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Vestergren, Robin
Alternative names
Publications (10 of 32) Show all publications
Gomis Ferreira, M. I., Vestergren, R., Borg, D. & Cousins, I. T. (2018). Comparing the toxic potency in vivo of long-chain perfluoroalkyl acids and fluorinated alternatives. Environment International, 113, 1-9
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparing the toxic potency in vivo of long-chain perfluoroalkyl acids and fluorinated alternatives
2018 (English)In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 113, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Since 2000, long-chain perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and their respective precursors have been replaced by numerous fluorinated alternatives. The main rationale for this industrial transition was that these alternatives were considered less bioaccumulative and toxic than their predecessors. In this study, we evaluated to what extent differences in toxicological effect thresholds for PFAAs and fluorinated alternatives, expressed as administered dose, were confounded by differences in their distribution and elimination kinetics. A dynamic one-compartment toxicokinetic (TK) model for male rats was constructed and evaluated using test data from toxicity studies for perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluoroctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and ammonium 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-2-(heptafluoropropoxy)-propanoate (GenX). Dose-response curves of liver enlargement from sub-chronic oral toxicity studies in male rats were converted to internal dose in serum and in liver to examine the toxicity ranking of PFAAs and fluorinated alternatives. Converting administered doses into equivalent serum and liver concentrations reduced the variability in the dose-response curves for PFBA, PFHxA, PFOA and GenX. The toxicity ranking using modeled serum (GenX>PFOA>PFHxA>PFBA) and liver (GenX>PFOA≈PFHxA≈PFBA) concentrations indicated that some fluorinated alternatives have similar or higher toxic potency than their predecessors when correcting for differences in toxicokinetics. For PFOS and perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS) the conversion from administered dose to serum concentration equivalents did not change the toxicity ranking. In conclusion, hazard assessment based on internal exposure allows evaluation of toxic potency and bioaccumulation potential independent of kinetics and should be considered when comparing fluorinated alternatives with their predecessors.

Keywords
PFOS, PFOA, PFAS alternatives, toxicokinetic model, potency, toxicity
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-141082 (URN)10.1016/j.envint.2018.01.011 (DOI)000428976700001 ()
Available from: 2017-03-30 Created: 2017-03-30 Last updated: 2022-02-28Bibliographically approved
Shi, Y., Vestergren, R., Haugdahl Nost, T., Zhou, Z. & Cai, Y. (2018). Probing the Differential Tissue Distribution and Bioaccumulation Behavior of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances of Varying Chain-Lengths, Isomeric Structures and Functional Groups in Crucian Carp. Environmental Science and Technology, 52(8), 4592-4600
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Probing the Differential Tissue Distribution and Bioaccumulation Behavior of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances of Varying Chain-Lengths, Isomeric Structures and Functional Groups in Crucian Carp
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2018 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 52, no 8, p. 4592-4600Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Understanding the bioaccumulation mechanisms of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) across different chain-lengths, isomers and functional groups represents a monumental scientific challenge with implications for chemical regulation. Here, we investigate how the differential tissue distribution and bioaccumulation behavior of 25 PFASs in crucian carp from two field sites impacted by point sources can provide information about the processes governing uptake, distribution and elimination of PFASs. Median tissue/blood ratios (TBRs) were consistently <1 for all PFASs and tissues except bile which displayed a distinct distribution pattern and enrichment of several perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids. Transformation of concentration data into relative body burdens (RBBs) demonstrated that blood, gonads, and muscle together accounted for >90% of the amount of PFASs in the organism. Principal component analyses of TBRs and RBBs showed that the functional group was a relatively more important predictor of internal distribution than chain length for PFASs. Whole body bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) for short-chain PFASs deviated from the positive relationship with hydrophobicity observed for longer-chain homologues. Overall, our results suggest that TBR, RBB, and BAF patterns were most consistent with protein binding mechanisms although partitioning to phospholipids may contribute to the accumulation of long-chain PFASs in specific tissues.

