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Sohlberg, T. & Karlsson, P. (2021). How do former smokers perceive information about nicotine products? Evidence from Sweden. Drugs and alcohol today, 21(4), 312-324
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How do former smokers perceive information about nicotine products? Evidence from Sweden
2021 (English)In: Drugs and alcohol today, ISSN 1745-9265, E-ISSN 2042-8359, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 312-324Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose - Health promotion strategies often attempt to change people’s behavior through targeting their risk perceptions. These perceptions may, however, be moderated by other factors. This study therefore aimed at investigating the trustworthiness and consistency of risk information, as well as respondent perceptions of the adequacy of amount received among a representative sample of former smokers, and how this information is related to gender, age, education level and whether using nicotine or not.

Design/methodology/approach - The respondents are part of a seven-year follow-up of former smokers in Sweden. Initially, 1400 respondents were contacted, whereof 705 (response rate 50%) answered a Web-survey. The majority (85 %) was still nicotine-free but some made use of nicotine in different forms. The data analysis includes descriptive statistics and logistic regressions.

Findings - Most respondents trusted risk information whether offered by the public authorities or came from other sources such as media, and generally perceived that there was an adequate amount. However, there were some differences between the products, where quite a few distrusted information on Nicotine Replacement Therapies (NRTs) and some perceived the information on snus and NRTs as contradictory and too little.

Originality/value - Knowledge about how former smokers perceive information regarding negative aspects of cigarette use may facilitate more effective risk communication with current smokers, and it may also be important for communicating information about other nicotine products to those who are trying to or who already have quit smoking.

Keywords
Risk information, Perception, Attitudes, Former smokers, Snus, NRT
National Category
Social Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-194092 (URN)10.1108/DAT-07-2020-0045 (DOI)000660477900001 ()
Available from: 2021-06-12 Created: 2021-06-12 Last updated: 2021-12-21Bibliographically approved
Hedlund, D., Salmonsson, L. & Sohlberg, T. (2021). Unaccompanied girls with precarious odds. The Journal of Refugee Studies, 34(4), 3871-3887
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Unaccompanied girls with precarious odds
2021 (English)In: The Journal of Refugee Studies, ISSN 0951-6328, E-ISSN 1471-6925, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 3871-3887Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Statistics made available by the Swedish Migration Agency (SMA) make it possible to follow first-decision outcomes in asylum cases concerning unaccompanied children (types of residence permits granted, percentage of rejections, etc.). Yet, we know little about differences in asylum decision outcomes for unaccompanied children coming to Sweden. Therefore, we wanted to find out how gender, country of origin, and asylum reports are associated with the likelihood of being granted residency. Asylum decisions concerning unaccompanied children were first coded inductively. These codes were later merged into larger categories that were analyzed quantitatively by logistic regression analysis. The data sample consisted of one calendar year of asylum decisions issued by the SMA. Results show that fewer girls than boys were granted asylum, and in fact, girls have an overall lower prospect of being granted residency. Results also display statistically significant gender differences in reported reasons for seeking asylum.

National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-190945 (URN)10.1093/jrs/feaa101 (DOI)000754315000016 ()
Available from: 2021-03-04 Created: 2021-03-04 Last updated: 2022-03-17Bibliographically approved
Kjällmén, H., Wennberg, P., Sohlberg, T. & Larsson, M. (2020). Effects of a School Tobacco Policy on Student Smoking and Snus Use. Health behavior and policy review, 7(4), 358-365
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of a School Tobacco Policy on Student Smoking and Snus Use
2020 (English)In: Health behavior and policy review, ISSN 2326-4403, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 358-365Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: A school tobacco policy (STP) commonly is used to reduce smoking among adolescents, but the effectiveness of such programs is unclear. We evaluated the impact of an STP on tobacco use in 4 schools.

Methods: The study included 4 intervention and 4 control schools, located in the inner city of Stockholm, Sweden. Schools self-selected for assignment to either an intervention program or a comparison group. In total, the study was comprised of 2671 students in grades 9 and 11, ages 15 to 18, and 1998 students (75%) responded to the questionnaire. We used a repeated cross-sectional design with assessment of tobacco use prevalence before implementation of the STP in 2016 and after 2 years under the program, in 2018.

