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Dåderman, A. M., Kajonius, P. J., Hallberg, A., Skog, S. & Hellström, Å. (2023). Leading with a cool head and a warm heart: trait-based leadership resources linked to task performance, perceived stress, and work engagement. Current Psychology, 42, 29559-29580
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Leading with a cool head and a warm heart: trait-based leadership resources linked to task performance, perceived stress, and work engagement
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2023 (English)In: Current Psychology, ISSN 1046-1310, E-ISSN 1936-4733, Vol. 42, p. 29559-29580Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Leaders of today need to achieve well in terms of task performance, perceiving low stress, and having high levels of work engagement. One may ask whether trait-based leadership resource factors can be identified and how such resource factors might relate to task performance, perceived stress, and work engagement. Our aim was to test the hypothesis, derived from Hobfoll’s motivational Conservation of Resources (COR) theory, that there are trait-based leadership resource factors, which are differentially correlated to the leaders’ task performance, perceived stress, and work engagement. Leaders (N = 344) aged from 23 to 65 years (M = 49, SD = 8.6; 58% women) completed an online questionnaire including measures of task performance, perceived stress, work engagement, personality traits, trait emotional intelligence, empathy, performance-related self-esteem, compassionate and rational leadership competence, and coping resources for stress. Using exploratory factor analysis, we identified four trait-based leadership resource factors. With Bonferroni adjustment, and controlling for sex, age, number of years in the current managerial position, self-deceptive enhancement, and impression management, only Rational Mastery was significantly positively correlated with task performance. Rational Mastery, Efficient Coping, and Modesty were negatively correlated with perceived stress, and all factors except Modesty, but including the fourth (Good-Heartedness) were positively correlated with work engagement. Organizations striving for sustainable work conditions should support trait-based leadership, which depends not only on a task-oriented resource such as rational mastery, but also on human-oriented resources such as efficient coping, modesty, and good-heartedness, all of them being differentially related to task performance, perceived stress, and work engagement.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2023
Keywords
successful leadership, trait emotional intelligence, personality, coping resources for stress, empathy and compassion, socially desirable responding
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-212589 (URN)10.1007/s12144-022-03767-8 (DOI)000886186300002 ()2-s2.0-85142368711 (Scopus ID)
Note

Open access funding provided by University West, Trollhättan, Sweden. Municipal Academy West (100127) provided funding for material preparation, data collection and data management, and University West (LINA 100314) for preparation of this article.

