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Rostgaard, T., Jacobsen, F., Kröger, T. & Peterson, E. (2022). Revisiting the Nordic long-term care model for older people-still equal?. European Journal of Ageing, 19(2), 201-210
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Revisiting the Nordic long-term care model for older people-still equal?
2022 (English)In: European Journal of Ageing, ISSN 1613-9372, E-ISSN 1613-9380, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 201-210Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

With the extensive long-term care services for older people, the Nordic countries have been labelled 'caring states' as reported (Leira, Welfare state and working mothers: the Scandinavian experience, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1992). The emphasis on services and not cash benefits ensures the Nordics a central place in the public service model (Anttonen and Sipila, J Eur Soc Policy 6:87-100, 1996). The main feature of this ideal model is public social care services, such as home care and residential care services, which can cover the need for personal and medical care, as well as assistance with household chores. These services are provided within a formally and professionally based long-term care system, where the main responsibility for the organization, provision and financing of care traditionally lays with the public sector. According to the principle of universalism (in: Antonnen et al. (eds), Welfare state, universalism and diversity, Elgar, Cheltenham, 2013), access to benefits such as home care and residential care is based on citizenship and need, not contributions nor merit. Also, care services should be made available for all and generally be used by all, with no stigma associated. Vabo and Szebehely (in: Anttonen (ed), Welfare State, universalism and diversity, Edward Elgar Publishing, London, 2012)) further argue that the Nordic service universalism is more than merely issues of eligibility and accessibility, in that it also encompasses whether services are attractive, affordable and flexible in order to meet a diversity of needs and preferences. However, recent decades have seen a continuous tendency towards prioritization of care for the most frail, contributing to unmet need, informalization of care and privatization in the use of topping up with market-based services. These changes have raised questions about increasing inequalities within Nordic long-term care systems. We investigate in the article what effect changes have for equality across social class and gender, for users and informal carers. The article is based on analysis of comparable national and international statistics and a review of national research literature and policy documents.

Keywords
Long-term care, Nordic countries, Retrenchment, Privatisation, Informalisation
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-204829 (URN)10.1007/s10433-022-00703-4 (DOI)000790097800002 ()35528216 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85129267315 (Scopus ID)
Note

For correction, see: Rostgaard, T., Jacobsen, F., Kröger, T. et al. Correction to: Revisiting the Nordic long-term care model for older people—still equal?. Eur J Ageing 19, 1641 (2022). DOI: 10.1007/s10433-022-00712-3

Available from: 2022-05-22 Created: 2022-05-22 Last updated: 2022-12-20Bibliographically approved
Peterson, E. & Brodin, H. (2021). Choice, needs or equality? Discursive struggles about defining home care for older people in Sweden. Ageing & Society
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Choice, needs or equality? Discursive struggles about defining home care for older people in Sweden
2021 (English)In: Ageing & Society, ISSN 0144-686X, E-ISSN 1469-1779Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Focusing on Swedish home care for older people, this article explores the discursive (re)production of home care as an institution. Equality and universal service provision have been described as defining features of the Nordic care regime. At the same time, Nordic research has highlighted a shift in social care policy, from a focus on universalism and egalitarian ideals towards a focus on freedom of choice, diversity and individualised services. This article takes as a starting point that home care for older people is formed by different and potentially conflicting ideas. We understand home care as a contested formation and define institutional change in terms of ongoing discursive struggles. The analysis draws on qualitative semi-structured interviews with key informants, including politicians, local authority officials and representatives of interest organisations. Informants were engaged in policy making, implementation or advocacy related to care for older people. We examine the meanings attached to home care for older people and the analysis reveals three different discourses – on choice, needs and equality. By comparing and contrasting discourses, we reveal silences, conflicts and tensions, and highlight the politics involved in (re)creating home care as an institution.

National Category
Social Work
Research subject
Social Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-192073 (URN)10.1017/S0144686X21000131 (DOI)000742530100001 ()
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, Dnr 2014-4913; Dnr 2013-2296 D
Available from: 2021-04-09 Created: 2021-04-09 Last updated: 2022-02-25
Brodin, H. & Peterson, E. (2020). Equal Opportunities? Gendering and Racialising the Politics of Entrepreneurship in Swedish Eldercare. NORA: Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research, 28(2), 99-112
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Equal Opportunities? Gendering and Racialising the Politics of Entrepreneurship in Swedish Eldercare
2020 (English)In: NORA: Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research, ISSN 0803-8740, E-ISSN 1502-394X, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 99-112Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper contributes a Swedish perspective on how selected feminist movement ideas, such as women's right to economic independence, are being appropriated by neoliberal policies. Swedish governments have argued that opening up the publicly funded eldercare sector to private providers would advance entrepreneurship undertaken by women and immigrants. In this article, we critically explore the ambiguity of the gender equality and ethnic diversity arguments used to justify private sector involvement in publicly funded eldercare in Sweden. We draw upon Carol Bacchi's theory of policies as gendering practices to argue that the discourses of equal opportunity underpinning the politics of entrepreneurship in the home care sector obscure and recreate inequalities. Our analysis, based on interviews with politicians, public officials and interest organizations involved in the market for Swedish eldercare, shows that the politics of entrepreneurship in the home care sector privilege entrepreneurs who reflect the white masculine gendering of entrepreneurship and disadvantage those with subject positions deviating from the normative entrepreneur. Our findings suggest that policy-engineered entrepreneurship is a poor tool in the struggle for gender equality, as this kind of policymaking is likely to operate in tandem with gendering and racializing practices that impede socioeconomic progress.

