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Schulze, S., Fransson, C., Jerkstrand, A., Sollerman, J., Omand, C. M. B., Sarin, N., . . . Pessi, P. J. (2024). 1100 days in the life of the supernova 2018ibb The best pair-instability supernova candidate, to date. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 683, Article ID A223.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>1100 days in the life of the supernova 2018ibb The best pair-instability supernova candidate, to date
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2024 (English)In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 683, article id A223Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Stars with zero-age main sequence masses between 140 and 260 M are thought to explode as pair-instability supernovae (PISNe). During their thermonuclear runaway, PISNe can produce up to several tens of solar masses of radioactive nickel, resulting in luminous transients similar to some superluminous supernovae (SLSNe). Yet, no unambiguous PISN has been discovered so far. SN 2018ibb is a hydrogen-poor SLSN at z = 0.166 that evolves extremely slowly compared to the hundreds of known SLSNe. Between mid 2018 and early 2022, we monitored its photometric and spectroscopic evolution from the UV to the near-infrared (NIR) with 2–10 m class telescopes. SN 2018ibb radiated > 3 × 1051 erg during its evolution, and its bolometric light curve reached > 2 × 1044 erg s−1 at its peak. The long-lasting rise of > 93 rest-frame days implies a long diffusion time, which requires a very high total ejected mass. The PISN mechanism naturally provides both the energy source (56Ni) and the long diffusion time. Theoretical models of PISNe make clear predictions as to their photometric and spectroscopic properties. SN 2018ibb complies with most tests on the light curves, nebular spectra and host galaxy, and potentially all tests with the interpretation we propose. Both the light curve and the spectra require 25–44 M of freshly nucleosynthesised 56Ni, pointing to the explosion of a metal-poor star with a helium core mass of 120–130 M at the time of death. This interpretation is also supported by the tentative detection of [Co II] λ 1.025 μm, which has never been observed in any other PISN candidate or SLSN before. We observe a significant excess in the blue part of the optical spectrum during the nebular phase, which is in tension with predictions of existing PISN models. However, we have compelling observational evidence for an eruptive mass-loss episode of the progenitor of SN 2018ibb shortly before the explosion, and our dataset reveals that the interaction of the SN ejecta with this oxygen-rich circumstellar material contributed to the observed emission. That may explain this specific discrepancy with PISN models. Powering by a central engine, such as a magnetar or a black hole, can be excluded with high confidence. This makes SN 2018ibb by far the best candidate for being a PISN, to date.

Keywords
supernovae: individual: SN 2018ibb, supernovae: individual: ATLAS18unu, supernovae: individual: Gaia19cvo supernovae, individual: PS19crg, supernovae: individual: ZTF18acenqto
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-229343 (URN)10.1051/0004-6361/202346855 (DOI)001190051800002 ()
Available from: 2024-05-24 Created: 2024-05-24 Last updated: 2024-05-24Bibliographically approved
Brennan, S. J., Sollerman, J., Irani, I., Schulze, S., Chen, P., Das, K. K., . . . Wold, A. (2024). Spectroscopic observations of progenitor activity 100 days before a Type Ibn supernova. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 684, Article ID L18.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spectroscopic observations of progenitor activity 100 days before a Type Ibn supernova
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2024 (English)In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 684, article id L18Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Obtaining spectroscopic observations of the progenitors of core-collapse supernovae is often unfeasible, due to an inherent lack of knowledge as to what stars experience supernovae and when they will explode. In this Letter we present photometric and spectroscopic observations of the progenitor activity of SN 2023fyq before the He-rich progenitor explodes as a Type Ibn supernova. The progenitor of SN 2023fyq shows an exponential rise in flux prior to core collapse. Complex He I emission line features are observed in the progenitor spectra, with a P Cygni-like profile, as well as an evolving broad base with velocities of the order of 10 000 km s−1. The luminosity and evolution of SN 2023fyq is consistent with a Type Ibn, reaching a peak r-band magnitude of −18.8 mag, although there is some uncertainty regarding the distance to the host, NGC 4388, which is located in the Virgo cluster. We present additional evidence of asymmetric He-rich material being present both prior to and after the explosion of SN 2023fyq, which suggests that this material survived the ejecta interaction. Broad [O I], C I, and the Ca II triplet lines are observed at late phases, confirming that SN 2023fyq was a genuine supernova, rather than a non-terminal interacting transient. SN 2023fyq provides insight into the final moments of a massive star’s life, demonstrating that the progenitor is likely highly unstable before core collapse.

