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Falkenmark, Malin
Publications (10 of 18) Show all publications
Nyasulu, M. K., Fetzer, I., Wang-Erlandsson, L., Stenzel, F., Gerten, D., Rockström, J. & Falkenmark, M. (2024). African rainforest moisture contribution to continental agricultural water consumption. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 346, Article ID 109867.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>African rainforest moisture contribution to continental agricultural water consumption
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2024 (English)In: Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, ISSN 0168-1923, E-ISSN 1873-2240, Vol. 346, article id 109867Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Precipitation is essential for food production in Sub-Saharan Africa, where more than 80 % of agriculture is rainfed. Although ∼40 % of precipitation in certain regions is recycled moisture from Africa's tropical rainforest, there needs to be more knowledge about how this moisture supports the continent's agriculture. In this study, we quantify all moisture sources for agrarian precipitation (African agricultural precipitationshed), the estimates of African rainforest's moisture contribution to agricultural precipitation, and the evaporation from agricultural land across the continent. Applying a moisture tracking model (UTRACK) and a dynamic global vegetation model (LPJmL), we find that the Congo rainforest (>60 % tree cover) is a crucial moisture source for many agricultural regions. Although most of the rainforest acreage is in the DRC, many neighboring nations rely significantly on rainforest moisture for their rainfed agriculture, and even in remote places, rainforest moisture accounts for ∼10–20 % of agricultural water use. Given continuous deforestation and climate change, which impact rainforest areas and resilience, more robust governance for conserving the Congo rainforest is necessary to ensure future food production across multiple Sub-Saharan African countries.

Keywords
Moisture recycling, Tropical rainforest, Green water, Agricultural production, Africa
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences Forest Science
Research subject
Sustainability Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-226779 (URN)10.1016/j.agrformet.2023.109867 (DOI)001154965500001 ()2-s2.0-85181965442 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2017-01033
Available from: 2024-02-19 Created: 2024-02-19 Last updated: 2024-04-05Bibliographically approved
Falkenmark, M. (2022). Planning of Africa’s land/water future: Hard or soft landing?. Ambio, 51(1), 9-12
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Planning of Africa’s land/water future: Hard or soft landing?
2022 (English)In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 9-12Article in journal, Editorial material (Other academic) Published
National Category
Social and Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-204965 (URN)10.1007/s13280-021-01527-9 (DOI)000628733600005 ()33715092 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85102595207 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-05-23 Created: 2022-05-23 Last updated: 2022-05-23Bibliographically approved
Gleeson, T., Wang-Erlandsson, L., Porkka, M., Zipper, S. C., Jaramillo, F., Gerten, D., . . . Famiglietti, J. S. (2020). Illuminating water cycle modifications and Earth system resilience in the Anthropocene. Water resources research, 56(4), Article ID e2019WR024957.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Illuminating water cycle modifications and Earth system resilience in the Anthropocene
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2020 (English)In: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 56, no 4, article id e2019WR024957Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Fresh water—the bloodstream of the biosphere—is at the center of the planetary drama of the Anthropocene. Water fluxes and stores regulate the Earth's climate and are essential for thriving aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, as well as water, food, and energy security. But the water cycle is also being modified by humans at an unprecedented scale and rate. A holistic understanding of freshwater's role for Earth system resilience and the detection and monitoring of anthropogenic water cycle modifications across scales is urgent, yet existing methods and frameworks are not well suited for this. In this paper we highlight four core Earth system functions of water (hydroclimatic regulation, hydroecological regulation, storage, and transport) and key related processes. Building on systems and resilience theory, we review the evidence of regional‐scale regime shifts and disruptions of the Earth system functions of water. We then propose a framework for detecting, monitoring, and establishing safe limits to water cycle modifications and identify four possible spatially explicit methods for their quantification. In sum, this paper presents an ambitious scientific and policy grand challenge that could substantially improve our understanding of the role of water in the Earth system and cross‐scale management of water cycle modifications that would be a complementary approach to existing water management tools.

Keywords
water cycle, Anthropocene, global hydrology, planetary boundary
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-183159 (URN)10.1029/2019WR024957 (DOI)000538987800002 ()
Available from: 2020-07-01 Created: 2020-07-01 Last updated: 2022-03-23Bibliographically approved
Falkenmark, M. (2020). Water resilience and human life support - global outlook for the next half century. International Journal of Water Resources Development, 36(2-3), 377-396
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Water resilience and human life support - global outlook for the next half century
2020 (English)In: International Journal of Water Resources Development, ISSN 0790-0627, E-ISSN 1360-0648, Vol. 36, no 2-3, p. 377-396Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article highlights green and blue water functions in the densely tied global water network, stabilizing the life support system and generating ecosystems and ecological services. Essential water challenges of the next half century are analyzed, identifying low-latitude dryland vulnerability and sharpening hydro-social water constraints. Attention is drawn to global warming, and the crucial roles of water and agriculture in stabilizing Holocene climate below a fatal warming of +2 °C or more. The article ends with a hydro-climatic, hydro-social and hydro-ecological outlook on how to principally navigate a resilient life support system stressed by climate change, population growth and increasing demands.

