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Fischer, Alexander W.ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-6717-9090
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Publications (10 of 17) Show all publications
Nedergaard, J., Fischer, A. W. & Cannon, B. (2023). Leptin as an Antitorpor Hormone: An Explanation for the Increased Metabolic Efficiency and Cold Sensitivity of ob/ob Mice?. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology, 96(1), 30-39
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Leptin as an Antitorpor Hormone: An Explanation for the Increased Metabolic Efficiency and Cold Sensitivity of ob/ob Mice?
2023 (English)In: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology, ISSN 1522-2152, E-ISSN 1537-5293, Vol. 96, no 1, p. 30-39Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Leptin is recognized as an anorexigenic hormone. In its absence (e.g., in ob/ob mutant mice), mice become obese, primarily as a result of hyperphagia. A recurrent question is whether, additionally, leptin is thermogenic and thus also an antiobesity hormone in this way. We have earlier reviewed available data and have concluded that most articles implying a thermogenic effect of leptin have based this on a misconstrued division by body weight. Here, we have collected evidence that the remaining observations that imply that leptin is a thermogenic hormone are better understood as implying that leptin is an antitorpor hormone. Leptin levels increase in proportion to the body's energy reserves (i.e., stored lipids in the adipose tissue), and leptin thus serves as an indicator of energy availability. In the absence of leptin, ob/ob mice are exceedingly prone to enter daily torpor, since the absence of leptin causes them to perceive a lack of body energy reserves that, in combination with restricted or no food, induces them to enter the torpid state to save energy. This antitorpor effect of leptin probably explains the following earlier observations. First, ob/ob mice have the ability to gain weight even when pair fed with leptin-treated ob/ob mice. This is understood as follows: In the leptin-treated ob/ob mice, food intake is reduced. Untreated pair-fed mice enter daily torpor, and this markedly lowers total daily energy expenditure; the resulting surplus food energy is then accumulated as fat in these mice. However, ob/ob mice fed ad lib. do not enter torpor, so under normal conditions this mechanism does not contribute to the obesity found in the ob/ob mice. Second, neonatal ob/ob mice have the ability to become obese despite eating the same amount as wild-type mice: this is understood as these mice similarly entering daily torpor. Third, ob/ob mice on the C57BL/6J background have a lower metabolic rate: these mice were examined in the absence of food, and torpor was thus probably induced. Fourth, ob/ob mice have apparent high cold sensitivity: these mice experienced cold in the absence of food and would immediately enter deep torpor. It is suggested that this novel explanation of how the antitorpor effects of leptin affect mouse energy metabolism can open new avenues for leptin research.

Keywords
torpor, ob/ob mice, leptin, thermogenesis
National Category
Cell and Molecular Biology Zoology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-223184 (URN)10.1086/722135 (DOI)001072870100003 ()36626840 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85145369976 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-10-26 Created: 2023-10-26 Last updated: 2023-10-26Bibliographically approved
Cannon, B., de Jong, J. M. A., Fischer, A. W., Nedergaard, J. & Petrovic, N. (2020). Human brown adipose tissue: Classical brown rather than brite/beige?. Experimental Physiology, 105(8), 1191-1200
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Human brown adipose tissue: Classical brown rather than brite/beige?
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2020 (English)In: Experimental Physiology, ISSN 0958-0670, E-ISSN 1469-445X, Vol. 105, no 8, p. 1191-1200Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

New Findings What is the topic of this review? It has been suggested that human brown adipose tissue (BAT) is more similar to the brite/beige adipose tissue of mice than to classical BAT of mice. The basis of this is discussed in relationship to the physiological conditions of standard experimental mice.

