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Publications (10 of 62) Show all publications
Al Weswasi, E., Sivertsson, F., Bäckman, O. & Nilsson, A. (2023). Does sentence length affect the risk for criminal recidivism? A quasi-experimental study of three policy reforms in Sweden. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 19(4), 971-999
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Does sentence length affect the risk for criminal recidivism? A quasi-experimental study of three policy reforms in Sweden
2023 (English)In: Journal of Experimental Criminology, ISSN 1573-3750, E-ISSN 1572-8315, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 971-999Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives This study examines the relationship between incarceration time and post-release recidivism among first-time incarcerated adult offenders.

Methods A quasi-experimental design was adopted consisting of three policy reforms that were treated as separate natural experiments. While holding imposed sentence length constant, these policy reforms either decreased or increased the required share of a sentence inmates needed to be incarcerated before being eligible for parole. Data consisted of large-scale administrative records containing all convictions for the Swedish cohorts born in 1958 and later.

Results Results indicate that neither increased nor decreased incarceration time had a statistically significant effect on post-release recidivism, irrespective of how recidivism was measured.

Conclusions Findings reveal little evidence for incarceration time having a criminogenic or specific preventive effect on post-release recidivism.

Keywords
Incarceration length, Recidivism, Parole, Quasi-experiment
National Category
Law and Society
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-205148 (URN)10.1007/s11292-022-09513-1 (DOI)000797261400001 ()2-s2.0-85130212528 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-07-11 Created: 2022-07-11 Last updated: 2024-01-12Bibliographically approved
Estrada, F., Bäckman, O. & Nilsson, A. (2022). Biased Enforcement Expansion? Sociodemographic Differences in Police Drug Testing for Suspected Narcotics Use 1993-2015. British Journal of Criminology, 62(5), 1213-1232
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biased Enforcement Expansion? Sociodemographic Differences in Police Drug Testing for Suspected Narcotics Use 1993-2015
2022 (English)In: British Journal of Criminology, ISSN 0007-0955, E-ISSN 1464-3529, Vol. 62, no 5, p. 1213-1232Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Since the 1990s, Sweden has witnessed a steady increase in the control measures focused on drug offences. These changes are results of political dynamics once pushed by centre-right parties but thereafter embraced by Social Democrats in government. The article examines the structure of police controls of drug offences and the extent to which these controls have focused on different sociodemographic groups during the period 1995-2015. The study shows that this intensified control of minor drug crimes has resulted in successively larger proportions of youths from deprived areas being forced to provide samples of body fluids. The criminalization of drug use constitutes an example of the significance of crime policy for both crime levels and the composition of the offender population.

Keywords
crime trends, policing, discrimination, register data, inequality, Sweden
National Category
Law
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-210052 (URN)10.1093/bjc/azac037 (DOI)000854272900009 ()
Available from: 2022-10-05 Created: 2022-10-05 Last updated: 2022-10-05Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, A. & Bäckman, O. (2022). Social förändring och ungdomsbrottslighet: lagförd brottslighet bland födda 1975-2000 (5ed.). In: Felipe Estrada; Janne Flyghed; Anders Nilsson (Ed.), Den svenska ungdomsbrottsligheten: (pp. 267-306). Lund: Studentlitteratur AB
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Social förändring och ungdomsbrottslighet: lagförd brottslighet bland födda 1975-2000
2022 (Swedish)In: Den svenska ungdomsbrottsligheten / [ed] Felipe Estrada; Janne Flyghed; Anders Nilsson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2022, 5, p. 267-306Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Inte bara individuella faktorer spelar roll för brottsligheten utan även de förutsättningar som ges av det omgivande samhället. Till de senare hör strukturella förhållanden, som exempelvis utbildningssystem och arbetsmarknad, men också, och med mer direkt koppling till brottslighet, tillfällesstruktur och hur samhället ser på, prioriterar och bemöter brottsligheten. I detta kapitel intresserar vi oss för förändringar i a) ungdomars brottslighet, b) hur brottsligheten skiljer sig mellan olika grupper av unga, respektive c) hur det på lite längre sikt går för de ungdomar som begått brott. Vi gör det utifrån en så kallad multikohortansats där olika födelsekohorter, det vill säga personer födda samma år, följs över tid. Den äldsta födelsekohorten vi studerar utgörs av födda år 1975 och den yngsta av födda år 2000. Det rör sig alltså om kohorter som vuxit upp vid olika tidpunkter och, eftersom samhället förändras, under delvis olika strukturella förhållanden. Har det även inneburit variationer i ungas brottslighet och hur det går för de unga som begått brott på längre sikt?

