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Svenson, O., Isohanni, F., Salo, I. & Lindholm, T. (2024). Airborne SARS-CoV2 virus exposure, interpersonal distance, face mask and perceived risk of infection. Scientific Reports, 14(1), Article ID 2285.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Airborne SARS-CoV2 virus exposure, interpersonal distance, face mask and perceived risk of infection
2024 (English)In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 14, no 1, article id 2285Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Participants judged the risk of an infection during a face to face conversation at different interpersonal distances from a SARS-CoV-2 infected person who wore a face mask or not, and in the same questionnaire answered questions about Corona related issues. Keeping a distance to an infected person serves as a protective measure against an infection. When an infected person moves closer, risk of infection increases. Participants were aware of this fact, but underestimated the rate at which the risk of infection increases when getting closer to an infected person, e.g., from 1.5 to 0.5 m (perceived risk increase = 3.33 times higher, objective = 9.00 times higher). This is alarming because it means that people can take risks of infection that they are not aware of or want to take, when they approach another possibly virus infected person. Correspondingly, when an infected person moves away the speed of risk decrease was underestimated, meaning that people are not aware of how much safer they will be if they move away from an infected person. The perceived risk reducing effects of a face mask were approximately correct. Judgments of infection risk at different interpersonal distances (with or without a mask) were unrelated to how often a person used a mask, avoided others or canceled meetings during the COVID-19 pandemic. Greater worry in general and in particular over COVID-19, correlated positively with more protective behavior during the pandemic, but not with judgments of infection risk at different interpersonal distances. Participants with higher scores on a cognitive numeracy test judged mask efficiency more correctly, and women were more worried and risk avoiding than men. The results have implications for understanding behavior in a pandemic, and are relevant for risk communications about the steep increase in risk when approaching a person who may be infected with an airborne virus.

National Category
Social Psychology Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-227016 (URN)10.1038/s41598-024-52711-2 (DOI)001152431000040 ()38280918 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2024-03-01 Created: 2024-03-01 Last updated: 2024-03-01Bibliographically approved
Groyecka-Bernard, A., Alm, C., Lindholm, T. & Sorokowska, A. (2024). Conservatism Negatively Predicts Creativity: A Study Across 28 Countries. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conservatism Negatively Predicts Creativity: A Study Across 28 Countries
2024 (English)In: Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, ISSN 0022-0221, E-ISSN 1552-5422Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Previous studies have found a negative relationship between creativity and conservatism. However, as these studies were mostly conducted on samples of homogeneous nationality, the generalizability of the effect across different cultures is unknown. We addressed this gap by conducting a study in 28 countries. Based on the notion that attitudes can be shaped by both environmental and ecological factors, we hypothesized that parasite stress can also affect creativity and thus, its potential effects should be controlled for. The results of multilevel analyses showed that, as expected, conservatism was a significant predictor of lower creativity, adjusting for economic status, age, sex, education level, subjective susceptibility to disease, and country-level parasite stress. In addition, most of the variability in creativity was due to individual rather than country-level variance. Our study provides evidence for a weak but significant negative link between conservatism and creativity at the individual level (β = −0.08, p < .001) and no such effect when country-level conservatism was considered. We present our hypotheses considering previous findings on the behavioral immune system in humans.

Keywords
creativity, TCT-DP, behavioral immune system, parasite stress, conservatism, liberalism, cross-cultural
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-228882 (URN)10.1177/00220221241238321 (DOI)001197926500001 ()2-s2.0-85189607827 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2024-05-06 Created: 2024-05-06 Last updated: 2024-05-06
Croy, I., Lindholm, T. & Sorokowska, A. (2024). COVID-19 and Social Distancing: A Cross-Cultural Study of Interpersonal Distance Preferences and Touch Behaviors Before and During the Pandemic. Cross-Cultural Research, 58(1), 41-69
Open this publication in new window or tab >>COVID-19 and Social Distancing: A Cross-Cultural Study of Interpersonal Distance Preferences and Touch Behaviors Before and During the Pandemic
2024 (English)In: Cross-Cultural Research, ISSN 1069-3971, Vol. 58, no 1, p. 41-69Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to the introduction of unprecedented safety measures, one of them being physical distancing recommendations. Here, we assessed whether the pandemic has led to long-term effects on two important physical distancing aspects, namely interpersonal distance preferences and interpersonal touch behaviors. We analyzed nearly 14,000 individual cases from two large, cross-cultural surveys – the first conducted 2 years prior to the pandemic and the second during a relatively stable period of a decreased infection rate in May-June 2021. Preferred interpersonal distances increased by 54% globally during the COVID-19 pandemic. This increase was observable across all types of relationships, all countries, and was more pronounced in individuals with higher self-reported vulnerability to diseases. Unexpectedly, participants reported a higher incidence of interpersonal touch behaviors during than before the pandemic. We discuss our results in the context of prosocial and self-protection motivations that potentially promote different social behaviors. 

