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Ramnerö, Jonas
Publications (10 of 27) Show all publications
Lindner, P., Ramnerö, J., Ivanova, E. & Carlbring, P. (2021). Studying Gambling Behaviors and Responsible Gambling Tools in a Simulated Online Casino Integrated With Amazon Mechanical Turk: Development and Initial Validation of Survey Data and Platform Mechanics of the Frescati Online Research Casino. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, Article ID 571954.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Studying Gambling Behaviors and Responsible Gambling Tools in a Simulated Online Casino Integrated With Amazon Mechanical Turk: Development and Initial Validation of Survey Data and Platform Mechanics of the Frescati Online Research Casino
2021 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 11, article id 571954Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: Online gambling, popular among both problem and recreational gamblers, simultaneously entails both heightened addiction risks as well as unique opportunities for prevention and intervention. There is a need to bridge the growing literature on learning and extinction mechanisms of gambling behavior, with account tracking studies using real-life gambling data. In this study, we describe the development and validation of the Frescati Online Research Casino (FORC): a simulated online casino where games, visual themes, outcome sizes, probabilities, and other variables of interest can be experimentally manipulated to conduct behavioral analytic studies and evaluate the efficacy of responsible gambling tools.

Methods: FORC features an initial survey for self-reporting of gambling and gambling problems, along with several games resembling regular real-life casino games, designed to allow Pavlovian and instrumental learning. FORC was developed with maximum flexibility in mind, allowing detailed experiment specification by setting parameters using an online interface, including the display of messages. To allow convenient and rapid data collection from diverse samples, FORC is independently hosted yet integrated with the popular crowdsourcing platform Amazon Mechanical Turk through a reimbursement key mechanism. To validate the survey data quality and game mechanics of FORC, n = 101 participants were recruited, who answered an questionnaire on gambling habits and problems, then played both slot machine and card-draw type games. Questionnaire and trial-by-trial behavioral data were analyzed using standard psychometric tests, and outcome distribution modeling.

Results: The expected associations among variables in the introductory questionnaire were found along with good psychometric properties, suggestive of good quality data. Only 6% of participants provided seemingly poor behavioral data. Game mechanics worked as intended: gambling outcomes showed the expected pattern of random sampling with replacement and were normally distributed around the set percentages, while balances developed according to the set return to player rate.

Conclusions: FORC appears to be a valid paradigm for simulating online gambling and for collecting survey and behavioral data, offering a valuable compromise between stringent experimental paradigms with lower external validity, and real-world gambling account tracking data with lower internal validity.

Keywords
online gambling behavior, software, Amazon mechanical turk, casino gambling, Pavlovian (classical) conditioning, instrumental (operant) behavior
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-190591 (URN)10.3389/fpsyt.2020.571954 (DOI)000619466000001 ()
Note

The FORC project was made possible by two grants to PL, JR, and PC from the Independent Research Council of Svenska Spel, the state-operated gambling provider in Sweden which has no role in the decisions of the research council. Additional funding comes from the Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare (FORTE) to PC, and an internal grant from the Centre for Psychiatry Research (Region Stockholm and Karolinska Institutet) to PL.

Available from: 2021-02-24 Created: 2021-02-24 Last updated: 2022-02-25Bibliographically approved
Molander, O., Lindner, P., Ramnerö, J., Bjureberg, J., Carlbring, P. & Berman, A. H. (2020). Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy for problem gambling in routine care: protocol for a non-randomized pilot and feasibility trial. Pilot and Feasibility Studies, 6, Article ID 106.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy for problem gambling in routine care: protocol for a non-randomized pilot and feasibility trial
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2020 (English)In: Pilot and Feasibility Studies, E-ISSN 2055-5784, Vol. 6, article id 106Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Problem gambling and gambling disorder are major public health concerns worldwide, and awareness of associated negative consequences is rising. In parallel, treatment demand has increased, and Internet interventions offer a promising alternative for providing evidence-based treatment at scale to a low cost.

