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Lim, H., Silvergren, S., Spinicci, S., Rad, F. M., Nilsson, U., Westerholm, R. & Johansson, C. (2022). Contribution of wood burning to exposures of PAHs and oxy-PAHs in Eastern Sweden. Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, 22(17), 11359-11379
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Contribution of wood burning to exposures of PAHs and oxy-PAHs in Eastern Sweden
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2022 (English)In: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 22, no 17, p. 11359-11379Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A growing trend in developed countries is the use of wood as fuel for domestic heating due to measures taken to reduce the usage of fossil fuels. However, this imposed another issue with the environment and human health. That is, the emission from wood burning contributed to the increased level of atmospheric particulates and the wood smoke caused various respiratory diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of wood burning on the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air PM10 using known wood burning tracers, i.e. levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan from the measurement at the urban background and residential areas in Sweden. A yearly measurement from three residential areas in Sweden showed a clear seasonal variation of PAHs during the cold season mainly from increased domestic heating and meteorology. Together, an increased sugar level assured the wood burning during the same period. The sugar ratio (levoglucosan(mannosan+galactosan)) was a good marker for wood burning source such as the wood type used for domestic heating and garden waste burning. On the Walpurgis Night, the urban background measurement demonstrated a dramatic increase in levoglucosan, benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs) concentrations from the increased wood burning. A significant correlation between levoglucosan and OPAHs was observed suggesting OPAHs to be an indicator of wood burning together with levoglucosan. The levoglucosan tracer method and modelling used in predicting the B[a]P concentration could not fully explain the measured levels in the cold season. The model showed that the local wood source contributed to 98 % of B[a]P emissions in the Stockholm area and 2 % from the local traffic. However, non-local sources were dominating in the urban background (60 %). A further risk assessment estimated that the airborne particulate PAHs caused 13.4 cancer cases per 0.1 million inhabitants in Stockholm County.

National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-209457 (URN)10.5194/acp-22-11359-2022 (DOI)000849846400001 ()
Available from: 2022-09-19 Created: 2022-09-19 Last updated: 2022-09-19Bibliographically approved
Unosson, J., Kabéle, M., Boman, C., Nyström, R., Sadiktsis, I., Westerholm, R., . . . Bosson, J. A. (2021). Acute cardiovascular effects of controlled exposure to dilute Petrodiesel and biodiesel exhaust in healthy volunteers: a crossover study. Particle and Fibre Toxicology, 18(1), Article ID 22.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Acute cardiovascular effects of controlled exposure to dilute Petrodiesel and biodiesel exhaust in healthy volunteers: a crossover study
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2021 (English)In: Particle and Fibre Toxicology, E-ISSN 1743-8977, Vol. 18, no 1, article id 22Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Air pollution derived from combustion is associated with considerable cardiorespiratory morbidity and mortality in addition to environmental effects. Replacing petrodiesel with biodiesel may have ecological benefits, but impacts on human health remain unquantified.

The objective was to compare acute cardiovascular effects of blended and pure biodiesel exhaust exposure against known adverse effects of petrodiesel exhaust (PDE) exposure in human subjects.

In two randomized controlled double-blind crossover studies, healthy volunteers were exposed to PDE or biodiesel exhaust for one hour. In study one, 16 subjects were exposed, on separate occasions, to PDE and 30% rapeseed methyl ester biodiesel blend (RME30) exhaust, aiming at PM10 300 μg/m3. In study two, 19 male subjects were separately exposed to PDE and exhaust from a 100% RME fuel (RME100) using similar engine load and exhaust dilution. Generated exhaust was analyzed for physicochemical composition and oxidative potential. Following exposure, vascular endothelial function was assessed using forearm venous occlusion plethysmography and ex vivo thrombus formation was assessed using a Badimon chamber model of acute arterial injury. Biomarkers of inflammation, platelet activation and fibrinolysis were measured in the blood.

Results: In study 1, PDE and RME30 exposures were at comparable PM levels (314 ± 27 μg/m3; (PM10 ± SD) and 309 ± 30 μg/m3 respectively), whereas in study 2, the PDE exposure concentrations remained similar (310 ± 34 μg/m3), but RME100 levels were lower in PM (165 ± 16 μg/m3) and PAHs, but higher in particle number concentration. Compared to PDE, PM from RME had less oxidative potential. Forearm infusion of the vasodilators acetylcholine, bradykinin, sodium nitroprusside and verapamil resulted in dose-dependent increases in blood flow after all exposures. Vasodilatation and ex vivo thrombus formation were similar following exposure to exhaust from petrodiesel and the two biodiesel formulations (RME30 and RME100). There were no significant differences in blood biomarkers or exhaled nitric oxide levels between exposures.