National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-156731 (URN)10.1021/acs.est.7b06128 (DOI)000430515400012 ()29611424 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-06-18 Created: 2018-06-18 Last updated: 2022-02-26Bibliographically approved
Wang, Y., Shi, Y., Vestergren, R., Zhou, Z., Liang, Y. & Cai, Y. (2018). Using hair, nail and urine samples for human exposure assessment of legacy and emerging per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances. Science of the Total Environment, 636, 383-391
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using hair, nail and urine samples for human exposure assessment of legacy and emerging per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances
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2018 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 636, p. 383-391Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Non-invasive samples present ethical and practical benefits for investigating human exposure to hazardous contaminants, but analytical challenges and difficulties to interpret the results limit their application in biomonitoring. Here we investigated the potential for using hair, nail and urine samples as a measure of internal exposure to an array of legacy and emerging per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in two populations with different exposure conditions. Paired urine-serum measurements of PFASs from a group of highly exposed fishery employees displayed strong correlations for PFASs with three to eight perfluorinated carbons (p > 0.653; p < 0.01). Consistent statistical correlations and transfer ratios in nails and hair from both populations demonstrated that these non-invasive samples can be used as a measure of internal exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid and CS chlorinated polyfluoralkyl ether sulfonic acid (CS Cl-PFESA). Contrastingly, the infrequent detections and or lack of consistent transfer ratios for perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorononanoic acid and short-chain PFASs in hair and nail samples indicate passive uptake from the external environment rather than uptake and internal distribution. Collectively, the study supports the use of urine samples as a valid measure of internal exposure for a range of short- and medium-chain PFASs, while the validity of nail and hair samples as a measure of internal exposure may vary for different PFASs and populations. The ubiquitous detection of C8 CI-PFESA in all sample matrices from both populations indicates widespread exposure to this contaminant of emerging concern in China.

Keywords
Non-invasive biomonitoring, Human exposure, PFASs, Cl-PFESAs
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-160200 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.04.279 (DOI)000436599000036 ()29709855 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-09-26 Created: 2018-09-26 Last updated: 2022-02-26Bibliographically approved
Winkens, K., Vestergren, R., Berger, U. & Cousins, I. T. (2017). Early life exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs): A critical review. Emerging Contaminants, 3(2), 55-68
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Early life exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs): A critical review
2017 (English)In: Emerging Contaminants, ISSN 2405-6650, E-ISSN 2405-6642, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 55-68Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Due to the dynamic developmental processes during pregnancy, infancy, childhood and adolescence, exposure to PFASs is hypothesized to have the most pronounced negative effects during this period. In this review we critically evaluate the current state of the science regarding human early life exposure processes (until 18 years of age) to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Efficient placental transfer of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) results in relatively high prenatal exposure compared with many neutral organic contaminants. The few biomonitoring studies that specifically target infants, toddlers and other children suggest relatively high serum concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in early life with peak concentrations occurring sometime before the child reaches 20 months. This peak in serum concentrations is most likely explained by exposure via breastfeeding, ingestion of house dust and/or specific contact events with consumer products leading to high body weight normalized estimated daily intakes (EDIs). Although children have higher EDIs of PFASs than adults, these are not always reflected by higher serum levels of PFASs in children in cross-sectional biomonitoring studies due to the confounding effect of age and birth cohort, and different exposure histories due to production changes. Longitudinal exposure studies measuring internal and external exposure (for multiple pathways and PFASs) at several time points during early life are strongly encouraged to understand temporal changes in exposure of individual children. A better quantitative understanding of early life exposure processes would help to improve the validity of epidemiological studies and allow informed decisions regarding setting of regulatory thresholds and appropriate mitigation actions.

Keywords
child, childhood, early life stage, human, exposure, PFAS, PFOS, PFOA
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-151596 (URN)10.1016/j.emcon.2017.05.001 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-01-16 Created: 2018-01-16 Last updated: 2022-02-28Bibliographically approved
Zhang, H., Vestergren, R., Wang, T., Yu, J., Jiang, G. & Herzke, D. (2017). Geographical Differences in Dietary Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Acids between Manufacturing and Application Regions in China. Environmental Science and Technology, 51(10), 5747-5755
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Geographical Differences in Dietary Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Acids between Manufacturing and Application Regions in China
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2017 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 51, no 10, p. 5747-5755Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Emissions of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have increased in China over the past decade, but human exposure pathways are poorly understood. Here we analyzed 15 PFAAs in commonly consumed food items and calculated body weight normalized dietary intake rates (estimated dietary intake, EDIs) in an area with ongoing PFAA production (Hubei province; n = 121) and an urbanized coastal area (Zhejiang province; n = 106). Geographical differences in concentrations were primarily observed for perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS) in animal food items and short chain PFAAs in vegetable food items. The average EDI of Sigma PFAAs for adults in Hubei (998 ng kg(-1) day(-1)) was more than 2 orders of magnitude higher than that in Zhejiang (9.03 ng kg-1 day(-1)). In Hubei province, the average EDI of PFOS for adults (87 ng kg(-1) day(-1)) was close to or exceeded advisory guidelines used in other countries indicating health risks for the population from long-term exposure. Yet, PFOS could only account for about 10% of the EDI of Sigma PFAAs in the Hubei province, which was dominated by short-chain PFAAs through consumption of vegetables. The large contribution of short-chain PFAAs to the total EDIs in manufacturing areas emphasize the need for improved exposure and hazard assessment tools of these substances.