Keywords
circumstellar matter, supernovae: general, supernovae: individual: ZTF22abzzvln
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-229038 (URN)10.1051/0004-6361/202449350 (DOI)001203444100006 ()2-s2.0-85190886373 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2024-05-22 Created: 2024-05-22 Last updated: 2024-05-22Bibliographically approved
Ho, A. Y. Q., Perley, D. A., Gal-Yam, A., Lunnan, R., Sollerman, J., Schulze, S., . . . Winters, J. M. (2023). A Search for Extragalactic Fast Blue Optical Transients in ZTF and the Rate of AT2018cow-like Transients. Astrophysical Journal, 949(2), Article ID 120.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Search for Extragalactic Fast Blue Optical Transients in ZTF and the Rate of AT2018cow-like Transients
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2023 (English)In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 949, no 2, article id 120Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We present a search for extragalactic fast blue optical transients (FBOTs) during Phase I of the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF). We identify 38 candidates with durations above half-maximum light 1 day < t (1/2) < 12 days, of which 28 have blue (g - r less than or similar to -0.2 mag) colors at peak light. Of the 38 transients (28 FBOTs), 19 (13) can be spectroscopically classified as core-collapse supernovae (SNe): 11 (8) H- or He-rich (Type II/IIb/Ib) SNe, 6 (4) interacting (Type IIn/Ibn) SNe, and 2 (1) H&He-poor (Type Ic/Ic-BL) SNe. Two FBOTs (published previously) had predominantly featureless spectra and luminous radio emission: AT2018lug (The Koala) and AT2020xnd (The Camel). Seven (five) did not have a definitive classification: AT 2020bdh showed tentative broad H alpha in emission, and AT 2020bot showed unidentified broad features and was 10 kpc offset from the center of an early-type galaxy. Ten (eight) have no spectroscopic observations or redshift measurements. We present multiwavelength (radio, millimeter, and/or X-ray) observations for five FBOTs (three Type Ibn, one Type IIn/Ibn, one Type IIb). Additionally, we search radio-survey (VLA and ASKAP) data to set limits on the presence of radio emission for 24 of the transients. All X-ray and radio observations resulted in nondetections; we rule out AT2018cow-like X-ray and radio behavior for five FBOTs and more luminous emission (such as that seen in the Camel) for four additional FBOTs. We conclude that exotic transients similar to AT2018cow, the Koala, and the Camel represent a rare subset of FBOTs and use ZTF's SN classification experiments to measure the rate to be at most 0.1% of the local core-collapse SN rate.

National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-218369 (URN)10.3847/1538-4357/acc533 (DOI)001001445700001 ()2-s2.0-85161632715 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-06-27 Created: 2023-06-27 Last updated: 2023-06-27Bibliographically approved
Lin, W., Wang, X., Yan, L., Gal-Yam, A., Mo, J., Brink, T. G., . . . Wang, L. (2023). A superluminous supernova lightened by collisions with pulsational pair-instability shells. Nature Astronomy, 7(7), 779-789
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A superluminous supernova lightened by collisions with pulsational pair-instability shells
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2023 (English)In: Nature Astronomy, E-ISSN 2397-3366, Vol. 7, no 7, p. 779-789Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Superluminous supernovae are among the most energetic stellar explosions in the Universe, but their energy sources remain an open question. Here we present long-term observations of one of the closest examples of the hydrogen-poor superluminous supernovae subclass SLSNe-I, supernova SN 2017egm, revealing the most complicated known luminosity evolution of SLSNe-I. Three distinct post-peak bumps were recorded in its light curve collected at about 100–350 days after maximum brightness, challenging current popular power models such as magnetar, fallback accretion, and interaction between ejecta and a circumstellar shell. However, the complex light curve can be well modelled by successive interactions with multiple circumstellar shells with a total mass of about 6.8–7.7 M. In this scenario, large energy deposition from interaction-induced reverse shocks results in ionization of neutral oxygen in the supernova ejecta and hence a much lower nebular-phase line ratio of [O I] λ6,300/([Ca II] + [O II]) λ7,300 (~0.2) compared with that derived for other superluminous and normal stripped-envelope supernovae. The pre-existing multiple shells indicate that the progenitor of SN 2017egm experienced pulsational mass ejections triggered by pair instability within 2 years before explosion, in robust agreement with theoretical predictions for a pre-pulsation helium-core mass of 48–51 M.

