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Rodriguez-Hernandez, M. A., Alemany, I., Olofsson, J. K., Diaz-Galvan, P., Nemy, M., Westman, E., . . . Cedres, N. (2024). Degeneration of the cholinergic system in individuals with subjective cognitive decline: A systematic review. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 157, Article ID 105534.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Degeneration of the cholinergic system in individuals with subjective cognitive decline: A systematic review
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2024 (English)In: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, ISSN 0149-7634, E-ISSN 1873-7528, Vol. 157, article id 105534Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) is a risk factor for future cognitive impairment and dementia. It is uncertain whether the neurodegeneration of the cholinergic system is already present in SCD individuals. We aimed to review the current evidence about the association between SCD and biomarkers of degeneration in the cholinergic system.

Method

Original articles were extracted from three databases: Pubmed, Web of Sciences, and Scopus, in January 2023. Two researchers screened the studies independently.

Results

A total of 11 research articles were selected. SCD was mostly based on amnestic cognitive complaints. Cholinergic system biomarkers included neuroimaging markers of basal forebrain volume, functional connectivity, transcranial magnetic stimulation, or biofluid. The evidence showed associations between basal forebrain atrophy, poorer connectivity of the cholinergic system, and SCD

Conclusions

Degenerative changes in the cholinergic system can be present in SCD. Subjective complaints may help when identifying individuals with brain changes that are associated with cognitive impairment. These findings may have important implications in targeting individuals that may benefit from cholinergic-target treatments at very early stages of neurodegenerative diseases.

Keywords
Subjective cognitive impairment, Subjective memory complaints, Cholinergic system, Basal forebrain, Basal nucleus of Meynert, Ch4
National Category
Neurosciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-227460 (URN)10.1016/j.neubiorev.2024.105534 (DOI)001162522600001 ()38220033 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85182630418 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2024-03-13 Created: 2024-03-13 Last updated: 2024-04-29Bibliographically approved
Niedenthal, S., Fredborg, W., Lundén, P., Ehrndal, M. & Olofsson, J. K. (2023). A graspable olfactory display for virtual reality. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 169, Article ID 102928.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A graspable olfactory display for virtual reality
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2023 (English)In: International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, ISSN 1071-5819, Vol. 169, article id 102928Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The sense of smell, olfaction, is seldom engaged in digital interactive systems, but, supported by the proper technology, olfaction might open up new interaction domains. Human olfactory experience involves active exploration, directed sniffing and nuanced judgements about odour identity, concentrations, and blends, yet to date most compact olfactory displays do not directly support these experiences. We describe the development and validation of a compact, low-cost olfactory display fitted to the hand controller of the HTC Vive Virtual Reality (VR) system that employs stepless valves to enable control of scent magnitude and blending (Fig. 1). Our olfactory display allows for concealed (i.e., unknown to the user) combinations of odours with virtual objects and contexts, making it well suited to applications involving interactions with odorous objects in virtual space for recreational, educational, scientific, or therapeutic functions. Through a user study and gas sensor analysis, we have been able to demonstrate that our device presents clear and consistent scent output, is intuitive from a user perspective, and supports gameplay interactions. We present results from a smell training game in a virtual wine tasting cellar in which the initial task of identifying wine aroma components is followed by evaluating more complex blends, allowing the player to “level up” as they proceed to higher degrees of connoisseurship. Novice users were able to quickly adapt to the display, and we found that the device affords sniffing and other gestures that add verisimilitude to olfactory experience in virtual environments. Test-retest reliability was high when participants performed the task two times with the same odours. In sum, the results suggest our olfactory display may facilitate use in game settings and other olfactory interactions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
olfaction, olfactory display, smell training, virtual reality
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-211028 (URN)10.1016/j.ijhcs.2022.102928 (DOI)000869794000004 ()2-s2.0-85138456623 (Scopus ID)
Note

This research was supported by funding from the Marianne and Marcus Wallenberg Foundation (MMW 2014:0187) and the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation(2016:0229).