Available from: 2022-12-13 Created: 2022-12-13 Last updated: 2024-01-11Bibliographically approved
Hellström, Å. (2022). Explaining the anomalous results of stimulus comparison: Noisy target correlates help optimize discrimination. In: G. R. Patching (Ed.), Fechner Day 2022: Proceedings of the 38th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics. Paper presented at Fechner Day 2022, 38th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics. 23-26 August 2022, Lund, Sweden (pp. 37-40). Lund: International Society for Psychophysics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Explaining the anomalous results of stimulus comparison: Noisy target correlates help optimize discrimination
2022 (English)In: Fechner Day 2022: Proceedings of the 38th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics / [ed] G. R. Patching, Lund: International Society for Psychophysics , 2022, p. 37-40Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The basic idea of weighting in stimulus comparison has become widely accepted. However, Hellström's (1979) sensation-weighting model (SWM) for stimulus comparison is still controversial. The full range of results of the experiment that the SWM was originally based on has remained neglected. Some of these results are "anomalous" and must be seen as a serious challenge for modelers who seek to apply currently popular ideas, such as Bayesian optimization, to stimulus comparison. Here, based on the SWM, the weighing-in of reference levels for discrimination optimization is discussed, emphasizing the potential role of noisy target correlates (NTCs).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lund: International Society for Psychophysics, 2022
Keywords
stimulus comparison, sensation-weighting model, discrimination optimization
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-213798 (URN)
Conference
Fechner Day 2022, 38th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics. 23-26 August 2022, Lund, Sweden
Available from: 2023-01-17 Created: 2023-01-17 Last updated: 2023-01-18Bibliographically approved
Hellström, Å. (2020). Något om psykofysiken och dess utvecklingi Stockholm... ur mitt perspektiv. In: Gunn Johansson (Ed.), Historien om svensk psykologisk forskning: Utvecklingen från perception och psykofysik (pp. 97-106). Stockholm: Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademien
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Något om psykofysiken och dess utvecklingi Stockholm... ur mitt perspektiv
2020 (Swedish)In: Historien om svensk psykologisk forskning: Utvecklingen från perception och psykofysik / [ed] Gunn Johansson, Stockholm: Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademien, 2020, p. 97-106Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademien, 2020
Series
Konferenser / Kungl. Vitterhets historie och antikvitets akademien, ISSN 0348-1433 ; 101
Keywords
psykofysik, inspiratörer, Hannes Eisler, tidsperception, tidsfelet, sensation weighting, Fechner Day
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-189023 (URN)978-91-88763-16-7 (ISBN)
Available from: 2021-01-15 Created: 2021-01-15 Last updated: 2022-02-25Bibliographically approved
Hellström, Å., Patching, G. R. & Rammsayer, T. H. (2020). Sensation weighting in duration discrimination: A univariate, multivariate, and varied-design study of presentation-order effects. Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, 82, 3196-3220
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sensation weighting in duration discrimination: A univariate, multivariate, and varied-design study of presentation-order effects
2020 (English)In: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, ISSN 1943-3921, E-ISSN 1943-393X, Vol. 82, p. 3196-3220Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Stimulus discriminability is often assessed by comparisons of two successive stimuli: a fixed standard (St) and a varied comparison stimulus (Co). Hellstrom's sensation weighting (SW) model describes the subjective difference between St and Co as a difference between two weighted compounds, each comprising a stimulus and its internal reference level (ReL). The presentation order of St and Co has two important effects: Relative overestimation of one stimulus is caused by perceptual time-order errors (TOEs), as well as by judgment biases. Also, sensitivity to changes in Co tends to differ between orders StCo and CoSt: the Type B effect. In three duration discrimination experiments, difference limens (DLs) were estimated by an adaptive staircase method. The SW model was adapted for modeling of DLs generated with this method. In Experiments 1 and 2, St durations were 100, 215, 464, and 1,000 ms in separate blocks. TOEs and Type B effects were assessed with univariate and multivariate analyses, and were well accounted for by the SW model, suggesting that the two effects are closely related, as this model predicts. With short St durations, lower DLs were found with the order CoSt than with StCo, challenging alternative models. In Experiment 3, St durations of 100 and 215 ms, or 464 and 1,000 ms, were intermixed within a block. From the SW model this was predicted to shift the ReL for the first-presented interval, thereby also shifting the TOE. This prediction was confirmed, strengthening the SW model's account of the comparison of stimulus magnitudes.

Keywords
duration discrimination, presentation-order effect, time-order error, Type B effect, sensation weighting
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-181807 (URN)10.3758/s13414-020-01999-z (DOI)000529137600001 ()32342344 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2020-06-15 Created: 2020-06-15 Last updated: 2022-02-26Bibliographically approved
Fernaeus, S.-E. & Hellström, Å. (2018). Conceptual elaboration versus direct lexical access in WAIS-similarities: differential effects of white-matter lesions and gray matter volumes. Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition, 25(6), 893-903
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conceptual elaboration versus direct lexical access in WAIS-similarities: differential effects of white-matter lesions and gray matter volumes
2018 (English)In: Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition, ISSN 1382-5585, E-ISSN 1744-4128, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 893-903Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) subscale Similarities have been classified as a test of either verbal comprehension or of inductive reasoning. The reason may be that items divide into two categories. We tested the hypothesis of heterogeneity of items in WAIS-Similarities. Consecutive patients at a memory clinic and healthy controls participated in the study. White-matter hyperintensities (WMHs) and normalized temporal lobe volumes were measured based on Magnetic resonance Imaging (MRI), and tests of verbal memory and attention were used in addition to WAIS-Similarities to collect behavioural data. Factor analysis supported the hypothesis that two factors are involved in the performance of WAIS-similarities: (1) semiautomatic lexical access and (2) conceptual elaboration. These factors were highly correlated but provided discriminative diagnostic information: In logistic regression analyses, scores of the lexical access factor and of the conceptual elaboration factor discriminated patients with mild cognitive impairment from Alzheimer’s disease patients and from healthy controls, respectively. High scores of WMH, indicating periventricular white-matter lesions, predicted factor scores of direct lexical access but not those of conceptual elaboration, which were predicted only by medial and lateral temporal lobe volumes.