National Category
Environmental Engineering Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-144830 (URN)10.1021/acs.est.7b00246 (DOI)000401674400044 ()28387520 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-07-10 Created: 2017-07-10 Last updated: 2022-02-28Bibliographically approved
Gomis, M. I., Vestergren, R., MacLeod, M., Mueller, J. F. & Cousins, I. T. (2017). Historical human exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids in the United States and Australia reconstructed from biomonitoring data using population-based pharmacokinetic modelling. Environment International, 108, 92-102
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Historical human exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids in the United States and Australia reconstructed from biomonitoring data using population-based pharmacokinetic modelling
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2017 (English)In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 108, p. 92-102Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS) are found in the blood of humans and wildlife worldwide. Since the beginning of the 21st century, a downward trend in the human body burden, especially for PFOS and PFOA, has been observed while there is no clear temporal trend in wildlife. The inconsistency between the concentration decline in human serum and in wildlife could be indicative of a historical exposure pathway for humans linked to consumer products that has been reduced or eliminated. In this study, we reconstruct the past human exposure trends in two different regions, USA and Australia, by inferring the historical intake from cross-sectional biomonitoring data of PFOS, PFOA and PFHxS using a population-based pharmacokinetic model. For PFOS in the USA, the reconstructed daily intake peaked at 4.5 ng/kg-bw/day between 1988 and 1999 while in Australia it peaked at 4.0 ng/kg-bw/day between 1984 and 1996. For PFOA in the USA and Australia, the peak reconstructed daily intake was 1.1 ng/kg-bw/day in 1995 and 3.6 ng/kg-bw/day in 1992, respectively, and started to decline in 2000 and 1995, respectively. The model could not be satisfactorily fitted to the biomonitoring data for PFHxS within reasonable boundaries for its intrinsic elimination half-life, and thus reconstructing intakes of PFHxS was not possible. Our results indicate that humans experienced similar exposure levels and trends to PFOS and PFOA in the USA and Australia. Our findings support the hypothesis that near-field consumer product exposure pathways were likely dominant prior to the phase-out in industrialized countries. The intrinsic elimination half-life, which represents elimination processes that are common for all humans, and elimination processes unique to women (i.e., menstruation, cord-blood transfer and breastfeeding) were also investigated. The intrinsic elimination half-lives for PFOS and PFOA derived from model fitting for men were 3.8 and 2.4 years, respectively, for the USA, and 4.9 and 2 years respectively for Australia. Our results show that menstruation is a depuration pathway for PFOA for women, similarly but to a lesser extent compared to previous reports for PFOS. However menstruation, cord-blood transfer and breastfeeding together do not fully explain the apparently more rapid elimination of PFOA and PFOS by women compared to men; the intrinsic elimination half-lives in women were up to 13% lower for PFOS and up to 12% lower for PFOA compared to the corresponding half-lives in men.

