian, S., D'Agostino, L. A., Sadiktsis, I., Froment, J., Bonnefille, B., Sdougkou, K., . . . Martin, J. W. (2022). Nontarget mass spectrometry and in silico molecular characterization of air pollution from the Indian subcontinent. Communications Earth & Environment, 3(1), Article ID 35.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nontarget mass spectrometry and in silico molecular characterization of air pollution from the Indian subcontinent
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2022 (English)In: Communications Earth & Environment, E-ISSN 2662-4435, Vol. 3, no 1, article id 35Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A combination of high-resolution mass spectrometry and computational molecular characterization techniques can structurally annotate up to 17% of organic compounds in fine particulate matter in highly polluted air sampled in the Maldives. Fine particulate-matter is an important component of air pollution that impacts health and climate, and which delivers anthropogenic contaminants to remote global regions. The complex composition of organic molecules in atmospheric particulates is poorly constrained, but has important implications for understanding pollutant sources, climate-aerosol interactions, and health risks of air pollution exposure. Here, comprehensive nontarget high-resolution mass spectrometry was combined with in silico structural prediction to achieve greater molecular-level insight for fine particulate samples (n = 40) collected at a remote receptor site in the Maldives during January to April 2018. Spectral database matching identified 0.5% of 60,030 molecular features observed, while a conservative computational workflow enabled structural annotation of 17% of organic structures among the remaining molecular dark matter. Compared to clean air from the southern Indian Ocean, molecular structures from highly-polluted regions were dominated by organic nitrogen compounds, many with computed physicochemical properties of high toxicological and climate relevance. We conclude that combining nontarget analysis with computational mass spectrometry can advance molecular-level understanding of the sources and impacts of polluted air.

National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-203210 (URN)10.1038/s43247-022-00365-1 (DOI)000757847200001 ()
Available from: 2022-03-28 Created: 2022-03-28 Last updated: 2022-09-15Bibliographically approved
Unosson, J., Kabéle, M., Boman, C., Nyström, R., Sadiktsis, I., Westerholm, R., . . . Bosson, J. A. (2021). Acute cardiovascular effects of controlled exposure to dilute Petrodiesel and biodiesel exhaust in healthy volunteers: a crossover study. Particle and Fibre Toxicology, 18(1), Article ID 22.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Acute cardiovascular effects of controlled exposure to dilute Petrodiesel and biodiesel exhaust in healthy volunteers: a crossover study
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2021 (English)In: Particle and Fibre Toxicology, E-ISSN 1743-8977, Vol. 18, no 1, article id 22Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Air pollution derived from combustion is associated with considerable cardiorespiratory morbidity and mortality in addition to environmental effects. Replacing petrodiesel with biodiesel may have ecological benefits, but impacts on human health remain unquantified.

The objective was to compare acute cardiovascular effects of blended and pure biodiesel exhaust exposure against known adverse effects of petrodiesel exhaust (PDE) exposure in human subjects.

In two randomized controlled double-blind crossover studies, healthy volunteers were exposed to PDE or biodiesel exhaust for one hour. In study one, 16 subjects were exposed, on separate occasions, to PDE and 30% rapeseed methyl ester biodiesel blend (RME30) exhaust, aiming at PM10 300 μg/m3. In study two, 19 male subjects were separately exposed to PDE and exhaust from a 100% RME fuel (RME100) using similar engine load and exhaust dilution. Generated exhaust was analyzed for physicochemical composition and oxidative potential. Following exposure, vascular endothelial function was assessed using forearm venous occlusion plethysmography and ex vivo thrombus formation was assessed using a Badimon chamber model of acute arterial injury. Biomarkers of inflammation, platelet activation and fibrinolysis were measured in the blood.

Results: In study 1, PDE and RME30 exposures were at comparable PM levels (314 ± 27 μg/m3; (PM10 ± SD) and 309 ± 30 μg/m3 respectively), whereas in study 2, the PDE exposure concentrations remained similar (310 ± 34 μg/m3), but RME100 levels were lower in PM (165 ± 16 μg/m3) and PAHs, but higher in particle number concentration. Compared to PDE, PM from RME had less oxidative potential. Forearm infusion of the vasodilators acetylcholine, bradykinin, sodium nitroprusside and verapamil resulted in dose-dependent increases in blood flow after all exposures. Vasodilatation and ex vivo thrombus formation were similar following exposure to exhaust from petrodiesel and the two biodiesel formulations (RME30 and RME100). There were no significant differences in blood biomarkers or exhaled nitric oxide levels between exposures.

