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Hallberg, Rolf
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Publications (6 of 6) Show all publications
Sjöberg, S., Yu, C., Stairs, C. W., Allard, B., Hallberg, R., Henriksson, S., . . . Dupraz, C. (2021). Microbe-Mediated Mn Oxidation-A Proposed Model of Mineral Formation. Minerals, 11(10), Article ID 1146.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microbe-Mediated Mn Oxidation-A Proposed Model of Mineral Formation
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2021 (English)In: Minerals, E-ISSN 2075-163X, Vol. 11, no 10, article id 1146Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Manganese oxides occur in a wide range of environmental settings either as coatings on rocks, sediment, and soil particles, or as discrete grains. Although the production of biologically mediated Mn oxides is well established, relatively little is known about microbial-specific strategies for utilizing Mn in the environment and how these affect the morphology, structure, and chemistry of associated mineralizations. Defining such strategies and characterizing the associated mineral properties would contribute to a better understanding of their impact on the local environment and possibly facilitate evaluation of biogenicity in recent and past Mn accumulations. Here, we supplement field data from a Mn rock wall deposit in the Ytterby mine, Sweden, with data retrieved from culturing Mn oxidizers isolated from this site. Microscopic and spectroscopic techniques are used to characterize field site products and Mn precipitates generated by four isolated bacteria (Hydrogenophaga sp., Pedobacter sp., Rhizobium sp., and Nevskia sp.) and one fungal-bacterial co-culture (Cladosporium sp.—Hydrogenophaga sp. Rhizobium sp.—Nevskia sp.). Two of the isolates (Pedobacter sp. and Nevskia sp.) are previously unknown Mn oxidizers. At the field site, the onset of Mn oxide mineralization typically occurs in areas associated with globular wad-like particles and microbial traces. The particles serve as building blocks in the majority of the microstructures, either forming the base for further growth into laminated dendrites-botryoids or added as components to an existing structure. The most common nanoscale structures are networks of Mn oxide sheets structurally related to birnessite. The sheets are typically constructed of very few layers and elongated along the octahedral chains. In places, the sheets bend and curl under to give a scroll-like appearance. Culturing experiments show that growth conditions (biofilm or planktonic) affect the ability to oxidize Mn and that taxonomic affiliation influences crystallite size, structure, and average oxidation state as well as the onset location of Mn precipitation.

Keywords
Hydrogenophaga, Pedobacter, Nevskia, Rhizobium, Cladosporium, Ytterby mine, Mn oxidizers, Mn mineralization, biofilm, birnessite
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-199857 (URN)10.3390/min11101146 (DOI)000715479000001 ()
Available from: 2022-01-10 Created: 2022-01-10 Last updated: 2024-01-17Bibliographically approved
Sjöberg, S., Stairs, C., Allard, B., Hallberg, R., Homa, F., Martin, T., . . . Dupraz, C. (2020). Bubble biofilm: Bacterial colonization of air-air interface. Biofilm, 2, Article ID 100030.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bubble biofilm: Bacterial colonization of air-air interface
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2020 (English)In: Biofilm, E-ISSN 2590-2075, Vol. 2, article id 100030Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Microbial mats or biofilms are known to colonize a wide range of substrates in aquatic environments. These dense benthic communities efficiently recycle nutrients and often exhibit high tolerance to environmental stressors, characteristics that enable them to inhabit harsh ecological niches. In some special cases, floating biofilms form at the air-water interface residing on top of a hydrophobic microlayer. Here, we describe biofilms that reside at the air-air interface by forming gas bubbles (bubble biofilms) in the former Ytterby mine, Sweden. The bubbles are built by micrometer thick membrane-like biofilm that holds enough water to sustain microbial activity. Molecular identification shows that the biofilm communities are dominated by the neuston bacterium Nevskia. Gas bubbles contain mostly air with a slightly elevated concentration of carbon dioxide. Biofilm formation and development was monitored in situ using a time-lapse camera over one year, taking one image every second hour. The bubbles were stable over long periods of time (weeks, even months) and gas build-up occurred in pulses as if the bedrock suddenly exhaled. The result was however not a passive inflation of a dying biofilm becoming more fragile with time (as a result of overstretching of the organic material). To the contrary, microbial growth lead to a more robust, hydrophobic bubble biofilm that kept the bubbles inflated for extended periods (several weeks, and in some cases even months).