Keywords
beige fat, brown fat, thermoneutrality
National Category
Biological Sciences Cell and Molecular Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-182885 (URN)10.1113/EP087875 (DOI)000536138300001 ()32378255 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2020-08-09 Created: 2020-08-09 Last updated: 2022-03-23Bibliographically approved
Fischer, A. W., Cannon, B. & Nedergaard, J. (2020). Leptin: Is It Thermogenic?. Endocrine reviews, 41(2), 232-260
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Leptin: Is It Thermogenic?
2020 (English)In: Endocrine reviews, ISSN 0163-769X, E-ISSN 1945-7189, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 232-260Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Animals that lack the hormone leptin become grossly obese, purportedly for 2 reasons: increased food intake and decreased energy expenditure (thermogenesis). This review examines the experimental evidence for the thermogenesis component. Analysis of the data available led us to conclude that the reports indicating hypometabolism in the leptin-deficient ob/ob mice (as well as in the leptin- receptor-deficient db/db mice and fa/fa rats) derive from a misleading calculation artefact resulting from expression of energy expenditure per gram of body weight and not per intact organism. Correspondingly, the body weight-reducing effects of leptin are not augmented by enhanced thermogenesis. Congruent with this, there is no evidence that the ob/ob mouse demonstrates atrophied brown adipose tissue or diminished levels of total UCP1 mRNA or protein when the ob mutation is studied on the inbred C57BL/6 mouse background, but a reduced sympathetic nerve activity is observed. On the outbred Aston mouse background, brown adipose tissue atrophy is seen, but whether this is of quantitative significance for the development of obesity has not been demonstrated. We conclude that leptin is not a thermogenic hormone. Rather, leptin has effects on body temperature regulation, by opposing torpor bouts and by shifting thermoregulatory thresholds. The central pathways behind these effects are largely unexplored.

Keywords
leptin, brown adipose tissue, thermogenesis, ob/ob mouse, energy expenditure, body temperature
National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-182897 (URN)10.1210/endrev/bnz016 (DOI)000532690500004 ()31774114 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2020-07-01 Created: 2020-07-01 Last updated: 2022-03-23Bibliographically approved
Fischer, A. W., de Jong, J. M. A., Sass, F., Schlein, C., Heeren, J. & Petrovic, N. (2020). Thermoneutrality-Induced Macrophage Accumulation in Brown Adipose Tissue Does Not Impair the Tissue's Competence for Cold-Induced Thermogenic Recruitment. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 11, Article ID 568682.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Thermoneutrality-Induced Macrophage Accumulation in Brown Adipose Tissue Does Not Impair the Tissue's Competence for Cold-Induced Thermogenic Recruitment
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2020 (English)In: Frontiers in Endocrinology, E-ISSN 1664-2392, Vol. 11, article id 568682Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Brown adipose tissue from mice living under conditions approaching human thermal and nutritional conditions (prolonged exposure to thermoneutral temperature and to an energy-rich (high-fat, high-sugar) diet) - referred to as physiologically humanized mice, displays morphological and molecular characteristics significantly different from those observed in young, chow-fed mice maintained at room temperature - referred to as standard mice. Here, we further examined brown fat from physiologically humanized and standard mice, as well as from mice exposed to thermoneutrality for a long time but not to an energy-rich diet - referred to here as long-term thermoneutral mice. Global transcriptome analysis of brown fat revealed that genes that were the most upregulated in brown fat of thermoneutral mice (both physiologically humanized and long-term thermoneutral) were those related to inflammatory processes, including genes expressed selectively in macrophages. Cellular and molecular analyses confirmed that brown fat from thermoneutral mice was heavily infiltrated by macrophages, predominantly organized into crown-like structures. However, despite this, the brown fat of thermoneutral mice retained full competence to attain the greatest possible recruitment state and became macrophage-depleted during the process of cold acclimation. Thus, profound macrophage accumulation does not influence the thermogenic recruitment competence of brown fat.