Conclusions: Despite differences in PM composition and particle reactivity, controlled exposure to biodiesel exhaust was associated with similar cardiovascular effects to PDE. We suggest that the potential adverse health effects of biodiesel fuel emissions should be taken into account when evaluating future fuel policies.

Keywords
Air pollution, Particulate matter, Diesel, Biodiesel, Cardiovascular system, Vascular function, Vasomotor dysfunction, Thrombosis, Endothelial function
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-194453 (URN)10.1186/s12989-021-00412-3 (DOI)000661490800001 ()
Available from: 2021-06-22 Created: 2021-06-22 Last updated: 2023-07-07Bibliographically approved
Lim, H., Sadiktsis, I., de Oliveira Galvão, M. F., Westerholm, R. & Dreij, K. (2021). Polycyclic aromatic compounds in particulate matter and indoor dust at preschools in Stockholm, Sweden: Occurrence, sources and genotoxic potential in vitro. Science of the Total Environment, 755, Article ID 142709.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Polycyclic aromatic compounds in particulate matter and indoor dust at preschools in Stockholm, Sweden: Occurrence, sources and genotoxic potential in vitro
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2021 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 755, article id 142709Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Children spend a significant amount of their day in preschool; thus, environmental quality at preschools may have an impact on children’s health. In the present study, we analyzed polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), including PAHs, alkylated PAHs and oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs), in indoor and outdoor air particulate matter (PM10) and indoor dust at preschools in Stockholm, Sweden. There were significant correlations between PAC levels in outdoor and indoor PM10, with in general higher PAC levels outdoors. Fluoranthene and pyrene were detected at highest levels in all sample types, although phenanthrene and methylated phenanthrene derivatives also were found at high levels in indoor dust. In addition, the highly carcinogenic PAHs 7H-benzo[c]fluorene, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, benz[j]aceanthrylene, and dibenzo[a,l]pyrene were detected in some samples. Benzanthrone was the most prevalent OPAH in PM10 samples and 9,10-anthraquinone in indoor dust. Based on diagnostic ratios and Positive Matrix Factorization we identified vehicle emission and biomass burning as important PAC sources for all samples analyzed. However, poor correlation between PAC levels in indoor PM10 and indoor dust suggested additional sources for the latter. Measuring activation of DNA damage signaling in human cells exposed to organic extracts of the samples indicated substantial genotoxic potential of outdoor PM10 and indoor dust. Determination of benzo[a]pyrene equivalents demonstrated that the highly potent PAHs benz[j]aceanthrylene and dibenz[a,h]anthracene contributed more than 20% to the total carcinogenic potency of the samples. We conclude that PAC levels at Stockholm preschools are relatively low but that outdoor air quality may impact on the indoor environment.

Keywords
PAHs, oxygenated PAHs, Positive Matrix Factorization, source apportionment, DNA damage signaling
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-185738 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.142709 (DOI)000600537400057 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2019-00582Stockholm County Council, TRN 2015-0171
Available from: 2020-10-06 Created: 2020-10-06 Last updated: 2022-02-25Bibliographically approved
Maselli, B. S., Cunha, V., Lim, H., Bergvall, C., Westerholm, R., Dreij, K., . . . Kummrow, F. (2020). Similar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and genotoxicity profiles of atmospheric particulate matter from cities on three different continents. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis, 61, 560-573
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Similar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and genotoxicity profiles of atmospheric particulate matter from cities on three different continents
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2020 (English)In: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis, ISSN 0893-6692, E-ISSN 1098-2280, Vol. 61, p. 560-573Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The extractable organic material (EOM) from atmospheric total suspended particles (TSP) contains several organic compounds including non-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkyl-PAHs, and nitro-PAHs. These chemicals seem to be among the key drivers of TSP genotoxicity. We have shown previously that the mutagenic potencies of the EOM from Limeira, Stockholm, and Kyoto, cities with markedly different meteorological conditions and pollution sources are similar. Here we compare the profiles of non-substituted PAHs (27 congeners), alkyl-PAHs (15 congeners), and nitro-PAHs (7 congeners) from the same EOM samples from these cities. We also compared the genotoxicity profiles using comet and micronucleus assays in human bronchial epithelial cells. The profiles of PAHs, as well as the cytotoxic and genotoxic potencies when expressed in EOM, were quite similar among the studied cities. It seems that despite the differences in meteorological conditions and pollution sources of the cities, removal, mixing, and different atmospheric transformation processes may be contributing to the similarity of the PAHs composition and genotoxicity profiles. More studies are required to verify if this would be a general rule applicable to other cities. Although these profiles were similar for all three cities, the EOM concentration in the atmospheres is markedly different. Thus, the population of Limeira (similar to 10-fold more EOM/m(3) than Stockholm and similar to 6-fold more than Kyoto) is exposed to higher concentrations of genotoxic pollutants, and Kyoto's population is 1.5-fold more exposed than Stockholm's. Therefore, to reduce the risk of human exposure to TSP genotoxins, the volume of emissions needs to be reduced.

