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Friberg, M., Lehmann, P. & Wiklund, C. (2023). Autumn mass change and winter mass loss differ between migratory and nonmigratory butterflies. Animal Behaviour, 204, 67-75
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Autumn mass change and winter mass loss differ between migratory and nonmigratory butterflies
2023 (English)In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 204, p. 67-75Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Poikilotherms have two major alternative strategies to deal with the inhospitable conditions of temperate winters: hibernation or migration. The vast majority of insects spend winter in a speciesspecific diapause resting stage, while others remain reproductively active after having migrated to more hospitable environments in the autumn. The butterfly clade Nymphalini offers an interesting possibility for comparisons among species adopting different strategies. Whereas most genera in this clade have evolved adult diapause, species in the genus Vanessa engage in an annual multigeneration migration cycle, leaving northern latitudes during autumn. Here, we compared two species of diapausing Aglais butterflies, A. io and A. urtica, two species of the migratory genus Vanessa, V. atalanta and V. cardui, and two morphs of Polygonia c-album, the diapausing winter morph and the direct developing hutchinsoni morph. We tested how these different species differ in resource acquisition strategy during early adult life, how the acquisition of resources affects survival in cold winter conditions and how A. io, Aglais urticae and V. atalanta differ in resting metabolism under cold conditions. The butterflies set for adult diapause (1) acquired more mass during early adult life and (2) lost less mass and had a lower resting metabolism under cold conditions. In addition, (3) the life span under cold conditions was positively related to the weight increase during early adult life in the diapausing species, but not in the migratory species. Our laboratory results demonstrate how different developmental pathways, such as diapause or direct development, can be studied by measuring mass change in living butterflies. Our expectation that migratory species would increase in mass like species set for overwintering were not met, perhaps because such studies should ideally be performed under natural conditions. (c) 2023 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/ by/4.0/).

Keywords
adult butterfly hibernation, Aglais, diapause, Lepidoptera, metabolic rate, migration, overwintering, Polygonia, Vanessa, winter survival
National Category
Psychology Zoology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-223190 (URN)10.1016/j.anbehav.2023.08.005 (DOI)001078394700001 ()2-s2.0-85169889774 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-10-25 Created: 2023-10-25 Last updated: 2023-10-25Bibliographically approved
Nielsen, M., Nylin, S., Wiklund, C. & Gotthard, C. (2023). Evolution of butterfly seasonal plasticity driven by climate change varies across life stages. Ecology Letters, 26(9), 1548-1558
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evolution of butterfly seasonal plasticity driven by climate change varies across life stages
2023 (English)In: Ecology Letters, ISSN 1461-023X, E-ISSN 1461-0248, Vol. 26, no 9, p. 1548-1558Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Photoperiod is a common cue for seasonal plasticity and phenology, but climate change can create cue-environment mismatches for organisms that rely on it. Evolution could potentially correct these mismatches, but phenology often depends on multiple plastic decisions made during different life stages and seasons that may evolve separately. For example, Pararge aegeria (Speckled wood butterfly) has photoperiod-cued seasonal life history plasticity in two different life stages: larval development time and pupal diapause. We tested for climate change-associated evolution of this plasticity by replicating common garden experiments conducted on two Swedish populations 30 years ago. We found evidence for evolutionary change in the contemporary larval reaction norm-although these changes differed between populations-but no evidence for evolution of the pupal reaction norm. This variation in evolution across life stages demonstrates the need to consider how climate change affects the whole life cycle to understand its impacts on phenology.

