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Schwarz, Johanna F. A.ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9873-2506
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Publications (10 of 46) Show all publications
Schwarz, J. F. A., Freidle, M., van Leeuwen, W., Åkerstedt, T. & Kecklund, G. (2023). Sleep in everyday life – relationship to mood and performance in young and older adults: a study protocol. Frontiers in Psychology, 14, Article ID 1264881.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sleep in everyday life – relationship to mood and performance in young and older adults: a study protocol
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2023 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 14, article id 1264881Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Laboratory based sleep deprivation studies demonstrate that lack of sleep impairs well-being and performance ability, but suggest that these effects are mitigated in older adults. Yet, much less is known whether day-to-day variations of sleep have similar consequences in the context of everyday life. This project uses an intensive longitudinal design to investigate the occurrence of day-to-day variations in sleep and their impact on mood and performance in everyday life and to examine whether effects differ between young and older adults. We aim to include 160 young (18–30 years) and 160 older adults (55–75 years) to complete a 21-day experience sampling method (ESM) protocol. During the ESM period, participants are asked to fill in (i) a brief morning questionnaire, (ii) 8 short daytime questionnaires addressing momentary well-being, sleepiness, stress, and mind wandering, followed by a 1 min cognitive task and (iii) a brief evening questionnaire, all delivered via a mobile phone application. Sleep will be measured using self-reports (daily questions) and objectively with wrist actigraphy. The impact of adult age on mean levels and intraindividual variability of sleep will be analyzed using mixed-effects location scale models. The impact of sleep on daily cognitive performance will be analyzed using multilevel linear mixed models. The relationship of sleep to mean values and variability of positive and negative affect in young and older adults will be analyzed using mixed-effects location scale modeling. The overarching purpose of the project is improving the current knowledge on the occurrence of day-to-day variations in sleep and their relationship to performance as well as positive and negative affect in young and older adults.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2023
Keywords
sleep, mood, performance, experience sampling method (ESM), intensive longitudinal, age
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-224267 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2023.1264881 (DOI)001118947200001 ()2-s2.0-85178936186 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P19-0567:1
Note

Stockholm University Library funds the open access fee.

Available from: 2023-12-05 Created: 2023-12-05 Last updated: 2024-01-30Bibliographically approved
D'Onofrio, P., Jernelov, S., Rosen, A., Blom, K., Kaldo, V., Schwarz, J. F. A. & Åkerstedt, T. (2023). The Polysomnographical Meaning of Changed Sleep Quality-A Study of Treatment with Reduced Time in Bed. Brain Sciences, 13(10), Article ID 1426.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Polysomnographical Meaning of Changed Sleep Quality-A Study of Treatment with Reduced Time in Bed
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2023 (English)In: Brain Sciences, ISSN 2076-3425, E-ISSN 2076-3425, Vol. 13, no 10, article id 1426Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Reports of poor sleep are widespread, but their link with objective sleep (polysomnography-PSG) is weak in cross-sectional studies. In contrast, the purpose of this study was to investigate the association between changes in subjective and objective sleep variables using data from a study of the reduction in time in bed (TIB). Methods: One sleep recording was carried out at baseline and one at treatment week 5 (end of treatment) (N = 34). Results: The Karolinska Sleep Quality Index improved and was correlated with improvement in sleep efficiency (r = 0.41, p < 0.05) and reduction in TIB (r = -0.47, p < 0.01) and sleep latency (r = 0.36, p < 0.05). The restorative sleep index showed similar results. Improvements in the insomnia severity index (ISI) essentially lacked correlations with changes in the PSG variables. It was suggested that the latter may be due to the ISI representing a week of subjective sleep experience, of which a single PSG night may not be representative. Conclusions: It was concluded that changes in the subjective ratings of sleep are relatively well associated with changes in the PSG-based sleep continuity variables when both describe the same sleep.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2023
Keywords
subjective sleep, objective sleep, ratings, PSG, sleep restriction, sleep compression
National Category
Basic Medicine Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-224246 (URN)10.3390/brainsci13101426 (DOI)001098274900001 ()37891794 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85175447227 (Scopus ID)
Note

This research was funded by FAS (Forskningsrådet för Arbetsliv och Samhälle) FAS dnr 2009-1758.