Keywords
Biofilm, Neuston, Nevskia, Air-air interface, Shallow subsurface, Ytterby mine
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-196441 (URN)10.1016/j.bioflm.2020.100030 (DOI)000658274500020 ()33447815 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2021-09-08 Created: 2021-09-08 Last updated: 2023-01-25Bibliographically approved
Hallberg, R. O. & Broman, C. (2018). Microbial Fossils in the 2.63 Ga Jeerinah Formation, Western Australia-Evidence of Microbial Oxidation. Geomicrobiology Journal, 35(4), 255-260
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microbial Fossils in the 2.63 Ga Jeerinah Formation, Western Australia-Evidence of Microbial Oxidation
2018 (English)In: Geomicrobiology Journal, ISSN 0149-0451, E-ISSN 1521-0529, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 255-260Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A diamond drill core from the upper part of the Jeerinah Formation (similar to 2.63 Ga), underlying the Hamersley Group, deposited at a time when the oxygen concentrations in the marine environment were extremely low, was examined for microbial fossils. The paper presents organo-mineral structures in the form of twisted stalks produced by bacteria being present in the laminated black carbonaceous shale sediments. These twisted stalks are organo-mineral structures produced by microaerophilic Fe(II)-oxidizing-type bacteria such as Gallionella and/or Mariprofundus that are active at very low-oxygen concentrations, thus providing evidence for oxygen being present in the marine environment at 2.63 Ga.

Keywords
Banded iron formations, Gallionella, Mariprofundus, microbial fossil, oxygen evolution
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-153868 (URN)10.1080/01490451.2017.1348407 (DOI)000424756900001 ()
Available from: 2018-03-07 Created: 2018-03-07 Last updated: 2022-02-28Bibliographically approved
Hallberg, R. & Tai, C.-W. (2014). Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes and Nanofibers in Gallionella. Geomicrobiology Journal, 31(9), 764-768
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes and Nanofibers in Gallionella
2014 (English)In: Geomicrobiology Journal, ISSN 0149-0451, E-ISSN 1521-0529, Vol. 31, no 9, p. 764-768Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This is a report of microbial formation of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and nanofibers at normal pressure and temperature. Our results demonstrate a single cell organism's ability to form complicated material of high industrial interest. The microorganism, Gallionella, is classified as autotrophic and dysoxic. It uses CO2 for its carbon source and grows in environments with low concentrations of free oxygen. The organisms were taken from a deep bedrock tunnel where water leaking from cracks in the rock formed a precipitate of iron as a bacterial slime on the rock wall. Detailed investigations of the samples by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed several types of MWCNT. The stalk single MWCNT was observed with a diameter of about 10nm and with an inner diameter of 1.35nm. The wall of the nanotube is built by graphite layers. The 10 to 20 sheets are used to form the tubes. The measured spacing between the lines is 0.34nm, which is an average value of interlayer spacing, close to the graphitic distance (0.335nm). HRTEM images reveal a two-dimensional lattice with a spacing of 0.24nm, indicating the presence of graphene.

Keywords
carbon nanotubes, Gallionella, graphene, graphite
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-108552 (URN)10.1080/01490451.2013.875297 (DOI)000342212100002 ()
Note

AuthorCount:2;