Keywords
climate change, contemporary evolution, diapause, life history evolution, Pararge aegeria, photoperiod, seasonal plasticity
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-221332 (URN)10.1111/ele.14280 (DOI)001192133100005 ()37366181 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85162939481 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-09-19 Created: 2023-09-19 Last updated: 2024-04-10Bibliographically approved
Moradinour, Z., Wiklund, C., Miettinen, A., Gérard, M. & Baird, E. (2023). Exposure to elevated temperature during development affects eclosion and morphology in the temperate Pieris napi butterfly (Lepidoptera Pieridae). Journal of Thermal Biology, 118, Article ID 103721.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exposure to elevated temperature during development affects eclosion and morphology in the temperate Pieris napi butterfly (Lepidoptera Pieridae)
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Thermal Biology, ISSN 0306-4565, E-ISSN 1879-0992, Vol. 118, article id 103721Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Global warming has been identified as one of the main drivers of population decline in insect pollinators. One aspect of the insect life cycle that would be particularly sensitive to elevated temperatures is the developmental transition from larva to adult. Temperature-induced modifications to the development of body parts and sensory organs likely have functional consequences for adult behaviour. To date, we have little knowledge about the effect of sub-optimal temperature on the development and functional morphology of different body parts, particularly sensory organs, in ectothermic solitary pollinators such as butterflies. To address this knowledge gap, we exposed the pupae of the butterfly Pieris napi to either 23 degrees C or 32 degrees C and measured the subsequent effects on eclosion, body size and the development of the wings, proboscis, eyes and antennae. In comparison to individuals that developed at 23 degrees C, we found that exposure to 32 degrees C during the pupal stage increased mortality and decreased time to eclose. Furthermore, both female and male butterflies that developed at 32 degrees C were smaller and had shorter proboscides, while males had shorter antennae. In contrast, we found no significant effect of rearing temperature on wing and eye size or wing deformity. Our findings suggest that increasing global temperatures and its corresponding co-stressors, such as humidity, will impact the survival of butterflies by impairing eclosion and the proper development of body and sensory organs.

Keywords
Developmental temperature, Sensory organs, Body parts, Mortality, Eclosion, Climate change
National Category
Zoology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-225436 (URN)10.1016/j.jtherbio.2023.103721 (DOI)001129635900001 ()38016229 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2024-01-16 Created: 2024-01-16 Last updated: 2024-01-16Bibliographically approved
Höök, L., Näsvall, K., Vila, R., Wiklund, C. & Bäckström, N. (2023). High-density linkage maps and chromosome level genome assemblies unveil direction and frequency of extensive structural rearrangements in wood white butterflies (Leptidea spp.). Chromosome Research, 31(1), Article ID 2.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High-density linkage maps and chromosome level genome assemblies unveil direction and frequency of extensive structural rearrangements in wood white butterflies (Leptidea spp.)
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2023 (English)In: Chromosome Research, ISSN 0967-3849, E-ISSN 1573-6849, Vol. 31, no 1, article id 2Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Karyotypes are generally conserved between closely related species and large chromosome rearrangements typically have negative fitness consequences in heterozygotes, potentially driving speciation. In the order Lepidoptera, most investigated species have the ancestral karyotype and gene synteny is often conserved across deep divergence, although examples of extensive genome reshuffling have recently been demonstrated. The genus Leptidea has an unusual level of chromosome variation and rearranged sex chromosomes, but the extent of restructuring across the rest of the genome is so far unknown. To explore the genomes of the wood white (Leptidea) species complex, we generated eight genome assemblies using a combination of 10X linked reads and HiC data, and improved them using linkage maps for two populations of the common wood white (L. sinapis) with distinct karyotypes. Synteny analysis revealed an extensive amount of rearrangements, both compared to the ancestral karyotype and between the Leptidea species, where only one of the three Z chromosomes was conserved across all comparisons. Most restructuring was explained by fissions and fusions, while translocations appear relatively rare. We further detected several examples of segregating rearrangement polymorphisms supporting a highly dynamic genome evolution in this clade. Fusion breakpoints were enriched for LINEs and LTR elements, which suggests that ectopic recombination might be an important driver in the formation of new chromosomes. Our results show that chromosome count alone may conceal the extent of genome restructuring and we propose that the amount of genome evolution in Lepidoptera might still be underestimated due to lack of taxonomic sampling. 