Available from: 2022-11-09 Created: 2022-11-09 Last updated: 2024-01-12Bibliographically approved
Hörberg, T., Sekine, R., Overbeck, C., Hummel, T. & Olofsson, J. K. (2023). A parosmia severity index based on word-classification predicts olfactory abilities and impairment. European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, 280(8), 3695-3706
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A parosmia severity index based on word-classification predicts olfactory abilities and impairment
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2023 (English)In: European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, ISSN 0937-4477, E-ISSN 1434-4726, Vol. 280, no 8, p. 3695-3706Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Parosmia is an olfactory disorder that involves distortions of specific odors that may co-occur with anosmia, loss of smell of other odors. Little is known about which odors frequently trigger parosmia, and measures of parosmia severity are lacking. Here, we present an approach to understand and diagnose parosmia that is based on semantic properties (e.g., valence) of words describing odor sources (“fish”, “coffee”, etc.). Using a data-driven method based on natural language data, we identified 38 odor descriptors. Descriptors were evenly dispersed across an olfactory-semantic space, which was based on key odor dimensions. Parosmia patients (n = 48) classified the corresponding odors in terms of whether they trigger parosmic or anosmic sensations. We investigated whether these classifications are related to semantic properties of the descriptors. Parosmic sensations were most often reported for words describing unpleasant odors of inedibles that are highly associated to olfaction (e.g., “excrement”). Based on PCA modeling, we derived the Parosmia Severity Index—a measure of parosmia severity that can be determined solely from our non-olfactory behavioral task. This index predicts olfactory-perceptual abilities, self-reported olfactory impairment, and depression. We thus provide a novel approach for investigating parosmia and establishing its severity that does not require odor exposure. Our work may enhance our understanding of how parosmia changes over time and how it is expressed differently across individuals.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2023
Keywords
olfactory disorder, olfactory semantics, natural-language processing, behavioral categorization, Parosmia severity index
National Category
Psychology Clinical Medicine
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-218892 (URN)10.1007/s00405-023-07893-2 (DOI)000947021500001 ()36906652 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85149797911 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2021-03440Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, 2016:0229Stockholm University
Available from: 2023-06-26 Created: 2023-06-26 Last updated: 2024-01-12Bibliographically approved
Zakrzewska, M., Liuzza, M. T. & Olofsson, J. K. (2023). Body odor disgust sensitivity (BODS) is related to extreme odor valence perception. PLOS ONE, 18(4)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Body odor disgust sensitivity (BODS) is related to extreme odor valence perception
2023 (English)In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 18, no 4Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Odors are important disease cues, and disgust sensitivity to body odors reflects individual differences in disease avoidance. The body odor disgust sensitivity (BODS) scale provides a rapid and valid assessment of individual differences. Nevertheless, little is known about how individual differences in BODS might correlate with overall odor perception or how it is related to other differences in emotional reactivity (e.g., affect intensity). We investigated how BODS relates to perceptual ratings of pleasant and unpleasant odors. We aggregated data from 4 experiments (total N = 190) that were conducted in our laboratory, and where valence and intensity ratings were collected. Unpleasant odors were body-like (e.g., sweat-like valeric acid), which may provide disease cues. The pleasant odors were, in contrast, often found in soap and cleaning products (e.g., lilac, lemon). Across experiments, we show that individuals with higher BODS levels perceived smells as more highly valenced overall: unpleasant smells were rated as more unpleasant, and pleasant smells were rated as more pleasant. These results suggest that body odor disgust sensitivity is associated with a broader pattern of affect intensity which causes stronger emotional responses to both negative and positive odors. In contrast, BODS levels were not associated with odor intensity perception. Furthermore, disgust sensitivity to odors coming from external sources (e.g., someone else's sweat) was the best predictor of odor valence ratings. The effects were modest in size. The results validate the BODS scale as it is explicitly associated with experimental ratings of odor valence.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2023
Keywords
smell, sweat, sensory perception, emotions, mathematical models, psychological attitudes, sensory cues, vision
National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-218622 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0284397 (DOI)000990750100028 ()37083734 (PubMedID)
Note

This work has been supported by the research grants from the Swedish Research Council (2016-02018) to M.T.L and Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation (2016:0229) to J.K.O.