Keywords
nonverbal communication, interpersonal distance preferences, interpersonal touch behaviors, COVID-19 pandemic, cross-cultural psychology
National Category
Social Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-224627 (URN)10.1177/10693971231174935 (DOI)001107326900001 ()2-s2.0-85177553286 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-12-20 Created: 2023-12-20 Last updated: 2024-01-12Bibliographically approved
Engelkes, T., Sverke, M. & Lindholm, T. (2024). Predicting Loyalty: Examining the Role of Social Identity and Leadership in an Extreme Operational Environment – A Swedish Case. Armed Forces and Society, 50(3), 607-627
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Predicting Loyalty: Examining the Role of Social Identity and Leadership in an Extreme Operational Environment – A Swedish Case
2024 (English)In: Armed Forces and Society, ISSN 0095-327X, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 607-627Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Military organizations often emphasize the importance of loyalty. It has been suggested that loyalty enhances motivation to take great risks and strive to accomplish a mission. However, research into what influences loyalty among military personnel is scarce. Hence, the aim of this study was to examine how leadership and social identity fusion relate to loyalty, using data from a sample consisting of a Swedish military unit on a United Nation mission (N = 152) in Mali. Hierarchical multiple regression results generally showed that social identity fusion and leadership were positively related to a willingness to show loyalty to the closest workgroup, one’s own unit, and the mission. The findings indicate that leadership and high levels of social identity fusion may influence the willingness to be loyal to organizational goals. The practical implication of this study is increased knowledge about the importance of leadership and social identity in developing relevant loyalties.

Keywords
loyalty, leadership, social identity fusion, military, Sweden
National Category
Political Science Sociology Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-215304 (URN)10.1177/0095327X221150948 (DOI)000925149900001 ()2-s2.0-85147529904 (Scopus ID)
Note

The data collection and the research time for Torbjörn Engelkes were funded by the Swedish Defence University, while the research time for Magnus Sverke and Torun Lindholm was financed by Stockholm University.

Available from: 2023-03-13 Created: 2023-03-13 Last updated: 2024-07-01Bibliographically approved
Gustafsson, P. U., Sikström, S. & Lindholm, T. (2024). The semantic structure of accuracy in eyewitness testimony. Frontiers in Psychology, 15, Article ID 1211987.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The semantic structure of accuracy in eyewitness testimony
2024 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 15, article id 1211987Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In two studies, we examined if correct and incorrect statements in eyewitness testimony differed in semantic content. Testimony statements were obtained from participants who watched staged crime films and were interviewed as eyewitnesses. We analyzed the latent semantic representations of these statements using LSA and BERT. Study 1 showed that the semantic space of correct statements differed from incorrect statements; correct statements were more closely related to a dominance semantic representation, whereas incorrect statements were more closely related to a communion semantic representation. Study 2 only partially replicated these findings, but a mega-analysis of the two datasets showed different semantic representations for correct and incorrect statements, with incorrect statements more closely related to representations of communion and abstractness. Given the critical role of eyewitness testimony in the legal context, and the generally low ability of fact-finders to estimate the accuracy of witness statements, our results strongly call for further research on semantic content in correct and incorrect testimony statements.

