Change search
Link to record
Permanent link

Direct link
von Essen, Gabriella
Publications (10 of 13) Show all publications
Nedergaard, J., von Essen, G. & Cannon, B. (2023). Brown adipose tissue: can it keep us slim? A discussion of the evidence for and against the existence of diet-induced thermogenesis in mice and men. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, 378(1888), Article ID 20220220.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Brown adipose tissue: can it keep us slim? A discussion of the evidence for and against the existence of diet-induced thermogenesis in mice and men
2023 (English)In: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8436, E-ISSN 1471-2970, Vol. 378, no 1888, article id 20220220Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The issue under discussion here is whether a decrease in the degree of UCP1 activity (and brown adipose tissue activity in general) could be a cause of obesity in humans. This possibility principally requires the existence of the phenomenon of diet-induced thermogenesis. Obesity could be a consequence of a reduced functionality of diet-induced thermogenesis. Experiments in mice indicate that diet-induced thermogenesis exists and is dependent on the presence of UCP1 and thus of brown adipose tissue activity. Accordingly, many (but not all) experiments indicate that in the absence of UCP1, mice become obese. Whether similar mechanisms exist in humans is still unknown. A series of studies have indicated a correlation between obesity and low brown adipose tissue activity, but it may be so that the obesity itself may influence the estimates of brown adipose tissue activity (generally glucose uptake), partly explaining the relationship. Estimates of brown adipose tissue catabolizing activity would seem to indicate that it may possess a capacity sufficient to help maintain body weight, and obesity would thus be aggravated in its absence.

Keywords
diet-induced thermogenesis, UCP1, brown adipose tissue
National Category
Physiology Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-222198 (URN)10.1098/rstb.2022.0220 (DOI)001062424100013 ()37661736 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85169651199 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-10-17 Created: 2023-10-17 Last updated: 2023-10-17Bibliographically approved
von Essen, G., Lindsund, E., Maldonado, E., Zouhar, P., Cannon, B. & Nedergaard, J. (2023). Highly recruited brown adipose tissue does not in itself protect against obesity. Molecular Metabolism, 76, Article ID 101782.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Highly recruited brown adipose tissue does not in itself protect against obesity
Show others...
2023 (English)In: Molecular Metabolism, ISSN 2212-8778, Vol. 76, article id 101782Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: The possibility to counteract the development of obesity in humans by recruiting brown or brite/beige adipose tissue (and thus UCP1) has attracted much attention. Here we examine if a diet that can activate diet-induced thermogenesis can exploit pre-enhanced amounts of UCP1 to counteract the development of diet-induced obesity.Methods: To investigate the anti-obesity significance of highly augmented amounts of UCP1 for control of body energy reserves, we physiologically increased total UCP1 amounts by recruitment of brown and brite/beige tissues in mice. We then examined the influence of the augmented UCP1 levels on metabolic parameters when the mice were exposed to a high-fat/high-sucrose diet under thermoneutral conditions.Results: The total UCP1 levels achieved were about 50-fold higher in recruited than in non-recruited mice. Contrary to underlying expectations, in the mice with highly recruited UCP1 and exposed to a high-fat/high-sucrose diet the thermogenic capacity of this UCP1 was completely inactivate. The mice even transiently (in an adipostat-like manner) demonstrated a higher metabolic efficiency and fat gain than did non-recruited mice. This was accomplished without altering energy expenditure or food absorption efficiency. The metabolic efficiency here was indistinguishable from that of mice totally devoid of UCP1.Conclusions: Although UCP1 protein may be available, it is not inevitably utilized for diet-induced thermogenesis. Thus, although attempts to recruit UCP1 in humans may become successful as such, it is only if constant activation of the UCP1 is also achieved that amelioration of obesity development could be attained.& COPY; 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