Keywords
brown fat, thermogenic capacity, UCP1, macrophages, thermoneutrality
National Category
Cell and Molecular Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-188202 (URN)10.3389/fendo.2020.568682 (DOI)000588782900001 ()33193086 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2020-12-29 Created: 2020-12-29 Last updated: 2024-01-17Bibliographically approved
Luijten, I. H. N., Brooks, K., Boulet, N., Shabalina, I. G., Jaiprakash, A., Carlsson, B., . . . Nedergaard, J. (2019). Glucocorticoid-Induced Obesity Develops Independently of UCP1. Cell Reports, 27(6), 1686-1698
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Glucocorticoid-Induced Obesity Develops Independently of UCP1
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2019 (English)In: Cell Reports, E-ISSN 2211-1247, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 1686-1698Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An excess of glucocorticoids leads to the development of obesity in both mice and humans, but the mechanism for this is unknown. Here, we determine the extent to which decreased BAT thermogenic capacity (as a result of glucocorticoid treatment) contributes to the development of obesity. Contrary to previous suggestions, we show that only in mice housed at thermoneutrality (30 degrees C) does corticosterone treatment reduce total BAT UCP1 protein. This reduction is reflected in reduced brown adipocyte cellular and mitochondrial UCP1-dependent respiration. However, glucocorticoid-induced obesity develops to the same extent in animals housed at 21 degrees C and 30 degrees C, whereas total BAT UCP1 protein levels differ 100-fold between the two groups. In corticosterone-treated wild-type and UCP1 knockout mice housed at 30 degrees C, obesity also develops to the same extent. Thus, our results demonstrate that the development of glucocorticoid-induced obesity is not caused by a decreased UCP1-dependent thermogenic capacity.

National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-169257 (URN)10.1016/j.celrep.2019.04.041 (DOI)000467058500006 ()31067456 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-06-12 Created: 2019-06-12 Last updated: 2024-01-17Bibliographically approved
de Jong, J. M. A., Sun, W., Pires, N. D., Frontini, A., Balaz, M., Jespersen, N. Z., . . . Petrovic, N. (2019). Human brown adipose tissue is phenocopied by classical brown adipose tissue in physiologically humanized mice. Nature Metabolism, 1(8), 830-843
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Human brown adipose tissue is phenocopied by classical brown adipose tissue in physiologically humanized mice
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2019 (English)In: Nature Metabolism, E-ISSN 2522-5812, Vol. 1, no 8, p. 830-843Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Human and rodent brown adipose tissues (BAT) appear morphologically and molecularly different. Here we compare human BAT with both classical brown and brite/beige adipose tissues of 'physiologically humanized' mice: middle-aged mice living under conditions approaching human thermal and nutritional conditions, that is, prolonged exposure to thermoneutral temperature (approximately 30 degrees C) and to an energy-rich (high-fat, high-sugar) diet. We find that the morphological, cellular and molecular characteristics (both marker and adipose-selective gene expression) of classical brown fat, but not of brite/beige fat, of these physiologically humanized mice are notably similar to human BAT. We also demonstrate, both in silico and experimentally, that in physiologically humanized mice only classical BAT possesses a high thermogenic potential. These observations suggest that classical rodent BAT is the tissue of choice for translational studies aimed at recruiting human BAT to counteract the development of obesity and its comorbidities.

National Category
Cell Biology Cell and Molecular Biology Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-177813 (URN)10.1038/s42255-019-0101-4 (DOI)000500745300010 ()
Available from: 2020-01-09 Created: 2020-01-09 Last updated: 2022-02-28Bibliographically approved
Fischer, A. W., Schlein, C., Cannon, B., Heeren, J. & Nedergaard, J. (2019). Intact innervation is essential for diet-induced recruitment of brown adipose tissue. American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism, 316(3), E487-E503
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Intact innervation is essential for diet-induced recruitment of brown adipose tissue
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2019 (English)In: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0193-1849, E-ISSN 1522-1555, Vol. 316, no 3, p. E487-E503Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The possibility that recruitment and activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis could be beneficial for curtailing obesity development in humans prompts a need for a better understanding of the control of these processes [that are often referred to collectively as diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT)]. Dietary conditions are associated with large changes in blood-borne factors that could be responsible for BAT recruitment, but BAT is also innervated by the sympathetic nervous system. To examine the significance of the innervation for DIT recruitment, we surgically denervated the largest BAT depot, i.e., the interscapular BAT depot in mice and exposed the mice at thermoneutrality to a high-fat diet versus a chow diet. Denervation led to an alteration in feeding pattern but did not lead to enhanced obesity, but obesity was achieved with a lower food intake, as denervation increased metabolic efficiency. Conclusively. denervation totally abolished the diet-induced increase in total UCP1 protein levels observed in the intact mice, whereas basal UCP1 expression was not dependent on innervation. The denervation of interscapular BAT did not discernably hyper-recruit other BAT depots, and no UCP1 protein could be detected in the principally browning-competent inguinal white adipose tissue depot under any of the examined conditions. We conclude that intact innervation is essential for diet-induced thermogenesis and that circulating factors cannot by themselves initiate recruitment of brown adipose tissue under obesogenic conditions. Therefore, the processes that link food intake and energy storage to activation of the nervous system are those of significance for the further understanding of diet-induced thermogenesis.