Available from: 2023-12-06 Created: 2023-12-06 Last updated: 2024-01-11Bibliographically approved
Åkerstedt, T., Schwarz, J. F. A., Theorell-Haglöw, J. & Lindberg, E. (2023). What do women mean by poor sleep?: A large population-based sample with polysomnographical indicators, inflammation, fatigue, depression, and anxiety. Sleep Medicine, 109, 219-225
Open this publication in new window or tab >>What do women mean by poor sleep?: A large population-based sample with polysomnographical indicators, inflammation, fatigue, depression, and anxiety
2023 (English)In: Sleep Medicine, ISSN 1389-9457, E-ISSN 1878-5506, Vol. 109, p. 219-225Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Survey studies indicate that reports of disturbed sleep are prevalent and may be prospectively linked to several major diseases. However, it is not clear what self-reported disturbed sleep represents, since the link with objective sleep measures (polysomnography; PSG) seems very weak. The purpose of the present study was to try to investigate what combination of variables (PSG, inflammation, fatigue, anxiety, depression) that would characterize those who complain of disturbed sleep. This has never been done before. Participants were 319 women in a population-based sample, who gave ratings of sleep quality, fatigue, depression, and anxiety, then had their sleep recorded at home, and had blood drawn the following morning for analysis of immune parameters. Correlations and hierarchical multivariable regression analyses were applied to the data. For ratings of difficulties initiating sleep, the associations in the final step were ß = .22, (p < .001) for fatigue, ß = 0.22 (p < .001) for anxiety, and ß = 0.17 (p < .01) for sleep latency, with R2 = 0.14. The rating of repeated awakenings was associated with fatigue (ß = 0.35, p < .001) and C-reactive protein (CRP) (ß = 0.12, p < .05), with R2 = 0.19. The rating of early morning awakenings was associated with fatigue (ß = 0.31, p < .001), total sleep time (TST) (ß = −0.20, p < .01), and CRP (ß = 0.15, p < .05), with R2 = 0.17. Interleukin-6 and Tumour Necrosis Factor were not associated with ratings of sleep problems. The results indicate that subjective fatigue, rather than objective sleep variables, is central in the perception of poor sleep, together with CRP.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
women, poor sleep, population-based sample, polysomnographical indicators, inflammation, fatigue, depression, anxiety
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-223933 (URN)10.1016/j.sleep.2023.06.029 (DOI)001071559700001 ()37478658 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85165077177 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-11-27 Created: 2023-11-27 Last updated: 2024-01-31Bibliographically approved
Gerhardsson, A., Porada, D. K., Axelsson, J., Lundström, J. N. & Schwarz, J. (2021). Does insufficient sleep affect how you learn from reward or punishment? Reinforcement learning after 2 nights of sleep restriction. Journal of Sleep Research, 30(4), Article ID e13236.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Does insufficient sleep affect how you learn from reward or punishment? Reinforcement learning after 2 nights of sleep restriction
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2021 (English)In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 30, no 4, article id e13236Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To learn from feedback (trial and error) is essential for all species. Insufficient sleep has been found to reduce the sensitivity to feedback as well as increase reward sensitivity. To determine whether insufficient sleep alters learning from positive and negative feedback, healthy participants (n = 32, mean age 29.0 years, 18 women) were tested once after normal sleep (8 hr time in bed for 2 nights) and once after 2 nights of sleep restriction (4 hr/night) on a probabilistic selection task where learning behaviour was evaluated in three ways: as generalised learning, short-term win-stay/lose-shift learning strategies, and trial-by-trial learning rate. Sleep restriction did not alter the sensitivity to either positive or negative feedback on generalised learning. Also, short-term win-stay/lose-shift strategies were not affected by sleep restriction. Similarly, results from computational models that assess the trial-by-trial update of stimuli value demonstrated no difference between sleep conditions after the first block. However, a slower learning rate from negative feedback when evaluating all learning blocks was found after sleep restriction. Despite a marked increase in sleepiness and slowed learning rate for negative feedback, sleep restriction did not appear to alter strategies and generalisation of learning from positive or negative feedback.