Keywords
WAIS-similarities, conceptual elaboration, lexical access, white-matter lesions, gray matter volumes
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-162164 (URN)10.1080/13825585.2017.1378310 (DOI)000452304800007 ()
Available from: 2018-11-14 Created: 2018-11-14 Last updated: 2022-02-26Bibliographically approved
Hellström, Å. & Rammsayer, T. (2018). Effects of sensitivity, bias, and stimulus presentation order in comparative discrimination of interval durations: A univariate and multivariate study. In: Friedrich Müller, Lara Ludwigs, Malizia Kupper (Ed.), Fechner Day 2018: Proceedings of the 34th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics. Paper presented at Fechner Day 2018: 34th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics, Lüneburg, Germany, August 20-24, 2018 (pp. 266-271). International Society for Psychophysics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of sensitivity, bias, and stimulus presentation order in comparative discrimination of interval durations: A univariate and multivariate study
2018 (English)In: Fechner Day 2018: Proceedings of the 34th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics / [ed] Friedrich Müller, Lara Ludwigs, Malizia Kupper, International Society for Psychophysics , 2018, p. 266-271Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

According to the sensation weighting model (SWM), stimulus magnitude level dependent time-order errors (TOEs) in stimulus comparison arise from uneven stimulus weighting, levered by asymmetry of an internal reference level; the weighting also causes discriminability to depend on the presentation order of standard (St) and comparison stimulus (Co) (the Type B effect). Both of these effects, as well as judgment bias, determine the measured difference limen (DL). In two duration discrimination experiments, these contributions to the DL were explored, using an adaptive staircase method. The compared intervals were filled auditory or empty visual. The interstimulus interval was 900 ms and the St duration 100, 215, 464, or 1000 ms in a blocked design. In univariate as well as multivariate analyses, the SWM’s predictions were confirmed on the individual level, and the contributions of sensitivity, bias, and weighting in building the DL were assessed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
International Society for Psychophysics, 2018
Series
Proceedings of Fechner Day ; 34
Keywords
duration discrimination, presentation order, time-order error, Type B effect, sensation weighting
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-163752 (URN)
Conference
Fechner Day 2018: 34th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics, Lüneburg, Germany, August 20-24, 2018
Available from: 2019-01-08 Created: 2019-01-08 Last updated: 2022-02-26Bibliographically approved
Dåderman, A. M. & Hellström, Å. (2018). Interrater Reliability of Psychopathy Checklist–Revised: Results on Multiple Analysis Levels for a Sample of Patients Undergoing Forensic Psychiatric Evaluation. Criminal justice and behavior, 45(2), 234-263
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interrater Reliability of Psychopathy Checklist–Revised: Results on Multiple Analysis Levels for a Sample of Patients Undergoing Forensic Psychiatric Evaluation
2018 (English)In: Criminal justice and behavior, ISSN 0093-8548, E-ISSN 1552-3594, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 234-263Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Scores from the Psychopathy Checklist–Revised (PCL-R) are used to support decisions regarding personal liberty. In our study, performed in an applied forensic psychiatric setting, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for absolute agreement, single rater (ICCA1) were .89 for the total score, .82 for Factor 1, .88 for Factor 2, and .78 to .86 for the four facets. These results stand in contrast to lower reliabilities found in a majority of field studies. Disagreement among raters made a low contribution (0%-5%) to variability of scores on the total score, factor, and facet level. For individual items, ICCA1 varied from .38 to .94, with >.80 for seven of the 20 items. Items 17 (“Many short-term marital relationships”) and 19 (“Revocation of conditional release”) showed very low reliabilities (.38 and .43, respectively). The importance of knowledge about factors that can affect scoring of forensic instruments (e.g., education, training, experience, motivation, raters’ personality, and quality of file data) is emphasized.