Results: Two years after the STP, the intervention school in grade 9 showed a lower prevalence (13.5% vs 1.6%) in the proportion of students who reported smoking (χ2 = 4.54; p < .05) whereas the proportion reporting snus use was practically unchanged. We found no statistically significant impact of the STP for grade 11.

Conclusions: The results are promising with regard to smoking, when the STP is implemented in early adolescence.

Keywords
health communication, public health, school health, smoking, snus use, tobacco use and control
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Social Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-184873 (URN)10.14485/HBPR.7.4.9 (DOI)000562436300009 ()
Available from: 2020-09-09 Created: 2020-09-09 Last updated: 2022-06-27Bibliographically approved
Sohlberg, T. & Helmersson Bergmark, K. (2020). Lifestyle and Long-Term Smoking Cessation. Tobacco Use Insights, 13
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lifestyle and Long-Term Smoking Cessation
2020 (English)In: Tobacco Use Insights, ISSN 1179-173X, Vol. 13Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Since smoking is the leading cause of preventable death, discouraging smoking initiation, encouraging smoking cessation, and exploring factors that help individuals to stay smoke free are immensely important. One such relevant factor may be the impact of lifestyle for long-term smoking cessation.

Method: A representative sample of successful quitters was recruited for a study about smoking cessation. These respondents are now part of a 7-year follow-up with the overall aim of revealing factors affecting long-term smoking cessation. Descriptive analyses were carried out at baseline and at follow-up, as well as a further two-step cluster analysis to explore profiles of long-term smoke-free individuals.

Results: A majority did not make any particular lifestyle changes, but among those who did, most adopted a healthier lifestyle and/or increased their quota of physical training, where permanent changes in this direction seem to promote a more enduring smoke-free life.

Conclusions: Individuals who want to quit smoking should be encouraged to increase their level of physical activity. Swedish health care institutions should be able to provide support for this both initially and over time to promote the long-term maintenance of a smoke-free lifestyle.

Keywords
Lifestyle, smoking cessation, long-term smoke free, Swedish health care
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-185898 (URN)10.1177/1179173X20963062 (DOI)000581613300001 ()
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2016-00917
Note

Volume 13, January-December 2020.

Available from: 2020-10-15 Created: 2020-10-15 Last updated: 2022-01-25Bibliographically approved
Sohlberg, T. (2020). Snus cessation patterns - a long-term follow-up of snus users in Sweden. Harm Reduction Journal, 17(1), Article ID 62.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Snus cessation patterns - a long-term follow-up of snus users in Sweden
2020 (English)In: Harm Reduction Journal, E-ISSN 1477-7517, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 62Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Several studies have investigated the role of snus as an aid to become smoke-free, but few have focused on who use snus, how they perceive snus use, why and how they quit, and their perception of being nonsnus users. The purpose of this paper is to describe snus cessation patterns.

Methods: Respondents are part of a 7-year follow-up of former smokers in Sweden. Initially, 1400 respondents were contacted regarding participation and 705 answered a web-based survey (response rate 50%). Out of them, 118 had used snus. The analyses include percentage distributions, as well as factor analyses of inventories, and configural frequency analysis in order to examine configurations of snus-related patterns.

Results: Over 80% found snus of great importance to succeed with smoking cessation and half of them continued to use snus on a long term. Those who experienced both physical and psychological effects of switching to snus were the ones who continued and vice versa; those who did not experience such effects quit using snus. None made use of professional help but had their own strategies (60%), and most respondents who quit obtained psychological benefits (68%).

Conclusions: The distinction between the concepts smoke-free, tobacco-free, and nicotine-free contributes to nuances in the debate on snus as harm reduction. Continued snus use does not mean that snus is not an effective aid to become smoke-free. Snus cessation is mostly mentioned in relation to advices on how to succeed, but the cessation process has rarely been described; therefore, this study expands the knowledge on this quite neglected topic and contributes to a more nuanced picture of snus cessation.