Keywords
alkyl-PAHs, comet assay, micronucleus assay, nitro-PAHs, non-substituted PAHs
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-181942 (URN)10.1002/em.22377 (DOI)000530437000001 ()32285490 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2020-06-15 Created: 2020-06-15 Last updated: 2022-02-26Bibliographically approved
Maselli, B. S., Giron, M. C. G., Lim, H., Bergvall, C., Westerholm, R., Dreij, K., . . . Kummrow, F. (2019). Comparative mutagenic activity of atmospheric particulate matter from limeira, stockholm, and kyoto. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis, 60(7), 607-616
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparative mutagenic activity of atmospheric particulate matter from limeira, stockholm, and kyoto
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2019 (English)In: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis, ISSN 0893-6692, E-ISSN 1098-2280, Vol. 60, no 7, p. 607-616Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) organic fractions from urban centers are frequently mutagenic for the Salmonella/microsome assay. This mutagenicity is related to both primary and secondary pollutants, and meteorological conditions have great influence on the secondary pollutant's formation. Our objective was to compare the mutagenicity of atmospheric total suspended particulates (TSP) from three cities with marked different meteorological conditions and TSP concentrations: Limeira (Brazil) with 99.0 mu g/m(3), Stockholm (Sweden) with 6.2 mu g/m(3), and Kyoto (Japan) with 28.0 mu g/m(3). For comparison, we used the same batch of filters, sample extraction method, and Salmonella/microsome testing protocol with 11 strains of Salmonella with and without metabolic activation. Samples were collected during winter and pooled into one single extract representing each city. All samples were mutagenic for all tested strains, except for TA102. Based on the strain's selectivity, nitroarenes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and aromatic amines play a predominant role in the mutagenicity of these samples. The mutagenic potencies expressed by mass of extracted organic material (EOM; revertants/mu g EOM) were similar (similar to twofold difference) among the cities, despite differences in meteorological conditions and pollution sources. In contrast, the mutagenic potencies expressed by air volume (rev/m(3)) varied similar to 20-fold, with Limeira > Kyoto approximate to Stockholm. These results are the first systematic assessment of air mutagenicity from cities on three continents using the same protocols. The results confirm that the mutagenic potency expressed by EOM mass is similar regardless of continent of origin, whereas the mutagenic potency expressed by air volume can vary by orders of magnitude. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 2019.

Keywords
total suspended particles, accelerated solvent extraction, Salmonella, microsome microsuspension assay, mutagenic profiles
National Category
Environmental Sciences Biological Sciences Clinical Laboratory Medicine Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-171673 (URN)10.1002/em.22293 (DOI)000478740100006 ()30968449 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-08-21 Created: 2019-08-21 Last updated: 2022-02-26Bibliographically approved
Ahmed, T. M., Bergvall, C. & Westerholm, R. (2018). Emissions of particulate associated oxygenated and native polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from vehicles powered by ethanol/gasoline fuel blends. Fuel, 214, 381-385
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Emissions of particulate associated oxygenated and native polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from vehicles powered by ethanol/gasoline fuel blends
2018 (English)In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 214, p. 381-385Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Emission factors for oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OPAHs) and PAHs have been determined from two different fuel flexible light duty vehicles operated at -7 degrees C in the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) and at +22 degrees C in the Artemis Driving Cycle (ADC). Three different gasoline/ethanol blends, commercially available in Sweden, were tested i.e., gasoline E5, with 5% v/v ethanol and ethanol fuel E85 with 85% v/v ethanol and winter time quality E70 with 70% v/v ethanol, respectively. The results showed greatly increased emissions of both OPAHs and PAHs at cold engine start conditions (-7 degrees C in the NEDC) compared to warm engine start (+ 22 degrees C in the ADC). For the OPAHs, higher average total emission factors were obtained when running on E85 compared to E5 at both cold 2.72 mu g/km vs 1.11 mu g/km and warm 0.19 mu g/km vs 0.11 mu g/km starting conditions with the highest emissions when using E70 at -7 degrees C 4.12 mu g/km. The same trend was found for the PAHs at cold engine start with higher average total emission factors when using ethanol fuel 71.5 mu g/km and 60.0 mu g/km for E70 and E85, respectively compared to gasoline E5 (20.2 mu g/km). Slightly higher average total PAH emissions were obtained when operating at + 22 degrees C with E5 compared to with E85 1.23 mu g/km vs 0.72 mu g/km.

