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Albrecht, S. C., Leineweber, C., Kecklund, G. & Tucker, P. (2024). Prospective effects of work-time control on overtime, work-life interference and exhaustion in female and male knowledge workers. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 52(2), 205-215
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prospective effects of work-time control on overtime, work-life interference and exhaustion in female and male knowledge workers
2024 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 205-215Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aims: Employee-based flexible working hours are increasing, particularly among knowledge workers. Research indicates that women and men use work–time control (WTC; control over time off and daily hours) differently: while men work longer paid hours, women use WTC to counteract work–life interference. In a knowledge-worker sample, we examined associations between WTC and overtime, work–life interference and exhaustion and tested whether gender moderates the mediating role of overtime. Methods: The sample contained 2248 Swedish knowledge workers. Employing hierarchical regression modelling, we examined effects of control over time off/daily hours on subsequent overtime hours, work–life interference and exhaustion in general and in gender-stratified samples. Using conditional process analysis, we tested moderated mediation models. Results: Control over time off was related to less work–life interference (βmen= −0.117; 95% confidence interval (CI): −0.237 to 0.003; βwomen= −0.253; 95% CI: −0.386 to −0.120) and lower exhaustion (βmen= −0.199; 95% CI: −0.347 to −0.051; βwomen= −0.271; 95% CI: −0.443 to −0.100). For control over daily hours, estimates were close to zero. While men worked more overtime (42 min/week), we could not confirm gender moderating the indirect effect of control over time off/daily hours on work–life interference/exhaustion via overtime. Independent of gender, effects of control over time off on work–life interference were partly explained by working fewer overtime hours. Conclusions: Control over time off was related to lower exhaustion and better work–life balance (in particular for women). We found no evidence for men’s work–life interference increasing with higher WTC owing to working more overtime. Knowledge workers’ control over time off may help prevent work–life interference and burnout.

Keywords
work-life balance, burnout, long working hours, flexible work, longitudinal
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-215291 (URN)10.1177/14034948221150041 (DOI)000923893900001 ()36732910 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85147497211 (Scopus ID)
Note

This work was supported by the Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare (grant number 2013-0448) and NordForsk, the Nordic Programme on Health and Welfare (grant number 74809).

Available from: 2023-03-14 Created: 2023-03-14 Last updated: 2024-03-05Bibliographically approved
Albrecht, S. C. (2021). The Highs and Lows of Work-Time Control: Exploring the role of control over working hours for health. (Doctoral dissertation). Stockholm: Department of Public Health Sciences, Stockholm University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Highs and Lows of Work-Time Control: Exploring the role of control over working hours for health
2021 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Flexible work-time arrangements are thought to create ways of aligning work and private life and facilitate recovery. While temporal flexibility is found to generally bolster work–life balance, its effects on health outcomes are less well known. The present thesis seeks to examine if and how perceived control over working hours benefits workers’ health. Utilising a large Swedish cohort study, four empirical studies explored the association of work-time control (WTC) with subsequent mental and physical health as well as the underlying mechanisms and moderating influences.

Study I assessed the factorial structure of an instrument to measure WTC and found two sub-dimensions: control over daily hours (the length, starting and ending times of a workday) and control over time off (the taking of breaks/time/days off, paid and unpaid). Levels of control per sub-dimension were described by demographic and work-related factors for a large sample of Swedish workers. In particular, shift, public sector and female workers reported low levels of WTC.

Study II examined effects of control over daily hours and time off on depressive symptoms. Increasing control over time off was related to decreasing depressive symptoms over time, whereas only initial level of control over daily hours was associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms. For both sub-dimensions of WTC, the direction of this effect was predominantly from perceived control to subsequent depressive symptoms; reversed processes were of less importance.

Study III focused on work–life interference as one step on the causal chain between WTC and depressive symptoms and musculoskeletal complaints, respectively. For both sub-dimensions of WTC, part of the effect on depressive symptoms went through work–life interference. Reversed processes played a role between depressive symptoms and work–life interference only. Control over time off was found to mitigate work–life interference and subsequent depressive symptoms more than control over daily hours, albeit with generally small effects. Regarding musculoskeletal complaints, effects were even smaller and work–life interference appeared to be less important.

Study IV assessed gender differences in the impact of WTC on work–life interference and exhaustion regarding the mediating role of overtime hours. In a sample of knowledge workers, higher control over time off was associated with lower subsequent work–life interference and exhaustion, while control over daily hours was unrelated to both outcomes. Although men worked more overtime hours than women on average, no evidence was found for men with high control over time off/daily hours to perceive more work–life interference/exhaustion due to increased overtime compared to women.