Available from: 2023-06-21 Created: 2023-06-21 Last updated: 2024-01-31Bibliographically approved
Zakrzewska, M. Z., Challma, S., Lindholm, T., Cancino-Montecinos, S., Olofsson, J. K. & Liuzza, M. T. (2023). Body odour disgust sensitivity is associated with xenophobia: evidence from nine countries across five continents. Royal Society Open Science, 10(4), Article ID 221407.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Body odour disgust sensitivity is associated with xenophobia: evidence from nine countries across five continents
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2023 (English)In: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 10, no 4, article id 221407Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Body odour disgust sensitivity (BODS) reflects a behavioural disposition to avoid pathogens, and it may also involve social attitudes. Among participants in the USA, high levels of BODS were associated with stronger xenophobia towards a fictitious refugee group. To test the generalizability of this finding, we analysed data from nine countries across five continents (N = 6836). Using structural equation modelling, we found support for our pre-registered hypotheses: higher BODS levels were associated with more xenophobic attitudes; this relationship was partially explained by perceived dissimilarities of the refugees' norms regarding hygiene and food preparation, and general attitudes toward immigration. Our results support a theoretical notion of how pathogen avoidance is associated with social attitudes: ‘traditional norms’ often involve behaviours that limit inter-group contact, social mobility and situations that might lead to pathogen exposure. Our results also indicate that the positive relationship between BODS and xenophobia is robust across cultures.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
The Royal Society Publishing, 2023
Keywords
olfaction, disgust, prejudice, xenophobia, body odour disgust sensitivity, disease avoidance
National Category
Other Natural Sciences Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-217356 (URN)10.1098/rsos.221407 (DOI)000969420100007 ()37063982 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85158005309 (Scopus ID)
Note

This study was funded by Vetenskapsrådet (grant no. 2016-02018) and Knut and Alice Wallenbergs Stiftelse (grant no. 2016:0229).

Available from: 2023-05-29 Created: 2023-05-29 Last updated: 2024-01-31Bibliographically approved
Tognetti, A., Thunell, E., Zakrzewska, M., Olofsson, J. K., Lekander, M., Axelsson, J. & Olsson, M. J. (2023). Discriminating between sick and healthy faces based on early sickness cues: an exploratory analysis of sex differences. Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health, 11(1), 386-396
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Discriminating between sick and healthy faces based on early sickness cues: an exploratory analysis of sex differences
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2023 (English)In: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health, E-ISSN 2050-6201, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 386-396Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background and objectives: It has been argued that sex and disease-related traits should influence how observers respond to sensory sickness cues. In fact, there is evidence that humans can detect sensory cues related to infection in others, but lack of power from earlier studies prevents any firm conclusion regarding whether perception of sickness cues is associated with sex and disease-related personality traits. Here, we tested whether women (relative to men), individuals with poorer self-reported health, and who are more sensitive to disgust, vulnerable to disease, and concerned about their health, overestimate the presence of, and/or are better at detecting sickness cues.

Methodology: In a large online study, 343 women and 340 men were instructed to identify the sick faces from a series of sick and healthy photographs of volunteers with an induced acute experimental inflammation. Participants also completed several disease-related questionnaires.

Results: While both men and women could discriminate between sick and healthy individuals above chance level, exploratory analyses revealed that women outperformed men in accuracy and speed of discrimination. Furthermore, we demonstrated that higher disgust sensitivity to body odors is associated with a more liberal decision criterion for categorizing faces as sick.

Conclusion: Our findings give strong support for the human ability to discriminate between sick and healthy individuals based on early facial cues of sickness and suggest that women are significantly, although only slightly, better at this task. If this finding is replicated, future studies should determine whether women’s better performance is related to increased avoidance of sick individuals.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2023
Keywords
sex differences, sickness detection, behavioral immune system, disease-related personality traits, facial cues of sickness
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-224206 (URN)10.1093/emph/eoad032 (DOI)001095978600001 ()37941735 (PubMedID)
Note

The behavioral experiment in the present paper was supported by Swedish Research Council Grants 2016-02742 (MO), 2020-02567 (MO), and 2021-03184 (AT) and Swedish Foundation for Humanities and Social Sciences Grant P12-1017 (MO).