National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-147834 (URN)10.1016/j.envint.2017.08.002 (DOI)000411604400010 ()28818713 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-11-02 Created: 2017-11-02 Last updated: 2022-02-28Bibliographically approved
Winkens, K., Koponen, J., Schuster, J., Shoeib, M., Vestergren, R., Berger, U., . . . Cousins, I. T. (2017). Perfluoroalkyl acids and their precursors in indoor air sampled in children's bedrooms. Environmental Pollution, 222, 423-432
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Perfluoroalkyl acids and their precursors in indoor air sampled in children's bedrooms
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2017 (English)In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 222, p. 423-432Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The contamination levels and patterns of perfluoroallcyl acids (PFAAs) and their precursors in indoor air of children's bedrooms in Finland, Northern Europe, were investigated. Our study is among the most comprehensive indoor air monitoring studies (n = 57) and to our knowledge the first one to analyse air in children's bedrooms for PFASs (17 PFAAs and 9 precursors, including two acrylates, 6:2 FTAC and 6:2 FTMAC). The most frequently detected compound was 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (8:2 FTOH) with the highest median concentration (3570 pg/m(3)). FTOH concentrations were generally similar to previous studies, indicating that in 2014/2015 the impact of the industrial transition had been minor on FTOH levels in indoor air. However, in contrast to earlier studies (with one exception), median concentrations of 6:2 FTOH were higher than 10:2 FTOH. The C8 PFAAs are still the most abundant acids, even though they have now been phased out by major manufacturers. The mean concentrations of FOSE/As, especially MeFOSE (89.9 pg/m(3)), were at least an order of magnitude lower compared to previous studies. Collectively the comparison of FTOHs, PFAAs and FOSE/FOSAs with previous studies indicates that indoor air levels of PFASs display a time lag to changes in production of several years. This is the first indoor air study investigating 6:2 FTMAC, which was frequently detected (58%) and displayed some of the highest maximum concentrations (13 000 pg/m(3)). There were several statistically significant correlations between particular house and room characteristics and PFAS concentrations, most interestingly higher EtFOSE air concentrations in rooms with plastic floors compared to wood or laminate.

Keywords
Perfluoroalkyl, PFAS, Fluorotelomer, FOSE, FOSA, Indoor air
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-142467 (URN)10.1016/j.envpol.2016.12.010 (DOI)000395360900050 ()28012670 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-05-17 Created: 2017-05-17 Last updated: 2022-02-28Bibliographically approved
Gomis Ferreira, M. I., Vestergren, R., Nilsson, H. & Cousins, I. T. (2016). Contribution of Direct and Indirect Exposure to Human Serum Concentrations of Perfluorooctanoic Acid in an Occupationally Exposed Group of Ski Waxers. Environmental Science and Technology, 50(13), 7037-7046
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Contribution of Direct and Indirect Exposure to Human Serum Concentrations of Perfluorooctanoic Acid in an Occupationally Exposed Group of Ski Waxers
2016 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 50, no 13, p. 7037-7046Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The contribution of direct (i.e., uptake of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) itself) and indirect (i.e., uptake of 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (FTOH) and metabolism to PFOA) exposure to PFOA serum concentrations was investigated using a dynamic one compartment pharmacokinetic (PK) model. The PK model was applied to six occupationally exposed ski waxers for whom direct and indirect exposures via inhalation were characterized using multiple measurements with personal air sampling devices. The model was able to predict the diverging individual temporal trends of PFOA in serum with correlation coefficients of 0.82-0.94. For the four technicians with high initial concentrations of PFOA in serum (250-1050 ng/mL), the ongoing occupational exposure (both direct and indirect) was of minor importance and net depuration of PFOA was observed throughout the ski season. An estimated average intrinsic elimination half-life of 2.4 years (1.8-3.1 years accounting for variation between technicians and model uncertainty) was derived for these technicians. The remaining two technicians, who had much lower initial serum concentrations (10-17 ng/mL), were strongly influenced by exposure during the ski season with indirect exposure contributing to 45% of PFOA serum concentrations. On the basis of these model simulations, an average metabolism yield of 0.003 (molar concentration basis; uncertainty range of 0.0006-0.01) was derived for transformation of 8:2 FTOH to PFOA. An uncertainty analysis was performed, and it was determined that the input parameters quantifying the intake of PFOA were mainly responsible for the uncertainty of the metabolism yield and the initial concentration of PFOA in serum was mainly contributing to the uncertainty of estimated serum half-lives.