This thesis found that higher levels of WTC were beneficial for a range of health outcomes, which was partly explained by fewer work–life conflicts. While these effects were generally small, control over time off in particular was consistently associated with favourable outcomes in health, work-life balance and working hours. Given that the level of workers’ discretion over working hours varies starkly by work and demographic factors, enhancing the availability of flexible work-time arrangements is in the interest of public health. WTC, with a particular focus on employees’ ability to take time off from work, may improve the daily work–life interface and support a sustainable working life.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Public Health Sciences, Stockholm University, 2021. p. 110
Series
Stockholm Studies in Public Health Sciences, ISSN 2003-0061 ; 5
Keywords
flexible work, flexible work-time arrangements, autonomy, psychosocial working conditions, longitudinal, mental health, physical health, work-life balance
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Public Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-197318 (URN)978-91-7911-646-0 (ISBN)978-91-7911-647-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2021-12-10, lärosal 18, hus 2, Albanovägen 12 and online via Zoom, public link is available at the department website, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2013-0448NordForsk, 74809
Available from: 2021-11-17 Created: 2021-10-11 Last updated: 2022-02-25Bibliographically approved
Albrecht, S. C., Leineweber, C., Ojajärvi, A., Oksanen, T., Kecklund, G. & Härmä, M. (2020). Association of work-time control with sickness absence due to musculoskeletal and mental disorders: An occupational cohort study. Journal of Occupational Health, 62(1), Article ID e12181.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Association of work-time control with sickness absence due to musculoskeletal and mental disorders: An occupational cohort study
Show others...
2020 (English)In: Journal of Occupational Health, ISSN 1341-9145, E-ISSN 1348-9585, Vol. 62, no 1, article id e12181Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: Work-time control is associated with lower sickness absence rates, but it remains unclear whether this association differs by type of diagnosis and sub-dimension of work-time control (control over daily hours and control over time off) and whether certain vulnerable groups benefit more from higher levels of work-time control.

Methods: Survey data from the Finnish 10-town study in 2004 were used to examine if baseline levels of work-time control were associated with register data on diagnose-specific sickness absence for 7 consecutive years (n = 22 599). Cox proportional hazard models were conducted, adjusted for age, sex, education, occupational status, shift work including nights, and physical/mental workload.

Results: During follow-up, 2,818 individuals were on sick leave (>= 10 days) due to musculoskeletal disorders and 1724 due to mental disorders. Employees with high (HR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.74-0.87; HR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.70-0.82, respectively) and moderate (HR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.77-0.90; HR = 0.85, 95% CI 0.79-0.91, respectively) levels of control over daily hours/control over time off had a decreased risk of sickness absence due to musculoskeletal disorders. Sub-group analyses revealed that especially workers who were older benefitted the most from higher levels of work-time control. Neither sub-dimension of work-time control was related to sickness absence due to mental disorders.

Conclusions: Over a 7-year period of follow-up, high and moderate levels of work-time control were related to lower rates of sickness absence due to musculoskeletal disorders, but not due to mental disorders.

Keywords
autonomy, cohort study, depressive symptoms, flexible working hours, prospective study, psychosocial work environment
National Category
Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-190119 (URN)10.1002/1348-9585.12181 (DOI)000603587700008 ()33314546 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2021-02-22 Created: 2021-02-22 Last updated: 2022-06-22Bibliographically approved
Albrecht, S. C., Kecklund, G. & Leineweber, C. (2020). The mediating effect of work-life interference on the relationship between work-time control and depressive and musculoskeletal symptoms. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 46(5), 469-479
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The mediating effect of work-life interference on the relationship between work-time control and depressive and musculoskeletal symptoms
2020 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 46, no 5, p. 469-479Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives Evidence shows that work-time control (WTC) affects health but underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Work-life interference (WLI) might be a step on the causal pathway. The present study examined whether WLI mediates effects on mental and physical health and contrasted these to other causal pathways.

Methods Four biennial waves from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH, N=26 804) were used. Cross-lagged analyses were conducted to estimate if WLI mediated effects from WTC (differentiating between control over daily hours and time off) to subsequent depressive and musculoskeletal symptoms. Other causal directions (reversed mediation, direct and reversed direct effects) and robustness of mediation (by including covariates) were examined.