Method: We developed a novel Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral treatment for gambling, based on qualitative interviews with treatment-seeking gamblers, behavioral research on gambling behavior, and the pathway model for problem gambling. This research protocol describes a non-randomized pilot and feasibility trial conducted in routine addiction care with adult treatment-seeking patients (max N = 25) with problem gambling. The primary aim is to ensure acceptability and safety, measured by satisfaction, credibility, working alliance, and possible negative effects. Secondary aims are feasibility of study procedures in terms of recruitment and measurement procedures as well as potential effectiveness measured weekly by gambling symptoms as primary outcome and gambling behavior, quality of life, symptoms of depression and anxiety, alcohol, and drug use as secondary outcomes. Potential mediators measured weekly are loss of control, verbal rules, and well-being.

Discussion: This study is innovative in several respects, regarding both treatment development and implementation. The results of the study will guide a future randomized controlled trial, as well as the development of the intervention and intervention implementation within ordinary addiction care.

Trial registration: Clinical trials.gov, NCT ID: NCT03946098. Registered 10 May 2019

Keywords
iCBT, gambling, problem gambling, gambling disorder, psychiatric comorbidity, ordinary addiction care
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-183830 (URN)10.1186/s40814-020-00647-5 (DOI)
Available from: 2020-08-06 Created: 2020-08-06 Last updated: 2022-06-30Bibliographically approved
Molander, O., Lindner, P., Bjureberg, J., Ramnerö, J., Carlbring, P. & Berman, A. H. (2019). Internet-based Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Gambling Disorder and Psychiatric Co-morbidities: A Pilot Study Protocol. In: : . Paper presented at The 10th Scientific Meeting of the International Society for Research on Internet Interventions (ISRII): The Next Generation, Auckland, New Zealand, 13-15 February 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Internet-based Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Gambling Disorder and Psychiatric Co-morbidities: A Pilot Study Protocol
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2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Context: Although cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is recommended to address the high prevalence of co-occurring mental ill health in problem gamblers, there are, to our knowledge, no specific treatment protocols available targeting psychiatric co-morbidities. Furthermore, psychiatric co-morbidities are seldom addressed in gambling treatment studies.

Intervention: We are currently developing a new internet-based CBT protocol based on the Pathways model [1]. Briefly, this etiological model states that there are distinct pathways for development and maintenance of gambling problem in conjunction with psychiatric co-morbidities. Our treatment will offer tailored behavioral interventions targeting the specific maintenance processes for each gambling pathway proposed by the Pathway model.

Methods: Treatment-seeking participants (N=20) with Gambling Disorder and psychiatric co-morbidities will be recruited in a first pilot study delivered via the internet. In addition to evaluating feasibility and potential efficacy, we will examine moderators according to the proposed maintenance processes in the Pathways model.

Results: The pilot study is planned to commence spring 2019.

Conclusion: The results of the pilot study will hopefully contribute to specific knowledge regarding treatment interventions for gamblers with psychiatric co-morbidities, as well as to the research field as a whole.

Keywords
problem gambling, CBT, Pathways model, psychiatric co-morbidities, internet intervention
National Category
Psychology Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Psychology; Public Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-167428 (URN)
Conference
The 10th Scientific Meeting of the International Society for Research on Internet Interventions (ISRII): The Next Generation, Auckland, New Zealand, 13-15 February 2019
Available from: 2019-03-28 Created: 2019-03-28 Last updated: 2022-06-30Bibliographically approved
Ramnerö, J., Molander, O., Lindner, P. & Carlbring, P. (2019). What can be learned about gambling from a learning perspective?: A narrative review. Nordic Psychology, 71(4), 303-322
Open this publication in new window or tab >>What can be learned about gambling from a learning perspective?: A narrative review
2019 (English)In: Nordic Psychology, ISSN 1901-2276, E-ISSN 1904-0016, Vol. 71, no 4, p. 303-322Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Gambling is a field that harbors both harmless recreational activities and pathological varieties that may be considered an addictive disorder. It is also a field that deserves special interest from a learning theoretical perspective, since pathological gambling represents both a pure behavioral addiction involving no ingestion of substances and behavior that exhibits extreme resistance to extinction. As the field of applied psychology of learning, or behavior analysis, espouses a bottom-up approach, the basis of understanding begins in basic research on behavioral principles. This article provides a narrative review of the field of laboratory experiments conducted to disentangle the learning processes of gambling behavior. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of learning principles in gambling that has been demonstrated under lab conditions and that may be of importance in the development of clinical applications when gambling has become a problem. Several processes, like the importance of delay and probability discounting, reinforcement without actual winning, and rule governed behavior have been experimentally verified. The common denominator appears to be that they impede extinction. Other areas, especially Pavlovian conditioning, are scarce in the literature. Our recommendations for the future would be to study Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning in interaction. Treatment programs should profit from strategies that serve to enhance extinction learning. We also conclude that online gambling should provide a promising environment for controlled research on how to limit excessive gambling, provided that the gambling companies are interested in that.