National Category
Environmental Sciences Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-132534 (URN)10.1021/acs.est.6b01477 (DOI)000379366300053 ()27304840 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-08-25 Created: 2016-08-15 Last updated: 2022-02-23Bibliographically approved
Hansen, S., Vestergren, R., Herzke, D., Melhus, M., Evenset, A., Hanssen, L., . . . Sandanger, T. M. (2016). Exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances through the consumption of fish from lakes affected by aqueous film-forming foam emissions - A combined epidemiological and exposure modeling approach. The SAMINOR 2 Clinical Study. Environment International, 94, 272-282
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances through the consumption of fish from lakes affected by aqueous film-forming foam emissions - A combined epidemiological and exposure modeling approach. The SAMINOR 2 Clinical Study
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2016 (English)In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 94, p. 272-282Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Releases of aqueous film-forming foams (AFFFs) from airport firefighting activities have been identified as important local point sources of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in nearby waterways. PFASs can be taken up by fish, and in turn by the humans that consume them. Despite the global extent of AFFF emissions, few studies exist on related impacts on humans. We aimed to investigate the associations between the consumption of fish from AFFF-affected waters and serum PFAS concentrations in humans using a combination of statistical tools, empirical data, and toxicokinetic modeling. Participants of the SAMINOR 2 Clinical Study were the basis far this study sample, which comprised 74 persons. Fifty-nine participants who reported consuming fish from AFFF-affected waters and 15 nonconsumers completed a questionnaire and gave serum samples. Participants were classified based on their consumption of trout and char: high (n = 16), moderate (n = 16), low (n = 27), and nonconsumers (n = 15); and serum samples were tested for the presence of 15 PFASs. Perfluorooctane sulfonic add (PFOS) was found in all participants, with the highest concentrations detected in the high consumption group (geometric means, 28 ng/mL) compared to the low consumption group and nonconsumers (10 and 11 ng/mL, respectively). In an analysis of variance contrast model, a significant, positive increasing trend was seen for fish consumption and PFOS, perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA). Toxicokinetic modeling allowed us to predict the median increases in serum concentrations of PFOS, PFHxS, and PFNA among high consumers within a factor of 2.2. The combination of statistical evaluation and toxicokinetic modeling clearly demonstrated a positive relationship between consumption of fish from AFFF-affected waters and serum PFAS concentrations. Further studies on dietary exposure to other PFASs present in AFFF and its consequences on human health are warranted.

Keywords
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances, Aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF), Human serum, Freshwater fish, Exposure modeling
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-135053 (URN)10.1016/j.envint.2016.05.030 (DOI)000382339000029 ()27286038 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-10-31 Created: 2016-10-31 Last updated: 2022-02-28Bibliographically approved
Shi, Y., Vestergren, R., Xu, L., Zhou, Z., Li, C., Liang, Y. & Cai, Y. (2016). Human Exposure and Elimination Kinetics of Chlorinated Polyfluoroalkyl Ether Sulfonic Acids (Cl-PFESAs). Environmental Science and Technology, 50(5), 2396-2404
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Human Exposure and Elimination Kinetics of Chlorinated Polyfluoroalkyl Ether Sulfonic Acids (Cl-PFESAs)
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2016 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 50, no 5, p. 2396-2404Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The incomplete mass-balance of organic fluorine in human serum indicates the existence of unknown per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) with persistent and bioaccumulative properties. Here we characterized human exposure and elimination kinetics of chlorinated polyfluoroalkyl ether sulfonic acids (Cl-PFESAs) in metal plating workers (n = 19), high fish consumers (n = 45), and background controls (n = 8). Cl-PFESAs were detected in >98% of the sampled individuals with serum concentrations ranging <0.019-5040 ng/mL. Statistically higher median serum levels were observed in high fish consumers (93.7 ng/mL) and metal plating workers (51.5 ng/mL) compared to the background control group (4.78 ng/mL) (Kruskal Wallis rank sum test, p < 0.01). Cl-PFESAs could account for 0.269 to 93.3% of Sigma PFASs in human serum indicating that this compound class may explain a substantial fraction of previously unidentified organic fluorine in the Chinese population. Estimated half-lives for renal clearance (median 280 years; range 7.1-4230 years) and total elimination (median 15.3 years; range 10.1-56.4 years) for the eight carbon Cl-PFESA suggest that this is the most biopersistent PFAS in humans reported to date. The apparent ubiquitous distribution and slow elimination kinetics in humans underscore the need for more research and regulatory actions on Cl-PFESAs and PFAS alternatives with similar chemical structures.

National Category
Environmental Engineering Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-128510 (URN)10.1021/acs.est.5b05849 (DOI)000371371700032 ()26866980 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-04-08 Created: 2016-03-30 Last updated: 2022-02-23Bibliographically approved
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