Results WLI partially mediated the relationship of WTC (control over daily hours/time off) with both health outcomes. Indirect effect estimates were small for depressive symptoms (-0.053 for control over time off and -0.018 for control over daily hours) and very small for musculoskeletal symptoms (-0.007 and -0.003, respectively). While other causal directions were generally weaker than causal mediational pathways, they played a larger role for musculoskeletal compared to depressive symptoms. Estimates relating to control over time off were in general larger than for control over daily hours.

Conclusions Our results suggest that WLI mediates part of the effect from WTC to mental/musculoskeletal symptoms, but small estimates suggest that (i) WTC plays a small but consistent role in effects on health and (ii) particularly regarding musculoskeletal disorders, other causal directions and mediators need to be further examined.

Keywords
autonomy, flexible work hour, psychosocial factor, working hour, work-life balance, mental health, depression, depressive symptom, musculoskeletal pain, physical health, cohort study, mediation, Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-186291 (URN)10.5271/sjweh.3887 (DOI)000566336200004 ()32118284 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2020-10-28 Created: 2020-10-28 Last updated: 2022-02-25Bibliographically approved
Leineweber, C., Falkenberg, H. & Albrecht, S. (2019). Emotional exhaustion and parent's relative perceived work flexibility. In: Abstract Book of the 19th European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology Congress: Working for the greater good - Inspiring people, designing jobs and leading organizations for a more inclusive society. Paper presented at 19th European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology Congress, Turin, Italy, May 29-June 1, 2019 (pp. 1488-1488). , Article ID 1389.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Emotional exhaustion and parent's relative perceived work flexibility
2019 (English)In: Abstract Book of the 19th European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology Congress: Working for the greater good - Inspiring people, designing jobs and leading organizations for a more inclusive society, 2019, p. 1488-1488, article id 1389Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Purpose: When children are living at home, parents are interdependent of each other to care for them. Higher work flexibility than partner might provide better opportunity for recovery, but might also mean more responsibility for work at home or at paid work. It is possible that mothers and fathers use their relative work flexibility differently. The aim with this study was to investigate 1) the association between parent´s relative work flexibility, compared with their partner, and emotional exhaustion 2) gender differences in emotional exhaustion 3) the interaction between relative work flexibility and gender in relation to emotional exhaustion and 4) differences between mothers and fathers in time use.

Methodology: Mothers and fathers in paid work in Sweden with children living at home was included (n=2 911). Cross-sectional data was collected in 2012.

Results: The results indicated that 1) having higher flexibility than partner was associated with lover levels of emotional exhaustion; 2) mothers reported higher levels of emotional exhaustion than fathers 3) relative flexibility seemed to influence fathers emotional exhaustion more than mothers 4) differences in time use between mothers and fathers was found.

Limitations: Ideally, data from the same family would have been gathered and relative flexibility would have been measured in a more nuanced way.

Research/Practical Implications: Highlighting the importance of consider work flexibility in its family context.

Originality/Value: The first study, as far as we know, that investigates the relative work flexibility and emotional exhaustion among mothers and fathers.

Keywords
emotional exhaustion, parents, work flexibility
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-174807 (URN)
Conference
19th European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology Congress, Turin, Italy, May 29-June 1, 2019
Available from: 2019-10-10 Created: 2019-10-10 Last updated: 2022-02-26Bibliographically approved
Leineweber, C., Falkenberg, H. & Albrecht, S. C. (2018). Parent's Relative Perceived Work Flexibility Compared to Their Partner Is Associated With Emotional Exhaustion. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, Article ID 640.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Parent's Relative Perceived Work Flexibility Compared to Their Partner Is Associated With Emotional Exhaustion
2018 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 640Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A number of studies have found that control over work conditions and hours is positively related to mental health. Still, potential positive and negative effects of work flexibility remain to be fully explored. On the one hand, higher work flexibility might provide better opportunities for recovery. On the other hand, especially mothers may use flexibility to meet household and family demands. Here, we investigated the association between parent's work flexibility, rated relative to their partner, and emotional exhaustion in interaction with gender. Additionally, gender differences in time use were investigated. Cross-sectional analyses based on responses of employed parents to the 2012 wave of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) were conducted (N = 2,911). Generalized linear models with gamma distribution and a log-link function were used to investigate associations between relative work-flexibility (lower, equal, or higher as compared to partner), gender, and emotional exhaustion. After control for potential confounders, we found that having lower work flexibility than the partner was associated with higher levels of emotional exhaustion as compared to those with higher relative work flexibility. Also, being a mother was associated with higher levels of emotional exhaustion, independent of possible confounders. An interaction effect between low relative work flexibility and gender was found in relation to emotional exhaustion. Regarding time use, clear differences between mothers' and fathers' were found. However, few indications were found that relative work flexibility influenced time use. Mothers spent more time on household chores as compared to fathers, while fathers reported longer working hours. Fathers spent more time on relaxation compared with mothers. To conclude, our results indicate that lower relative work flexibility is detrimental for mental health both for mothers and fathers. However, while gender seems to have a pronounced effect on time use, relative work flexibility seems to have less influence on how time is used. Generally, mothers tend to spend more time on unpaid work while fathers spend longer hours on paid work and report more time for relaxation.