Keywords
Green-blue water, water functions, climate change, land use, dryland agriculture, water constraints
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-189042 (URN)10.1080/07900627.2019.1693983 (DOI)2-s2.0-85077859293 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-01-15 Created: 2021-01-15 Last updated: 2022-02-25Bibliographically approved
Falkenmark, M., Wang-Erlandsson, L. & Rockström, J. (2019). Understanding of water resilience in the Anthropocene. Journal of Hydrology X, 2, Article ID 100009.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Understanding of water resilience in the Anthropocene
2019 (English)In: Journal of Hydrology X, E-ISSN 2589-9155, Vol. 2, article id 100009Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Water is indispensable for Earth resilience and sustainable development. The capacity of social-ecological systems to deal with shocks, adapting to changing conditions and transforming in situations of crisis are fundamentally dependent on the functions of water to e.g., regulate the Earth's climate, support biomass production, and supply water resources for human societies. However, massive, inter-connected, human interference involving climate forcing, water withdrawal, dam constructions, and land-use change have significantly disturbed these water functions and induced regime shifts in social-ecological systems. In many cases, changes in core water functions have pushed systems beyond tipping points and led to fundamental shifts in system feedback. Examples of such transgressions, where water has played a critical role, are collapse of aquatic systems beyond water quality and quantity thresholds, desertification due to soil and ecosystem degradation, and tropical forest dieback associated with self-amplifying moisture and carbon feedbacks. Here, we aggregate the volumes and flows of water involved in water functions globally, and review the evidence of freshwater related linear collapse and non-linear tipping points in ecological and social systems through the lens of resilience theory. Based on the literature review, we synthesize the role of water in mediating different types of ecosystem regime shifts, and generalize the process by which life support systems are at risk of collapsing due to loss of water functions. We conclude that water plays a fundamental role in providing social-ecological resilience, and suggest that further research is needed to understand how the erosion of water resilience at local and regional scale may potentially interact, cascade, or amplify through the complex, globally hyper-connected networks of the Anthropocene. 

Keywords
Water sustainability, Green-Blue water, Earth resilience, Global water system, Regime shift, Water conflict
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-178205 (URN)10.1016/j.hydroa.2018.100009 (DOI)2-s2.0-85064385202 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-01-20 Created: 2020-01-20 Last updated: 2022-02-26Bibliographically approved
Keys, P. W. & Falkenmark, M. (2018). Green water and African sustainability. Food Security, 10(3), 537-548
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Green water and African sustainability
2018 (English)In: Food Security, ISSN 1876-4517, E-ISSN 1876-4525, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 537-548Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sub-Saharan Africa faces an enormous challenge in meeting the basic needs of a population that will nearly triple between now and the end of the twenty-first century. Managing water effectively, sustainably, and equitably will be a critical component for meeting this challenge, especially in the context of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We focus on green water (i.e. the water that comprises evaporation and precipitation flows), rather than blue water (i.e. the liquid water flowing in rivers, lakes, and aquifers), since green water is primarily used for food production. We examine three key insights into green water management at their relevant spatial and temporal scales: farm-based food production using the vapor shift (annual, local); landscape and ecosystem interventions (multi-year, national/regional), and moisture recycling (decadal, regional/continental). As such, these insights are organized into a spatial and temporal framework, which helps to clarify how feedbacks within and among these different scales create opportunities for intervention. Our key finding is that green water management at the landscape-scale constitutes the best entry point for providing leverage at both smaller and larger scales, in terms of time, space, and policy. We conclude by highlighting the urgent need for much more resilient, cross-scale green water systems that can accommodate the impending, nonstationary changes related to climate change. This urgency is further underlined by the very short time horizon for achieving the SDGs by 2030.

Keywords
Water management, Food security, Africa, Sustainability, SDG, Cross-scale, IWRM, Agriculture, Smallholder farming, Subsistence, Evaporation, Precipitation, Moisture recycling
National Category
Other Agricultural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-157682 (URN)10.1007/s12571-018-0790-7 (DOI)000433984200003 ()
Available from: 2018-07-31 Created: 2018-07-31 Last updated: 2022-03-23Bibliographically approved
Falkenmark, M. (2017). Water and human livelihood resilience: a regional-to-global outlook. International Journal of Water Resources Development, 33(2), 181-197
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Water and human livelihood resilience: a regional-to-global outlook
2017 (English)In: International Journal of Water Resources Development, ISSN 0790-0627, E-ISSN 1360-0648, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 181-197Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article addresses the need to profoundly expand the way we think about freshwater. Stressing water's role as the bloodstream of the biosphere, the article highlights water's functions in sustaining life on the planet (control, state and moisture feedback functions), the role of water partitioning changes in inducing non-linear change at multiple scales, and humanity's influence on a social-ecological system's capacity to adapt and continue to function. It reviews water's roles during its journey through the upper layers of the land mass, different types of water-ecosystem interactions, and water's roles in landscape-scale resilience building.