Keywords
brown adipose tissue, denervation, diet-induced thermogenesis, obesity, uncoupling protein 1
National Category
Physiology Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-167621 (URN)10.1152/ajpendo.00443.2018 (DOI)000460673100013 ()30576247 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-04-12 Created: 2019-04-12 Last updated: 2022-03-23Bibliographically approved
Pauter, A. M., Fischer, A. W., Bengtsson, T., Asadi, A., Talamonti, E. & Jacobsson, A. (2019). Synergistic Effects of DHA and Sucrose on Body Weight Gain in PUFA-Deficient Elovl2-/- Mice. Nutrients, 11(4), Article ID 852.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Synergistic Effects of DHA and Sucrose on Body Weight Gain in PUFA-Deficient Elovl2-/- Mice
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2019 (English)In: Nutrients, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 11, no 4, article id 852Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is implicated in the regulation of both lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Thus, we questioned whether dietary DHA and low or high content of sucrose impact on metabolism in mice deficient for elongation of very long-chain fatty acids 2 (ELOVL2), an enzyme involved in the endogenous DHA synthesis. We found that Elovl2 -/- mice fed a high-sucrose DHA-enriched diet followed by the high sucrose, high fat challenge significantly increased body weight. This diet affected the triglyceride rich lipoprotein fraction of plasma lipoproteins and changed the expression of several genes involved in lipid metabolism in a white adipose tissue. Our findings suggest that lipogenesis in mammals is synergistically influenced by DHA dietary and sucrose content.

Keywords
DHA deficiency, ELOVL2, DHA supplementation, high sucrose diet
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-170175 (URN)10.3390/nu11040852 (DOI)000467749800145 ()30991731 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-06-24 Created: 2019-06-24 Last updated: 2023-08-28Bibliographically approved
Fischer, A. W., Cannon, B. & Nedergaard, J. (2018). Optimal housing temperatures for mice to mimic the thermal environment of humans: An experimental study. Molecular metabolism, 7, 161-170
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimal housing temperatures for mice to mimic the thermal environment of humans: An experimental study
2018 (English)In: Molecular metabolism, ISSN 2212-8778, Vol. 7, p. 161-170Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: The laboratory mouse is presently the most common model for examining mechanisms of human physiology and disease. Housing temperatures can have a large impact on the outcome of such experiments and on their translatability to the human situation. Humans usually create for themselves a thermoneutral environment without cold stress, while laboratory mice under standard conditions (approximate to 20 degrees C) are under constant cold stress. In a well-cited, theoretical paper by Speakman and Keijer in Molecular Metabolism, it was argued that housing mice under close to standard conditions is the optimal way of modeling the human metabolic situation. This tenet was mainly based on the observation that humans usually display average metabolic rates of about 1.6 times basal metabolic rate. The extra heat thereby produced would also be expected to lead to a shift in the 'lower critical temperature' towards lower temperatures.

Methods: To examine these tenets experimentally, we performed high time-resolution indirect calorimetry at different environmental temperatures on mice acclimated to different housing temperatures.