Keywords
PCL-R, interrater reliability, separate interview data, generalizability theory, Swedish forensic psychiatric patients
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-151722 (URN)10.1177/0093854817747647 (DOI)000419691200005 ()
Available from: 2018-01-17 Created: 2018-01-17 Last updated: 2022-02-28Bibliographically approved
Selenius, H. & Hellström, Å. (2015). Dyslexia Prevalence in Forensic Psychiatric Patients: Dependence on Criteria and Background Factors. Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, 22(4), 586-598
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dyslexia Prevalence in Forensic Psychiatric Patients: Dependence on Criteria and Background Factors
2015 (English)In: Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, ISSN 1321-8719, E-ISSN 1934-1687, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 586-598Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Research on dyslexia in forensic psychiatric patients is limited, and therefore one aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of dyslexia in a sample of forensic psychiatric patients by using different criteria. Another aim was to investigate how phonological-processing skills in these patients might be related to disadvantageous background factors and poor reading habits. Forensic psychiatric patients performed reading, writing and intelligence tests, as well as a battery of phonological processing tasks. They were also interviewed about reading habits and literacy conditions in their childhood homes. Data regarding the patients’ dyslexia diagnoses and backgrounds were collected from forensic psychiatric investigations and patient records. The results showed that 11–53% of the patients met the discrepancy criteria for dyslexia, whereas 50% fulfilled the phonological core deficit criterion. Neither disadvantageous background factors nor reading habits were related to phonological-processing skills.

Keywords
dyslexia, forensic psychiatric patients, prevalence
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-121094 (URN)10.1080/13218719.2014.960069 (DOI)000360623600008 ()
Available from: 2015-09-22 Created: 2015-09-22 Last updated: 2022-02-23Bibliographically approved
Hellström, Å. (2015). In memoriam: Hannes Eisler, 1923-2015. In: Simon Grondin, Vincent Laflamme (Ed.), Fechner Day 2015 : Proceedings of the 31st Annual Meeting of The International Society for Psychophysics. Paper presented at Fechner Day 2015: 31st Annual Meeting of The International Society for Psychophysics, Québec, Canada, 17-21 August, 2015 (pp. xi-xii). Québec, Canada: International Society for Psychophysics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In memoriam: Hannes Eisler, 1923-2015
2015 (English)In: Fechner Day 2015 : Proceedings of the 31st Annual Meeting of The International Society for Psychophysics / [ed] Simon Grondin, Vincent Laflamme, Québec, Canada: International Society for Psychophysics , 2015, p. xi-xiiConference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Our very distinguished member, Professor Hannes Eisler, Stockholm University, has left us. He died on May 28, 2015, at the age of 91. He was a member of the ISP from its beginnings. At Fechner Day 2014 in Lund, Sweden, Hannes lectured on "Some research tips from 55 years' psychophysics." Informally, he named this presentation his "swan song."

Hannes was born in Vienna, Austria, 1923, and at the age of 15 fled to Sweden to escape the Nazis. Initially Hannes worked as a farm hand but quickly progressed to study at high school and later at Stockholm University, where he became an adept of Gösta Ekman, the Swedish pioneer of quantitative psychology. After spending a year in S. S. Stevens’ lab at Harvard, Hannes was awarded his Ph.D. in Stockholm 1963. In 1994, as the result of a petition from all Swedish psychology professors, the Swedish government awarded Hannes Eisler the rank and honor of Professor – a rare recognition of scientific merit.