Keywords
carrot or stick, feedback-based learning, lack of sleep, reward or punishment, sleep deprivation, valanced feedback
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-189367 (URN)10.1111/jsr.13236 (DOI)000591497400001 ()33219629 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2021-01-20 Created: 2021-01-20 Last updated: 2022-03-24Bibliographically approved
Tamm, S., Schwarz, J., Thuné, H., Kecklund, G., Petrovic, P., Åkerstedt, T., . . . Nilsonne, G. (2020). A combined fMRI and EMG study of emotional contagion following partial sleep deprivation in young and older humans. Scientific Reports, 10(1), Article ID 17944.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A combined fMRI and EMG study of emotional contagion following partial sleep deprivation in young and older humans
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2020 (English)In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 17944Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sleep deprivation is proposed to inhibit top-down-control in emotion processing, but it is unclear whether sleep deprivation affects emotional mimicry and contagion. Here, we aimed to investigate effects of partial sleep deprivation on emotional contagion and mimicry in young and older humans. Participants underwent partial sleep deprivation (3 h sleep opportunity at the end of night), crossed-over with a full sleep condition in a balanced order, followed by a functional magnetic resonance imaging and electromyography (EMG) experiment with viewing of emotional and neutral faces and ratings of emotional responses. The final sample for main analyses was n = 69 (n = 36 aged 20–30 years, n = 33 aged 65–75 years). Partial sleep deprivation caused decreased activation in fusiform gyri for angry faces and decreased ratings of happiness for all stimuli, but no significant effect on the amygdala. Older participants reported more anger compared to younger participants, but no age differences were seen in brain responses to emotional faces or sensitivity to partial sleep deprivation. No effect of the sleep manipulation was seen on EMG. In conclusion, emotional contagion, but not mimicry, was affected by sleep deprivation. Our results are consistent with the previously reported increased negativity bias after insufficient sleep.

The Stockholm sleepy brain study: effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive and emotional processing in young and old. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02000076.

Keywords
sleep deprivation, emotional contagion, mimicry, fMRI, EMG, increased negativity bias
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-186065 (URN)10.1038/s41598-020-74489-9 (DOI)000585150000002 ()
Note

Open Access funding provided by Karolinska Institute. This work was funded by Stockholm Stress Center, Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm County Council, Isabella and Henrik Berg and the Heumanska stiftelsen/Hjärnfonden, Fredrik and Ingrid Thuring’s Foundation.

Available from: 2020-10-22 Created: 2020-10-22 Last updated: 2022-09-15Bibliographically approved
Åkerstedt, T., Lekander, M., Nilsonne, G., Tamm, S., d'Onofrio, P., Kecklund, G., . . . Månsson, K. N. (2020). Gray Matter Volume Correlates of Sleepiness: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study in Younger and Older Adults. Nature and Science of Sleep, 12, 289-298
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gray Matter Volume Correlates of Sleepiness: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study in Younger and Older Adults
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2020 (English)In: Nature and Science of Sleep, ISSN 1179-1608, Vol. 12, p. 289-298Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Subjectively experienced sleepiness is a problem in society, possibly linked with gray matter (GM) volume. Given a different sleep pattern, aging may affect such associations, possibly due to shrinking brain volume.

Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association between subjectively rated sleepiness and GM volume in thalamus, insula, hippocampus, and orbitofrontal cortex of young and older adults, after a normal night’s sleep.

Methods: Eighty-four healthy individuals participated (46 aged 20– 30 years, and 38 aged 65– 75 years). Morphological brain data were collected in a 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. Sleepiness was rated multiple times during the imaging sessions.