Keywords
Linkage map, Genome rearrangements, Karyotype evolution, Lepidoptera, Chromosome fissions, fusions
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-215471 (URN)10.1007/s10577-023-09713-z (DOI)000923723100001 ()36662301 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85146810323 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-03-15 Created: 2023-03-15 Last updated: 2023-03-15Bibliographically approved
Näsvall, K., Boman, J., Höök, L., Vila, R., Wiklund, C. & Bäckström, N. (2023). Nascent evolution of recombination rate differences as a consequence of chromosomal rearrangements. PLOS Genetics, 19(8), Article ID e1010717.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nascent evolution of recombination rate differences as a consequence of chromosomal rearrangements
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2023 (English)In: PLOS Genetics, ISSN 1553-7390, E-ISSN 1553-7404, Vol. 19, no 8, article id e1010717Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Reshuffling of genetic variation occurs both by independent assortment of chromosomes and by homologous recombination. Such reshuffling can generate novel allele combinations and break linkage between advantageous and deleterious variants which increases both the potential and the efficacy of natural selection. Here we used high-density linkage maps to characterize global and regional recombination rate variation in two populations of the wood white butterfly (Leptidea sinapis) that differ considerably in their karyotype as a consequence of at least 27 chromosome fissions and fusions. The recombination data were compared to estimates of genetic diversity and measures of selection to assess the relationship between chromosomal rearrangements, crossing over, maintenance of genetic diversity and adaptation. Our data show that the recombination rate is influenced by both chromosome size and number, but that the difference in the number of crossovers between karyotypes is reduced as a consequence of a higher frequency of double crossovers in larger chromosomes. As expected from effects of selection on linked sites, we observed an overall positive association between recombination rate and genetic diversity in both populations. Our results also revealed a significant effect of chromosomal rearrangements on the rate of intergenic diversity change between populations, but limited effects on polymorphisms in coding sequence. We conclude that chromosomal rearrangements can have considerable effects on the recombination landscape and consequently influence both maintenance of genetic diversity and efficiency of selection in natural populations. Author summaryReshuffling genetic variation is fundamental for maintaining genetic diversity and creating novel allelic combinations. The two main processes involved are the independent assortment of chromosomes and homologous recombination. The number and size of chromosomes can influence the amount of pairwise reshuffling and local recombination patterns. However, studying this in natural populations is challenging. In this study, we used the wood white butterfly, which exhibits an extreme within-species karyotype difference. Extensive fusions and fissions have resulted in almost twice as many chromosomes in the southern populations compared to the northeast populations. This unique system allowed us to assess the relationship between karyotype differences, pairwise reshuffling, recombination rate variation and subsequent effects on diversity and linked selection. We found that a higher number of chromosomes results in higher number of crossovers, although the difference was less than expected due to multiple recombination events occurring on longer chromosomes. Both populations showed an association between recombination rate and genome-wide patterns of genetic diversity and efficacy of selection. We provide evidence that chromosomal rearrangements have considerable effects on the recombination landscape and thereby influence the maintenance of genetic diversity in populations.

National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-221397 (URN)10.1371/journal.pgen.1010717 (DOI)001050811400001 ()37549188 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85168250019 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-09-20 Created: 2023-09-20 Last updated: 2023-09-20Bibliographically approved
Ittonen, M., Hagelin, A., Wiklund, C. & Gotthard, C. (2022). Local adaptation to seasonal cues at the fronts of two parallel, climate-induced butterfly range expansions. Ecology Letters, 25(9), 2022-2033
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Local adaptation to seasonal cues at the fronts of two parallel, climate-induced butterfly range expansions
2022 (English)In: Ecology Letters, ISSN 1461-023X, E-ISSN 1461-0248, Vol. 25, no 9, p. 2022-2033Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Climate change allows species to expand polewards, but non-changing environmental features may limit expansions. Daylength is unaffected by climate and drives life cycle timing in many animals and plants. Because daylength varies over latitudes, poleward-expanding populations must adapt to new daylength conditions. We studied local adaptation to daylength in the butterfly Lasiommata megera, which is expanding northwards along several routes in Europe. Using common garden laboratory experiments with controlled daylengths, we compared diapause induction between populations from the southern-Swedish core range and recently established marginal populations from two independent expansion fronts in Sweden. Caterpillars from the northern populations entered diapause in clearly longer daylengths than those from southern populations, with the exception of caterpillars from one geographically isolated population. The northern populations have repeatedly and rapidly adapted to their local daylengths, indicating that the common use of daylength as seasonal cue need not strongly limit climate-induced insect range expansions.