Keywords
gambling, learning theory, discounting, reinforcement
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-170183 (URN)10.1080/19012276.2019.1616320 (DOI)000469601500001 ()
Available from: 2019-07-17 Created: 2019-07-17 Last updated: 2022-06-30Bibliographically approved
Johansson, R., Ramnerö, J. & Jönsson, A. (2018). Arbitrarily applicable relational responding as non-axiomatic logical reasoning. In: Tom Ziemke, Mattias Arvola, Nils Dahlbäck, Erik Billing (Ed.), Proceedings of the 14th SweCog Conference: . Paper presented at SweCog 2018, Linköping, Sweden, 11-12 October, 2018 (pp. 7-9). Skövde: University of Skövde
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Arbitrarily applicable relational responding as non-axiomatic logical reasoning
2018 (English)In: Proceedings of the 14th SweCog Conference / [ed] Tom Ziemke, Mattias Arvola, Nils Dahlbäck, Erik Billing, Skövde: University of Skövde , 2018, p. 7-9Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In the research tradition called “contextual behavioral science” (Zettle, Hayes, & Barnes-Holmes, 2016) it is argued that a large part of cognitive phenomena are made possible due to a type of operant behavior known as “arbitrarily applicable relational responding”. Relational Frame Theory (RFT; Hayes, Barnes-Holmes, & Roche, 2001; Roche & Dymond, 2013) is a contextual behavioral account of language and cognition. RFT aims to develop a unified account of language and cognition and have been showed to account for as diverse topics as language development, the emergence of a self, human suffering, intelligence, problem solving, etc. The fundamental thesis of RFT is that language and cognition are all instances of arbitrarily applicable relational responding (AARR). According to this perspective, relating means responding to one event in terms of another. While both non-humans and humans are able to respond relationally, only humans seem to able to do this arbitrarily. For example, a human being can be presented with three similar coins and being told that “coin A is worth less than coin B, which in turn is worth less than coin C”. The fact that a human being in some context would immediately pick coin A, is to RFT an example of AARR in which stimuli are arbitrarily related along a comparative dimension of worth.

NARS (Non-Axiomatic Reasoning System; Wang, 2006, 2013) is a project aiming to building a general purpose intelligent system. An assumption in NARS is that the essence of intelligence is the principle of adapting to the environment while working with insufficient knowledge and resources. Accordingly, an intelligent system should rely on finite processing capacity, work in real time, be open to unexpected tasks, and learn from experience. NARS is built as a reasoning system, using a formal specification “non-axiomatic logic” (NAL) to define its functionality. NAL is designed incrementally with multiple layers. At each layer, NAL and its internal language Narsese are extended to have a higher expressive power, a richer semantics, and a larger set of inference rules, so as to increase the intelligence of the system. The reasoning process in NARS uniformly carries out many cognitive functions that are traditionally studied as separate processes with different mechanisms, such as learning, perceiving, planning, predicting, remembering, problem solving, decision making, etc.