Conclusions: Despite differences in PM composition and particle reactivity, controlled exposure to biodiesel exhaust was associated with similar cardiovascular effects to PDE. We suggest that the potential adverse health effects of biodiesel fuel emissions should be taken into account when evaluating future fuel policies.

Keywords
Air pollution, Particulate matter, Diesel, Biodiesel, Cardiovascular system, Vascular function, Vasomotor dysfunction, Thrombosis, Endothelial function
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-194453 (URN)10.1186/s12989-021-00412-3 (DOI)000661490800001 ()
Available from: 2021-06-22 Created: 2021-06-22 Last updated: 2023-07-07Bibliographically approved
Lim, H., Sadiktsis, I., de Oliveira Galvão, M. F., Westerholm, R. & Dreij, K. (2021). Polycyclic aromatic compounds in particulate matter and indoor dust at preschools in Stockholm, Sweden: Occurrence, sources and genotoxic potential in vitro. Science of the Total Environment, 755, Article ID 142709.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Polycyclic aromatic compounds in particulate matter and indoor dust at preschools in Stockholm, Sweden: Occurrence, sources and genotoxic potential in vitro
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2021 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 755, article id 142709Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Children spend a significant amount of their day in preschool; thus, environmental quality at preschools may have an impact on children’s health. In the present study, we analyzed polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), including PAHs, alkylated PAHs and oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs), in indoor and outdoor air particulate matter (PM10) and indoor dust at preschools in Stockholm, Sweden. There were significant correlations between PAC levels in outdoor and indoor PM10, with in general higher PAC levels outdoors. Fluoranthene and pyrene were detected at highest levels in all sample types, although phenanthrene and methylated phenanthrene derivatives also were found at high levels in indoor dust. In addition, the highly carcinogenic PAHs 7H-benzo[c]fluorene, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, benz[j]aceanthrylene, and dibenzo[a,l]pyrene were detected in some samples. Benzanthrone was the most prevalent OPAH in PM10 samples and 9,10-anthraquinone in indoor dust. Based on diagnostic ratios and Positive Matrix Factorization we identified vehicle emission and biomass burning as important PAC sources for all samples analyzed. However, poor correlation between PAC levels in indoor PM10 and indoor dust suggested additional sources for the latter. Measuring activation of DNA damage signaling in human cells exposed to organic extracts of the samples indicated substantial genotoxic potential of outdoor PM10 and indoor dust. Determination of benzo[a]pyrene equivalents demonstrated that the highly potent PAHs benz[j]aceanthrylene and dibenz[a,h]anthracene contributed more than 20% to the total carcinogenic potency of the samples. We conclude that PAC levels at Stockholm preschools are relatively low but that outdoor air quality may impact on the indoor environment.

Keywords
PAHs, oxygenated PAHs, Positive Matrix Factorization, source apportionment, DNA damage signaling
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-185738 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.142709 (DOI)000600537400057 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2019-00582Stockholm County Council, TRN 2015-0171
Available from: 2020-10-06 Created: 2020-10-06 Last updated: 2022-02-25Bibliographically approved
de Oliveira Galvão, M. F., Sadiktsis, I., Batistuzzo de Medeiros, S. R. & Dreij, K. (2020). Genotoxicity and DNA damage signaling in response to complex mixtures of PAHs in biomass burning particulate matter from cashew nut roasting. Environmental Pollution, 256, Article ID 113381.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Genotoxicity and DNA damage signaling in response to complex mixtures of PAHs in biomass burning particulate matter from cashew nut roasting
2020 (English)In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 256, article id 113381Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Approximately 3 billion people world-wide are exposed to air pollution from biomass burning. Herein, particulate matter(PM) emitted from artisanal cashew nut roasting, an important economic activity worldwide, was investigated. This study focused on: i) chemical characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and oxygenated (oxy-) PAHs; ii) intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS); iii) genotoxic effects and time- and dose-dependent activation of DNA damage signaling, and iv) differential expression of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism, inflammation, cell cycle arrest and DNA repair, using A549 lung cells. Among the PAHs, chrysene, benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), benzo[b]fluoranthene, and benz[a]anthracene showed the highest concentrations (7.8–10 ng/m3), while benzanthrone and 9,10-anthraquinone were the most abundant oxy-PAHs. Testing of PM extracts was based on B[a]P equivalent doses (B[a]Peq). IC50 values for viability were 5.7 and 3.0 nM B[a]Peq at 24 h and 48 h, respectively. At these low doses, we observed a time- and dose-dependent increase in intracellular levels of ROS, genotoxicity (DNA strand breaks) and DNA damage signaling (phosphorylation of the protein checkpoint kinase 1 – Chk1). In comparison, effects of B[a]P alone was observed at micromolar range. To our knowledge, no previous study has demonstrated an activation of pChk1, a biomarker used to estimate the carcinogenic potency of PAHs in vitro, in lung cells exposed to cashew nut roasting extracts. Sustained induction of expression of several important stress response mediators of xenobiotic metabolism (CYP1A1, CYP1B1), ROS and pro-inflammatory response (IL-8, TNF-α, IL-2,COX2), and DNA damage response (CDKN1A and DDB2) was also identified. In conclusion, our data show high potency of cashew nut roasting PM to induce cellular stress including genotoxicity, and more potently when compared to B[a]P alone. Our study provides new data that will help elucidate the toxic effects of low-levels of PAH mixtures from air PM generated by cashew nut roasting.