Keywords
Snus, Snuff, Cessation, Patterns, Smoking cessation aid, Sweden
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-184948 (URN)10.1186/s12954-020-00405-z (DOI)000570657900001 ()
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, (Grant/Award Number:2016-00917)
Available from: 2020-09-10 Created: 2020-09-10 Last updated: 2024-02-15Bibliographically approved
Sohlberg, T. (2019). In favour of tobacco control? Former smokers’ support for tobacco policies. Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 36(6), 496-510
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In favour of tobacco control? Former smokers’ support for tobacco policies
2019 (English)In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 36, no 6, p. 496-510Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background:

Tobacco control (TC) in Sweden is being continuously strengthened.

Aims:

The study aimed to examine attitudes towards different TC policies among former smokers, the difference between nicotine-free former smokers and those who use nicotine in the form of snus or nicotine replacement therapies (NRTs), and whether different TC strategies tend to become more acceptable over time.

Methods:

Respondents are part of a seven-year follow-up of former smokers in Sweden. Initially, 1400 respondents were contacted regarding participation and 705 answered a survey (response rate 50%). The present study used cross-sectional data on attitudes towards different TC policies and respondent’s level of support were measured on a 4-point scale. Analyses consist of percentage distribution of level of agreement, in total and between nicotine-free individuals and users of nicotine in the form of snus or NRTs, as well as logistic regressions in order to predict the odds for supporting the different policies. In addition, a percentage distribution of support for different policies introduced during different time-periods is shown.

Results:

There is an overall support for smoke-free environments. Nicotine users are, however, overall slightly more opposed, especially to policies aiming at denormalising smoking. Public support is important for successful implementation but resistance can pass, and interventions tend to become more acceptable over time.

Conclusion:

While smoke-free indoor environments can be justified by scientific evidence of harm to others, bans against smoking outdoors might be experienced as intrusive. Policies need to rest on scientific arguments and be seen as appropriate actions, underlining the importance of information for successful implementations.

Keywords
former smokers, nicotine users, policy, snus, Sweden, tobacco control
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-171482 (URN)10.1177/1455072519853914 (DOI)000500811700003 ()
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2016-00917
Available from: 2019-08-12 Created: 2019-08-12 Last updated: 2022-02-26Bibliographically approved
Sohlberg, T. (2016). How low can we go? Tobacco control in Sweden. Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 33(4), 339-341
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How low can we go? Tobacco control in Sweden
2016 (English)In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 339-341Article in journal, Editorial material (Other academic) Published
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-171483 (URN)10.1515/nsad-2016-0029 (DOI)000385380700004 ()
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2016-00917
Available from: 2019-08-12 Created: 2019-08-12 Last updated: 2022-02-26Bibliographically approved
Sohlberg, T. (2015). Smoking cessation and gender differences – results from a Swedish sample. Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 32(3), 259-276
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Smoking cessation and gender differences – results from a Swedish sample
2015 (English)In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 259-276Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aim: Previous research has concluded that the prevalence of smoking, as well as reasons to quit and strategies to become smoke-free, varies markedly by gender.  However, we lack a more comprehensive understanding of the process that leads to a quit attempt and a positive long-term outcome, and also the gender specific mechanism behind a successful cessation. The aim is therefore to investigate motives for, mechanism in, and factors behind smoking cessation, with special regard to gender differences.

Data/Method: During Oct 2009- May 2010 respondents were recruited via the so-called Monitor-project. By the turn of each month 1,500 individuals, aged 16-80, from a representative sample in the Swedish population (n=12 000) were interviewed via telephone. Via a screening process those who stated being previous daily smokers, but smoke-free for at last 12 months, were asked to answer a postal survey (n=1 683) concerning their process to a smoke-free life. The analyses consist of both descriptive statistics and factor analyses.

Results: The results indicate that women’s smoking filled several functions in life, that they often quit for the sake of others, and that the cessation process was quite complex. Men tended to experience smoking as quite unproblematic and often quit out of more self-oriented reasons. Moreover, even though a majority quit smoking without any professional help or other means the use among those who did was clearly gendered.

Conclusions: Gender differences were found in reasons to smoke, reasons to quit, and strategies to quit smoking why cessation strategies should be gender sensitive, taking special needs into account.