Results: Based on the high time-resolution calorimetry analysis, we found that mice already under thermoneutral conditions display mean diurnal energy expenditure rates 1.8 times higher than basal metabolism, remarkably closely resembling the human situation. At any temperature below thermoneutrality, mice metabolism therefore exceeds the human equivalent: Mice under standard conditions display energy expenditure 3.1 times basal metabolism. The discrepancy to previous conclusions is probably attributable to earlier limitations in establishing true mouse basal metabolic rate, due to low time resolution. We also found that the fact that mean energy expenditure exceeds resting metabolic rate does not move the apparent thermoneutral zone (the lower critical temperature) downwards.

Conclusions: We show that housing mice at thermoneutrality is an advantageous step towards aligning mouse energy metabolism to human energy metabolism.

Keywords
Ambient temperature, Basal metabolic rate, Human, Lower critical temperature, Mouse, Thermoneutral, Thermoregulation
National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-156031 (URN)10.1016/j.molmet.2017.10.009 (DOI)000429085400015 ()29122558 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-05-04 Created: 2018-05-04 Last updated: 2022-03-23Bibliographically approved
Fischer, A. W., Shabalina, I. G., Mattsson, C. L., Abreu-Vieira, G., Cannon, B., Nedergaard, J. & Petrovic, N. (2017). UCP1 inhibition in Cidea-overexpressing mice is physiologically counteracted by brown adipose tissue hyperrecruitment. American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism, 312(1), e72-E87
Open this publication in new window or tab >>UCP1 inhibition in Cidea-overexpressing mice is physiologically counteracted by brown adipose tissue hyperrecruitment
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2017 (English)In: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0193-1849, E-ISSN 1522-1555, Vol. 312, no 1, p. e72-E87Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cidea is a gene highly expressed in thermogenesis- competent (UCP1-containing) adipose cells, both brown and brite/beige. Here, we initially demonstrate a remarkable adipose-depot specific regulation of Cidea expression. In classical brown fat, Cidea mRNA is expressed continuously and invariably, irrespective of tissue recruitment. However, Cidea protein levels are regulated posttranscriptionally, being conspicuously induced in the thermogenically recruited state. In contrast, in brite fat, Cidea protein levels are regulated at the transcriptional level, and Cidea mRNA and protein levels are proportional to tissue briteness. Although routinely followed as a thermogenic molecular marker, Cidea function is not clarified. Here, we employed a gain-of-function approach to examine a possible role of Cidea in the regulation of thermogenesis. We utilized transgenic aP2-hCidea mice that overexpress human Cidea in all adipose tissues. We demonstrate that UCP1 activity is markedly suppressed in brown-fat mitochondria isolated from aP2-hCidea mice. However, mitochondrial UCP1 protein levels were identical in wildtype and transgenic mice. This implies a regulatory effect of Cidea on UCP1 activity, but as we demonstrate that Cidea itself is not localized to mitochondria, we propose an indirect inhibitory effect. The Cidea-induced inhibition of UCP1 activity (observed in isolated mitochondria) is physiologically relevant since the mice, through an appropriate homeostatic compensatory mechanism, increased the total amount of UCP1 in the tissue to exactly match the diminished thermogenic capacity of the UCP1 protein and retain unaltered nonshivering thermogenic capacity. Thus, we verified Cidea as being a marker of thermogenesis-competent adipose tissues, but we conclude that Cidea, unexpectedly, functions molecularly as an indirect inhibitor of thermogenesis.

Keywords
cell death-inducing DNA fragmentation factor alpha-like effector A, uncoupling protein 1, nonshivering thermogenesis, brown adipose tissue, brite adipose tissue, beige adipose tissue
National Category
Cell and Molecular Biology Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-141290 (URN)10.1152/ajpendo.00284.2016 (DOI)000393898700008 ()27923808 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-04-04 Created: 2017-04-04 Last updated: 2022-02-28Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-6717-9090

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