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Publications (10 of 28) Show all publications
Folke, C. & Kautsky, N. (2022). Aquaculture and ocean stewardship. Ambio, 51(1), 13-16
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aquaculture and ocean stewardship
2022 (English)In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 13-16Article in journal, Editorial material (Other academic) Published
National Category
Agricultural Science, Forestry and Fisheries Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-204964 (URN)10.1007/s13280-021-01528-8 (DOI)000628733600004 ()33715093 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85102717565 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-05-23 Created: 2022-05-23 Last updated: 2022-05-23Bibliographically approved
Chapin III, F. S., Weber, E. U., Bennett, E. M., Biggs, R., van den Bergh, J., Adger, W. N., . . . de Zeeuw, A. (2022). Earth stewardship: Shaping a sustainable future through interacting policy and norm shifts. Ambio, 51(9), 1907-1920
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Earth stewardship: Shaping a sustainable future through interacting policy and norm shifts
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2022 (English)In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 51, no 9, p. 1907-1920Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Transformation toward a sustainable future requires an earth stewardship approach to shift society from its current goal of increasing material wealth to a vision of sustaining built, natural, human, and social capital—equitably distributed across society, within and among nations. Widespread concern about earth’s current trajectory and support for actions that would foster more sustainable pathways suggests potential social tipping points in public demand for an earth stewardship vision. Here, we draw on empirical studies and theory to show that movement toward a stewardship vision can be facilitated by changes in either policy incentives or social norms. Our novel contribution is to point out that both norms and incentives must change and can do so interactively. This can be facilitated through leverage points and complementarities across policy areas, based on values, system design, and agency. Potential catalysts include novel democratic institutions and engagement of non-governmental actors, such as businesses, civic leaders, and social movements as agents for redistribution of power. Because no single intervention will transform the world, a key challenge is to align actions to be synergistic, persistent, and scalable.

Keywords
Anthropocene, Earth stewardship, Institutions, Market economy, Social norms, Transformation
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences Other Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-204044 (URN)10.1007/s13280-022-01721-3 (DOI)000779756600001 ()35380347 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85127542545 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-04-20 Created: 2022-04-20 Last updated: 2022-08-05Bibliographically approved
Levin, S. A., Anderies, J. M., Adger, N., Barrett, S., Bennett, E. M., Cardenas, J. C., . . . Wilen, J. (2022). Governance in the Face of Extreme Events: Lessons from Evolutionary Processes for Structuring Interventions, and the Need to Go Beyond. Ecosystems (New York. Print), 25(3), 697-711
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Governance in the Face of Extreme Events: Lessons from Evolutionary Processes for Structuring Interventions, and the Need to Go Beyond
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2022 (English)In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 697-711Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The increasing frequency of extreme events, exogenous and endogenous, poses challenges for our societies. The current pandemic is a case in point; but once-in-a-century weather events are also becoming more common, leading to erosion, wildfire and even volcanic events that change ecosystems and disturbance regimes, threaten the sustainability of our life-support systems, and challenge the robustness and resilience of societies. Dealing with extremes will require new approaches and large-scale collective action. Preemptive measures can increase general resilience, a first line of protection, while more specific reactive responses are developed. Preemptive measures also can minimize the negative effects of events that cannot be avoided. In this paper, we first explore approaches to prevention, mitigation and adaptation, drawing inspiration from how evolutionary challenges have made biological systems robust and resilient, and from the general theory of complex adaptive systems. We argue further that proactive steps that go beyond will be necessary to reduce unacceptable consequences.