Keywords
Care work, feminism, gender equality, marketization, neoliberalism
National Category
Sociology Gender Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-177806 (URN)10.1080/08038740.2019.1698653 (DOI)000503720700001 ()
Available from: 2020-01-09 Created: 2020-01-09 Last updated: 2022-03-23Bibliographically approved
Brodin, H. & Peterson, E. (2019). Doing business or leading care work? Intersections of gender, ethnicity and profession in home care entrepreneurship in Sweden. Gender, Work and Organization, 26(11), 1640-1657
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Doing business or leading care work? Intersections of gender, ethnicity and profession in home care entrepreneurship in Sweden
2019 (English)In: Gender, Work and Organization, ISSN 0968-6673, E-ISSN 1468-0432, Vol. 26, no 11, p. 1640-1657Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article critically explores assumptions underpinning Swedish eldercare policies that introducing market practices in publicly funded eldercare services advances women's entrepreneurship. We argue that gendered privileges and disadvantages are being recreated on tax-funded home care markets; furthermore, gendered inequalities intersect with ethnicity and profession in management of small-scale care companies, dealings with authorities governing home care services and standards for home care work. However, we find that the salience of categories depends on the context in which they emerge. While gender and profession are dominant in management, gender and ethnicity influence interactions with authorities. Only in standards for home care work do all categories simultaneously shape the business approaches of care entrepreneurs. Our analysis, based on data on size and growth of home care companies and interviews with small-scale care entrepreneurs, suggests that regulations and practices privilege big companies and care entrepreneurs who echo the white, masculine gendering of entrepreneurship as 'doing business' and disadvantage small-scale entrepreneurs focusing on leading care work to produce quality care.

Keywords
eldercare, gender equality, intersectionality, marketization, professionalism
National Category
Economics and Business Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-171636 (URN)10.1111/gwao.12402 (DOI)000477238200001 ()
Available from: 2019-08-22 Created: 2019-08-22 Last updated: 2022-02-26Bibliographically approved
Brodin, H. & Peterson, E. (2018). Omsorgsföretag i med- eller motvind? Genusperspektiv på småföretagande i hemtjänsten i Stockholm. In: Håkan Jönson, Marta Szebehely (Ed.), Äldreomsorger i Sverige: lokala variationer och generella trender (pp. 121-136). Malmö: Gleerups Utbildning AB
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Omsorgsföretag i med- eller motvind? Genusperspektiv på småföretagande i hemtjänsten i Stockholm
2018 (Swedish)In: Äldreomsorger i Sverige: lokala variationer och generella trender / [ed] Håkan Jönson, Marta Szebehely, Malmö: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2018, p. 121-136Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