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2022 Edition: 5
National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Criminology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-209927 (URN)978-91-44-15298-1 (ISBN)
Available from: 2022-09-28 Created: 2022-09-28 Last updated: 2022-09-28Bibliographically approved
Alm, S. & Bäckman, O. (2022). ‘When it rains, it pours’: Housing evictions and criminal convictions in Sweden. European Journal of Criminology, 19(4), 612-631
Open this publication in new window or tab >>‘When it rains, it pours’: Housing evictions and criminal convictions in Sweden
2022 (English)In: European Journal of Criminology, ISSN 1477-3708, E-ISSN 1741-2609, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 612-631Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Precarious housing and criminal behaviour are both important elements in processes of marginalization and cumulative disadvantage. It is well known that housing eviction primarily affects the weakest groups in society. In this article we ask if housing eviction has an independent effect on subsequent criminality and if the effect varies across different types of crime (utilitarian, violent and drug crime). Using propensity score matching on administrative register data covering all housing evictions in Sweden 2009, linked with crime registers and registers containing other relevant background information, we find that eviction increases the conviction rates for all analysed crime types, utilitarian crime in particular.

Keywords
Housing evictions, criminal convictions, administrative data, propensity score matching
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-179959 (URN)10.1177/1477370820905107 (DOI)000514532000001 ()2-s2.0-85081397778 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-03-17 Created: 2020-03-17 Last updated: 2022-08-04Bibliographically approved
Bäckman, O., Estrada, F., Nilsson, A. & Sivertsson, F. (2021). Criminal convictions and immigrant background 1973–2017 in Sweden – have differences increased or declined?. Nordic Journal of Criminology, 22(2), 149-168
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Criminal convictions and immigrant background 1973–2017 in Sweden – have differences increased or declined?
2021 (English)In: Nordic Journal of Criminology, ISSN 2578-983X, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 149-168Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study investigates Swedish conviction trends by individuals’ immigrant background for the period 1973–2017. The central research question is whether relative differences in conviction levels have increased, declined or remained unchanged over recent decades. This question is examined in part using a traditional cross-sectional approach, and in part using a cohort-based approach. All results are presented by gender, and results for the cohort-based approach also by holding socioeconomic background constant. The results show that conviction levels have decreased, to a greater extent among men than among women, irrespective of immigrant background. The level of overrepresentation among those born in Sweden to foreign-born parents has increased somewhat, while the overrepresentation of those born abroad has decreased towards the end of the period examined.

Keywords
crime trends, immigration, immigrant background, crime
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Criminology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-192730 (URN)10.1080/2578983X.2021.1900038 (DOI)
Projects
Den ojämlika brottsligheten
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2015-01201
Available from: 2021-04-28 Created: 2021-04-28 Last updated: 2022-06-27Bibliographically approved
Sivertsson, F., Nilsson, A. & Bäckman, O. (2021). Participation and Frequency in Criminal Convictions across 25 Successive Birth Cohorts: Collectivity, Polarization, or Convergence?. Justice quarterly, 38(6), 995-1018
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Participation and Frequency in Criminal Convictions across 25 Successive Birth Cohorts: Collectivity, Polarization, or Convergence?
2021 (English)In: Justice quarterly, ISSN 0741-8825, E-ISSN 1745-9109, Vol. 38, no 6, p. 995-1018Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Against the backdrop of an overall declining crime trend our overarching objective is to explore whether this development has concealed any degree of divergence between participation and frequency in crime. We employ Swedish longitudinal data comprising 25 complete birth cohorts born between 1960 and 1984 and followed to age 30 using convictions data. The results show a complex pattern of change, by which the crime rate partly conceals divergent processes between participation and frequency. In particular, among the males we find a consistent decrease in the size of the convicted population, whereas the frequency of crimes among convicted offenders has increased across cohorts born during the early 1970s and later. We discuss the results against both behavioral and reactional mechanisms and conclude that future crime trends research should consider a broad range of criminal career parameters which cannot be discerned using aggregate crime data.