Keywords
Resilience, Robustness, Extreme events, Governance, Prevention, Mitigation, Adaptation
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences Other Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-197955 (URN)10.1007/s10021-021-00680-2 (DOI)000693526700002 ()34512142 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85114407433 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-10-21 Created: 2021-10-21 Last updated: 2022-06-03Bibliographically approved
Eggertsen, M., Larsson, J., Porseryd, T., Åkerlund, C., Chacin, D. H., Berkström, C., . . . Halling, C. (2021). Coral-macroalgal interactions: Herbivory and substrate type influence growth of the macroalgae Eucheuma denticulatum (N.L. Burman) Collins & Hervey, 1917 on a tropical coral reef. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 542, Article ID 151606.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Coral-macroalgal interactions: Herbivory and substrate type influence growth of the macroalgae Eucheuma denticulatum (N.L. Burman) Collins & Hervey, 1917 on a tropical coral reef
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2021 (English)In: Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, ISSN 0022-0981, E-ISSN 1879-1697, Vol. 542, article id 151606Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduced macroalgae becoming invasive may alter ecological functions and habitats in recipient ecosystems. In the Western Indian Ocean (WIO), non-native strains of the native macroalgae Eucheuma denticulatum were introduced for farming practices and consequently spread into the surrounding seascape. We investigated potential effects of non-native and native strains of this macroalgae on a branching coral. We conducted a four-factor field experiment where we examined growth and holdfast development of introduced and native E. denticulatum on live and dead branches of Acropora sp. in the presence and absence of herbivores in Unguja Island, Zanzibar. Moreover, we estimated coral and macroalgae condition by visual examinations, gene expression analyses, and photosynthetic measurements. Macroalgae did not attach to any live coral and coral condition was not impacted by the presence of E. denticulatum, regardless of geographical origin. Instead, necrotic tissue on the macroalgae in areas of direct contact with corals indicated damage inflicted by the coral. The biomass of E. denticulatum did not differ between the replicates attached to live or dead corals in the experiment, yet biomass was strongly influenced by herbivory and replicates without protection from herbivores had a significantly lower biomass. In the absence of herbivory, introduced E. denticulatum had significantly higher growth rates than native algae based on wet weight measurements. These results contribute to an increased understanding of environmental effects by the farming of a non-native strain of algae on corals and stresses the importance to maintain viable populations of macroalgal feeding fishes in such areas.

Keywords
Introduced species, Coral-macroalgal interactions, Herbivory, Eucheuma denticulatum, Acropora, Western Indian Ocean
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-198302 (URN)10.1016/j.jembe.2021.151606 (DOI)000687854700009 ()
Available from: 2021-11-08 Created: 2021-11-08 Last updated: 2022-02-25Bibliographically approved
Wikström, S. A., Hedberg, N., Kautsky, N., Kumblad, L., Ehrnsten, E., Gustafsson, B., . . . Stadmark, J. (2020). Letter to editor regarding Kotta et al. 2020: Cleaning up seas using blue growth initiatives: Mussel farming for eutrophication control in the Baltic Sea [Letter to the editor]. Science of the Total Environment, 727, Article ID 138665.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Letter to editor regarding Kotta et al. 2020: Cleaning up seas using blue growth initiatives: Mussel farming for eutrophication control in the Baltic Sea
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2020 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 727, article id 138665Article in journal, Letter (Other academic) Published
Keywords
Mussel farming, eutrophication, Baltic Sea, Musselodling, Övergödning, Östersjön
National Category
Biological Sciences Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Marine Ecology; Biogeochemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-187471 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138665 (DOI)
Available from: 2020-12-10 Created: 2020-12-10 Last updated: 2022-02-25Bibliographically approved
Barrett, S., Dasgupta, A., Dasgupta, P., Adger, W. N., Anderies, J., van den Bergh, J., . . . Wilen, J. (2020). Social dimensions of fertility behavior and consumption patterns in the Anthropocene. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 117(12), 6300-6307
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Social dimensions of fertility behavior and consumption patterns in the Anthropocene
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2020 (English)In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 117, no 12, p. 6300-6307Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We consider two aspects of the human enterprise that profoundly affect the global environment: population and consumption. We show that fertility and consumption behavior harbor a class of externalities that have not been much noted in the literature. Both are driven in part by attitudes and preferences that are not egoistic but socially embedded; that is, each household's decisions are influenced by the decisions made by others. In a famous paper, Garrett Hardin [G. Hardin, Science 162, 1243-1248 (1968)] drew attention to overpopulation and concluded that the solution lay in people abandoning the freedom to breed. That human attitudes and practices are socially embedded suggests that it is possible for people to reduce their fertility rates and consumption demands without experiencing a loss in wellbeing. We focus on fertility in sub-Saharan Africa and consumption in the rich world and argue that bottom-up social mechanisms rather than top-down government interventions are better placed to bring about those ecologically desirable changes.