Keywords
climate change, diapause, Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, phenotypic plasticity, photoperiodism, reaction norm, seasonal adaptation
National Category
Biological Sciences Ecology
Research subject
Ecology and Evolution
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-209490 (URN)10.1111/ele.14085 (DOI)000840397700001 ()35965449 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85135788453 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Carl Tryggers foundation Swedish Research Council, 2017‐04500
Available from: 2022-09-21 Created: 2022-09-21 Last updated: 2024-03-04Bibliographically approved
Wiklund, C. & Friberg, M. (2022). Testing the migration syndrome: Comparative fecundity of migratory and non-migratory nymphaline butterflies. Ecological Entomology, 47(6), 1061-1067
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Testing the migration syndrome: Comparative fecundity of migratory and non-migratory nymphaline butterflies
2022 (English)In: Ecological Entomology, ISSN 0307-6946, E-ISSN 1365-2311, Vol. 47, no 6, p. 1061-1067Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

1. Empirical studies have shown a positive relationship between migration and fecundity, suggesting a 'migration syndrome' that also includes delayed reproduction and an extended reproductive lifespan. At the same time, life history theory predicts that the cost of migration should result in lower fecundity because both traits draw from a common resource.

2. We test whether migration is associated with higher fecundity and delayed reproduction in five closely related butterfly species in the Nymphalini tribe. Two of these are migratory, Vanessa cardui and Vanessa atalanta, and three are non-migratory, Aglais urticae, Aglais io, and Polygonia c-album, which appears in a diapausing and a non-diapausing generation.

3. Laboratory experiment of this study demonstrated a higher lifetime fecundity in the non-migratory species A. urticae and A. io, compared with the migratory species. When reproductive output was measured in terms of egg mass over adult female mass, also the non-migratory species P. c-album had a higher reproductive investment than the two migratory species, and the non-diapausing generation had a higher reproductive output than the diapausing generation. All species but P. c-album delayed reproduction until 5-7 days after eclosion/emergence.

4. These results indicate that a migratory lifestyle carries a reproductive cost and suggests that the migratory habit has not resulted in selection for higher fecundity. However, the migratory species are highly fecund in a wider phylogenetic perspective, which leads to the conclusion that rather than selection having selected for high fecundity and delayed reproduction, these traits may be prerequisites for evolving a migratory lifestyle.

Keywords
dispersal, fecundity, life history trade-offs, migration syndrome, Nymphalidae, voltinism
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-210062 (URN)10.1111/een.13195 (DOI)000852199400001 ()2-s2.0-85137510859 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-10-05 Created: 2022-10-05 Last updated: 2022-12-29Bibliographically approved
Näsvall, K., Wiklund, C., Mrazek, V., Künstner, A., Talla, V., Busch, H., . . . Backström, N. (2021). Host plant diet affects growth and induces altered gene expression and microbiome composition in the wood white (Leptidea sinapis) butterfly. Molecular Ecology, 30(2), 499-516
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Host plant diet affects growth and induces altered gene expression and microbiome composition in the wood white (Leptidea sinapis) butterfly
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2021 (English)In: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 499-516Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In a time with decreasing biodiversity, especially among insects, a detailed understanding about specific resource utilization strategies is crucial. The physiological and behavioural responses to host switches in phytophagous insects are poorly understood. Earlier studies indicate that a host plant switch might be associated with distinctive molecular and physiological responses in different lineages. Expanding the assessment of such associations across Lepidoptera will reveal if there are general patterns in adaptive responses, or if each switch event is more of a unique character. We investigated host plant preference, fitness consequences, effects on expression profiles and gut microbiome composition in two common wood white (Leptidea sinapis) populations with different host plant preferences from the extremes of the species distribution area (Sweden and Catalonia). Our results show that female Catalonian wood whites lack preference for either host plant (Lotus corniculatus or L. dorycnium), while Swedish females laid significantly more eggs on L. corniculatus. Individuals from both populations reared on L. dorycnium had longer developmental times and smaller body size as adults. This indicates that both environmental and genetic factors determine the choice to use a specific host plant. Gene expression analysis revealed a more pronounced response to host plant in the Catalonian compared to the Swedish population. In addition, host plant treatment resulted in a significant shift in microbiome community structure in the Catalonian population. Together, this suggests that population specific plasticity associated with local conditions underlies host plant utilisation in wood whites.