Keywords
Diet-induced thermogenesis, UCP1, Body weight regulation, Beige adipose tissue, Adipostat, Glucose homeostasis
National Category
Clinical Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-222230 (URN)10.1016/j.molmet.2023.101782 (DOI)001063640000001 ()37499977 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85167813527 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-10-11 Created: 2023-10-11 Last updated: 2023-10-11Bibliographically approved
Luijten, I. H. N., Feldmann, H. M., von Essen, G., Cannon, B. & Nedergaard, J. (2019). In the absence of UCP1-mediated diet-induced thermogenesis, obesity is augmented even in the obesity-resistant 129S mouse strain. American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism, 316(5), E729-E740
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In the absence of UCP1-mediated diet-induced thermogenesis, obesity is augmented even in the obesity-resistant 129S mouse strain
Show others...
2019 (English)In: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0193-1849, E-ISSN 1522-1555, Vol. 316, no 5, p. E729-E740Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The attractive tenet that recruitment and activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) could counteract the development of obesity and its comorbidities in humans has been experimentally corroborated mainly by experiments demonstrating that UCP1-ablated mice on a C57B1/6 background (exempt from thermal stress) become more obese when fed a high-fat diet. However, concerns may be raised that this outcome of UCP1 ablation is restricted to this very special inbred and particularly obesity-prone mouse strain. Therefore, we have examined to which degree UCP1 ablation has similar metabolic effects in a mouse strain known to be obesity resistant: the 129S strain. For this, male 129S2/sv or 129SV/Pas mice and corresponding UCP1-knockout mice were fed chow or a high-fat or a cafeteria diet for 4 w.k. The absence of UCP1 augmented obesity (weight gain, body fat mass, %body fat, fat depot size) in high-fat diet- and cafeteria-fed mice, with a similar or lower food intake, indicating that, when present, UCP1 indeed decreases metabolic efficiency. The increased obesity was due to a decrease in energy expenditure. The consumption of a high-fat or cafeteria diet increased total BAT UCP1 protein levels in wild-type mice, and correspondingly. high-fat diet and cafeteria diet-fed mice demonstrated increased norepinephrine-induced oxygen consumption. There was a positive correlation between body fat and total BAT UCP1 protein content. No evidence for diet-induced adrenergic thermogenesis was found in UCP1-ablated mice. Thus, the obesity-reducing effect of UCP1 is not restricted to a particular, and perhaps not representative, mouse strain.

Keywords
129S, brown adipose tissue, diet-induced thermogenesis, obesity, UCP1
National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-169268 (URN)10.1152/ajpendo.00020.2019 (DOI)000467084600005 ()30807213 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-06-11 Created: 2019-06-11 Last updated: 2022-03-23Bibliographically approved
von Essen, G., Lindsund, E., Cannon, B. & Nedergaard, J. (2017). Adaptive facultative diet-induced thermogenesis in wild-type but not in UCP1-ablated mice. American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism, 313(5), E515-E527
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adaptive facultative diet-induced thermogenesis in wild-type but not in UCP1-ablated mice
2017 (English)In: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0193-1849, E-ISSN 1522-1555, Vol. 313, no 5, p. E515-E527Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The significance of diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) for metabolic control is still debated. Although obesogenic diets recruit UCP1 and adrenergically inducible thermogenesis, and although the absence of UCP1 may promote the development of obesity, no actual UCP1-related thermogenesis identifiable as diet-induced thermogenesis has to date been unambiguously demonstrated. Examining mice living at thermoneutrality, we have identified a process of facultative (directly elicited by acute eating), adaptive (magnitude develops over weeks on an obesogenic diet), and fully UCP1-dependent thermogenesis. We found no evidence for UCP1-independent diet-induced thermogenesis. The thermogenesis was proportional to the total amount of UCP1 protein in brown adipose tissue and was not dependent on any contribution of UCP1 in brite/beige adipose tissue, since no UCP1 protein was found there under these conditions. Total UCP1 protein amount developed proportionally to total body fat content. The physiological messenger linking obesity level and acute eating to increased thermogenesis is not known. Thus UCP1-dependent diet-induced thermogenesis limits obesity development during exposure to obesogenic diets but does not prevent obesity as such.