Results: In older, relative to younger, adults, clusters within bilateral mid-anterior insular cortex and right thalamus were negatively associated with sleepiness. Adjustment for the immediately preceding total sleep time eliminated the significant associations.

Conclusion: Self-rated momentary sleepiness in a monotonous situation appears to be negatively associated with GM volume in clusters within both thalamus and insula in older individuals, and total sleep time seems to play a role in this association. Possibly, this suggests that larger GM volume in these clusters may be protective against sleepiness in older individuals. This notion needs confirmation in further studies.

Keywords
brain imaging, thalamus, insula, sleep, KSS
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-181678 (URN)10.2147/NSS.S240493 (DOI)000535265100001 ()
Available from: 2020-05-22 Created: 2020-05-22 Last updated: 2022-03-23Bibliographically approved
Gerhardsson, A., Åkerstedt, T., Axelsson, J., Fischer, H., Lekander, M. & Schwarz, J. (2019). Effect of sleep deprivation on emotional working memory. Journal of Sleep Research, 28(1), Article ID e12744.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of sleep deprivation on emotional working memory
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 28, no 1, article id e12744Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The emotional dysregulation and impaired working memory found after sleep loss can have severe implications for our daily functioning. Considering the intertwined relationship between emotion and cognition in stimuli processing, there could be further implications of sleep deprivation in high‐complex emotional situations. Although studied separately, this interaction between emotion and cognitive processes has been neglected in sleep research. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of 1 night of sleep deprivation on emotional working memory. Sixty‐one healthy participants (mean age: 23.4 years) were either sleep deprived for 1 night (n = 30) or had a normal night’s sleep (n = 31). They performed an N‐back task with two levels of working memory load (1‐back and 3‐back) using positive, neutral and negative picture scenes. Sleep deprivation, compared with full night sleep, impaired emotional working memory accuracy, but not reaction times. The sleep‐deprived participants, but not the controls, responded faster to positive than to negative and neutral pictures. The effect of sleep deprivation was similar for both high and low working memory loads. The results showed that although detrimental in terms of accuracy, sleep deprivation did not impair working memory speed. In fact, our findings indicate that positive stimuli may facilitate working memory processing speed after sleep deprivation.

Keywords
affective significance, executive functions, positivity effect, sleep loss, sustained wakefulness
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-164948 (URN)10.1111/jsr.12744 (DOI)000456255400011 ()
Available from: 2019-01-21 Created: 2019-01-21 Last updated: 2022-03-24Bibliographically approved
Sundelin, T., Bayard, F., Schwarz, J., Cybulski, L., Petrovic, P. & Axelsson, J. (2019). Framing effect, probability distortion, and gambling tendency without feedback are resistant to two nights of experimental sleep restriction. Scientific Reports, 9, Article ID 8554.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Framing effect, probability distortion, and gambling tendency without feedback are resistant to two nights of experimental sleep restriction
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2019 (English)In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, article id 8554Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Several studies suggest that sleep deprivation affects risky decision making. However, most of these are confounded by feedback given after each decision, indicating that decisions may be based on suboptimal feedback-learning rather than risk evaluation. Furthermore, few studies have investigated the effect of sleep loss on aspects of prospect theory, specifically the framing effect and probability distortion. In this within-subjects design, 25 people had (i) two nights of an 8 h sleep opportunity, and (ii) two nights of a 4 h sleep opportunity, in a counter-balanced order. Following the two nights, they performed a gambling task with no immediate feedback; for each round, they could either gamble for a full amount, or take a settlement framed as a gain or a loss for part of the amount. Sleep restriction did not significantly affect the tendency to gamble, the framing effect, or probability distortion, as compared to normal sleep. These results indicate that two nights of sleep restriction affects neither general gambling tendency, nor two of the main predictions of prospect theory. This resilience may be due to a less extreme sleep loss than in previous studies, but also indicates that learning components and risk biases should be separated when assessing the effect of sleep loss on risky behaviour.