Keywords
autonomy, couple level, emotional exhaustion, flexibility, gender, work-time control
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-156250 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00640 (DOI)000431348500002 ()
Available from: 2018-05-04 Created: 2018-05-04 Last updated: 2022-03-23Bibliographically approved
Albrecht, S. C., Kecklund, G., Rajaleid, K. & Leineweber, C. (2017). The longitudinal relationship between control over working hours and depressive symptoms: Results from SLOSH, a population-based cohort study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 215, 143-151
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The longitudinal relationship between control over working hours and depressive symptoms: Results from SLOSH, a population-based cohort study
2017 (English)In: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 215, p. 143-151Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Psychosocial work factors can affect depressive moods, but research is inconclusive if flexibility to self-determine working hours (work-time control, WTC) is associated with depressive symptoms over time. We investigated if either sub-dimension of WTC, control over daily hours and control over time off, was related to depressive symptoms over time and examined causal, reversed-causal, and reciprocal pathways.

METHODS: The study was based on four waves of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health which is a follow-up of representative samples of the Swedish working population. WTC was measured using a 5-item index. Depressive symptoms were assessed with a brief subscale of the Symptom Checklist. Latent growth curve models and cross-lagged panel models were tested.

RESULTS: Best fit was found for a model with correlated intercepts (control over daily hours) and both correlated intercepts and slopes (control over time off) between WTC and depressive symptoms, with stronger associations for control over time off. Causal models estimating impacts from WTC to subsequent depressive symptoms were best fitting, with a standardised coefficient between -0.023 and -0.048.

LIMITATIONS: Results were mainly based on self-report data and mean age in the study sample was relatively high.

CONCLUSION: Higher WTC was related to fewer depressive symptoms over time albeit small effects. Giving workers control over working hours - especially over taking breaks and vacation - may improve working conditions and buffer against developing depression, potentially by enabling workers to recover more easily and promoting work-life balance.

Keywords
Work-time control, Flexible working hours, Psychosocial work environment, Prospective study, Autonomy
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-141489 (URN)10.1016/j.jad.2017.03.010 (DOI)000401213300020 ()28324780 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-04-05 Created: 2017-04-05 Last updated: 2022-02-28Bibliographically approved
Albrecht, S., Kecklund, G., Tucker, P. & Leineweber, C. (2016). Investigating the factorial structure and availability of work time control in a representative sample of the Swedish working population. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 44(3), 320-328
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigating the factorial structure and availability of work time control in a representative sample of the Swedish working population
2016 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 320-328Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aims: Past research has often neglected the sub-dimensions of work time control (WTC). Moreover, differences in levels of WTC with respect to work and demographic characteristics have not yet been examined in a representative sample. We investigated these matters in a recent sample of the Swedish working population. Methods: The study was based on the 2014 data collection of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health. We assessed the structure of the WTC measure using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Differences in WTC by work and demographic characteristics were examined with independent sample t-tests, one-way ANOVAs and gender-stratified logistic regressions. Results: Best model fit was found for a two-factor structure that distinguished between control over daily hours and control over time off (root mean square error of approximation = 0.06; 95% CI 0.04 to 0.09; Comparative Fit Index (CFI) = 0.99). Women, shift and public-sector workers reported lower control in relation to both factors. Age showed small associations with WTC, while a stronger link was suggested for civil status and family situation. Night, roster and rotating shift work seemed to be the most influential factors on reporting low control over daily hours and time off. Conclusions: Our data confirm the two-dimensional structure underlying WTC, namely the components 'control over daily hours' and 'control over time off'. Women, public-sector and shift workers reported lower levels of control. Future research should examine the public health implications of WTC, in particular whether increased control over daily hours and time off can reduce health problems associated with difficult working-time arrangements.