Keywords
brown adipose tissue, diet-induced obesity, diet-induced thermogenesis, UCP1
National Category
Physiology Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-151000 (URN)10.1152/ajpendo.00097.2017 (DOI)000416502900002 ()28679625 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-01-11 Created: 2018-01-11 Last updated: 2023-01-23Bibliographically approved
von Essen, G. (2017). Energy flow and metabolic efficiency attributed to brown adipose tissue. (Doctoral dissertation). Stockholm: Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy flow and metabolic efficiency attributed to brown adipose tissue
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The large capacity of brown adipose tissue (BAT) to expend energy as heat makes it an interesting potential player in weight regulation and other metabolic conditions. This is of particular interest as it has been recognized that adult humans possess BAT. The protein responsible for the heat production is uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), which, as the name implies, uncouples the respiratory chain from ATP production; instead heat is produced. Cold is the strongest recruiter and activator of BAT. However, also obesogenic food has a low but nonetheless significant effect on the recruitment and activation of UCP1, although the significance of this has been discussed.

In the present thesis, I have studied the effect of diet on BAT and the possibilities for it to be obesity-protective. This can be done by comparing responses in wild-type mice and in UCP1-ablated mice. Since the effect of diet on BAT is low, it is of importance to control the temperature and maintain thermoneutrality. Other confounding factors to keep in mind are differences in actual energy and composition of food and also cohort differences. When controlling all the parameters mentioned and giving the mice the same obesogenic diet, the mice possessing UCP1 compared to UCP1-ablated mice had higher energy expenditure, and lower weight gain, despite eating more. This confirms the presence of a UCP1-dependent diet-induced thermogenesis. Thus, the conclusion must be that possessing UCP1 does result in obesity protection at thermoneutrality. However, the relevance for human energy balance is still not established.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University, 2017. p. 86
Keywords
Brown adipose tissue, BAT, UCP1, diet-induced thermogenesis, DIT, obesity, high-fat diet, energy expenditure
National Category
Physiology
Research subject
Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-140190 (URN)978-91-7649-734-0 (ISBN)978-91-7649-735-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-04-07, Vivi Täckholmsalen (Q-salen), NPQ-huset, Svante Arrhenius väg 20, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 1: Manuscript. Paper 2: Manuscript. Paper 3: Manuscript.

Available from: 2017-03-15 Created: 2017-03-07 Last updated: 2022-02-28Bibliographically approved
Fischer, A. W., Csikasz, R. I., von Essen, G., Cannon, B. & Nedergaard, J. (2016). No insulating effect of obesity. American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism, 311(1), e202-e213
Open this publication in new window or tab >>No insulating effect of obesity
Show others...
2016 (English)In: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0193-1849, E-ISSN 1522-1555, Vol. 311, no 1, p. e202-e213Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The development of obesity may be aggravated if obesity itself insulates against heat loss and thus diminishes the amount of food burnt for body temperature control. This would be particularly important under normal laboratory conditions where mice experience a chronic cold stress (at approximate to 20 degrees C). We used Scholander plots (energy expenditure plotted against ambient temperature) to examine the insulation (thermal conductance) of mice, defined as the inverse of the slope of the Scholander curve at subthermoneutral temperatures. We verified the method by demonstrating that shaved mice possessed only half the insulation of non-shaved mice. We examined a series of obesity models [mice fed high-fat diets and kept at different temperatures, classical diet-induced obese mice, ob/ob mice, and obesity-prone (C57BL/6) vs. obesity-resistant (129S)mice]. We found that neither acclimation temperature nor any kind or degree of obesity affected the thermal insulation of the mice when analyzed at the whole mouse level or as energy expenditure per lean weight. Calculation per body weight erroneously implied increased insulation in obese mice. We conclude that, in contrast to what would be expected, obesity of any kind does not increase thermal insulation in mice, and therefore, it does not in itself aggravate the development of obesity. It may be discussed as to what degree of effect excess adipose tissue has on insulation in humans and especially whether significant metabolic effects are associated with insulation in humans.