Available from: 2014-11-04 Created: 2014-10-29 Last updated: 2022-02-24Bibliographically approved
Karageorgis, A. P., Kanellopoulos, T. D., Mavromatis, V., Anagnostou, C. L., Koutsopoulou, E., Schmidt, M., . . . Hallberg, R. O. (2013). Authigenic carbonate mineral formation in the Pagassitikos palaeolake during the latest Pleistocene, central Greece. Geo-Marine Letters, 33(1), 13-29
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Authigenic carbonate mineral formation in the Pagassitikos palaeolake during the latest Pleistocene, central Greece
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2013 (English)In: Geo-Marine Letters, ISSN 0276-0460, E-ISSN 1432-1157, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 13-29Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Pagassitikos Gulf in Greece is a semi-enclosed bay with a maximum depth of 102 m. According to the present-day bathymetric configuration and the sea level during the latest Pleistocene, the gulf would have been isolated from the open sea, forming a palaeolake since 32 cal. ka b.p. Sediment core B-4 was recovered from the deepest sector of the gulf and revealed evidence of a totally different depositional environment in the lowest part of the core: this contained light grey-coloured sediments, contrasting strongly with overlying olive grey muds. Multi-proxy analyses showed the predominance of carbonate minerals (aragonite, dolomite and calcite) and gypsum in the lowest part of the core. Carbonate mineral deposition can be attributed to autochthonous precipitation that took place in a saline palaeolake with high evaporation rates during the last glacial-early deglacial period; the lowest core sample to be AMS C-14 dated provided an age of 19.53 cal. ka b.p. The palaeolake was presumably reconnected to the open sea at 13.2 cal. ka b.p. during the last sea-level rise, marking the commencement of marine sedimentation characterised by the predominance of terrigenous aluminosilicates and fairly constant depositional conditions lasting up to the present day.

National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology and Water Resources Geosciences, Multidisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-88255 (URN)10.1007/s00367-012-0306-y (DOI)000313791900002 ()
Note

AuthorCount:9;

Available from: 2013-03-14 Created: 2013-03-12 Last updated: 2022-02-24Bibliographically approved
Sjöberg, S., Stairs, C., Allard, B., Hallberg, R., Henriksson, S., Homa, F., . . . Dupraz, C.Mn oxide precipitation by epilithic biofilms in the Ytterby mine, Sweden: formation of an YREE-enriched birnessite.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mn oxide precipitation by epilithic biofilms in the Ytterby mine, Sweden: formation of an YREE-enriched birnessite
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Biofilms scavenge and bind reduced Mn(II) as well as stabilize highly reactive Mn(III), favouring formation of Mn oxides. Mn oxidation and precipitation involve closely connected and concomitant abiotic and biotic biogeochemical mechanisms, often making the biogenicity of the mineral product difficult to determine. In order to use these precipitates as potential biosignatures, profound knowledge of the formation pathways is required. Here we have access to an underground Mn oxide producing ecosystem in which epilithic biofilms precipitate yttrium and rare earth element enriched birnessite-type Mn oxides. Microbial community composition combined with elemental data is investigated to provide insight into how different subsystems of this ecosystem (fracture water, Mn oxide producing biofilm, and bubble biofilm) interact with each other to form the birnessite. We find that the microbial assembly of the feeding water has little impact on the derived biofilms, in which the signature microbial groups rather results from water chemistry and environmental conditions. In the Mn oxide producing biofilm, bacteria  are adapted to the emerging extreme environment (low temperature, no light, high metal concentration) which is generated by the biofilm itself. Microstructural characterizations show that the birnessite has a dendritic/shrublike or spherulitic/botryoidal growth pattern. Nucleation occurs in close association to the biofilm and Mn encrustations of cells and other organic structures serve as stable nuclei for further growth. The influence of organics decrease in importance as precipitates grow. In more evolved crystals, a repetitive pattern, Liesegang-type of rings, implies that abiotic factors dominate. Grown on a solid substrate, four bacterial (Hydrogenophaga sp., Pedobacter sp., Rhizobium sp. and Nevskia sp.) and one fungal species (Cladosporium sp.) are involved in Mn oxide production. Hydrogenophaga and Pedobacter oxidize Mn independently while Rhizobium needs a synergistic relationship with selected species (e.g., Nevskia). Members of the Pedobacter and Nevskia genera are previously not known Mn oxidizers. The onset of Mn precipitaiton takes place at different locations with respect to the cells for the different species. Precipitates are located intracellularly (possibly post mortem), on the bacterial cell walls, at the outer edges of more well developed crystals, within the extracellular organic matter (EOM) and on hyphal surfaces.

Keywords
Mn oxidizers, birnessite, ecosystem, epilithic biofilms, shallow subsurface, YREE, Ytterby mine
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Geochemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-174773 (URN)
Available from: 2019-10-21 Created: 2019-10-21 Last updated: 2022-02-26Bibliographically approved
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