Keywords
gene expression, host plant, Lepidoptera, microbiome, speciation, wood white
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-188999 (URN)10.1111/mec.15745 (DOI)000598381600001 ()33219534 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2021-01-15 Created: 2021-01-15 Last updated: 2022-02-25Bibliographically approved
Petrén, H., Gloder, G., Posledovich, D., Wiklund, C. & Friberg, M. (2021). Innate preference hierarchies coupled with adult experience, rather than larval imprinting or transgenerational acclimation, determine host plant use in Pieris rapae. Ecology and Evolution, 11(1), 242-251
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Innate preference hierarchies coupled with adult experience, rather than larval imprinting or transgenerational acclimation, determine host plant use in Pieris rapae
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2021 (English)In: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 242-251Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The evolution of host range drives diversification in phytophagous insects, and understanding the female oviposition choices is pivotal for understanding host specialization. One controversial mechanism for female host choice is Hopkins' host selection principle, where females are predicted to increase their preference for the host species they were feeding upon as larvae. A recent hypothesis posits that such larval imprinting is especially adaptive in combination with anticipatory transgenerational acclimation, so that females both allocate and adapt their offspring to their future host. We study the butterfly Pieris rapae, for which previous evidence suggests that females prefer to oviposit on host individuals of similar nitrogen content as the plant they were feeding upon as larvae, and where the offspring show higher performance on the mother's host type. We test the hypothesis that larval experience and anticipatory transgenerational effects influence female host plant acceptance (no-choice) and preference (choice) of two host plant species (Barbarea vulgaris and Berteroa incana) of varying nitrogen content. We then test the offspring performance on these hosts. We found no evidence of larval imprinting affecting female decision-making during oviposition, but that an adult female experience of egg laying in no-choice trials on the less-preferred host Be. incana slightly increased the P. rapae propensity to oviposit on Be. incana in subsequent choice trials. We found no transgenerational effects on female host acceptance or preference, but negative transgenerational effects on larval performance, because the offspring of P. rapae females that had developed on Be. incana as larvae grew slower on both hosts, and especially on Be. incana. Our results suggest that among host species, preferences are guided by hard-wired preference hierarchies linked to species-specific host traits and less affected by larval experience or transgenerational effects, which may be more important for females evaluating different host individuals of the same species.

Keywords
anticipatory epigenetic effects, Hopkins´host selection principle, host plant specialization, larval performance, maternal effects, oviposition preference
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-189005 (URN)10.1002/ece3.7018 (DOI)000596425200001 ()
Available from: 2021-01-15 Created: 2021-01-15 Last updated: 2024-01-17Bibliographically approved
Moradinour, Z., Wiklund, C., Jie, V. W., Restrepo, C. E., Gotthard, K., Miettinen, A., . . . Baird, E. (2021). Sensory Organ Investment Varies with Body Size and Sex in the Butterfly Pieris napi. Insects, 12(12), Article ID 1064.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sensory Organ Investment Varies with Body Size and Sex in the Butterfly Pieris napi
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2021 (English)In: Insects, E-ISSN 2075-4450, Vol. 12, no 12, article id 1064Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In solitary insect pollinators such as butterflies, sensory systems must be adapted for multiple tasks, including nectar foraging, mate-finding, and locating host-plants. As a result, the energetic investments between sensory organs can vary at the intraspecific level and even among sexes. To date, little is known about how these investments are distributed between sensory systems and how it varies among individuals of different sex. We performed a comprehensive allometric study on males and females of the butterfly Pieris napi where we measured the sizes and other parameters of sensory traits including eyes, antennae, proboscis, and wings. Our findings show that among all the sensory traits measured, only antenna and wing size have an allometric relationship with body size and that the energetic investment in different sensory systems varies between males and females. Moreover, males had absolutely larger antennae and eyes, indicating that they invest more energy in these organs than females of the same body size. Overall, the findings of this study reveal that the size of sensory traits in P. napi are not necessarily related to body size and raises questions about other factors that drive sensory trait investment in this species and in other insect pollinators in general.

Keywords
Pieris napi, eye, antenna, wing, proboscis, allometry, sensory system, body size
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-201275 (URN)10.3390/insects12121064 (DOI)000737891000001 ()34940152 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2022-01-24 Created: 2022-01-24 Last updated: 2024-04-30Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-4719-487x

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