Keywords
fertility, consumption, socially embedded preferences
National Category
Social and Economic Geography Earth and Related Environmental Sciences Social Anthropology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-181136 (URN)10.1073/pnas.1909857117 (DOI)000521821800007 ()32165543 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85082393987 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-05-19 Created: 2020-05-19 Last updated: 2024-03-18Bibliographically approved
Folke, C., Österblom, H., Jouffray, J.-B., Lambin, E. F., Adger, W. N., Scheffer, M., . . . de Zeeuw, A. (2019). Transnational corporations and the challenge of biosphere stewardship. Nature Ecology & Evolution, 3(10), 1396-1403
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Transnational corporations and the challenge of biosphere stewardship
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2019 (English)In: Nature Ecology & Evolution, E-ISSN 2397-334X, Vol. 3, no 10, p. 1396-1403Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sustainability within planetary boundaries requires concerted action by individuals, governments, civil society and private actors. For the private sector, there is concern that the power exercised by transnational corporations generates, and is even central to, global environmental change. Here, we ask under which conditions transnational corporations could either hinder or promote a global shift towards sustainability. We show that a handful of transnational corporations have become a major force shaping the global intertwined system of people and planet. Transnational corporations in agriculture, forestry, seafood, cement, minerals and fossil energy cause environmental impacts and possess the ability to influence critical functions of the biosphere. We review evidence of current practices and identify six observed features of change towards 'corporate biosphere stewardship', with significant potential for upscaling. Actions by transnational corporations, if combined with effective public policies and improved governmental regulations, could substantially accelerate sustainability efforts.

National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-175692 (URN)10.1038/s41559-019-0978-z (DOI)000488304100008 ()31527729 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-11-14 Created: 2019-11-14 Last updated: 2022-02-26Bibliographically approved
Hedberg, N., Stenson, I., Nitz Pettersson, M., Warshan, D., Nguyen-Kim, H., Tedengren, M. & Kautsky, N. (2018). Antibiotic use in Vietnamese fish and lobster sea cage farms; implications for coral reefs and human health. Aquaculture, 495, 366-375
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Antibiotic use in Vietnamese fish and lobster sea cage farms; implications for coral reefs and human health
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2018 (English)In: Aquaculture, ISSN 0044-8486, E-ISSN 1873-5622, Vol. 495, p. 366-375Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Several papers have reported on the development of antibiotic resistance and implications for human medicine but fewer deal with environmental impacts of antibiotic use. Marine sea cage aquaculture in SE Asia is often established close to coral reef ecosystems. Large amounts of antibiotics are used in the cultivation of fish and lobster and hence released directly into the environment. This study investigates the antibiotic practices in sea cage farms producing fish and spiny lobster in Vietnam, mainly for the domestic market. There are approximately 3500 sea cage farms in Vietnam and we performed semi-structured interviews with 109 sea cage farmers asking them if they use antibiotics and if so; what sort/when/how often/how much. We found that the Vietnamese cage farmers are using antibiotics in an unstructured way, which seems to have little or no effect on the survival of the stock, or profit of the farm. The fact that the farmers live at their farm and use the sea next to the cages both for fishing and collecting filter-feeding bivalves for direct consumption, as well as a toilet, poses an additional risk for the spreading of human antibiotic resistant pathogens. Thirteen different antibiotics were found in the study. Eighty-two percentage of the lobster farmers and 28% of the fishfarmers used antibiotics. The average amounts used were over 5 kg per produced ton of lobster and about 0.6 kg per ton of fish, which is much higher than in other studies. Several antibiotic substances listed as critical and highly important for human medicine by WHO were used prophylactically and routinely with little control and enforcement of regulations. We tested and detected antibiotic resistance to Tetracycline, Vancomycin and Rifampicin in the coral associated bacteria Bacillus niabensis as far as 660m from fish farms with resistance decreasing with distance from the cage farms. The antibiotics are likely to have negative effects on the coral-symbiont relationship adding further risks to an already stressed environment.