Keywords
Light duty vehicles, Ethanol/gasoline blends, OPAH, PAH
National Category
Chemical Engineering Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-151169 (URN)10.1016/j.fuel.2017.11.059 (DOI)000417103800041 ()
Available from: 2018-02-01 Created: 2018-02-01 Last updated: 2022-02-28Bibliographically approved
Mashayekhy Rad, F., Spinicci, S., Silvergren, S., Nilsson, U. & Westerholm, R. (2018). Validation of a HILIC/ESI-MS/MS method for the wood burning marker levoglucosan and its isomers in airborne particulate matter. Chemosphere, 211, 617-623
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Validation of a HILIC/ESI-MS/MS method for the wood burning marker levoglucosan and its isomers in airborne particulate matter
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2018 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 211, p. 617-623Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the present study, a methodology involving hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) and electrospray (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was developed for measurement of anhydrous monosaccharides as markers for wood burning in atmospheric aerosols, PM10. No extensive sample preparation, other than ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction and evaporation, was applied. A pentahydroxysilica column enabled separation of levoglucosan from mannosan and galactosan within 5 min and the quantitative performance was validated using the standard reference materials (SRM) 1649a and 1649b. The experimentally obtained results for SRMs were in agreement with values previously reported in other studies. Achieved instrumental limits of detection (LODs) were below 10 pg injected on column, corresponding to LODs in air lower than 0.10 ng/m3 for all measured isomers for 2–3 day sampling with 1.0 m−3 h−1 sampling rate.

The validated method was used for the determination of levoglucosan and its isomers in atmospheric aerosols collected in three different Swedish urban areas during the winter and summer time in 2017. The total measured concentrations for levoglucosan and galactosan + mannosan were determined to be between 78 and 167 ng/m3 in January 2017, which is approximately 10-times higher compared to the levels detected in July, reflecting the higher frequency of wood burning for heating during the cold season. Calculated concentration ratios between levoglucosan and its isomers in the urban area samples indicated mostly mixed softwood/hardwood combustion in winter time; on the other hand, softwood burning was observed as the major emission in summer time.

Keywords
Levoglucosan, Mannosan/galactosan, PM10, Atmospheric aerosols, SRM 1649
National Category
Analytical Chemistry Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-155626 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.07.188 (DOI)000446149600066 ()
Available from: 2018-04-25 Created: 2018-04-25 Last updated: 2022-02-26Bibliographically approved
Lim, H., Ahmed, T. M., Bergvall, C. & Westerholm, R. (2017). Automated clean-up, separation and detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in particulate matter extracts using a 2D-LC/2D-GC system: a method translation from two FIDs to two MS detectors. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 409(24), 5619-5629
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Automated clean-up, separation and detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in particulate matter extracts using a 2D-LC/2D-GC system: a method translation from two FIDs to two MS detectors
2017 (English)In: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1618-2642, E-ISSN 1618-2650, Vol. 409, no 24, p. 5619-5629Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An online two-dimensional (2D) liquid chromatography/2D gas chromatography system with two mass-selective detectors has been developed on the basis of a previous system with two flame ionization detectors. The method translation involved the change of carrier gas from hydrogen to helium, column dimension and detectors. The 2D system with two mass-selective detectors was validated with use of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) standards and two standard reference materials from air and diesel exhaust. Furthermore, the system was applied to a real sample, wood smoke particulates. The PAH values determined correlated well with the previous data and those from the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The system enhanced the benefits of the previous system, which were limited by the low detectability and lack of mass selectivity. This study shows an automated 2D system that is valid for PAH analysis of complex environmental samples directly from crude extracts.