During his long career, Hannes authored a large number of publications and made many important contributions to our field. His doctoral dissertation was about the relation between magnitude and category scales. Later on, he turned much of his interest toward time perception in people as well as in mice. Perhaps the most impressive of his contributions is the Parallel Clock model for temporal reproduction and comparison1, which arose from Hannes’ arduous and meticulous investigation of long known anomalies in time perception; specifically, breaks in psychophysical functions. Noting the positions of those breaks in reproduction data led him to the counter-intuitive realization that participants use a seemingly odd strategy in immediate reproduction of temporal intervals: subjectively matching the reproduction, not to the standard, but to one-half of the total duration. Using this model it is possible to estimate the psycho-physical function for time from reproduction data, and Hannes published a huge collection of temporal power function exponents2 – much cited but all too often with no understanding of how they were determined.

Hannes was intellectually perspicacious and possessed research talent in abundance. Modesty, good nature, along with deep and diverse cultural interests, sense of humor, and appreciation of the good things in life, were some of his other characteristics. Scientific seminars on various topics were enriched by his insightful comments until a heart attack sadly ended his long life.

I miss Hannes immensely, as a very good old friend, a respected senior colleague, and a mentor – even the word guru feels very appropriate.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Québec, Canada: International Society for Psychophysics, 2015
Series
Proceedings of Fechner Day ; 31
Keywords
Hannes Eisler, obituary, psychophysics, time perception
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-126036 (URN)
Conference
Fechner Day 2015: 31st Annual Meeting of The International Society for Psychophysics, Québec, Canada, 17-21 August, 2015
Available from: 2016-01-22 Created: 2016-01-22 Last updated: 2022-02-23Bibliographically approved
Hellström, Å. (2015). Integration of stimulus dimensions in judgments of area and shape: Modeling guided by level curves. In: Simon Grondin, Vincent Laflamme (Ed.), Fechner Day 2015: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Meeting of The International Society for Psychophysics. Paper presented at Fechner Day 2015: 31st Annual Meeting of The International Society for Psychophysics, Québec, Canada, 17-21 August, 2015 (pp. 17-17). Québec, Canada: International Society for Psychophysics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integration of stimulus dimensions in judgments of area and shape: Modeling guided by level curves
2015 (English)In: Fechner Day 2015: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Meeting of The International Society for Psychophysics / [ed] Simon Grondin, Vincent Laflamme, Québec, Canada: International Society for Psychophysics , 2015, p. 17-17Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In the horizontal-vertical (H-V) illusion (Künnapas, 1958) the judged V/H ratio is larger than the physical ratio. This tendency is not found in V/H ratio judgments of rectangles (Gärling & Dalkvist, 1977), but these judgments are not based on the simple ratio of V and H: Level-curves (iso-judgment contours) of logarithmized data show that the larger dimension is more important than the smaller. Developmentally, judgments of rectangular area have been described as changing from adding V and H in children to multiplying  them in adults (Wilkening, 1979). However, level curves demonstrate deviations from simple models at all ages. Adults’ area judgments show a greater importance of the larger dimension, and also a greater importance of H than of V, but accurate modeling is difficult. Here, level-curve plots (using R’s contour function) prove invaluable for graphic guidance of modeling by displaying systematic judgment tendencies that go unnoticed with conventional factorial plots.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Québec, Canada: International Society for Psychophysics, 2015
Series
Proceedings of Fechner Day ; 31
Keywords
area judgment, shape judgment, level curves, mathematical modeling
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-126035 (URN)
Conference
Fechner Day 2015: 31st Annual Meeting of The International Society for Psychophysics, Québec, Canada, 17-21 August, 2015
Available from: 2016-01-22 Created: 2016-01-22 Last updated: 2022-02-23Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4220-3530

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