The primary aim of this work is to investigate if NARS can do AARR with gradually increasing complexity, and under which conditions this is made possible. Potential applications are for example describing and exploring mental health phenomena within an artificial general intelligence framework.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Skövde: University of Skövde, 2018
Keywords
language comprehension, stimulus equivalence, relational responding, NARS, AARR, RFT research, intelligent systems
National Category
Computer Sciences Applied Psychology
Research subject
Clinical Psychology; Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-161287 (URN)978-91-983667-3-0 (ISBN)
Conference
SweCog 2018, Linköping, Sweden, 11-12 October, 2018
Available from: 2018-10-19 Created: 2018-10-19 Last updated: 2022-02-26Bibliographically approved
Bejnö, H., Johansson, S., Ramnerö, J., Grimaldi, L. & Cepeda, R. (2018). Emergent Language Responses Following Match-to-Sample Training among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. International Journal of Psychology & Psychological Therapy / Revista Internacional de Psicologia y Terapia Psicologica, 18(1), 1-14
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Emergent Language Responses Following Match-to-Sample Training among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
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2018 (English)In: International Journal of Psychology & Psychological Therapy / Revista Internacional de Psicologia y Terapia Psicologica, ISSN 1577-7057, E-ISSN 2340-2857, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The present study explored the effects of match-to-sample training on emergent responses in the domains of receptive and expressive language among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in an applied setting. A concurrent multiple probe design across six participants was applied, with a follow-up after 10 days. All six children participated in a match-to-sample training procedure. The participants were trained to match a picture card of an item with a word card corresponding to the name of the item, and a word card of an item with a picture card corresponding to the name of the item. After training, three participants developed the emergent responses of receptively identifying and expressively naming both picture cards and word cards. There was a correspondence between acquired matching skills and the development of emergent language responses. Follow-up measures showed that the acquired emergent responses remained somewhat stable over time. The results are discussed in relation to prior research and in terms of implications for teaching children with ASD language skills in applied settings such as preschools. The results are also discussed in relation to the participant’s prior verbal skills and to the retention of emergent language responses.

Keywords
emergent language responses, match-to-sample, matching training, language acquisition, autism spectrum disorder
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-154144 (URN)
Available from: 2018-03-16 Created: 2018-03-16 Last updated: 2022-02-28Bibliographically approved
Ramnerö, J., Gustavsson, T. & Lundgren, T. (2017). Må dåligt: Om psykopatologi i vardagslivet. Stockholm: Natur och kultur
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Må dåligt: Om psykopatologi i vardagslivet
2017 (Swedish)Book (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

När vi ställs inför ångest, depression, självskadebeteende och psykos uppfattar vi det ofta som svårbegripligt och främmande. Med Må dåligt vill författarna öka förståelsen för psykisk ohälsa.  De visar både hur olika tillstånd yttrar sig i vardagslivet och hur allmänmänskliga psykologiska processer bidrar till dem. Bokens utgångspunkt är att psykisk ohälsa utvecklas i samspel mellan den omgivande miljön och vad vi lär oss av våra erfarenheter under livet. Ett huvudbudskap är att psykisk hälsa inte är detsamma som ett liv fritt från det som kan vara plågsamt, utan det avgörande är ett liv som är värt att leva.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2017. p. 303
Keywords
psykisk ohälsa, psykopatologi i vardagslivet, ångest, depression, självskadebeteende, psykos
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-142965 (URN)9789127144675 (ISBN)
Available from: 2017-05-08 Created: 2017-05-08 Last updated: 2022-02-28Bibliographically approved
Ramnerö, J., Folke, F. & Kanter, J. W. (2016). A learning theory account of depression. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 57(1), 73-82
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A learning theory account of depression
2016 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 57, no 1, p. 73-82Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Learning theory provides a foundation for understanding and deriving treatment principles for impacting a spectrum of functional processes relevant to the construct of depression. While behavioral interventions have been commonplace in the cognitive behavioral tradition, most often conceptualized within a cognitive theoretical framework, recent years have seen renewed interest in more purely behavioral models. These modern learning theory accounts of depression focus on the interchange between behavior and the environment, mainly in terms of lack of reinforcement, extinction of instrumental behavior, and excesses of aversive control, and include a conceptualization of relevant cognitive and emotional variables. These positions, drawn from extensive basic and applied research, cohere with biological theories on reduced reward learning and reward responsiveness and views of depression as a heterogeneous, complex set of disorders. Treatment techniques based on learning theory, often labeled Behavioral Activation (BA) focus on activating the individual in directions that increase contact with potential reinforcers, as defined ideographically with the client. BA is considered an empirically well-established treatment that generalizes well across diverse contexts and populations. The learning theory account is discussed in terms of being a parsimonious model and ground for treatments highly suitable for large scale dissemination.