Keywords
obesity, insulation, ob/ob
National Category
Biological Sciences Physiology
Research subject
Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-133223 (URN)10.1152/ajpendo.00093.2016 (DOI)000380372000016 ()27189935 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-09-13 Created: 2016-09-05 Last updated: 2022-02-23Bibliographically approved
Fischer, A. W., Csikasz, R. I., von Essen, G., Cannon, B. & Nedergaard, J. (2016). Reply to letter to the editor: at thermoneutrality, neither the lean nor the obese freeze [Letter to the editor]. American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism, 311(3), E639-E639
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reply to letter to the editor: at thermoneutrality, neither the lean nor the obese freeze
Show others...
2016 (English)In: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0193-1849, E-ISSN 1522-1555, Vol. 311, no 3, p. E639-E639Article in journal, Letter (Other academic) Published
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-135155 (URN)10.1152/ajpendo.00309.2016 (DOI)000384772100011 ()27619918 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-10-31 Created: 2016-10-31 Last updated: 2022-02-28Bibliographically approved
von Essen, G. (2014). The effect of various dietary fatty acids on adaptive thermogenesis. (Licentiate dissertation). Stockholm: Stockholm University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effect of various dietary fatty acids on adaptive thermogenesis
2014 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Recently it has been revealed that brown adipose tissue (BAT) is present in adult humans and not, as thought before, only in infants and rodents. BAT, with a main function to generate heat, is also involved in energy metabolism by an adaptive response to eating, referred to as diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT). When activated, BAT has a large capacity to dissipate energy, therefore being an interesting player in counteracting obesity. The aim of this review was to examine whether dietary fatty acids may have effects on BAT. There are at least 20 different dietary fatty acids containing 4 to 22 carbons. Depending on length and amount of double bonds, the fatty acids have different properties and effects on BAT. In summary, dietary short-chain fatty acids and medium-chain fatty acids have the largest effect on BAT, with a substantial anti-obesity impact. Long-chain fatty acids and conjugated fatty acids have weaker effects; however they show browning in WAT and decreased visceral fat pad sizes, but possibly need long-term duration to be effective. Nonetheless, for BAT to stay active, it has to be constantly activated, indicating a continual requirement for adequate fatty acids to be more or less chronic to obtain thermogenic effects.

Enclosed in this thesis are the following papers:

Paper I: Significant diet-induced thermogenesis in wild-type but not in UCP1-ablated mice

Paper II: No obesity protection from cold-recruited brown adipose tissue, when mice are transferred to thermoneutrality

Paper III: Replacing long-chain triglycerides with medium-chain triglycerides abolishes diet-induced obesity

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Stockholm University, 2014
National Category
Cell Biology
Research subject
Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-103423 (URN)
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-04-21 Created: 2014-05-15 Last updated: 2022-02-23Bibliographically approved
von Essen, G., Lindsund, E., Cannon, B. & Nedergaard, J.Adaptive Facultative Diet-induced Thermogenesis in Wild-type but not in UCP1-ablated Mice.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adaptive Facultative Diet-induced Thermogenesis in Wild-type but not in UCP1-ablated Mice
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Keywords
Brown adipose tissue, facultative diet-induced thermogenesis, energy expenditure, UCP1, uncoupling protein 1, oxygen consumption, UCP!-ablated, mice
National Category
Biological Sciences Physiology
Research subject
Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-140443 (URN)
Available from: 2017-03-08 Created: 2017-03-08 Last updated: 2022-02-28Bibliographically approved
von Essen, G., Englund, P., Cannon, B. & Nedergaard, J.At thermoneutrality, medium-chain fatty acids totally protect against diet-induced obesity in a UCP1-independent manner.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>At thermoneutrality, medium-chain fatty acids totally protect against diet-induced obesity in a UCP1-independent manner
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Keywords
Brown adipose tissue, UCP1, uncoupling protein 1, UCP!-ablated, mice, thermoneutrality, high-fat diet, body fat, medium-chain triglycerides
National Category
Biological Sciences Physiology
Research subject
Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-140445 (URN)
Available from: 2017-03-08 Created: 2017-03-08 Last updated: 2022-02-28Bibliographically approved
Organisations

Search in DiVA

Show all publications