Keywords
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, Multidimensional gas chromatography, Standard reference material, Wood smoke particulates, Long-term stability
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Research subject
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-147893 (URN)10.1007/s00216-017-0509-1 (DOI)000409295300002 ()
Available from: 2017-10-23 Created: 2017-10-23 Last updated: 2022-03-23Bibliographically approved
Dreij, K., Mattsson, Å., Jarvis, I. W. H., Lim, H., Hurkmans, J., Gustafsson, J., . . . Stenius, U. (2017). Cancer Risk Assessment of Airborne PAHs Based on in Vitro Mixture Potency Factors. Environmental Science and Technology, 51(15), 8805-8814
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cancer Risk Assessment of Airborne PAHs Based on in Vitro Mixture Potency Factors
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2017 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 51, no 15, p. 8805-8814Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Complex mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are common environmental pollutants associated with adverse human health effects including cancer. However, the risk of exposure to mixtures is difficult to estimate, and risk assessment by whole mixture potency evaluations has been suggested. To facilitate this, reliable in vitro based testing systems are necessary. Here, we investigated if activation of DNA damage signaling in vitro could be an endpoint for developing whole mixture potency factors (MPFs) for airborne PAHs. Activation of DNA damage signaling was assessed by phosphorylation of Chid and H2AX using Western blotting. To validate the in vitro approach, potency factors were determined for seven individual PAHs which were in very good agreement with established potency factors based on cancer data in vivo. Applying the method using Stockholm air PAH samples indicated MPFs with orders of magnitude higher carcinogenic potency than predicted by established in vivo-based potency factors. Applying the MPFs in cancer risk assessment suggested that 45.4 (6% of all) cancer cases per year in Stockholm are due to airborne PAHs. Applying established models resulted in <1 cancer case per year, which is far from expected levels. We conclude that our in vitro based approach for establishing MPFs could be a novel method to assess whole mixture samples of airborne PAHs to improve health risk assessment.

National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Research subject
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-147140 (URN)10.1021/acs.est.7b02963 (DOI)000406982600064 ()28650627 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-09-25 Created: 2017-09-25 Last updated: 2022-02-28Bibliographically approved
Nyström, R., Lindgren, R., Avagyan, R., Westerholm, R., Lundstedt, S. & Boman, C. (2017). Influence of Wood Species and Burning Conditions on Particle Emission Characteristics in a Residential Wood Stove. Energy & Fuels, 31(5), 5514-5524
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of Wood Species and Burning Conditions on Particle Emission Characteristics in a Residential Wood Stove
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2017 (English)In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 31, no 5, p. 5514-5524Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Emissions from small-scale residential biomass combustion are a major source of indoor and outdoor particulate matter (PM) air pollution, and the performance of stoves, boilers, and fireplaces have been shown to be influenced both by fuel properties, technology, and user behavior (firing procedures). Still, rather scarce information is available regarding the relative importance of these variables for the particle characteristics and emissions of different particulate components, e.g., soot, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), oxy-PAH, and metals. In particular, the behavior of different wood fuels under varying firing procedures and combustion conditions has not been studied thoroughly. Therefore, the objective of this work was to elucidate the influence of wood species and combustion conditions on particle emission characteristics in a typical Nordic residential wood stove. The emissions from four different wood species were investigated at two controlled combustion conditions, including nominal and high burn rates, with a focus on physical and chemical properties of the fine particulate matter. Considerably elevated carbonaceous particle emissions (soot and organics) were found during high burn rate conditions, which were associated with a shift in particle number size distribution toward a higher fraction of larger particles. In some cases, as here seen for pine, the specific fuel properties can affect the combustion performance and thereby also influence particle and PAH emissions. For the inorganic ash particles, the content in the fuel, and not burning conditions, was found to be the main determining factor, as seen by the increased emissions of alkali salts for aspen. Wood stove emission data on 11 specific oxy-PAHs, together with 45 PAHs, were combined with controlled variations of burning conditions and fuels. The oxy-PAH/PAH ratio during a high burn rate was observed to increase, suggesting an enrichment of particulate oxy-PAH. Accordingly, the main influence on emission performance and particle characteristics was seen between different burn rates, and this study clearly illustrates the major importance of proper operation to avoid unfavorable burning condition, regardless of the wood species used.

National Category
Environmental Engineering Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-144860 (URN)10.1021/acs.energyfuels.6b02751 (DOI)000402023600098 ()
Available from: 2017-06-29 Created: 2017-06-29 Last updated: 2022-02-28Bibliographically approved
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Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-3647-1811

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