Keywords
Antibiotics, Bacillus niabensis, Sea cage aquaculture
National Category
Biological Sciences Environmental Sciences Fish and Aquacultural Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-158884 (URN)10.1016/j.aquaculture.2018.06.005 (DOI)000439123500043 ()
Available from: 2018-08-22 Created: 2018-08-22 Last updated: 2022-02-26Bibliographically approved
Hedberg, N., Stenson, I., Kautsky, N., Hellström, M. & Tedengren, M. (2017). Causes and consequences of spatial links between sea cage aquaculture and coral reefs in Vietnam. Aquaculture, 481, 245-254
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Causes and consequences of spatial links between sea cage aquaculture and coral reefs in Vietnam
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2017 (English)In: Aquaculture, ISSN 0044-8486, E-ISSN 1873-5622, Vol. 481, p. 245-254Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A majority of the sea cage farms in South East Asia are located close to coral reefs. This causes a conflict between conservation and food production since sea cage aquaculture has a number of negative impacts on coral reefs. The aim of this investigation was to assess the drivers causing the sea cage farmers to place their farms close to reefs and to examine some potential farming effects in detail i.e. usage of coral reef fish for grow out farming and feed. For some 3500 Vietnamese fish and lobster farms, we measured; the distance to the closest coastal city (proxy for infrastructure access), satellite derived Chl a (proxy for water quality), wind fetch, and the adjacent coastal slope and elevation. We also performed 159 semi-structured interviews with fish and lobster cage farmers from three regions in Vietnam. The interviews revealed that the choice of farming site is mainly determined by access to infrastructure, wind and wave shelter, and water quality. Although the farmers used coral reef services, e.g. coral reef derived seedlings, they were in general not aware of coral reef presence or did not find it important for selection of site. Both coral reefs and sea cage farms were found close to steep rocky coasts, which are favorable for corals, and provide sufficient depth for sea cages. Sea cages were always found on the leeward side of the coast where the wind fetch is low enough for the floating farms and their inhabitants. Most of the farms were located within 20 km from a coastal city confirming the importance of access to infrastructure. With few exceptions, sea cage farms were located in areas with good water quality, where also coral reefs are present. The study showed that several of the coral associated species groups farmed were dependent on wild caught seedlings and that 22% of the feed used at farms was trashfish of coral reef associated species. We consider the spatial correlation between sea cage farms and coral reefs as circumstantial and suggest that shared environmental preferences explain the farm distribution pattern, rather than access to ecosystem services provided by the nearby reef itself. We found no evidence that it is necessary for sea cage farms to be located near coral reefs and strongly recommend that sea cages are moved further away from coral reefs, but to areas still providing clear water, shelter and access to infrastructure.

Keywords
Sea cage aquaculture, Coral reef, Vietnam, Coral reef fish, Trashfish
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-147829 (URN)10.1016/j.aquaculture.2017.09.009 (DOI)000411453300030 ()
Available from: 2017-11-02 Created: 2017-11-02 Last updated: 2022-02-28Bibliographically approved
Eggertsen, L., Ferreira, C. E. L., Fontoura, L., Kautsky, N., Gullström, M. & Berkström, C. (2017). Seaweed beds support more juvenile reef fish than seagrass beds in a south-western Atlantic tropical seascape. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 196(5), 97-108
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Seaweed beds support more juvenile reef fish than seagrass beds in a south-western Atlantic tropical seascape
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2017 (English)In: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, ISSN 0272-7714, E-ISSN 1096-0015, Vol. 196, no 5, p. 97-108Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Seascape connectivity is regarded essential for healthy reef fish communities in tropical shallow systems. A number of reef fish species use separate adult and nursery habitats, and hence contribute to nutrient and energy transfer between habitats. Seagrass beds and mangroves often constitute important nursery habitats, with high structural complexity and protection from predation. Here, we investigated if reef fish assemblages in the tropical south-western Atlantic demonstrate ontogenetic habitat connectivity and identify possible nurseries on three reef systems along the eastern Brazilian coast. Fish were surveyed in fore reef, back reef, Halodule wrightii seagrass beds and seaweed beds. Seagrass beds contained lower abundances and species richness of fish than expected, while Sargassum-dominated seaweed beds contained significantly more juveniles than all other habitats (average juvenile fish densities: 32.6 per 40 m2 in Sargassum beds, 11.2 per 40 m2 in back reef, 10.1 per 40 m2 in fore reef, and 5.04 per 40 m2 in seagrass beds), including several species that are found in the reef habitats as adults. Species that in other regions worldwide (e.g. the Caribbean) utilise seagrass beds as nursery habitats were here instead observed in Sargassum beds or back reef habitats. Coral cover was not correlated to adult fish distribution patterns; instead, type of turf was an important variable. Connectivity, and thus pathways of nutrient transfer, seems to function differently in east Brazil compared to many tropical regions. Sargassum-dominated beds might be more important as nurseries for a larger number of fish species than seagrass beds. Due to the low abundance of structurally complex seagrass beds we suggest that seaweed beds might influence adult reef fish abundances, being essential for several keystone species of reef fish in the tropical south-western Atlantic.

Keywords
Nursery grounds, Reef fish, Habitat choice, Seaweed, Ontogeny Connectivity
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Marine Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-151230 (URN)10.1016/j.ecss.2017.06.041 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-01-09 Created: 2018-01-09 Last updated: 2022-02-28Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-3004-5643

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