National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-220246 (URN)10.1038/s41550-023-01957-3 (DOI)000979984200002 ()2-s2.0-85154617550 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-08-23 Created: 2023-08-23 Last updated: 2023-08-23Bibliographically approved
Pessi, P. J., Anderson, J. P., Folatelli, G., Dessart, L., González-Gaitán, S., Möller, A., . . . Young, D. R. (2023). Broad-emission-line dominated hydrogen-rich luminous supernovae. Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 523(4), 5315-5340
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Broad-emission-line dominated hydrogen-rich luminous supernovae
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2023 (English)In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 523, no 4, p. 5315-5340Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Hydrogen-rich Type II supernovae (SNe II) are the most frequently observed class of core-collapse SNe (CCSNe). However, most studies that analyse large samples of SNe II lack events with absolute peak magnitudes brighter than −18.5 mag at rest-frame optical wavelengths. Thanks to modern surveys, the detected number of such luminous SNe II (LSNe II) is growing. There exist several mechanisms that could produce luminous SNe II. The most popular propose either the presence of a central engine (a magnetar gradually spinning down or a black hole accreting fallback material) or the interaction of supernova ejecta with circumstellar material (CSM) that turns kinetic energy into radiation energy. In this work, we study the light curves and spectral series of a small sample of six LSNe II that show peculiarities in their H α profile, to attempt to understand the underlying powering mechanism. We favour an interaction scenario with CSM that is not dense enough to be optically thick to electron scattering on large scales – thus, no narrow emission lines are observed. This conclusion is based on the observed light curve (higher luminosity, fast decline, blue colours) and spectral features (lack of persistent narrow lines, broad H α emission, lack of H α absorption, weak, or non-existent metal lines) together with comparison to other luminous events available in the literature. We add to the growing evidence that transients powered by ejecta–CSM interaction do not necessarily display persistent narrow emission lines.

Keywords
transients, supernovae - supernovae, individual (SN 2017cfo, SN 2017gpp, SN 2017hbj, SN 2017hxz, SN 2018aql, SN 2018eph)
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-221089 (URN)10.1093/mnras/stad1822 (DOI)001023895800031 ()2-s2.0-85164529415 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-09-18 Created: 2023-09-18 Last updated: 2023-09-18Bibliographically approved
West, S. L., Lunnan, R., Omand, C. M. B., Kangas, T., Schulze, S., Strotjohann, N. L., . . . Shupe, D. (2023). SN 2020qlb: A hydrogen-poor superluminous supernova with well-characterized light curve undulations. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 670, Article ID A7.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>SN 2020qlb: A hydrogen-poor superluminous supernova with well-characterized light curve undulations
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2023 (English)In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 670, article id A7Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context. SN 2020qlb (ZTF20abobpcb) is a hydrogen-poor superluminous supernova (SLSN-I) that is among the most luminous (maximum Mg = −22.25 mag) and that has one of the longest rise times (77 days from explosion to maximum). We estimate the total radiated energy to be > 2.1 × 1051 erg. SN 2020qlb has a well-sampled light curve that exhibits clear near and post peak undulations, a phenomenon seen in other SLSNe, whose physical origin is still unknown.

Aims. We discuss the potential power source of this immense explosion as well as the mechanisms behind its observed light curve undulations.

Methods. We analyze photospheric spectra and compare them to other SLSNe-I. We constructed the bolometric light curve using photometry from a large data set of observations from the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF), Liverpool Telescope (LT), and Neil Gehrels Swift Observatory and compare it with radioactive, circumstellar interaction and magnetar models. Model residuals and light curve polynomial fit residuals are analyzed to estimate the undulation timescale and amplitude. We also determine host galaxy properties based on imaging and spectroscopy data, including a detection of the [O III]λ4363, auroral line, allowing for a direct metallicity measurement.

Results. We rule out the Arnett 56Ni decay model for SN 2020qlb’s light curve due to unphysical parameter results. Our most favored power source is the magnetic dipole spin-down energy deposition of a magnetar. Two to three near peak oscillations, intriguingly similar to those of SN 2015bn, were found in the magnetar model residuals with a timescale of 32 ± 6 days and an amplitude of 6% of peak luminosity. We rule out centrally located undulation sources due to timescale considerations; and we favor the result of ejecta interactions with circumstellar material (CSM) density fluctuations as the source of the undulations.