Keywords
Smoking cessation, Process, Gender differences, Sweden, Factor analyses
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-108738 (URN)10.1515/nsad-2015-0025 (DOI)000356815600003 ()
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 1406702
Available from: 2014-11-03 Created: 2014-11-03 Last updated: 2022-03-23Bibliographically approved
Sohlberg, T. & Wennberg, P. (2014). Developmental pathways to smoking cessation. Drugs and alcohol today, 14(2), 96-106
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developmental pathways to smoking cessation
2014 (English)In: Drugs and alcohol today, ISSN 1745-9265, E-ISSN 2042-8359, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 96-106Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose – To a great extent research about smoking cessation has focussed on effects from different support programs and means, in spite of that several studies have shown that over 90 percent quit smoking without such help. Factors that are important for the individual in the process from being a smoker to becoming smoke-free is less examined and also how these factors interact. The purpose of this paper is to describe typical careers or pathways that end up with a successful smoking cessation.

Design/methodology/approach – Respondents were recruited during Oct 2009-May 2010 via screening-questions in the so-called Monitor – project. By the turn of each month 1,500 individuals, aged 16-84, from a representative sample in the Swedish population, were interviewed via telephone. Respondents who stated being previous daily smokers, but smoke-free for at least 12 months, and agreed to participate were asked to answer a postal survey (n=¼1,683) concerning their process to a smoke-free life. The analyses of data included the linking of individuals between different states in the stages toward becoming smoke-free.

Findings – Several typical pathways were described and respondents with more severe smoking habits followed different pathways than individuals with milder problems. Nicotine replacement therapys or Swedish smoke-free tobacco was not found to be a component in any of the typical pathways.

Originality/value – Smoking cessation is a heterogeneous phenomenon and individuals can follow several pathways to become smoke-free, therefore this study adds to a more nuanced picture of smoking cessation and also expands the knowledge concerning smoking cessation in individual long-term processes.

Keywords
cluster analysis, process, pathways, smoke-free, smoking cessation
National Category
Social Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-108480 (URN)10.1108/DAT-11-2013-0046 (DOI)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 140 67 02
Available from: 2014-10-28 Created: 2014-10-28 Last updated: 2022-02-23Bibliographically approved
Sohlberg, T. (2014). Smoking cessation in Sweden - gender, pathways, and identity. (Doctoral dissertation). Stockholm: Department of Sociology, Stockholm University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Smoking cessation in Sweden - gender, pathways, and identity
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Research on smoking has to a great deal been conducted within a public health or a medical context, or focused on policy making. Fewer studies have taken their point of departure in a social sciences context, and still fewer have analysed why individuals start and cease to smoke, and how and why smoking patterns on an aggregate level change over time and vary between different population groups.

The aim of this dissertation is to analyse changes in the Swedish tobacco consumption with special emphasis at elucidating the decrease in smoking during the past half-century from different angels. Thus, the first paper explore if and how changes in smoking patterns can be understood and explained with reference to Sweden’s development as a welfare state, and in relation to socio-demographic and socio-economic circumstances. The second paper focuses on the long-term pathways to smoking cessation, by discerning several distinct trajectories from smoker to non-smoker. The third paper analyses gender differences with regard to reasons to smoke, experiences of smoking, and central elements in the cessation process. Finally, in the fourth paper, the issue of to what extent smoking cessation can be described as a process of identity change is explored.  

Smoking initiation and cessation vary by socio-demographic and socio-economic factors, and the rapid decrease in smoking has resulted in a rather vulnerable group of smokers in these aspects. The results also indicate that the cessation process is complex, with personal and structural factors interacting in the long-term process, leading to multiple pathways to a smoke-free life. Moreover, they point to gender differences in reasons to smoke and to quit, and in strategies to quit smoking. In addition, identity change seems to be important in remaining smoke-free. The stated inequality in gender and class points in the direction that structural changes and social policies might be of need to decrease smoking even further.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Sociology, Stockholm University, 2014. p. 85
Series
Dissertations at the Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD), ISSN 1650-819X ; 13
Keywords
Smoking, smoking cessation, Sweden, gender, pathways, identity, socio-demographic background, socio-economic factors, trajectories, factor analyses, interviews
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-108481 (URN)978-91-7649-037-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-12-10, De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 14, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
Women, Health and Substance use
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 140 67 02
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 1: Submitted. Paper 3: Accepted. Paper 4: Manuscript.

Available from: 2014-11-18 Created: 2014-10-28 Last updated: 2022-02-23Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-2459-1311

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