Keywords
depression, learning theory, behavioral principles, behavior activation
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-127504 (URN)10.1111/sjop.12233 (DOI)000372356400010 ()
Available from: 2016-03-07 Created: 2016-03-07 Last updated: 2022-02-23Bibliographically approved
Ramnerö, J. & Jansson, B. (2016). The stability of treatment goals, as assessed by a Swedish version of the Bern Inventory of Treatment Goals. Nordic Psychology, 68(1), 30-39
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The stability of treatment goals, as assessed by a Swedish version of the Bern Inventory of Treatment Goals
2016 (English)In: Nordic Psychology, ISSN 1901-2276, E-ISSN 1904-0016, Vol. 68, no 1, p. 30-39Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Formulating treatment goals has been shown to be an area of vital concern for both outcome and treatment processes. However, it is not as yet an area of structured routine assessment, either in clinical practice or in research. One possible explanation for this is the lack of validated and readily available goal assessment procedures. The present study investigated the test–retest stability of a Swedish translation of the checklist version of the Bern Inventory of Treatment Goals (BIT-C) among 30 patients in primary care. We calculated the consistency of the endorsement of the different therapeutic goal categories over a 2-week period prior to treatment. There were no changes in symptoms or quality-of-life-related measures between the two assessment points. Overall, the goal category items in BIT-C were found to demonstrate moderate to substantial reliability. In conclusion, even though our study was small, it provided initial psychometric support for the Swedish version of BIT-C as a clinically useful tool for the assessment of treatment goals.

Keywords
treatment goals, BIT-C, goal assessment, goal stability
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-127505 (URN)10.1080/19012276.2015.1045544 (DOI)000375607900004 ()
Available from: 2016-03-07 Created: 2016-03-07 Last updated: 2022-02-23Bibliographically approved
Ramnerö, J. & Jansson, B. (2016). Treatment goals and their attainment: A structured approach to assessment and evaluation. The Cognitive Behaviour Therapist, 9, Article ID e2.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Treatment goals and their attainment: A structured approach to assessment and evaluation
2016 (English)In: The Cognitive Behaviour Therapist, E-ISSN 1754-470X, Vol. 9, article id e2Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Treatment goals are considered a vital part of therapeutic work, and their role is often emphasized in cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). However, the attainment of goals is rarely accounted for in terms of treatment outcome. In this study, we set out to investigate a structured format for goal assessment and goal attainment in CBT delivered as routine care. We were especially interested in the sensitivity to change in perceived goal attainment. Patients completed a self-administered version of the Bern Inventory of Treatment Goals (BIT-C) and rated their perceived attainment on a maximum of five prioritized goals before and after 12 weeks of treatment, along with measures on anxiety, depression and health-related quality of life. The results indicated that the prioritized goals only partially correspond to disorder-specific concerns, and that perceived proximity to treatment goals is clearly associated with improvements following treatment. The results are discussed in terms of the BIT-C being a promising tool for use in clinical settings in assessing treatment goals as well as in evaluating the attainment of these goals.

Keywords
Bern Inventory of Treatment Goals, goal assessment, goal attainment, treatment goals
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-127664 (URN)10.1017/S1754470X15000756 (DOI)000373603400001 ()
Available from: 2016-03-09 Created: 2016-03-09 Last updated: 2022-10-03Bibliographically approved
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