I detta kapitel, ”Omsorgsföretagande i med- eller motvind? Genusperspektiv på småföretagande i hemtjänsten i Stockholm”, undersöker Helene Brodin och Elin Peterson erfarenheterna av att driva mindre hemtjänstföretag i Stockholm. Analysen bygger dels på data från stadens verksamhetsuppföljningar och dels på 24 intervjuer med VD och/eller ägare av små hemtjänstföretag. Brodin och Peterson visar att kundvalsmodellen resulterat i en misstroendekultur, där alla misstänker alla för ojust spel. Småföretagarna känner sig utpekade som fuskare men misstänker samtidigt att biståndsbedömare favoriserar vissa företag. För att stävja att företagen fuskar har Stockholms stad utvecklat ett omfattande styrsystem, men detta är detaljerat och stelbent och förhindrar både företag och personal att vara flexibla och lyhörda inför variationer i de äldre hjälptagarnas behov. Brodin och Peterson pekar på att kvinnliga företagare oftare än manliga ser delaktighet i den dagliga omsorgen som nödvändig för att kunna garantera god omsorg. Graden av närvaro i den dagliga omsorgen har också betydelse för hur företagarna upplever styrningen av hemtjänsten – ju närmare det dagliga omsorgsarbetet de står, desto större problem beskriver de.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Malmö: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2018
Keywords
äldreomsorg, kundval, hemtjänst, omsorgsföretag, genus, tillit
National Category
Social Work
Research subject
Social Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-161519 (URN)978-91-40-69707-3 (ISBN)
Projects
Individualised care and universal welfare: Dilemmas in an era of marketization
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2014-4908
Available from: 2018-10-29 Created: 2018-10-29 Last updated: 2022-02-26Bibliographically approved
Peterson, E. (2018). Struggles for Recognition and Redistribution: Family Carers and Domestic Workers in Spanish Eldercare. International Journal of Care and Caring, 2(4), 459-476
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Struggles for Recognition and Redistribution: Family Carers and Domestic Workers in Spanish Eldercare
2018 (English)In: International Journal of Care and Caring, ISSN 2397-8821, E-ISSN 2397-883X , Vol. 2, no 4, p. 459-476Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Theories of social justice have identified the revaluation of caregiving work as a global challenge. Still, struggles for recognition are shaped by the specific cultural and institutional contexts in which they emerge. This article explores struggles for the recognition of caregiving work in Spanish eldercare, focusing on advocacy for family carers and for domestic workers. Drawing on interviews, findings reveal that domestic workers' needs are politicised to a greater extent than family carers' needs; empowerment and claims for workers' rights contrast with notions of self-care and mutual support. While the struggles are differentiated, the undervaluation of eldercare is a common theme.

Keywords
eldercare, family carers, domestic workers, recognition
National Category
Social Work
Research subject
Social Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-164321 (URN)10.1332/239788218X15411481093113 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-01-15 Created: 2019-01-15 Last updated: 2022-02-26Bibliographically approved
Spanger, M., Dahl, H. M. & Peterson, E. (2017). Rethinking Global Care Chains through the Perspective of Heterogeneous States, Discursive Framings and Multi-Level Governance. Nordic Journal of Migration Research, 7(4), 251-259
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rethinking Global Care Chains through the Perspective of Heterogeneous States, Discursive Framings and Multi-Level Governance
2017 (English)In: Nordic Journal of Migration Research, E-ISSN 1799-649X, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 251-259Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In investigating global and regional care chains, scholars have traditionally adopted a sociological bottom-up approach, but more attention has recently been focussed on the role of the state. Despite this new attention to states and how they condition care chains, the existing frameworks cannot grasp the complexity of potential struggles and tensions within states and at the various state levels. In outlining a broad and tentative analytical framework for exploration of the role of the state in shaping global care chains, this theoretical article combines feminist state theory, discursive policy analysis and multi-level governance theories. Paying attention to the role of the state, we focus on the framing of policy problems that are important for care chains and on potential tensions between different framings within a state and across the different state levels. We argue that these framings should be investigated in both receiving and sending states.

Keywords
Global care chains, States, Migration, Discourse, Feminist theory
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-152510 (URN)10.1515/njmr-2017-0029 (DOI)000419378300007 ()
Available from: 2018-02-07 Created: 2018-02-07 Last updated: 2024-01-17Bibliographically approved
Brodin, H. & Peterson, E. (2017). Sjuksköterskan som hemtjänstföretagare: om genus, etnicitet och nya professionella positioner i spåren av äldreomsorgens omvandling (3ed.). In: Helén Strömberg, Henrik Eriksson (Ed.), Genusperspektiv på vård och omvårdnad: (pp. 53-70). Lund: Studentlitteratur AB
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sjuksköterskan som hemtjänstföretagare: om genus, etnicitet och nya professionella positioner i spåren av äldreomsorgens omvandling
2017 (Swedish)In: Genusperspektiv på vård och omvårdnad / [ed] Helén Strömberg, Henrik Eriksson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, 3, p. 53-70Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Många små hemtjänstföretag drivs idag av kvinnor. Men att inte passa in i stereotypen för en ”äkta företagare” kan vara ett hinder för kvinnors småföretagande inom äldreomsorgen. En ny studie från Stockholms Universitet visar på hur genus, etnicitet och profession formar villkoren för småföretagande inom hemtjänsten. Studien visar på skillnader i hur företagarna förstår sitt ledarskap, hur de ser på kompetenskrav inom hemtjänsten samt hur de upplever samarbetet med kommunen. Kvinnor är i större utsträckning än män är involverade i den dagliga omsorgen. Samtidigt visar studien att ju närmare företagarna står den dagliga omsorgen, desto fler problem upplever de. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017 Edition: 3
Keywords
Sjuksköterskor, hemtjänstföretag, genus, etnicitet, profession
National Category
Social Work
Research subject
Social Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-161520 (URN)9789144115788 (ISBN)
Projects
Hållbar omsorg i en kundvalsmodell?
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2014-4908
Available from: 2018-10-29 Created: 2018-10-29 Last updated: 2022-02-26Bibliographically approved
Peterson, E. (2016). Paid domestic work in Spain: Gendered framings of work and care in policies on social citizenship. In: Berit Gullikstad, Guro Korsnes Kristensen, Priscilla Ringrose (Ed.), Paid Migrant Domestic Labour in a Changing Europe: Questions of Gender Equality and Citizenship (pp. 79-99). London: Palgrave Macmillan
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Paid domestic work in Spain: Gendered framings of work and care in policies on social citizenship
2016 (English)In: Paid Migrant Domestic Labour in a Changing Europe: Questions of Gender Equality and Citizenship / [ed] Berit Gullikstad, Guro Korsnes Kristensen, Priscilla Ringrose, London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016, p. 79-99Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This study analyses domestic workers' social citizenship status and the role and value attributed to paid domestic work in public policy. It examines key policy documents such as acts, bills and parliamentary debates related to three policy areas: the regulation of household employment, the dependent care act, and the policies on reconciling work and family life. These policies aim to extend social citizenship, but at the same time they have exclusionary effects, particularly on domestic workers performing care work. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016
Series
Citizenship, Gender and Diversity
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Political Science; Gender Studies; Social Work; Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-161522 (URN)10.1057/978-1-137-51742-5_4 (DOI)978-1-137-51741-8 (ISBN)978-1-137-51742-5 (ISBN)
Note