Keywords
supernovae: general, supernovae: individual: SN 2020qlb
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-216284 (URN)10.1051/0004-6361/202244086 (DOI)000940346000010 ()2-s2.0-85147138889 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-04-13 Created: 2023-04-13 Last updated: 2023-04-13Bibliographically approved
Tinyanont, S., Woosley, S. E., Taggart, K., Foley, R. J., Yan, L., Lunnan, R., . . . Smith, C. (2023). Supernova 2020wnt: An Atypical Superluminous Supernova with a Hidden Central Engine. Astrophysical Journal, 951(1), Article ID 34.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Supernova 2020wnt: An Atypical Superluminous Supernova with a Hidden Central Engine
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2023 (English)In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 951, no 1, article id 34Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We present observations of a peculiar hydrogen- and helium-poor stripped-envelope (SE) supernova (SN) 2020wnt, primarily in the optical and near-infrared (near-IR). Its peak absolute bolometric magnitude of −20.9 mag (Lbol, peak = (6.8 ± 0.3) × 1043 erg s−1) and a rise time of 69 days are reminiscent of hydrogen-poor superluminous SNe (SLSNe I), luminous transients potentially powered by spinning-down magnetars. Before the main peak, there is a brief peak lasting <10 days post explosion, likely caused by interaction with circumstellar medium (CSM) ejected ∼years before the SN explosion. The optical spectra near peak lack a hot continuum and O ii absorptions, which are signs of heating from a central engine; they quantitatively resemble those of radioactivity-powered hydrogen/helium-poor Type Ic SESNe. At ∼1 yr after peak, nebular spectra reveal a blue pseudo-continuum and narrow O i recombination lines associated with magnetar heating. Radio observations rule out strong CSM interactions as the dominant energy source at +266 days post peak. Near-IR observations at +200–300 days reveal carbon monoxide and dust formation, which causes a dramatic optical light-curve dip. Pair-instability explosion models predict slow light curve and spectral features incompatible with observations. SN 2020wnt is best explained as a magnetar-powered core-collapse explosion of a 28 M pre-SN star. The explosion kinetic energy is significantly larger than the magnetar energy at peak, effectively concealing the magnetar-heated inner ejecta until well after peak. SN 2020wnt falls into a continuum between normal SNe Ic and SLSNe I, and demonstrates that optical spectra at peak alone cannot rule out the presence of a central engine.

National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-221079 (URN)10.3847/1538-4357/acc6c3 (DOI)001018594900001 ()2-s2.0-85163835110 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-09-25 Created: 2023-09-25 Last updated: 2023-09-25Bibliographically approved
Chen, Z. H., Yan, L., Kangas, T., Lunnan, R., Schulze, S., Sollerman, J., . . . Yaron, O. (2023). The Hydrogen-poor Superluminous Supernovae from the Zwicky Transient Facility Phase I Survey. I. Light Curves and Measurements. Astrophysical Journal, 943(1), Article ID 41.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Hydrogen-poor Superluminous Supernovae from the Zwicky Transient Facility Phase I Survey. I. Light Curves and Measurements
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2023 (English)In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 943, no 1, article id 41Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

During the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) Phase I operations, 78 hydrogen-poor superluminous supernovae (SLSNe-I) were discovered in less than 3 yr, constituting the largest sample from a single survey. This paper (Paper I) presents the data, including the optical/UV light curves and classification spectra, while Paper II in this series will focus on the detailed analysis of the light curves and modeling. Our photometry is primarily taken by ZTF in the g, r, and i bands, and with additional data from other ground-based facilities and Swift. The events of our sample cover a redshift range of z = 0.06 − 0.67, with a median and 1σ error (16% and 84% percentiles) of zmed=0.265. The peak luminosity covers −22.8 mag ≤ Mg,peak ≤ −19.8 mag, with a median value of -21.48. The light curves evolve slowly with a mean rest-frame rise time of trise = 41.9 ± 17.8 days. The luminosity and timescale distributions suggest that low-luminosity SLSNe-I with a peak luminosity ∼−20 mag or extremely fast-rising events (<10 days) exist, but are rare. We confirm previous findings that slowly rising SLSNe-I also tend to fade slowly. The rest-frame color and temperature evolution show large scatters, suggesting that the SLSN-I population may have diverse spectral energy distributions. The peak rest-frame color shows a moderate correlation with the peak absolute magnitude, i.e., brighter SLSNe-I tend to have bluer colors. With optical and UV photometry, we construct the bolometric luminosity and derive a bolometric correction relation that is generally applicable for converting g, r-band photometry to the bolometric luminosity for SLSNe-I.