Keywords
Work time control, flexible work-time arrangements, autonomy, shift work, flexitime, factor analysis
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-125003 (URN)10.1177/1403494815618854 (DOI)000373591600013 ()26620363 (PubMedID)P-3313 (Local ID)P-3313 (Archive number)P-3313 (OAI)
Available from: 2016-01-07 Created: 2016-01-07 Last updated: 2022-03-23Bibliographically approved
Tucker, P., Albrecht, S., Kecklund, G., Beckers, D. G. J. & Leineweber, C. (2016). Work time control, sleep & accident risk: A prospective cohort study. Chronobiology International, 33(6), 619-629
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Work time control, sleep & accident risk: A prospective cohort study
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2016 (English)In: Chronobiology International, ISSN 0742-0528, E-ISSN 1525-6073, Vol. 33, no 6, p. 619-629Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We examined whether the beneficial impact of work time control (WTC) on sleep leads to lower accident risk, using data from a nationally representative survey conducted in Sweden. Logistic regressions examined WTC in 2010 and 2012 as predictors of accidents occurring in the subsequent 2 years (N = 4840 and 4337, respectively). Sleep disturbance and frequency of short sleeps in 2012 were examined as potential mediators of the associations between WTC in 2010 and subsequent accidents as reported in 2014 (N = 3636). All analyses adjusted for age, sex, education, occupational category, weekly work hours, shift work status, job control and perceived accident risk at work. In both waves, overall WTC was inversely associated with accidents (p = 0.048 and p = 0.038, respectively). Analyses of the sub-dimensions of WTC indicated that Control over Daily Hours (influence over start and finish times, and over length of shift) did not predict accidents in either wave, while Control over Time-off (CoT; influence over taking breaks, running private errands during work and taking paid leave) predicted fewer accidents in both waves (p = 0.013 and p = 0.010). Sleep disturbance in 2012 mediated associations between WTC/CoT in 2010 and accidents in 2014, although effects' sizes were small (effectWTC = -0.006, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.018 to -0.001; effectCoT = -0.009, 95%CI = -0.022 to -0.001; unstandardized coefficients), with the indirect effects of sleep disturbance accounting for less than 5% of the total direct and indirect effects. Frequency of short sleeps was not a significant mediator. WTC reduces the risk of subsequently being involved in an accident, although sleep may not be a strong component of the mechanism underlying this association.

Keywords
Accidents, injuries, longitudinal survey, mediation, sleep, work hours, work time control
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-132149 (URN)10.3109/07420528.2016.1167723 (DOI)000379779500006 ()27082283 (PubMedID)P-3354 (Local ID)P-3354 (Archive number)P-3354 (OAI)
Available from: 2016-07-20 Created: 2016-07-20 Last updated: 2022-02-23Bibliographically approved
Albrecht, S., Leineweber, C., Kecklund, G. & Tucker, P.Prospective effects of work-time control on overtime, work-life interference and exhaustion in female and male knowledge workers.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prospective effects of work-time control on overtime, work-life interference and exhaustion in female and male knowledge workers
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Aims: Employee-based flexible working hours are increasing, particularly among knowledge workers. Research indicates that women and men use work–time control (WTC; control over time off and daily hours) differently: while men work longer paid hours, women use WTC to counteract work–life interference. In a knowledge-worker sample, we examined associations between WTC and overtime, work–life interference and exhaustion and tested if gender moderates the mediating role of overtime.

Methods: The sample contained 2248 Swedish knowledge workers. Employing hierarchical regression modelling, we examined effects of control over time off/daily hours on subsequent overtime hours, work–life interference and exhaustion in general and in gender-stratified samples. Using conditional process analysis, we tested moderated mediation models.

Results: Control over time off was related to less work–life interference (βmen=-0.117; CI95%: -0.237 to 0.003; βwomen=-0.253; CI95%: -0.386 to -0.120) and lower exhaustion (βmen=-0.199; CI95%: -0.347 to -0.051; βwomen=-0.271; CI95%: -0.443 to -0.100). For control over daily hours, estimates were close to zero. While men worked more overtime (42 minutes/week), we could not confirm gender moderating the indirect effect of control over time off/daily hours on work–life interference/exhaustion via overtime. Independent of gender, effects of control over time off on work–life interference were partly explained by working fewer overtime hours.

Conclusion: Control over time off was related to lower exhaustion and better work–life balance (in particular for women). We found no evidence for men’s work–life interference increasing with higher WTC due to working more overtime. Knowledge workers’ control over time off may aid to prevent work–life interference and burnout.

Keywords
flexible work, work-life balance, burnout, longitudinal, long working hours
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Research subject
Public Health Sciences; Gender Studies; Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-197317 (URN)
Funder
NordForsk, 74809Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2013-0448
Available from: 2021-10-08 Created: 2021-10-08 Last updated: 2022-03-21Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-0724-6823

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