Keywords
eyewitness testimony, eyewitness accuracy, semantic content, LSA, BERT
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-229062 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2024.1211987 (DOI)001207308000001 ()38659679 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85191070761 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2024-05-14 Created: 2024-05-14 Last updated: 2024-05-14Bibliographically approved
Lindström, J., Bergh, R., Akrami, N., Obaidi, M. & Lindholm, T. (2024). Who endorses group-based violence?. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 27(2), 217-238
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Who endorses group-based violence?
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2024 (English)In: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, ISSN 1368-4302, E-ISSN 1461-7188, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 217-238Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Collective action is often equated with progressive politics, but are there aspects of group mobilisations that generalise across contexts? We examine general social and personality psychological factors behind endorsement of group-based violence across different types of violent group mobilisation. Specifically, we focus on the endorsement of group-based violence amongst supporters of the Black Lives Matter (BLM) movement (N = 394), an immigration-critical group (N = 252), and soccer supporters (N = 445). Across three preregistered studies, we tested an integrative model including personality and social psychological factors. Several effects were consistent across all three contexts, with group-based relative deprivation positively, and honesty-humility negatively, predicting support for violence. Further, amongst BLM supporters and the immigration-critical group, emotionality negatively predicted support for violence, violent intentions, and self-reported aggression/violence. Overall, our results suggest that individuals who endorse violence in different contexts have some psychological factors in common.

Keywords
collective action, group-based violence, social factors, personality, Black Lives Matter
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-215588 (URN)10.1177/13684302231154412 (DOI)000937537200001 ()2-s2.0-85148353388 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Lars Hierta Memorial Foundation, FO2019-0005
Note

The research was supported by grants from Lars Hiertas Memorial Foundation (FO2019-0005) and Elisabeth and Herman Rhodin Memorial Foundation to Joanna Lindström (SU FV-2.1.9-0174-19) and a grant to Robin Bergh from Marcus and Marianne Wallenberg Foundation (ref no MMW 2016.0070).

Available from: 2023-03-20 Created: 2023-03-20 Last updated: 2024-02-20Bibliographically approved
Zakrzewska, M. Z., Challma, S., Lindholm, T., Cancino-Montecinos, S., Olofsson, J. K. & Liuzza, M. T. (2023). Body odour disgust sensitivity is associated with xenophobia: evidence from nine countries across five continents. Royal Society Open Science, 10(4), Article ID 221407.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Body odour disgust sensitivity is associated with xenophobia: evidence from nine countries across five continents
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2023 (English)In: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 10, no 4, article id 221407Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Body odour disgust sensitivity (BODS) reflects a behavioural disposition to avoid pathogens, and it may also involve social attitudes. Among participants in the USA, high levels of BODS were associated with stronger xenophobia towards a fictitious refugee group. To test the generalizability of this finding, we analysed data from nine countries across five continents (N = 6836). Using structural equation modelling, we found support for our pre-registered hypotheses: higher BODS levels were associated with more xenophobic attitudes; this relationship was partially explained by perceived dissimilarities of the refugees' norms regarding hygiene and food preparation, and general attitudes toward immigration. Our results support a theoretical notion of how pathogen avoidance is associated with social attitudes: ‘traditional norms’ often involve behaviours that limit inter-group contact, social mobility and situations that might lead to pathogen exposure. Our results also indicate that the positive relationship between BODS and xenophobia is robust across cultures.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
The Royal Society Publishing, 2023
Keywords
olfaction, disgust, prejudice, xenophobia, body odour disgust sensitivity, disease avoidance
National Category
Other Natural Sciences Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-217356 (URN)10.1098/rsos.221407 (DOI)000969420100007 ()37063982 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85158005309 (Scopus ID)
Note

This study was funded by Vetenskapsrådet (grant no. 2016-02018) and Knut and Alice Wallenbergs Stiftelse (grant no. 2016:0229).