Keywords
Supernovae
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-215785 (URN)10.3847/1538-4357/aca161 (DOI)000923536900001 ()2-s2.0-85147170474 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-03-31 Created: 2023-03-31 Last updated: 2023-03-31Bibliographically approved
Chen, Z. H., Yan, L., Kangas, T., Lunnan, R., Sollerman, J., Schulze, S., . . . Rusholme, B. (2023). The Hydrogen-poor Superluminous Supernovae from the Zwicky Transient Facility Phase I Survey. II. Light-curve Modeling and Characterization of Undulations. Astrophysical Journal, 943(1), Article ID 42.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Hydrogen-poor Superluminous Supernovae from the Zwicky Transient Facility Phase I Survey. II. Light-curve Modeling and Characterization of Undulations
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2023 (English)In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 943, no 1, article id 42Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We present analysis of the light curves (LCs) of 77 hydrogen-poor superluminous supernovae (SLSNe I) discovered during the Zwicky Transient Facility Phase I operation. We find that the majority (67%) of the sample can be fit equally well by both magnetar and ejecta–circumstellar medium (CSM) interaction plus 56Ni decay models. This implies that LCs alone cannot unambiguously constrain the physical power sources for an SLSN I. However, 23% of the sample show inverted V-shape, steep-declining LCs or features of long rise and fast post-peak decay, which are better described by the CSM+Ni model. The remaining 10% of the sample favors the magnetar model. Moreover, our analysis shows that the LC undulations are quite common, with a fraction of 18%–44% in our gold sample. Among those strongly undulating events, about 62% of them are found to be CSM-favored, implying that the undulations tend to occur in the CSM-favored events. Undulations show a wide range in energy and duration, with median values (and 1σ errors) being as  and  days, respectively. Our analysis of the undulation timescales suggests that intrinsic temporal variations of the central engine can explain half of the undulating events, while CSM interaction (CSI) can account for the majority of the sample. Finally, all of the well-observed He-rich SLSNe Ib either have strongly undulating LCs or the LCs are much better fit by the CSM+Ni model. These observations imply that their progenitor stars have not had enough time to lose all of the He-envelopes before supernova explosions, and H-poor CSM are likely to present in these events.

National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-215877 (URN)10.3847/1538-4357/aca162 (DOI)000922209400001 ()2-s2.0-85147149846 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-03-30 Created: 2023-03-30 Last updated: 2023-03-30Bibliographically approved
Fong, W.-f., Nugent, A. E., Dong, Y., Berger, E., Paterson, K., Chornock, R., . . . Terreran, G. (2022). Short GRB Host Galaxies. I. Photometric and Spectroscopic Catalogs, Host Associations, and Galactocentric Offsets. Astrophysical Journal, 940(1), Article ID 56.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Short GRB Host Galaxies. I. Photometric and Spectroscopic Catalogs, Host Associations, and Galactocentric Offsets
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2022 (English)In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 940, no 1, article id 56Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We present a comprehensive optical and near-infrared census of the fields of 90 short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) discovered in 2005–2021, constituting all short GRBs for which host galaxy associations are feasible (≈60% of the total Swift short GRB population). We contribute 274 new multi-band imaging observations across 58 distinct GRBs and 26 spectra of their host galaxies. Supplemented by literature and archival survey data, the catalog contains 542 photometric and 42 spectroscopic data sets. The photometric catalog reaches 3σ depths of ≳24–27 mag and ≳23–26 mag for the optical and near-infrared bands, respectively. We identify host galaxies for 84 bursts, in which the most robust associations make up 56% (50/90) of events, while only a small fraction, 6.7%, have inconclusive host associations. Based on new spectroscopy, we determine 18 host spectroscopic redshifts with a range of z ≈ 0.15–1.5 and find that ≈23%–41% of Swift short GRBs originate from z > 1. We also present the galactocentric offset catalog for 84 short GRBs. Taking into account the large range of individual measurement uncertainties, we find a median of projected offset of ≈7.7 kpc, for which the bursts with the most robust associations have a smaller median of ≈4.8 kpc. Our catalog captures more high-redshift and low-luminosity hosts, and more highly offset bursts than previously found, thereby diversifying the population of known short GRB hosts and properties. In terms of locations and host luminosities, the populations of short GRBs with and without detectable extended emission are statistically indistinguishable. This suggests that they arise from the same progenitors, or from multiple progenitors, which form and evolve in similar environments. All of the data products are available on the Broadband Repository for Investigating Gamma-Ray Burst Host Traits website.

National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-213097 (URN)10.3847/1538-4357/ac91d0 (DOI)000888597500001 ()2-s2.0-85143061457 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-12-21 Created: 2022-12-21 Last updated: 2022-12-21Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9454-4639

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