Keywords
Biomass burning, Cashew nut roasting, Air particulate matter, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Genotoxicity, DNA damage response
National Category
Cell Biology Genetics Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-174829 (URN)10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113381 (DOI)000504757200038 ()
Available from: 2019-10-13 Created: 2019-10-13 Last updated: 2022-02-26Bibliographically approved
de Oliveira Galvão, M. F., Sadiktsis, I., Batistuzzo de Medeiros, S. R. & Dreij, K. (2019). DNA damage signaling and genotoxic effects induced by complex mixtures of PAHs generated by biomass burning air particulate matter in human lung cells. Paper presented at 55th Congress of the European Societies of Toxicology (EUROTOX 2019), Helsinki, Finland, September 8-11, 2019. Toxicology Letters, 314(SI), S132-S133
Open this publication in new window or tab >>DNA damage signaling and genotoxic effects induced by complex mixtures of PAHs generated by biomass burning air particulate matter in human lung cells
2019 (English)In: Toxicology Letters, ISSN 0378-4274, E-ISSN 1879-3169, Vol. 314, no SI, p. S132-S133Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Most research concerning the effects of air pollutants on human health focuses on urban centers and on the role of vehicular and industrial emissions as major sources of pollution. However, approximately 3 billion people world-wide are exposed to air pollution from biomass burning [1]. Herein, particulate matter (PM) emitted from artisanal cashew nut roasting, an important economic and social activity worldwide [2,3], was investigated. This study focused on: i) chemical characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their oxy-PAH derivatives; ii) time-dependent activation of DNA damage signaling and genotoxic effects, and iii) differential expression of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism, inflammation, cell cycle arrest and DNA repair using A549 lung cells. Among the PAHs, chrysene, benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), benzo[b]fluoranthene, and benz[a]anthracene showed the highest concentrations (7.8-10 ng/m3), while among oxy-PAHs, benzanthrone and 9,10-anthraquinone were the most abundant. Testing of PM extracts was based on B[a]P equivalent doses (B[a]Peq). IC50 values for viability was 5.7 and 3.0 nM B[a]Peq at 24 h and 48 h, respectively. Based on this, all other experiments were conducted at doses up to 2 nM B[a]Peq. At these low doses, we observed a dose-dependent activation of DNA damage signaling (phosphorylation of Chk1) and genotoxicity (double strand breaks). In comparison, effects of B[a]P alone was observed at micromolar range. To our knowledge, no other study has demonstrated an activation of pChk1, a biomarker used to estimate the carcinogenic potency of PAHs in vitro [4], in lung cells exposed to biomass burning extracts. Persistent increased gene expression of several important stress response mediators of xenobiotic metabolism (CYP1A1, CYP1B1), inflammation (IL-8, TNF-α), cell cycle arrest (CDKN1A), and DNA repair (DDB2) was also identified. In conclusion, our data show high potency of biomass burning PM to induce cellular stress including genotoxicity, and more potently so when compared to B[a]P alone. Our study provides new data that will help elucidate the mechanism of lung cancer development associated with biomass burning. In addition, the results of this study support the establishment of new guidelines for human health protection in regions strongly impacted by biomass burning.

National Category
Environmental Sciences Cell Biology Genetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-174830 (URN)10.1016/j.toxlet.2019.09.002 (DOI)
Conference
55th Congress of the European Societies of Toxicology (EUROTOX 2019), Helsinki, Finland, September 8-11, 2019
Available from: 2019-10-13 Created: 2019-10-13 Last updated: 2022-02-26Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-1598-7093

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