Available from: 2023-05-29 Created: 2023-05-29 Last updated: 2024-01-31Bibliographically approved
Gültekin, R., Lindholm, T. & Alm, C. (2023). Effects of Eyewitnesses’ Primary Language in Investigative Interviews. In: ICPS 2023 Brussels: Poster Brochure. Paper presented at International Convention of Psychological Science (ICPS) 2023, Brussels, March 9–11, 2023. (pp. 41-41). Association for Psychological Science
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of Eyewitnesses’ Primary Language in Investigative Interviews
2023 (English)In: ICPS 2023 Brussels: Poster Brochure, Association for Psychological Science , 2023, p. 41-41Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

We examined whether an eyewitness memory accuracy and susceptibility to suggestions were affected by whether the testimony was given in a native or non-native language. Results showed no effects of language on memory accuracy or suggestibility. Witnesses testifying in a non-native vs. native language were less confident in their memory.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Psychological Science, 2023
Keywords
eyewitness, memory accuracy, primary language, investigative interview, suggestibility
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-221869 (URN)
Conference
International Convention of Psychological Science (ICPS) 2023, Brussels, March 9–11, 2023.
Available from: 2023-10-05 Created: 2023-10-05 Last updated: 2023-10-06Bibliographically approved
Andrén, V., Lindholm, T., Yourstone, J. & Damberg, M. (2023). Gender and arson: psychosocial, psychological, and somatic offender characteristics at the time of the crime. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology, 34(1), 113-130
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gender and arson: psychosocial, psychological, and somatic offender characteristics at the time of the crime
2023 (English)In: Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology, ISSN 1478-9949, E-ISSN 1478-9957, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 113-130Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Deliberate fire-setting, such as the crime of arson, can have devastating, even lethal, consequences. This study compared factors at the time of arson by female and male offenders in Sweden between 2000–2010. The women (n = 100), and men (n = 100) included in this study were randomly chosen from among all individuals who had been convicted for arson during this period and who underwent forensic psychiatric investigations. Information regarding psychiatric and somatic characteristics, their psychosocial situation, and whether they were in contact with health or social services before the arsons were examined. The results showed that both women and men have complex psychiatric and somatic characteristics, as well as psychosocial situations. Women showed more self-destructive behaviour, lower Global Assessment of Functioning scores, and had been in contact with psychiatric health services to a greater extent than men. More women than men had children. These findings suggest that specific actions may be needed for preventing and treating women compared with men at risk for committing arson.

Keywords
arson gender, psychiatric, psychosocial, somatic factors
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-215586 (URN)10.1080/14789949.2023.2180421 (DOI)2-s2.0-85148640346 (Scopus ID)
Note

This work was supported by the Region Vastmanland.

Available from: 2023-03-20 Created: 2023-03-20 Last updated: 2023-04-03Bibliographically approved
Sorokowska, A., Alm, C., Lindholm, T. & Croy, I. (2023). Love and affectionate touch toward romantic partners all over the world. Scientific Reports, 13, Article ID 5497.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Love and affectionate touch toward romantic partners all over the world
2023 (English)In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 13, article id 5497Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Touch is the primary way people communicate intimacy in romantic relationships, and affectionate touch behaviors such as stroking, hugging and kissing are universally observed in partnerships all over the world. Here, we explored the association of love and affectionate touch behaviors in romantic partnerships in two studies comprising 7880 participants. In the first study, we used a cross-cultural survey conducted in 37 countries to test whether love was universally associated with affectionate touch behaviors. In the second study, using a more fine-tuned touch behavior scale, we tested whether the frequency of affectionate touch behaviors was related to love in romantic partnerships. As hypothesized, love was significantly and positively associated with affectionate touch behaviors in both studies and this result was replicated regardless of the inclusion of potentially relevant factors as controls. Altogether, our data strongly suggest that affectionate touch is a relatively stable characteristic of human romantic relationships that is robustly and reliably related to the degree of reported love between partners.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2023
Keywords
love, touch, romantic partners, cross-cultural
National Category
Social Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-220212 (URN)10.1038/s41598-023-31502-1 (DOI)000984084100009 ()37015974 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85151792240 (Scopus ID)
Note

This study was funded by the “Being Human” Scientific Excellence Incubator (University of Wroclaw, Poland). Part of the study conducted in Serbia was supported by the Ministry of Science, Technological Development and Innovations of the Republic of Serbia (Contract No. 451-03-47/2023-01/ 200165).

Available from: 2023-08-25 Created: 2023-08-25 Last updated: 2024-01-15Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-8867-5752

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