Research funded by Stockholm University's International Postdoc Fellowship. 

Available from: 2018-10-29 Created: 2018-10-29 Last updated: 2022-02-26Bibliographically approved
Peterson, E. (2015). Framing caregiving work for older people in Spanish public policy: gender, power and social justice. Revista Española de Ciencia Política (39), 221-237
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Framing caregiving work for older people in Spanish public policy: gender, power and social justice
2015 (English)In: Revista Española de Ciencia Política, ISSN 1575-6548, no 39, p. 221-237Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The “care crisis” has been a recurrent theme in feminist debates and research. The care deficit is particularly severe is the ageing societies of Southern Europe. In Spain, familialism prevails in eldercare. This implies a permanent trust on the family, and its gender structure as provider of help and support. At the same time, studies show that migrant domestic workers increasingly meet the care needs of older dependent people. This article argues that as long as women, natives and migrants, fill the gaps in welfare provision, the recognition of caregiving work – and the redistribution of resources and responsibility for care – are vital issues for feminist research. By means a discourse-oriented policy analysis this article examines key policy texts related to dependent care and household employment as well as austerity measures that affect social policy. The article highlights that public policy has an important role in constructing caregiving work. Public policy shapes the positions of caregivers and care workers, the valuation of their work, and their status as workers and carers. While family carers and domestic workers are constructed very differently, two categories of carers have in common that they perform undervalued work.

Abstract [es]

Construcciones políticas del trabajo de cuidado de personas mayores dependientes en España. Género, poder y justicia social

La “crisis de los cuidados” es un tema recurrente en los debates y estudios feministas. El déficit es particularmente grave en las sociedades envejecidas como España. En el cuidado de personas mayores dependientes, el familiarismo prevalece, lo cual implica una dependencia permanente de la familia, y en su estructura de género, como proveedor de ayuda y apoyo. Al mismo tiempo, las trabajadoras domésticas migrantes atienden cada vez más a las necesidades de cuidados de las personas mayores. Así, las tareas de cuidados permanecen en manos de mujeres. En este artículo se argumenta que mientras las mujeres, nativas y migrantes, llenan las lagunas en el Estado de bienestar, el reconocimiento del trabajo de cuidados —y la redistribución de los recursos y las responsabilidades— son cuestiones vitales para las investigaciones feministas. El estudio empírico se basa en un análisis discursivo de las políticas públicas en torno a la dependencia y el empleo del hogar, así como las políticas de austeridad que afectan a la política social en España. Se hace hincapié en que las políticas públicas tienen un papel importante en la construcción de trabajo de cuidados; influyen en las posiciones de las cuidadoras, la valoración de su trabajo y su estatus de trabajadoras y cuidadoras. Las cuidadoras familiares y las trabajadoras domésticas se construyen de manera muy diferente, pero tienen en común que realizan un trabajo infravalorado

Keywords
care work, gender, older people, dependency, household employment, public policy, recognition, redistribution, trabajo de cuidados, género, personas mayores, dependencia, trabajo doméstico, políticas públicas, reconocimiento, redistribución
National Category
Social Work
Research subject
Social Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-174381 (URN)000421043800010 ()
Available from: 2019-10-07 Created: 2019-10-07 Last updated: 2022-02-26Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4463-1301

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