Keywords
The crime drop, criminal careers, age–crime curve, longitudinal, birth cohort
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Criminology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-177216 (URN)10.1080/07418825.2019.1699941 (DOI)000503136400001 ()
Available from: 2019-12-18 Created: 2019-12-18 Last updated: 2022-02-26Bibliographically approved
Bäckman, O., Estrada, F., Nilsson, A. & Sivertsson, F. (2020). Den ojämlika brottsligheten: Lagföringsutvecklingen i demografiska och socioekonomiska grupper 1973-2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Den ojämlika brottsligheten: Lagföringsutvecklingen i demografiska och socioekonomiska grupper 1973-2017
2020 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Publisher
p. 150
Series
Rapport / Kriminologiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet, ISSN 1400-853X ; 2020:1
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-180996 (URN)978-91-87355-89-9 (ISBN)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2015-01201
Available from: 2020-04-23 Created: 2020-04-23 Last updated: 2022-02-26Bibliographically approved
Lorentzen, T., Bäckman, O., Ilmakunnas, I. & Kauppinen, T. (2019). Pathways to Adulthood: Sequences in the School-to-Work Transition in Finland, Norway and Sweden. Social Indicators Research, 141(3), 1285-1305
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pathways to Adulthood: Sequences in the School-to-Work Transition in Finland, Norway and Sweden
2019 (English)In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 141, no 3, p. 1285-1305Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Research on youth transitions often follows the lines of classic welfare state typologies. Thus, given the institutional similarities, the transition from youth to adulthood in the Nordic countries has often been considered a specific type of trajectory. However, little research exists on how country differences within the Nordic cluster shape young people’s pathways from education to work. Thus, little is known about intra-Nordic variations caused by national labour market regulations and social safety nets (e.g. parental insurance, public day care and unemployment security). In this article, we use sequence analysis to examine the transition process from school to work in Finland, Norway and Sweden and to find how these processes are linked to family formation patterns. The results indicate that Finland, Norway and Sweden to a great extent share the same general types of school-to-work trajectories. The role of family establishment in workforce entry trajectories, on the other hand, differs in some respects. There is a very strong link between early parenthood among Finnish women and trajectories leading to labour market exclusion. This is interpreted in light of the Finnish labour market and family policy.

Keywords
Youth transitions, Nordic countries, Register data, Sequence analysis, Family-friendly politics
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Research subject
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-154648 (URN)10.1007/s11205-018-1877-4 (DOI)000457607100016 ()
Available from: 2018-04-04 Created: 2018-04-04 Last updated: 2022-02-26Bibliographically approved
Bäckman, O., Jakobsen, V., Lorentzen, T. & Österbacka, E. (2018). Early School Leaving and Labour Market Inclusion in the Nordic Countries. In: Rune Halvorsen, Bjørn Hvinden (Ed.), Youth, Diversity and Employment: Comparative Perspectives on Labour Market Policies (pp. 84-105). Edward Elgar Publishing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Early School Leaving and Labour Market Inclusion in the Nordic Countries
2018 (English)In: Youth, Diversity and Employment: Comparative Perspectives on Labour Market Policies / [ed] Rune Halvorsen, Bjørn Hvinden, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2018, p. 84-105Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Edward Elgar Publishing, 2018
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-164404 (URN)9781783475995 (ISBN)9781783476008 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-01-16 Created: 2019-01-16 Last updated: 2022-02-26Bibliographically approved
Kahlmeter, A., Bäckman, O. & Brännström, L. (2018). Housing Evictions and Economic Hardship. A Prospective Study. European Sociological Review, 34(1), 106-119
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Housing Evictions and Economic Hardship. A Prospective Study
2018 (English)In: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 106-119Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Research has demonstrated that evictions primarily affect vulnerable populations. However, relatively little is known about the consequences eviction has, particularly regarding economic outcomes. Using comprehensive Swedish national register data on evictions in 2009, this study tests two competing hypotheses regarding to what extent an eviction affects subsequent economic hardship for an already disadvantaged group. The degree to which individuals rely on means-tested social assistance is used as an indicator of economic hardship. The cumulative disadvantage perspective predicts that additional strain will compound the economic hardship experienced by the group. In contrast, the disadvantage saturation perspective suggests that additional adversities may not add to economic hardship for disadvantaged individuals. Results from propensity score matching analyses show that, the year immediately after eviction, the degree of social assistance receipt was around 8 percentage points higher for the evicted group than for the matched comparison group. In the following 3 years, the degree of social assistance receipt continued to be significantly higher for those evicted compared to peers. The results lend support to the cumulative disadvantage perspective and suggest that—in the context of preventing evictions—policy measures such as assistance to repay rent arrears would be adequate to prevent further economic hardship.

National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-152953 (URN)10.1093/esr/jcx087 (DOI)000424924900009 ()
Available from: 2018-02-13 Created: 2018-02-13 Last updated: 2022-03-23Bibliographically approved
Projects
Social Processes in the Swedish Credit Market – Inclusion and Exclusion [2017-00083_Forte]; Södertörn University
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-4036-387x

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