National Category
Neurosciences Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-170850 (URN)10.1038/s41598-019-44237-9 (DOI)000471215800032 ()31189964 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-07-24 Created: 2019-07-24 Last updated: 2022-09-15Bibliographically approved
Schwarz, J., Axelsson, J., Gerhardsson, A., Tamm, S., Fischer, H., Kecklund, G. & Åkerstedt, T. (2019). Mood impairment is stronger in young than in older adults after sleep deprivation. Journal of Sleep Research, 28(4), Article ID e12801.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mood impairment is stronger in young than in older adults after sleep deprivation
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 28, no 4, article id e12801Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sleep deprivation commonly impairs affective regulation and causes worse mood. However, the majority of previous research concerns young adults. Because susceptibility to sleep deprivation and emotion regulation change distinctively across adult age, we tested here the hypothesis that the effect of sleep deprivation on mood is stronger in young than in older adults. In an experimental design, young (18–30 years) and older adults (60–72 years) participated in either a sleep control (young, n = 63; older, n = 47) or a total sleep deprivation condition (young, n = 61; older, n = 47). Sleepiness, mood and common symptoms of sleep deprivation were measured using established questionnaires and ratings. Sleep‐deprived participants felt more sleepy, stressed and cold, and reported lower vigour and positive affect, regardless of age. All the other outcome measures (negative affect, depression, confusion, tension, anger, fatigue, total mood disturbance, hunger, cognitive attenuation, irritability) showed a weaker response to sleep deprivation in the older group, as indicated by age*sleep deprivation interactions (ps < 0.05). The results show that older adults are emotionally less affected by sleep deprivation than young adults. This tolerance was mainly related to an attenuated increase in negative mood. This could possibly be related to the well‐known positivity effect, which suggests that older adults prioritize regulating their emotions to optimize well‐being. The results also highlight that caution is warranted when generalizing results from sleep deprivation studies across the adult lifespan.

Keywords
affect, age differences, emotion, KSS, sleep deprivation
National Category
Psychology Neurosciences
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-171398 (URN)10.1111/jsr.12801 (DOI)000476602100030 ()
Note

Riksbankens Jubileumsfond. Grant Number: P13‐0649:1

Available from: 2019-08-06 Created: 2019-08-06 Last updated: 2022-03-23Bibliographically approved
Gerhardsson, A., Fischer, H., Lekander, M., Kecklund, G., Axelsson, J., Åkerstedt, T. & Schwarz, J. (2019). Positivity Effect and Working Memory Performance Remains Intact in Older Adults After Sleep Deprivation. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, Article ID 605.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Positivity Effect and Working Memory Performance Remains Intact in Older Adults After Sleep Deprivation
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2019 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 605Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Older adults perform better in tasks which include positive stimuli, referred to as the positivity effect. However, recent research suggests that the positivity effect could be attenuated when additional challenges such as stress or cognitive demands are introduced. Moreover, it is well established that older adults are relatively resilient to many of the adverse effects of sleep deprivation. Our aim was to investigate if the positivity effect in older adults is affected by one night of total sleep deprivation using an emotional working memory task.

Methods: A healthy sample of 48 older adults (60-72 years) was either sleep deprived for one night (n = 24) or had a normal night's sleep (n = 24). They performed an emotional working memory n-back (n = 1 and 3) task containing positive, negative and neutral pictures.

Results: Performance in terms of accuracy and reaction times was best for positive stimuli and worst for negative stimuli. This positivity effect was not altered by sleep deprivation. Results also showed that, despite significantly increased sleepiness, there was no effect of sleep deprivation on working memory performance. A working memory load x valence interaction on the reaction times revealed that the beneficial effect of positive stimuli was only present in the 1-back condition.

Conclusion: While the positivity effect and general working memory abilities in older adults are intact after one night of sleep deprivation, increased cognitive demand attenuates the positivity effect on working memory speed.

Keywords
sleep deprivation, positivity bias, emotion, older adults, sustained wakefulness, working memory, executive functions, affect
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-168364 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00605 (DOI)000462127700001 ()30967813 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-05-10 Created: 2019-05-10 Last updated: 2022-03-24Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9873-2506

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