Keywords
Water resilience, resilience building, green-blue water partitioning, control function, state function, moisture feedback
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-142469 (URN)10.1080/07900627.2016.1190320 (DOI)000395009200001 ()
Available from: 2017-05-17 Created: 2017-05-17 Last updated: 2022-02-28Bibliographically approved
Falkenmark, M., Jägerskog, A. & Schneider, K. (2014). Overcoming the land-water disconnect in water-scarce regions: time for IWRM to go contemporary. International Journal of Water Resources Development, 30(3), 391-408
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Overcoming the land-water disconnect in water-scarce regions: time for IWRM to go contemporary
2014 (English)In: International Journal of Water Resources Development, ISSN 0790-0627, E-ISSN 1360-0648, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 391-408Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article aims to analyze the relationships between water and land. It posits that there is a disconnect between land and water management that needs to be rectified. To address the major challenges the world is facing in terms of feeding itself and securing adequate access to water there is a need to revisit the integrated water resources management (IWRM) paradigm. While IWRM incorporates the link between land and water in theory, it is often ignored in practice. The authors argue that greater visibility of the land-water linkage is needed and would be encouraged by adding an L for land use, making ILWRM: integrated land and water resources management. The natural systems at play are juxtaposed with a discussion of the (water) governance challenges that they pose. Challenges stemming from increased land (and thereby water) acquisitions, as well as the transboundary perspectives of the ILWRM challenge, highlight the need to revisit and evolve our approach to providing water and food security.

Keywords
water security, water scarcity, land use change, land acquisition, IWRM, transboundary river basins
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-107095 (URN)10.1080/07900627.2014.897157 (DOI)000340124400004 ()
Note

AuthorCount:3;

Available from: 2014-09-05 Created: 2014-09-03 Last updated: 2022-02-23Bibliographically approved
Rockström, J., Falkenmark, M., Allan, T., Folke, C., Gordon, L., Jagerskog, A., . . . Varis, O. (2014). The unfolding water drama in the Anthropocene: towards a resilience-based perspective on water for global sustainability. Ecohydrology, 7(5), 1249-1261
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The unfolding water drama in the Anthropocene: towards a resilience-based perspective on water for global sustainability
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2014 (English)In: Ecohydrology, ISSN 1936-0584, E-ISSN 1936-0592, Vol. 7, no 5, p. 1249-1261Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The human influence on the global hydrological cycle is now the dominant force behind changes in water resources across the world and in regulating the resilience of the Earth system. The rise in human pressures on global freshwater resources is in par with other anthropogenic changes in the Earth system (from climate to ecosystem change), which has prompted science to suggest that humanity has entered a new geological epoch, the Anthropocene. This paper focuses on the critical role of water for resilience of social-ecological systems across scales, by avoiding major regime shifts away from stable environmental conditions, and in safeguarding life-support systems for human wellbeing. It highlights the dramatic increase of water crowding: near-future challenges for global water security and expansion of food production in competition with carbon sequestration and biofuel production. It addresses the human alterations of rainfall stability, due to both land-use changes and climate change, the ongoing overuse of blue water, reflected in river depletion, expanding river basin closure, groundwater overexploitation and water pollution risks. The rising water turbulence in the Anthropocene changes the water research and policy agenda, from a water-resource efficiency to a water resilience focus. This includes integrated land and water stewardship to sustain wetness-dependent ecological functions at the landscape scale and a stronger emphasis on green water management for ecosystem services. A new paradigm of water governance emerges, encouraging land-use practices that explicitly take account of the multifunctional roles of water, with adequate attention to planetary freshwater boundaries and cross-scale interactions.

Keywords
resilience, ecosystem services, global sustainability, water governance
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-110204 (URN)10.1002/eco.1562 (DOI)000344334700001 ()
Note

AuthorCount:15;

Available from: 2014-12-09 Created: 2014-12-08 Last updated: 2022-03-23Bibliographically approved
Rockström, J., Falkenmark, M., Folke, C., Lannerstad, M., Barron, J., Enfors, E., . . . Pahl-Wostl, C. (2014). Water resilience for human prosperity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Water resilience for human prosperity
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2014 (English)Book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The world's human population now constitutes the largest driving force of changes to the biosphere. Emerging water challenges require new ideas for governance and management of water resources in the context of rapid global change. This book presents a new approach to water resources, addressing global sustainability and focusing on socio-ecological resilience to changes. Topics covered include the risks of unexpected change, human impacts and dependence on global water, the prospects for feeding the world's population by 2050, and a pathway for the future. The book's innovative and integrated approach links green and blue freshwater with terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem functions and use. It also links changes arising from land-use alteration with the impacts of those changes on social-ecological systems and ecosystem services. This is an important, state-of-the-art resource for academic researchers and water resource professionals, and a key reference for graduate students studying water resource governance and management.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014. p. 292
Keywords
water, drinking water, water supply, history
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-106664 (URN)10.1017/CBO9781139162463 (DOI)9781107024199 (ISBN)
Available from: 2014-08-14 Created: 2014-08-14 Last updated: 2022-10-03Bibliographically approved
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