Available from: 2023-12-06 Created: 2023-12-06 Last updated: 2024-01-30Bibliographically approved
Raj, R., Hörberg, T., Lindroos, R., Larsson, M., Herman, P., Laukka, E. J. & Olofsson, J. K. (2023). Odor identification errors reveal cognitive aspects of age-associated smell loss. Cognition, 236, Article ID 105445.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Odor identification errors reveal cognitive aspects of age-associated smell loss
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2023 (English)In: Cognition, ISSN 0010-0277, E-ISSN 1873-7838, Vol. 236, article id 105445Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Human olfaction can be extraordinarily sensitive, and its most common assessment method is odor identification (OID), where everyday odors are matched to word labels in a multiple-choice format. However, many older persons are unable to identify familiar odors, a deficit that is associated with the risk of future dementia and mortality. The underlying processes subserving OID in older adults are poorly understood. Here, we analyzed error patterns in OID to test whether errors could be explained by perceptual and/or semantic similarities among the response alternatives. We investigated the OID response patterns in a large, population-based sample of older adults in Sweden (n = 2479; age 60–100 years). Olfaction was assessed by a ‘Sniffin ́ TOM OID test with 16 odors; each trial involved matching a target odor to a correct label among three distractors. We analyzed the pattern of misidentifications, and the results showed that some distractors were more frequently selected than others, suggesting cognitive or perceptual factors may be present. Relatedly, we conducted a large online survey of older adults (n = 959, age 60–90 years) who were asked to imagine and rate the perceptual similarity of the target odors and the three corresponding distractors (e.g. “How similar are these smells: apple and mint?”). We then used data from the Swedish web corpus and the Word2Vec neural network algorithm to quantify the semantic association strength between the labels of each target odor and its three distractors. These data sources were used to predict odor identification errors. We found that the error patterns were partly explained by both the semantic similarity between target-distractor pairs, and the imagined perceptual similarity of the target-distractor pair. Both factors had, however, a diminished prediction in older ages, as responses became gradually less systematic. In sum, our results suggest that OID tests not only reflect olfactory perception, but also likely involve the mental processing of odor-semantic associations. This may be the reason why these tests are useful in predicting dementia onset. Our insights into olfactory-language interactions could be harnessed to develop new olfactory tests that are tailored for specific clinical purposes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
smell, odor identification, olfactory perception, semantics, aging, memory
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-218893 (URN)10.1016/j.cognition.2023.105445 (DOI)37027897 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85151520491 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationSwedish Research Council, 2020-00266Swedish Research Council, 2021-03440
Available from: 2023-06-26 Created: 2023-06-26 Last updated: 2024-01-13Bibliographically approved
Laukka, E. J., Palmquist, E., Ekström, I., Olofsson, J. K., Dintica, C. S., Bäckman, L. & Larsson, M. (2023). Olfactory impairment and domain‐specific cognitive decline: A 12‐year population‐based study. Alzheimer's & Dementia: Journal of the Alzheimer's Association, 19(S18), Article ID e074572.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Olfactory impairment and domain‐specific cognitive decline: A 12‐year population‐based study
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2023 (English)In: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Journal of the Alzheimer's Association, ISSN 1552-5260, E-ISSN 1552-5279, Vol. 19, no S18, article id e074572Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Olfactory impairment has been associated with both cognitive impairment and dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This study aimed to investigate the association between olfactory dysfunction (OD) and change trajectories in different cognitive domains in aging. Method: Participants (n = 2473, mean age = 72 years, 61% female) from the population-based Swedish National study on Aging and Care-Kungsholmen (SNAC-K) were repeatedly assessed with tasks measuring episodic memory, semantic memory, verbal fluency, and perceptual speed across 12 years. OD was measured at baseline and participants were categorized as normosmic, hyposmic, or anosmic based on the Sniffin’ Sticks odor identification task. Linear mixed-effects models were used to assess the associations between baseline OD and rates of cognitive decline. Result: OD was related to poorer baseline performance and faster rates of decline during follow-up in all examined domains, as well as in global cognition. Associations were generally more pronounced for anosmia compared to hyposmia. Conclusion: Olfactory impairment is associated with accelerated decline in aging across a wide range of cognitive domains.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2023
Keywords
olfactory impairment, cognitive impairment, dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, aging
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-225120 (URN)10.1002/alz.074572 (DOI)
Available from: 2024-01-08 Created: 2024-01-08 Last updated: 2024-01-12Bibliographically approved
Kallioinen, P., Olofsson, J. K. & von Mentzer, C. N. (2023). Semantic processing in children with Cochlear Implants: A review of current N400 studies and recommendations for future research. Biological Psychology, 182, Article ID 108655.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Semantic processing in children with Cochlear Implants: A review of current N400 studies and recommendations for future research
2023 (English)In: Biological Psychology, ISSN 0301-0511, E-ISSN 1873-6246, Vol. 182, article id 108655Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Deaf and hard of hearing children with cochlear implants (CI) often display impaired spoken language skills. While a large number of studies investigated brain responses to sounds in this population, relatively few focused on semantic processing. Here we summarize and discuss findings in four studies of the N400, a cortical response that reflects semantic processing, in children with CI. A study with auditory target stimuli found N400 effects at delayed latencies at 12 months after implantation, but at 18 and 24 months after implantation effects had typical latencies. In studies with visual target stimuli N400 effects were larger than or similar to controls in children with CI, despite lower semantic abilities. We propose that in children with CI, the observed large N400 effect reflects a stronger reliance on top-down predictions, relative to bottom-up language processing. Recent behavioral studies of children and adults with CI suggest that top-down processing is a common compensatory strategy, but with distinct limitations such as being effortful. A majority of the studies have small sample sizes (N < 20), and only responses to image targets were studied repeatedly in similar paradigms. This precludes strong conclusions. We give suggestions for future research and ways to overcome the scarcity of participants, including extending research to children with conventional hearing aids, an understudied group.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
N400, N400 evoked potential, children, cochlear implants, semantics
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-220912 (URN)10.1016/j.biopsycho.2023.108655 (DOI)001051585700001 ()37541539 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85166762741 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-09-18 Created: 2023-09-18 Last updated: 2024-01-12Bibliographically approved
Buchanan, E. M., Jernsäther, T., Koptjevskaja-Tamm, M., Kurfalı, M., Nilsonne, G., Olofsson, J. K. & Primbs, M. A. (2023). The Psychological Science Accelerator’s COVID-19 rapid-response dataset. Scientific Data, 10, Article ID 87.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Psychological Science Accelerator’s COVID-19 rapid-response dataset
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2023 (English)In: Scientific Data, E-ISSN 2052-4463, Vol. 10, article id 87Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Psychological Science Accelerator coordinated three large-scale psychological studies to examine the effects of loss-gain framing, cognitive reappraisals, and autonomy framing manipulations on behavioral intentions and affective measures. The data collected (April to October 2020) included specific measures for each experimental study, a general questionnaire examining health prevention behaviors and COVID-19 experience, geographical and cultural context characterization, and demographic information for each participant. Each participant started the study with the same general questions and then was randomized to complete either one longer experiment or two shorter experiments. Data were provided by 73,223 participants with varying completion rates. Participants completed the survey from 111 geopolitical regions in 44 unique languages/dialects. The anonymized dataset described here is provided in both raw and processed formats to facilitate re-use and further analyses. The dataset offers secondary analytic opportunities to explore coping, framing, and self-determination across a diverse, global sample obtained at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, which can be merged with other time-sampled or geographic data. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2023
Keywords
Covid-19, Psychological Science Accelerator, loss-gain framing, cognitive reappraisals, autonomy framing manipulations, affective measures, geopolitical
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-220588 (URN)10.1038/s41597-022-01811-7 (DOI)000981838600002 ()36774440 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85147834966 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-08-31 Created: 2023-08-31 Last updated: 2024-01-11Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-0856-0569

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